FUEL CELLS

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engineering and technology. all sectors of science. and communication between. For more information please visit www. reliable and factual information to the public and policy makers. FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. Contents 3 3 6 8 9 1 1 1 Principles of Operation Fuel Cell Types Fuel Cell Performance Fuel Cell Systems Applications Endnotes Further Information Appendix The Institution of Engineering and Technology The Institution of Engineering and Technology was formed on 31 March 006 through the merger of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE).org/factfiles Summary This Factfile describes the principles behind the operation of fuel cells and the various types of fuel cell available. As engineering and technology become increasingly interdisciplinary. and gives information on fuel cell performance.theiet. registered as a charity in the UK.About This Factfile The Institution of Engineering and Technology acts as a voice for the engineering and technology professions by providing independent. The Institution of Engineering and Technology is a not for profit organisation. Texas by kind permission of The Dow Chemical Company.theiet. Top right: Portable fuel cell charger by kind permission of Voller Energy Group PLC. Bottom: Honda FCX concept vehicle by kind permission of Honda UK.org First Edition 001 Second Edition 003 Third Edition 006 © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 006 Cover illustrations: Top left: Hydrogen fuel cell powering chemical works in Freeport.theiet.org/factfiles  . systems and applications. For more Factfiles on engineering and technology topics please visit www. the Institution of Engineering and Technology reflects that progression and welcomes involvement from. global and inclusive. This Factfile aims to provide an accessible guide to current technologies and scientific facts of interest to the public.

• Direct oxidation fuel cells. are separated by an electrolyte. In both batteries and fuel cells two electrodes. therefore. Whereas a storage battery contains all the substances in the electrochemical oxidation-reduction reactions involved and has. a fuel cell is supplied with its reactants externally and operates continuously as long as it is supplied with fuel. in which the feedstock is hydrogen produced by the in-situ steam-reforming and/or partial oxidation of fuels such as methane.1 The new generation of fuel cells will probably find other applications also such as in small (3–10 kW) combined heat and power (CHP) units. While fuel cells have been used in niche applications for many years.theiet. Oxygen from air is the oxidant (cathode fuel) in all these.org/factfiles 3 . however it is not a primary fuel. the medium temperature type is the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) and the two high temperature types are the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). in which an organic fuel is directly oxidised at the anode. where the solid polymer design. appears in the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and in the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) with a summary of fuel cell electrochemical reactions shown in Table 2. e. which use stored or chemically generated pure hydrogen as the anode feedstock.5 ).Principles of Operation A fuel cell works much like a battery. An idealised schematic diagram illustrating the structure. as described above. This only makes sense in greenhouse gas abatement terms if the electricity comes from a non-fossil fuel source such as nuclear or a renewable energy source. it must be produced by other means. Hydrogen is a favoured anode feedstock because its electrochemical oxidation is fast and clean. electron and ion flow for the various types of fuel cell is shown in Figure 1. The carbon monoxide (CO) also produced is tolerated in some cell types but not in others. a limited capacity. Low temperature types include the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC). SPFC. usually the electrolysis of water. mainly as standby electrical power supply units. an anode and a cathode. gasoline (C8H15. recent improvements in their cost and efficiency are leading to future uses in the much larger market of ‘zero emission’ vehicles (ZEVs).  CH3OH (methanol) + HO (steam) + heat ¶ 5 H + CO + CO CH3(CH) 6CH3 (gasoline) + 6O (air) ¶ 9H + 4 CO + 4 CO + heat • Hydrogen/air fuel cells. but a number of fuels can be ‘burned’ at the anode.g. Table 1 lists some fuel cells based on these types. If it is not made by fuel reforming. in which case it must be removed from the reformer output prior to being fed to the anode. An alternative classification is based on fuels: • Reformate/air fuel cells. FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. Fuel Cell Types The five basic types of fuel cell are classified by the electrolyte that they employ.4 ) or diesel fuel (C14H.

