You are on page 1of 154

CSiBridge

Bridge Superstructure Design

ISO BRG083110M2 Version 15


Berkeley, California, USA August 2010
COPYRIGHT

Copyright  Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2010


All rights reserved.
TM
The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. CSiBridge
TM
and Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe® and
TM
Acrobat® are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a
registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.
TM
The computer program CSiBridge and all associated documentation are proprietary and
copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures,
Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form,
without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly
prohibited.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any


means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written
permission of the publisher.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers & Structures, Inc.


1995 University Avenue
Berkeley, California 94704 USA

Phone: (510) 649-2200


FAX: (510) 649-2299
e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)
e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)
web: www.csiberkeley.com
DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE


DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY
OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL


DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.
Contents

Bridge Superstructure Design

1 Introduction
1.1 Organization 1-1
1.2 Recommended Reading 1-2

2 Design Prerequisites
2-1 Load Pattern Types 2-1
2.2 Design Load Combinations 2-3
2.3 Default Load Combinations 2-4

3 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors (LLDF)


3.1 Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution
Factors (LLDF) 3-1
3.2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors 3-2
3.3 Apply LLD Factors 3-3
3.3.1 User Specified 3-4
3.3.2 Calculated by CSiBridge in Accordance with Code 3-4
3.3.3 Read Directly from Girder 3-4
3.3.4 Uniformly Distribution to Girders 3-4

i
CSiBridge Superstructure Design

3.4 Generate Virtual Combinations 3-5


3.4.1 Stress Check 3-5
3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6
3.5 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders 3-6
3.5.1 Stress Check 3-6
3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6
3.6 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-7

4 Define a Bridge Design Request


4.1 Name and Bridge Object 4-3
4.2 Check Type 4-3
4.3 Station Range 4-5
4.4 Design Parameters 4-5
4.5 Demand Sets 4-10
4.6 Live Load Distribution Factors 4-10

5 Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges


5.1 Stress Design AASHTO-STD-2002 5-1
5.1.1 Capacity Parameters 5-1
5.1.2 Demand Parameters 5-2
5.1.3 Algorithm 5-2
5.2 Stress Design AASHTO-LFRD-2007 5-2
5.2.1 Capacity Parameters 5-2
5.2.2 Algorithm 5-3
5.2.3 Stress Design Example 5-3
5.3 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-6
5.3.1 Capacity Parameters 5-6
5.3.2 Variables 5-6
5.3.3 Design Process 5-7
5.3.4 Algorithm 5-8
5.3.5 Flexure Design Example 5-10
5.4 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-14
5.4.1 Capacity Parameters 5-14
5.4.2 Variables 5-15
5.4.3 Design Process 5-16
5.4.4 Algorithm 5-18

ii
Contents

5.4.5 Shear Design Example 5-24


5.5 Principal Stress Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-31
5.5.1 Capacity Parameters 5-31
5.5.2 Demand Parameters 5-31
5.5.3 Algorithm 5-31

6 Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA


6.1 Stress Design 6-2
6.2 Shear Design 6-3
6.2.1 Variables 6-4
6.2.2 Design Process 6-5
6.2.3 Algorithms 6-6
6.3 Flexure Design 6-10
6.3.1 Variables 6-10
6.3.2 Design Process 6-11
6.3.3 Algorithms 6-11

7 Design Algorithms for Precast I and U-Girder Bridges


7.1 Design Stress 7-1
7.2 Design Shear 7-2
7.2.1 Variables 7-3
7.2.2 Design Process 7-5
7.2.3 Algorithms 7-5
7.2.4 Shear Design Example 7-8
7.3 Design of Flexural 7-14
7.3.1 Variables 7-14
7.3.2 Design Process 7-15
7.3.3 Algorithms 7-16
7.3.4 Flexure Design Capacity Example 7-18

