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Gong 1
4. Nyquist Criterion for Distortionless
Baseband Binary Transmission
Objective: To design under the
following two conditions:
) ( and ) ( t h t h
d T
(a). There is no ISI at the sampling instants (Nyquist
criterion, this section ).
(b). A controlled amount of ISI is allowed (correlative
coding, next section)
@G. Gong 2
Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero
ISI  Nyquist criterion
Recall the output of the receiving filter,
sampled at t = kT, is given by
) (kT y
k
b µ ·
) (kT n
o
+
∑
≠
− +
k n
n
nT kT p b ) ( µ
Thus, in time domain, a sufficient condition for µp(t) such
that it is ISI free is
¹
'
¹
≠
·
·
0 0
0 1
) (
n
n
nT p
(1)
Question. What is the condition for P(f) in order for p(t) to
satisfy (1) (Nyquist, 1928)?
@G. Gong 3
Theorem. (Nyquist) A necessary and and sufficient
condition for p(t) to satisfy (1) is that the Fourier
transform P(f) satisfies
T
T
n
f P
n
· −
∑
) (
This is known as the Nyquist pulseshaping criterion or
Nyquist condition for zero ISI.
Proof.
(2)
Proof. When we sample at
,
we have the following pulses
L , 2 , 1 , 0 , t t · · k kT t
) (t p
∑
− ≡
k
kT t t p t p ) ( ) ( ) ( δ
δ
∑
− ·
k
kT t kT p ) ( ) ( δ
The Fourier transform of
is given by
) (t p
δ
,
`
.

− ·
·
∑
k
kT t kT p F
t p F f P
) ( ) (
)) ( ( ) (
δ
δ δ
∑
− ·
k
fkT j kT p ) 2 exp( ) ( π
On the other hand
∑
− ·
k
kT t F kT p f P )) ( ( ) ( ) ( δ
δ
) (kT p
( is constant for t.)
∑
− ·
k
T
k
f P
T
) (
1
( 3)
= 1 ( from (1) ) ( 4)
From (3) and (4), ISI free ⇔
1 ) (
1
· −
∑
k
T
k
f P
T
which gives the result in (2).
@G. Gong 5
Investigate possible pulses which
satisfy the Nyquist criterion
Since , we have
W f f P > ·   for 0 ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( f H f H f H f P
d c T
·
and distinguish the following three cases:
∑
− ·
n
T n f P f Z ) / ( ) (
We write
W f f H
c
> ·   for 0 ) (
Suppose that the channel has a bandwidth of W, then
W
1/TW 1/T 1/T+W
W 1/T+W 1/T 1/TW
Fig. 4.1 Z(f) for the case T < 1/(2W)
f
Z(f)
1/T 1/T
Fig. 4.2 Z(f) for the case T = 1/(2W)
f
Z(f)
T
W
2
1
·
W
1/TW
1/T
W
1/T+W
1/T
Fig. 4.3 Z(f) for the case T > 1/(2W)
f
Z(f)
@G. Gong 7
W
T
2
1
<
1. , or (i.e., bit rate > 2W, impossible!) No
choices for P(f) such that Z(f) = 0.
W
T
2
1
>
2. , i.e., (the Nyquist rate)
W
T
2
1
·
T
W
2
1
·
In this case, if we choose
¹
'
¹
≤
·
otherwise 0

) (
W f T
f P i.e.,
,
`
.

⋅ ·
W
f
rect T f P
2
) (
which results in
,
`
.

·
T
t
c t p sin ) (
This means that the smallest value of T for which the
transmission with zero ISI is possible is
W
T
2
1
·
W
T
R 2
1
· ≡
( , bit rate )
This is called the ideal
Nyquist channel.
@G. Gong 8
) , (
1
2
: channel Nyquist Ideal
b b o
o
T T R R B W
T
B R
· · ·
· ·
In other words,
@G. Gong 9
Disadvantages:
(a) an ideal LPF is not physically realizable.
(a) Note that
 
1
sin ) (
t T
t
c t p ∝
,
`
.