Figure 1.(SOFC) H 2O Exhaust H 2O Exhaust Electrolyte FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. Principle of Fuel Cell Operation Electrical Load electrons e- Positive ion flow ANODE -ve H + (PEMFC) CATHODE +ve H + (PAFC) ELECTROLYTE H Fuel O Air (or Oxidiser) Negative ion flow OH.org/factfiles 4 .(AFC) CO3.(MCFC) O.theiet.

CO. Summary of Fuel Cell Electrochemical Reactions Type Fuel to Anode Product of catalytic reaction H+ Ion in electrolyte Product of catalytic reaction 4OH – Fuel to Cathode O AFC H $ 4HO +4e– 4H+ +4e– 6H + CO+ +6e– H+ $ $ $ $ $ $ 4OH – $ $ +HO +4e– PEMFC H 4H+ HO $ O $ $ $ +4e– 3/ O DMFC CH3OH $ 6H + +HO PAFC H 3HO $ $ +6e– O $ 4H+ +4e– HO +CO +4e– H+ HO CO3 = $ $ $ +4e– O $ MCFC H $ CO3 = $ $ in hydro-carbon fuel + CO +4e– O SOFC H $ O = O = $ $ in hydro-carbon fuel HO +4e– +4e– FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. oC Anode 650-1000 O= Nickel / Yttriastabilised Zirconia Strontium (Sr) doped Lanthanum Manganite High Charge Carrier OH– Nickel (Ni) or precious metal Platinum (Pt) or lithiated NiO Cathode Co-generation None Heat Electrical Efficiency % Fuel Sources 60 H Removal of CO from both gas streams necessary Low Quality 40 – 45 H Reformate with less than 10ppm CO 30 – 35 Water / Methanol solution Acceptable for many applications 40 – 45 H Reformate High 50 – 60 H . CO. Fuel Cell Types and Characteristics Type Electrolyte AFC Aqueous Potassium Hydroxide (30-40%) 60-90 PEMFC Sulphonated Organic Polymer (hydrated during operation) 70-100 H+ Platinum (Pt) Platinum (Pt) DMFC PAFC Sulphonated Phosphoric Acid Organic Polymer (hydrated during operation) 90 150-0 H+ PlatinumRuthenium (Pt. Natural gas 50 – 60 H .theiet. Ru) PlatinumRuthenium (Pt.stabilised Zirconia Operating Temp. Ru) None H+ Platinum (Pt) Platinum (Pt) MCFC Molten Lithium / Sodium / Potassium Carbonate 600-700 CO3 = Nickel / Chromium Oxide Nickel Oxide (NiO) SOFC Yttria. Natural gas Table 2.org/factfiles 5 .Table 1.

Fuel Cell Performance Thermodynamic Efficiency ηth The amount of energy available for useful work. ηelec The electrical efficiency (ηelec ) is defined as the ratio of the maximum of the electrical work done (Welec. or EMF. and ΔG = 8.TΔS where ΔG is the Gibbs Free Energy or standard free energy of formation available for work. T is the absolute temperature of 98. The standard potential E0 is a quantitative measure of the maximum cell potential ie open-circuit voltage. the measured cell potential (potential energy difference) in volts is the standard potential (E0) . In practice because of internal resistance of the cells it is considerably less than the thermodynamic efficiency.13 kJ/mol and ΔH= 85.57 kJ/mol and ΔH= 41. ΔH is the standard enthalpy of formation. For the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell involving the transfer of two electrons per molecule of water formed: H + + O = ® HO for water as a liquid and for water as a gas E0 = 1.theiet.18 volts This is the voltage for a single cell. Practical fuel cells are built from an interconnected assembly of such single cells into ‘stacks’ to provide the desired voltage and power output.8 kJ/mol for water as a gas.0mole. This force is due to the difference in electric potential energy of an electron at the two electrodes.org/factfiles 6 . max ΔH x 100 Cell Voltage Electrons generated at the site of oxidation (the anode) of a cell are “pushed” towards the cathode by an electromotive force. arising from the energy changes of the electrochemical reaction occurring in a fuel cell under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.0% (liquid) to 94. FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www.all values being given at 5oC (98K). The maximum theoretical thermodynamic efficiency.13 kJ/mol for water as a liquid. ηth.5%(gas) Electrical Efficiency. ηelec = Welec.3 volts E0 = 1. This efficiency is the common measure of cell efficiency.15K and ΔS is the entropy change for the reaction. The quantity of electric work done is proportional to the number of electrons (the quantity of electric charge) moved and the magnitude of the potential difference. or as gases at 1. is governed by the Gibbs Free Energy equation: ΔG = ΔH . is the ratio of the Gibbs Free Energy to the standard enthalpy of formation: ηth = ΔG x 100 ΔH = 83. Work = (charge) x (potential energy difference) When the fuel cell reactants and products are present as pure solids or in concentrations of 1.max ) on an electrical load at a measured terminal voltage to the standard enthalpy of formation. For a hydrogen-oxygen reaction H (gas) + ½ O (gas) ¶ HO the thermodynamic values from tables are: ΔG = 37.0bar.