8 Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab


8.1 Strength Properties 8-1
8.1.1 Yield Moments 8-1
8.1.2 Plastic Moments 8-3
8.1.2 Section Classification Factors 8-7
8.2 Demand Sets 8-9

iii
CSiBridge Superstructure Design

8.2.1 Demand Flange Stress fbu and ff 8-10


8.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending Stress f1 8-11
8.2.3 Depth of Web in Compression 8-11
8.3 Strength Design Request 8-13
8.3.1 Flexure 8-13
8.3.2 Shear 8-19
8.4 Service Design Request 8-21
8.5 Web Fatigue Design Request 8-23
8.6 Section Optimization 8-24

9 Run a Bridge Design Request


9.1 Description of Example Model 9-2
9.2 Design Preferences 9-3
9.3 Load Combinations 9-3
9.4 Bridge Design Request 9-5
9.5 Start Design/Check of Structure 9-6

10 Design Output
10.1 Display Results as a Plot 10-1
10.1.1 Additional Display Examples 10-2
10.2 Display Data Tables 10-7
10.3 Advanced Report Writer 10-8
10.4 Verification 10-11

References

iv
Contents

List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge
Design Form 2-5
Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations form 2-6

Figure 3-1 General Dimensions 3-8


Figure 3-2 Lever Rule 3-11

Figure 4-1 Bridge Design Request – Concrete Box Girder Bridges 4-2
Figure 4-2 Bridge Design Request – Compost I or U Girder Bridges 4-2
Figure 4-3 Bridge Design Request form – Steel I Beam
with Composite Slab 4-3
Figure 4-4 Superstructure Design Request Parameters form 4-5

Figure 5-1 LRFD 2007 Stress Design, ASSHTO Box Beam,


Type BIII-48 5.4
Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Stress Design AASHTO Box
Beam, Type BIII-48 5-4
Figure 5-3 LRFD 2007 Flexure Design Cross-Section, AASHTO Box
Beam, Type BIII-48 5-10
Figure 5-4 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Flexure Design Cross-Section,
AASHTO Box Bea, Type BIII-48 5-10
Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam,
Type BIII-48 5-24

Figure 7-1
0 Shear design example deck section 7-10
Figure 7-2
1 Shear design example beam section 7-10
Figure 7-3
2 Flexure capacity design example deck section 7-20
Figure 7-4
3 Flexure capacity design example beam section 7-20

Figure 8-1 Steel I-Beam with Composite Section 8-5


Figure 8-2 Steel I-Beam Composite Section 8-6

Figure 9-1 3D view of example concrete box girder bridge model 7-2
Figure 9-2
5 Elevation view of example bridge 7-2
Figure 9-3
6 Plan view of the example bridge 7-3
Figure 9-4
7 Bridge Design Preferences form 9-3
Figure 9-5
8 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design
form 9-4

v
CSiBridge Superstructure Design

Figure 9-6
9 Define Load Combinations form 9-4
Figure 9- 7
1 Define Load Combinations form 9-5
Figure 9-8
1 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure 9-6
Figure 9-9
1 Plot of flexure check results 9-6

Figure 10-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge
design model 10-2
Figure 10-2 Select the location on the beam or slab for which
results are to be displayed 10-3
Figure 10-3 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External
Girders Vertical 10-3
Figure 10-4 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External
Girders Sloped 10-4
Figure 10-5 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External
Girders Clipped 10-4
Figure 10-6 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External
Girders and Radius 10-5
Figure 10-7 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External
Girders Sloped Max 10-5
Figure 10-8 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – Advanced 10-6
Figure 10-9 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section -
AASHTO – PCI – ASBI Standard 10-6
Figure 10-10 Choose Tables for Display form 10-7
Figure 10-11 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007
flexure check 10-8
Figure 10-12 Choose Tables for Export to Access form 10-9
Figure 10-13 Create Custom Report form 10-10
Figure 10-14 An example of the printed output 10-11

vi
Chapter 1
Introduction

As the ultimate versatile, integrated tool for modeling, analysis, and design of
bridge structures, CSiBridge can apply the AASHTO STD 2002 or
AASHTO LRFD 2007 code to concrete box girder bridge design or the
AASHTO 2007 LRFD code for design when the superstructure includes Pre-
cast Concrete Box bridges with a composite slab. Additionally, steel I-beam
bridges with composite slabs may be designed in accordance with the
AASHTO 2007 code. The ease with which these tasks can be accomplished
makes CSiBridge the most productive bridge design package in the industry.