·
Thus, the rate of convergence to zero is slow since the
tails of p(t) decay as 1/t.
Hence, a small mistiming error in sampling the output
of the matched filter at the demodulator results in an
infinite series of ISI components.
@G. Gong 10
3. For , i.e, , in this case, there exists
numerous choices for P(f) such that Z(f) = T. The
important one is so called the raised cosine spectrum.
W
T
2
1
>
W
T
2
1
<
The raised cosine frequency characteristic is given by
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ ≥
+ < ≤ −
]
]
]
− −
+
− < ≤
·
) 1 ( 0
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
) ) 1 (  (
cos 1
4
1
) 1 ( 0
2
1
) (
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
B f
B f B
B
B f
B
B f
B
f P
α
α α
α
α π
α
] 1 , 0 [ ∈ α
where is called the rolloff factor and
( i.e., ) .
2
0
R
B ·
T
B
2
1
0
·
0
) 1 ( B α +
0
) 1 ( B α −
0
) 1 ( B α − −
0
) 1 ( B α + −
0
B
0
B −
0
2
1
B
f
0 0 0 0
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) ( B f B T B f P B f P f P ≤ ≤ − · + + − +
Z(f) = T by the following sum of three terms at any
interval of length 2B
o
:
0 0 0 0
3 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) ( B f B T B f P B f P f P ≤ ≤ · + + − +
…
@G. Gong 12
1
) (
3
t
t p ∝
This function has much better convergence property than
the ideal Nyquist channel. The first factor in (5) is
associated with the ideal filter, and the second factor that
decreases as 1/t
2
for large t. Thus
The time response p(t), the inverse Fourier transform of
P(f), is given by
t B t p
0
2 sinc ) ( ·
2
2
0
2
0
16 1
cos2
t B
t B
α
πα
−
(5)
@G. Gong 13
@G. Gong 14
∑
∞ +
−∞ ·
· · −
n
T
R T nR f P
1
, ) (
Criteria Nyquist
B
o
B
o
Ideal Nyquist Channel
Raised Cosine Spectrum
Summary:
sampled at t = kT. 1928)? @G. What is the condition for P(f) in order for p(t) to satisfy (1) (Nyquist. Gong 2 . in time domain.Nyquist criterion Recall the output of the receiving filter.Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero ISI . is given by y (kT ) = µbk + µ bn p( kT − nT ) + no (kT ) ∑ n≠ k Thus. a sufficient condition for µp(t) such that it is ISI free is 1 p ( nT ) = 0 n=0 n≠0 (1) Question.
@G. (Nyquist) A necessary and and sufficient condition for p(t) to satisfy (1) is that the Fourier transform P(f) satisfies ∑ n n P( f − ) = T T (2) This is known as the Nyquist pulseshaping criterion or Nyquist condition for zero ISI. Proof.Theorem. Gong 3 .
L . k = 0. Pδ ( f ) = p (kT ) F (δ (t − kT )) we have the following pulses k pδ (t ) ≡ p(t ) δ (t − kT ) ( p(kT ) is constant for t. . ± 1.Proof.) ∑ ∑ k = ∑ p(kT )δ (t − kT ) k = ∑ p(kT ) exp(− j 2πfkT ) k The Fourier transform of pδ (t ) is given by Pδ ( f ) = F ( pδ (t )) =F p ( kT )δ (t − kT ) k = 1 ( from (1) ) ( 4) From (3) and (4). When we sample p (t ) at On the other hand t = kT . ISI free ⇔ 1 T ∑ k ∑ k k P( f − ) = 1 T 1 = T ∑ k P( f − ) T ( 3) which gives the result in (2). ± 2.
we have P ( f ) = 0 for  f > W We write Z ( f ) = ∑ P ( f − n / T ) n and distinguish the following three cases: @G.Investigate possible pulses which satisfy the Nyquist criterion Suppose that the channel has a bandwidth of W. then H c ( f ) = 0 for  f > W Since P( f ) = H T ( f ) H c ( f ) H d ( f ) . Gong 5 .
4.2 Z(f) for the case T = 1/(2W) Z(f) 1/T W 1/T+W 1/TW W 1/T f Fig.Z(f) 1/TW 1/T 1/T+W W W 1/TW 1/T 1/T+W f Fig. 4.1 Z(f) for the case T < 1/(2W) Z(f) 1/T W= 1 2T 1/T f Fig. 4.3 Z(f) for the case T > 1/(2W) .
bit rate > 2W.e. 7 . if we choose T P( f ) = 0  f ≤ W otherwise i.e.1. T= 1 2W T< 1 2W 1 > 2W T .e. or (i. Gong ( R≡ 1 = 2W.. i. . 2.. W= 1 2T (the Nyquist rate) In this case.. f P ( f ) = T ⋅ rect 2W which results in t p (t ) = sin c T This means that the smallest value of T for which the transmission with zero ISI is possible is 1 T= 2W @G. T bit rate ) This is called the ideal Nyquist channel. impossible!) No choices for P(f) such that Z(f) = 0.
Ideal Nyquist channel : 1 R = 2 Bo = T W = Bo ( R = Rb . Gong 8 . T = Tb ) @G.In other words.
Gong 9 . a small mistiming error in sampling the output of the matched filter at the demodulator results in an infinite series of ISI components. Hence. the rate of convergence to zero is slow since the tails of p(t) decay as 1/t. @G. (a) Note that t p (t ) = sin c T 1 ∝ t  Thus.Disadvantages: (a) an ideal LPF is not physically realizable.
. B0 = 1 2T ) . in this case.e. @G. The raised cosine frequency characteristic is given by 1 2B 0 1 P( f ) = 4 B0 0 0 ≤ f < (1 − α ) B0 π ( f  −(1 − α ) B0 ) 1 + cos (1 − α ) B0 ≤ f < (1 + α ) B0 2αB0 f ≥ (1 + α ) B0 B0 = R 2 1 T> 2W 1 < 2W T where α ∈ [0.e. Gong 10 .3. i..1] is called the rolloff factor and ( i. there exists numerous choices for P(f) such that Z(f) = T. The important one is so called the raised cosine spectrum. For .
1 2B0 − B0 B0 − (1 + α ) B0 − (1 − α )B0 (1 − α ) B0 (1 + α ) B0 f Z(f) = T by the following sum of three terms at any interval of length 2Bo: P( f ) + P( f − 2 B0 ) + P ( f + 2 B0 ) = T P( f ) + P( f − 2 B0 ) + P( f + 2 B0 ) = T … − B0 ≤ f ≤ B0 B0 ≤ f ≤ 3B0 .
and the second factor that decreases as 1/t2 for large t. Gong 12 .The time response p(t). is given by cos2παB0t p (t ) = sinc 2 B0t 2 1 − 16α 2 B0 t 2 (5) This function has much better convergence property than the ideal Nyquist channel. The first factor in (5) is associated with the ideal filter. the inverse Fourier transform of P(f). Thus 1 p (t ) ∝ 3 t @G.
@G. Gong 13 .
R = T n = −∞ +∞ Bo Bo Ideal Nyquist Channel Raised Cosine Spectrum @G.Summary: Nyquist Criteria 1 ∑ P( f − nR) = T . Gong 14 .
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