Fuel Cell Performance (a) Performance Curve 1.Polarisation When the cell is under load the efficiency and terminal voltage decrease because of a number of factors. initially ohmic losses at the maximum power point. Figure 2. determine the location of the curve. Note that unlike internal combustion engines the efficiency increases with decreasing load.5 J ( A / cm ) (b) Power Density 0. The relationship between concentration over-voltages and electric current is approximately linear up to a limiting value.6 Efficiency 0.5 J ( A / cm ) (c) Efficiency 0.0 Voltage (V) 0.4 0. As the current density increases from zero the activation power losses.5 1.theiet. Polarisation effects in a cell arise for a number of reasons. The effects of polarisation can be seen in Figure 2(b) which shows the power density as a function of the current density. Figure 2(a) shows the voltage as a function of current density.5 0. Figure 2(c) shows efficiency as a function of power density. • To achieve a self-sustaining reaction the hydrogen and oxygen must attach to the surface of the cathode and this process takes time and limits current flow.4 0.0 1.6 P ( W / cm ) FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. Finally. above which the over-voltages build up rapidly (Mobility Inhibition/Concentration Polarisation). 0.5 1.0 0. and finally the mobility inhibition losses causing power shutdown.org/factfiles 7 .4 0. including polarisation effects and interconnection losses between cells in the fuel cell stack.0 1.0 0. The power losses due to polarisation cause the curve to depart from and exist below the ideal powercurrent straight line relationship. 0. • The diffusion of ions through the electrolyte results in the building up of concentration gradients thereby decreasing the rate of transport. 0. • Ohmic resistance arising from the transport of charged particles through the electrolyte.0 0. Figure 2 illustrates the performance characteristics of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.6 P ( W / cm ) 0.