Design using CSiBridge is based on load patterns, load cases, load combina-
tions and design requests. The design output can then be displayed graphically
and printed using a customized reporting format.

It should be noted that the design of bridge superstructure is a complex subject


and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. CSiBridge is a tool to
help the user with that process. Only the aspects of design documented in this
manual are automated by the CSiBridge design capabilities. The user must
check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by CSi-
Bridge.

1-1
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1.1 Organization
This manual is designed to help you become productive using CSiBridge de-
sign in accordance with the available codes when modeling concrete box girder
bridges and precast concrete girder bridges. Chapter 2 describes design prereq-
uisites. Chapter 3 describes Live Load Distribution Factors. Chapter 4 de-
scribes defining the design request, which includes the design request name, a
bridge object name (i.e., the bridge model), check type (i.e., the type of de-
sign), station range (i.e., portion of the bridge to be designed), design parame-
ters (i.e., overwrites for default parameters) and demand sets (i.e., loading
combinations). Chapters 5 and 6 provide the algorithms used by CSiBridge in
completing concrete box and multicell box girder bridges. Chapter 7 describes
design parameters for precast I and U girder in accordance with the AASHTO
code. Chapter 8 explains how to design and optimize a steel I-beam bridge with
composite slab. Chapter 9 describes how to run a Design Request, and Chapter
10 describes design output, which can be presented graphically as plots, in data
tables, and in reports generated using the Advanced Report Writer feature.

1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice


It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-
ble “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a concrete box girder
or precast concrete bridge using CSiBridge. Additional information can be
found in the on-line Help facility available from within the software’s main
menu.

1-2 Organization
Chapter 2
Define Loads and Load Combinations

This chapter describes the steps that are necessary to define the loads and load
combinations that the user intends to use in the design of the bridge superstruc-
ture. The user may define the load combinations manually or have CSiBridge
automatically generate the code generated load combinations. The appropriate
design code may be selected using the Design/Rating > Superstructure De-
sign > Preference command. Currently, the AASHTO STD 2002 and
AASHTO LRFD 2007 design codes are supported by CSiBridge.

When the code generated load combinations are going to be used, it is impor-
tant for users to define the load pattern type in accordance with the applicable
code. The load pattern type can be defined using the Loads > Load Patterns
command. The user options for defining the load pattern types are summarized
in the Tables 2-1 and 2-2.

2.1 Load Pattern Types


Tables 2-1 and 2-2 show the permanent and transient load pattern types that
can be defined in CSiBridge. The tables also show the AASHTO abbreviation
and the load pattern descriptions. Users may choose any name to identify a
load pattern type.

Load Pattern Types 2-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 2-1 PERMANENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTOLRFD 2007 Code
CSiBridge AASHTO
Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern
CREEP CR Force effects due to creep
DOWNDRAG DD Downdrag force
DEAD DC Dead load of structural components and non-
structural attachments
SUPERDEAD DW Superimposed dead load of wearing surfaces
and utilities
BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force
HORIZ. EARTH PR EH Horizontal earth pressures
LOCKED IN EL Misc. locked-in force effects resulting from the
construction process
EARTH SURCHARGE ES Earth surcharge loads
VERT. EARTH PR EV Vertical earth pressure
PRESTRESS PS Hyperstatic forces from post-tensioning

Table 2-2 TRANSIENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Design Code
CSiBridge AASHTO
Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern
BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force
CENTRIFUGAL CE Vehicular centrifugal loads
VEHICLE COLLISION CT Vehicular collision force