in principle. the process producing more hydrogen: CO + HO ¶ H + CO or removed by preferential oxidation reactors or by separation membranes. It is necessary. the hydrogen from any hydrocarbon fuel from natural gas to methanol. known as the water-gas shift reaction. Temperature Control A preheating stage. all of which illustrates that water management is an essential part of the design of a fuel cell plant. The two primary types of reformers being developed for transportation are steam reformers and partial oxidation reformers. but for lower temperature cells the carbon monoxide is unacceptable and must be removed from the reformer gas stream. given concerns about the adequate local supplies of pure water for human consumption and industrial purposes. The largest quantity of hydrogen is produced by the catalytic steam reformation of hydrocarbons. to produce it either by electrolysis in the case of water or by separation in a reformer if a hydrocarbon fuel is used as a primary source.theiet. The flow rate of the oxidant generally controls the stack temperature. Methane reacts with steam at high temperature to give carbon monoxide and hydrogen: CH4 + HO ¶ 3H + CO A fuel cell system which includes a fuel reformer can utilise. as the primary starting material. If the primary fuel contains sulphur a desulphurisation process must be included prior to the reformer. Water Management As an exhaust product water is seen as providing a potentially important added benefit in fuel cell operation in future. the water concentration needing to be controlled in these cells to avoid electrode carbon deposition. Heat exchangers are required to ensure the reactants enter the cells at appropriate temperatures for operation. particularly for high temperature fuel cells.org/factfiles 8 . This process uses methane. In the alkaline fuel cells used aboard the space shuttle for example. again a particularly important requirement for high temperature cells. Steam reformers have higher efficiency but partial oxidation reformers are simpler. This can be achieved by a further reaction with steam. may be required for start-up. Within SPFC cells water flow has to be controlled to facilitate ion transportation. Figure 3 shows in schematic form these sub-systems in a flow diagram of a solid oxide fuel cell-based combined heat and power scheme for an office building. Power Conditioning Fuel cell output is in the form of direct current (DC). therefore fuel cell output is transformed from DC to AC by means of standard power electronics in an inverter and thence to a higher voltage by means of a transformer. therefore.Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Processing In practice hydrogen always occurs in combination with other elements. A high temperature fuel cell can use the carbon monoxide as a fuel. For most purposes alternating currents (AC) at higher voltages are required. CH4. the voltage depending on the stack size. In MCFC and SOFC cells this water is produced in the form of high temperature steam. in seven days the fuel cells consume 680 kg of hydrogen and produce 864 litres of drinking water. FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www.

Turnkey 00 kW plants are available and hundreds have been installed in Europe. With an operating temperature around 00oC there is potential for hot water supply as well as electricity depending on the matching of the heat and electricity load profiles. Flow Diagram of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System in a Combined Heat and Power Scheme Steam Steam Natural Gas Fuel Processing . MCFC and SOFC and. With the energy stored per kilogram of fuel cell weight (including fuel) or per litre of volume of fuel being potentially several orders greater than that stored in batteries. • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) PAFC’s have been developed to the first stages of commercialisation.reforming . focus on fuel cells for stationary power generation and for automotive purposes. Stationary Power Fuel Cells Different fuel cell types have been identified for large-scale stationary power generation. PEMFC. however. Major interests at present.theiet.org/factfiles 9 .Figure 3.shift reaction ANODE – Steam / Water Inverter Air / Oxygen CATHODE – Air Flue Gas Electricity Water Applications Fuel cells find applications in transport. viz. in space for providing both electricity and water. there is interest also in developing small fuel cells for future consumer electronic purposes. stationary power generation. USA and Japan. PAFC. FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. more recently. and in military areas for providing power to sensors and other electronic equipment. Electrical efficiencies can exceed 40%. for supplying both electricity and heat in buildings.desulphurisation .