VESSEL COLLISION CV Vessel collision force


QUAKE EQ Earthquake
FRICTION FR Friction effects
ICE IC Ice loads
- IM Vehicle Dynamic Load Allowance
BRIDGE LL LL Vehicular live load
LL SURCHARGE LS Live load surcharge
PEDESTRIAN LL PL Pedestrian live load
SETTLEMENT SE Force effects due settlement
TEMP GRADIENT TG Temperature gradient loads
TEMPERATURE TU Uniform temperature effects
STEAM FLOW WA Water load and steam pressure
WIND–LIVE LOAD WL Wind on live load
WIND WS Wind loads on structure

2-2 Load Pattern Types


Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

2.2 Design Load Combinations


The code generated design load combinations make use of the load pattern
types noted in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Table 2-3 shows the load factors and com-
binations that are required in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.
Table 2-3 Load Combinations and Load Factors Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code
DC
DD
DW
EH LL
EV IM
ES CE
Load EL BR
Combo PS PL
Limit CR LS WA WS WL FR TU TG SE EQ IC CT CV
State SH
Str I
P 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Str II
P 1.35 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Str III
P - 1.00 1.40 - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Str IV
P - 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - - - - -

Str V
P 1.35 1.00 0.40 1.00 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Ext Ev I
P  EQ 1.00 - - 1.00 - - 1.00 - - -

Ext Ev II
P 0.5 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00

Serv I 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 1.00 1.00 0.5/1.20


 TG  SE - - - -

Serv II 1.00 1.00 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - - - - -


Serv III 1.00 1.00 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20
 TG  SE - - - -

Serv IV 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.70 - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - 1.00 - - - -


Fatigue- - 0.75 - - - - - - - - - - -
LL, IM &
CE Only

Table 2-4 shows the maximum and minimum factors for the permanent loads
in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.

Design Load Combinations 2-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 2-4 Load Factors for Permanent Loads,  P , Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code
Load Factor
Type of Load Maximum Minimum
DC 1.25 0.90
DC: Strength IV only 1.50 0.90
DD: Downdrag 1.40 0.25
DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities 1.50 0.65
EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure 1.50 0.90
EL: Locked in Construction Stresses 1.00 1.00
EV: Vertical Earth Pressure 1.35 1.00
ES: Earth Surcharge 1.50 0.75

Two combinations for each permanent load pattern are required because of the
maximum and minimum factors. When the default load combinations are used,
CSiBridge automatically creates both load combinations (one for the maximum
and one for the minimum factor), and then automatically creates a third combi-
nation that represents an enveloped combination of the max/min combos.

2.3 Default Load Combinations


Default design load combinations can be activated using the Design/Rating >
Load Combinations > Add Default command. Users can set the load combi-
nations by selecting the “Bridge” option. The users may select the desired limit
states and load cases using the Code Generated Load Combinations for Bridge
Design form shown in Figure 2-1.

2-4 Default Load Combinations


Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form

After the desired limit states and load cases have been selected, CSiBridge will
generate all of the code-required load combinations. These can be viewed us-
ing the Home > Display > Show Tables command or by using the
Show/Modify button on the Define Combinations form, which is shown in
Figure 2-2.

Default Load Combinations 2-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations form

The load combinations denoted as Str-I1, Str-I2, and so forth refer to Strength I
load combinations. The load case StrIGroup1 is the name given to enveloped
load combination of all of the Strength I combinations. Enveloped load combi-
nations will allow for some efficiency later when the bridge design requests are
defined (see Chapter 4).

2-6 Default Load Combinations


Chapter 3
Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge to determine the live
load distribution factors used to assign live load demands to individual girders.
An explanation is given with respect to how the distribution factors are applied
in a shear, stress, and moment check in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD
2007 code. The live load distribution factors are applicable only to superstruc-
tures that have a deck that includes precast I or U girders with composite slabs.

Legend:
Girder = beam + tributary area of composite slab
Section Cut = all girders present in the cross-section at the cut location

3.1 Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution Fac-


tors (LLDF)
CSiBridge gives the user a choice of four methods to address distribution of
live load to individual girders.

Method 1 – The LLD factors are specified directly by the user.

Method 2 – CSiBridge calculates the LLD factors by following procedures


outlined in AASHTO LRFD Section 4.6.2.2.

Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution Factors (LLDF) 3-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Method 3 – CSiBridge reads the calculated live load demands directly from in-
dividual girders (available only for Area or Solid models).

Method 4 – CSiBridge distributes the live load uniformly into all girders.

It is important to note that to obtain relevant results, the definition of a Moving


Load case must be adjusted depending on which method is selected.

 When the LLD factors are user specified or specified in accordance with the
code (Method 1 or 2), only one lane with a MultiLane Scale Factor = 1
should be loaded into a Moving Load cases included in the demand set com-
binations.

 When CSiBridge reads the LLD factors directly from individual girders
(Method 3, applicable to area and solid models only) or when CSiBridge ap-
plies the LLD factors uniformly (Method 4), multiple traffic lanes with rele-
vant Multilane Scale Factors should be loaded in accordance with code re-
quirements.

3.2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors


At every section cut, the following geometric information is evaluated to de-
termine the LLD factors.

 span lengththe length of span for which moment or shear is being calcu-
lated

 the number of girders

 girder designationthe first and last girder are designated as exterior girders
and the other girders are classified as interior girders

 roadway widthmeasured as the distance between curbs/barriers; medians


are ignored

 overhangconsists of the horizontal distance from the centerline of the exte-


rior web of the left exterior beam at deck level to the interior edge of the curb
or traffic barrier

3-2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

 the beamsincludes the area, moment of inertia, torsion constant, center of


gravity

 the thickness of the composite slab t1 and the thickness of concrete slab
haunch t2

 the tributary area of the composite slabwhich is bounded at the interior


girder by the midway distances to neighboring girders and at the exterior
girder; includes the entire overhang on one side, and is bounded by the mid-
way distances to neighboring girder on the other side

 Young’s modulus for both the slab and the beamsangle of skew support.

CSiBridge then evaluates the longitudinal stiffness parameter, Kg, in accor-


dance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 (eq. 4.6.2.2.1-1). The center of gravity of
the composite slab measured from the bottom of the beam is calculated as the
sum of the beam depth, thickness of the concrete slab haunch t2, and one-half
the thickness of the composite slab t1. Spacing of the girders is calculated as
the average distance between the centerlines of neighboring girders.

CSiBridge then verifies that the selected LLD factors are compatible with the
type of model: spine, area, or solid. If the LLD factors are read by CSiBridge
directly from the individual girders, the model type must be area or solid. This
is the case because with the spine model option, CSiBridge models the entire
cross section as one frame element and there is no way to extract forces on in-
dividual girders. All other model types and LLDF method permutations are al-
lowed.

3.3 Apply LLD Factors


The application of live load distribution factors varies, depending on which
method has been selected: user specified; in accordance with code; directly
from individual girders; or uniformly distributed onto all girders.

Apply LLD Factors 3-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

3.3.1 User Specified


When this method is selected, CSiBridge reads the girder designations (i.e.,
exterior and interior) and assigns live load distribution factors to the individual
girders accordingly.

3.3.2 Calculated by CSiBridge in Accordance with Code


When this method is selected, CSiBridge considers the data input by the user
for truck wheel spacing, minimum distance from wheel to curb/barrier and
multiple presence factor for one loaded lane.

Depending on the section type, CSiBridge validates several section parameters


against requirements specified in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1,
4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). When any of the parameter values are outside
the range required by the code, the section cut is excluded from the Design Re-
quest.