but alkaline cells have an intolerance to carbon dioxide. With conventional designs the anode is a composite of nickel and yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). may remove this barrier in the future. however. Generally fuel flow is used to regulate electrical output and air flow controls the temperature. Research suggests that anodes made from a composite of copper and ceria. or samaria-doped ceria. SOx. the cathode is supplied with oxygen and carbon dioxide and it is important that the correct amount of carbon dioxide is supplied and re-circulated in order to replenish the electrolyte. and the phosphoric acid cells are too bulky for mobile purposes. thus carbon formation with nickel based anodes is unavoidable for the wider range of hydrocarbon fuels available. Current is conducted by the passage of oxygen ions through a solid electrolyte. Nickel. • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC’s) SOFC’s are solid state devices operating at temperatures up to 1000oC with a potentially wider choice of fuels without having to manage liquid electrolytes. catalyses the formation of graphite from hydrocarbons. higher overall station efficiencies can be obtained. hydrocarbons) • Fossil fuel saving through higher efficiencies if used to replace older conventional fossil fuel plant . carbon dioxide and water.theiet. An important requirement of MCFC’s is that operation is not affected by carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide in the fuel gas. the electrolytes reacting with the carbon dioxide.org/factfiles 10 . Electrical efficiency is up to 60% and. SOFC’s must operate at high temperatures to enable diffusion of oxygen ions through the electrolyte made possible by reason of oxygen vacancies in the electrolyte crystalline structure. viz. CO. in particular. The major technology for transportation purposes has emerged as the low temperature solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) and. Automotive Fuel Cells Both alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cells have been used in demonstration vehicles. these stationary fuel cells fully developed and deployed within the electricity supply industry will have significant impacts and advantages compared with conventional generating plant. At 650oC the carbonate salts of the electrolyte are in a liquid state allowing ion transport. At operating temperatures of around 650oC the waste heat produced can be used in conventional combined cycle plant for the generation of more electricity via steam turbines thus raising the overall combined station efficiency. the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. At the cathode oxygen is reduced to form oxygen ions. FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. Given the cost reductions in time associated with maturing technologies allowing fuel cells to be competitive with conventional generation plant. These cells may be able to reform hydrocarbon fuels internally with no pumps required to circulate hot electrolyte and although still at a relative early stage of development they are regarded as most promising for generating electricity from hydrocarbon fuels.although modern 60% efficient Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) stations are more efficient than either PEMFC or PAFC • Thermal recovery of high grade heat for CHP schemes • Planning flexibility in plant size without loss of efficiency • High reliability • Quietness of operation • Suitability for embedded generation in either high demand or remote areas MCFC and SOFC plants are expected to be commercially available in the coming years. • Emission reduction (NOx.• Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC’s) MCFC’S offer higher fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of up to 60%. at the anode the transported oxygen ions react with the gaseous fuel to produce electrons for the external circuit and water. initially with 0 MW capacity and fuelled by natural gas. again when used with combined cycle plant. At the anode the carbonate ions react with the hydrogen fuel to produce electrons for the external circuit. This composite is an electron conductor (due to nickel) and also an ionic conductor (due to YSZ).

As with all fuel cells deriving hydrogen from fossil fuel. Advantages include the absence of high temperature fuel reforming and also of catalyst poisoning by carbon monoxide.theiet. 0. but this is compensated for by the absence of a hydrogen tank or a fuel reformer.71 Current Density mA/cm2 Power W 430 430 15 100 96 50 FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. a solid polymer fuel cell working directly from methanol has been developed. 5% CO H. which is used here as a fuel. Such cells using methanol fuel have been demonstrated. The range of hydrocarbon fuels which can be used as sources of hydrogen include not only methanol but also natural gas and gasoline. An aqueous. but also the benefits of an established distribution system supported by the necessary forecourt engineering knowledge. The output of a PEMFC can be altered quickly to match varying load demand. Table 3. This technology is less advanced and the efficiency and power are generally lower than those of the PEMFC.3% CO Voltage V 0. its higher efficiency. Solid polymer fuel cells using such fuel sources are currently being tested by a number of major automobile manufacturers in the development of proprietary ‘zero-emission’ engines. The fuel is hydrogen which is supplied to the anode where hydrogen ions and free electrons are generated. the cell emits carbon dioxide. particularly under part load. the water tending to follow the hydrogen ions to the cathode. equivalent to about 8 kW/cubic foot.• Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) PEMFC’s comprise a thin ion conducting membrane between two platinum coated electrodes and afford a comparatively high power density. This change in output is illustrated in Table 3. • Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (ITSOFC) More recently solid oxide fuel cells operating at 500 . because there is no combustion there is an absence of NOx emissions. • Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) In order to avoid the necessity of either storing the hydrogen on board a vehicle or reforming it from another fuel. again as with all fuel cells. Liquid fuels have not only a much higher specific energy density. Although progress is being made in alleviating this problem. low concentration 3% methanol solution is used with the methanol and water reacting at the anode to produce carbon dioxide as well as hydrogen ions and free electrons as before.68 0.org/factfiles 11 . Platinum catalysts are tolerant to carbon dioxide but not to carbon monoxide. It avoids the high cost of hydrogen and the low specific energy density of hydrogen when compressed.17 0.7 kW/kg. Stacks of cells are capable of producing 1 kW/litre or 0. PEMFC Output with Carbon Dioxide/Monoxide present in the Hydrogen Fuel Gas Fuel Gas H H. thus making it suitable for automotive purposes where quick startup is required. The key to this process is the use of a 50:50 platinum- ruthenium alloy catalyst on the carbon electrodes. The hydrocarbonfuelled cell has considerable potential for the auto industries. also at the anode to ensure the correct hydrogen interaction with the platinum catalyst and to prevent dehydration.700oC have been suggested with possible use in transport applications. an approximate guide is that quantities greater than 10 ppm for a platinum catalyst or at most 100 ppm for a platinum/ruthenium catalyst result in a degradation of performance. In addition. but compared with internal combustion engines. ensures less carbon dioxide being produced. 5% CO. It is necessary to control the management of the water in the membrane which is essential for the hydrogen ion transportation.