At every section cut, CSiBridge then evaluates the live load distribution factors
for moment and shear for exterior and interior girders using formulas specified
in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1).
After evaluation, the LLDF values are assigned to individual girders based on
their designation (exterior, interior). The same value equal to the average of the
LLDF calculated for the left and right girders is assigned to both exterior gird-
ers. Similarly, all interior girders use the same LLDF equal to the average of
the LLDF of all of the individual interior girders.

3.3.3 Forces Read Directly from Girders


When this method is selected, CSiBridge sets the live load distribution factor
for all girders to 1.

3.3.4 Uniformly Distributed to Girders


When this method is selected, the live load distribution factor is equal to 1/n
where n is the number of girders in the section. All girders have identical LLD
factors disregarding their designation (exterior, interior) and demand type
(shear, moment).

3-4 Apply LLD Factors


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

3.4 Generate Virtual Combinations


When the method for determining the live load distribution factors is user-
specified, code-specified, or uniformly distributed (Methods 1, 2 or 4), CSi-
Bridge generates virtual load combination for every valid section cut selected
for design. The virtual combinations are used during a stress check and check
of the shear and moment to calculate the forces on the girders. After those
forces have been calculated, the virtual combination are deleted. The process is
repeated for all section cuts selected for design.

Four virtual COMBO cases are generated for each COMBO that the user has
specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4). The program analyzes the de-
sign type of each load case present in the user specified COMBO and multi-
plies all non-moving load case types by 1/ n (where n is the number of girders)
and the moving load case type by the section cut values of the LLD factors (ex-
terior moment, exterior shear, interior moment and interior shear LLD factors).
This ensures that dead load is shared evenly by all girders, while live load is
distributed based on the LLD factors.

The program then completes a stress check and a check of the shear and the
moment for each section cut selected for design.

3.4.1 Stress Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points
are read from CSiBridge for every virtual COMBO generated. To ensure that
live load demands are shared equally irrespective of lane eccentricity by all
girders, CSiBridge uses averaging when calculating the girder stresses. It cal-
culates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial and M3 moment demands on
all the beams in the entire section cut and dividing the demands by the number
of girders. Similarly, P and M3 forces in the composite slab are integrated and
stresses are calculated in the individual tributary areas of the slab by dividing
the total slab demand by the number of girders.

When stresses are read from analysis into design, the stresses are multiplied by
n (where n is number of girders) to make up for the reduction applied in the
Virtual Combinations.

Generate Virtual Combinations 3-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the entire section cut forces are read from
CSiBridge for every Virtual COMBO generated. The forces are assigned to in-
dividual girders based on their designation. (Forces from two virtual Combina-
tionsone for shear and one for momentgenerated for exterior beam are as-
signed to both exterior beams, and similarly, Virtual Combinations for interior
beams are assigned to interior beams.)

3.5 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders


When the method for determining the live load distribution is based on forces
read directly from the girders, the method varies based on which Design Check
has been specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

3.5.1 Stress Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points
are read from CSiBridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Request.
CSiBridge calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial, M3 and M2
moment demands on the beam at the center of gravity of the beam. Similarly P,
M3 and M2 demands in the composite slab are integrated at the center of grav-
ity of the slab tributary area.

3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder forces are read from CSiBridge
for every COMBO specified in the Design Request. CSiBridge calculates the
demands on a girder by integrating axial, M3 and M2 moment demands on the
girder at the center of gravity of the girder.

3-6 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

3.6 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


The AASHTO-LRFD Specifications allow the use of advanced methods of
analysis to determine the live load distribution factors. However, for typical
bridges, the specifications list equations to calculate the distribution factors for
different types of bridge superstructures. The types of superstructures covered
by these equations are described in Table 4.6.2.2.1-1. From this table, bridges
with concrete decks supported on precast concrete I or bulb-tee girders are des-
ignated as cross-section “K.” Other tables in 4.6.2.2.2 list the distribution fac-
tors for interior and exterior girders including cross-section “K.”