internally reforming natural gas.fuelcells.) (1997) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.Palin. R. and M. <10ppm CO output. and an operating life of 10. Nature. Othmer (1994) Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. • Kirk. power density >1kW/l. U. T. liquid fuelled fuel processor. Michael (Eds. • Swan. performance degradation <0.5% in 1000h. that achieves a power density >1kW/l. delivering an efficiency >50% (LHV). construct and evaluate a compact.theiet. • To construct and evaluate a novel. • To construct and evaluate a novel SPFC stack of ~1kWe. planar SOFC stack of ~0kWe. and with materials costs <US$300/kW..J. suitable for passenger cars.K. Simander (1996) Fuel Cells and Their Applications.Alston. Nature. responsive.J. to develop and evaluate novel hydrogen storage systems that may be suitable for passenger cars. CO tolerant to at least 100ppm.org) provides a useful guide to fuel cell technology.) (1993) Fuel Cell Systems.E. New York: Plenum. and performance degradation < 1% over 1000h. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Price (1998) “A 1000 cell SOFC reactor for domestic cogeneration”. • Seungdoo Park. L. Further Information • Allison Gas Turbine (1996) Research and Development of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Application: Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialisation. performance degradation <0. • Maguire. responsive.N.M.Gorte (000) “Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in a Solid-oxide Fuel Cell”. • Initial (exploratory) projects. Cambridge: Wiley. 1 Appendix 1 An Autumn 005 DTI call for proposals under the Low Carbon Energy Technologies Programme listed the following priorities for fuel cell research: • To construct and evaluate a novel SPFC stack >50kWe.Windibank and M. 404: 65-6. J. D. M. and hence suitable for residential through small commercial CHP systems.M. construct and evaluate a compact. and Takahashi. The IET is not responsible for the content of external websites FUEL CELLS A Factfile provided by The Institution of Engineering and Technology www. New York: Wiley. T. and G. (1995) Science and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells. Miller (1996) California’s Statewide Fuel Cell Research. • Minh. Mugerwa (Eds. pressure <bar. together with fuel reforming. K. power density ~500W/l and operating at ambient pressure. Design and Development Collaboration Plan (Fuel Cell Information Series). scaleable between ~1kW and ~50kW. The system should achieve a power density >1kW/l. construct and evaluate a compact integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) of ~5kW. P. • Kendall.000h. J. • To design.Endnotes California’s Air board requires ZEVs to form a small percentage of the cars brought to market from 003. • Kendall.org/factfiles 1 . (000) “Hopes for a flame free future”. <10ppm CO output.) (1994) European Fuel Cells R and D Review (Fuel Cell Information Series). • To design. natural gas fuel processor. • Stimming. • Kordesch. 71: 71-4.Vohs and R. and P. N. K.F. K.Power Sources.5% in 1000h. • To design. and M.000h operating life. (Ed. and D.Q. 404: 33-5. • Blomen. The stack should be capable of manufacture by a viable (if not yet proven) process. J. • To construct and evaluate a ~0kW SOFC system operating on natural gas.  The US industry consortium Fuel Cells 000 website (www.J. and a 10.