The distribution factor equations are largely based on work conducted in the
NCHRP Project 12-26 and have been verified to give accurate results com-
pared to 3-dimensional bridge analysis and field measurements. The multiple
presence factors are already included in the distribution factor equations except
when the tables call for the use of the lever rule. In these cases, the computa-
tions need to account for the multiple presence factors. The user is providing
those as part of the Design Request definition together with wheel spacing,
curb to wheel distance and lane width.

Notice that the distribution factor tables include a column with the heading
“range of applicability”. The ranges of applicability listed for each equation are
based on the range for each parameter used in the study leading to the devel-
opment of the equation. When any of the parameters exceeds the listed value in
the “range of applicability” column, CSiBridge reports the incompliance and
excludes the section from design.

Article 4.6.2.2.2d of the specifications states: “In beam-slab bridge cross-


sections with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor for the exte-
rior beam shall not be taken less than that which would be obtained by assum-
ing that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.” This
provision was added to the specifications because the original study that devel-
oped the distribution factor equations did not consider intermediate dia-
phragms. Application of this provision requires the presence of a sufficient
number of intermediate diaphragms whose stiffness is adequate to force the
cross section to act as a rigid section. For prestressed girders, different jurisdic-
tions use different types and numbers of intermediate diaphragms. Depending
on the number and stiffness of the intermediate diaphragms, the provisions of
4.6.2.2.2d may not be applicable. If the user specifies option “Yes” in the

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-7


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

“Diaphragms Present” option the program follows the procedure outlined in the
provision 4.6.2.2.2d.

For this example, one deep reinforced concrete diaphragm is located at the
midspan of each span. The stiffness of the diaphragm was deemed sufficient to
force the cross-section to act as a rigid section; therefore, the provisions of
S4.6.2.2.2d apply.

Required information:

AASHTO Type I-Beam (28/72)


2
Noncomposite beam area, Ag = 1,085 in
4
Noncomposite beam moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in
Deck slab thickness, ts = 8 in.
Span length, L = 110 ft.
Girder spacing, S = 9 ft.-8 in.
Modulus of elasticity of the beam, EB = 4,696 ksi
Modulus of elasticity of the deck, ED = 3,834 ksi
C.G. to top of the basic beam = 35.62 in.
C.G. to bottom of the basic beam = 36.38 in.

Figure 3-1 General Dimensions

3-8 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

1. Calculate n, the modular ratio between the beam and the deck.

n = E B E D (4.6.2.2.1-2)

= 4696 3834 = 1.225

2. Calculate eg, the distance between the center of gravity of the noncompo-
site beam and the deck. Ignore the thickness of the haunch in determin-
ing eg

eg = NAYT + t s 2 = 35.62 + 8 2 = 39.62 in.

3. Calculate Kg, the longitudinal stiffness parameter.

 
Kg = n I  Aeg2 (4.6.2.2.1-1)

= 1.225 733 320  1 085  39.62    2 984 704 in 4


2

4. Interior girder. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior


beam with two or more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.075   S 9.5   S L 0.2  K g 


0.6 0.1
12.0 Lt s 3

12 110 8 


0.1
 0.075   9.667 9.5 
0.6
 9.667 110 0.2 2 984 704 3


= 0.796 lane (eq. 1)

5. In accordance with 4.6.2.2.2e, a skew correction factor for moment may


be applied for bridge skews greater than 30 degrees. The bridge in this
example is skewed 20 degrees, and therefore, no skew correction factor
for moment is allowed.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior beam with one
design lane loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.06   S 14   S L 0.3  K g 
0.4 0.1
12.0 Lt s 3

 
0.1
= 0.06   9.667 14 
0.4
 9.667 110 0.3 2984704 12 100  8  
3

 

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-9


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

= 0.542 lane (eq. 2)

Notice that the distribution factor calculated above for a single lane
loaded already includes the 1.2 multiple presence factor for a single lane,
therefore, this value may be used for the service and strength limit states.
However, multiple presence factors should not be used for the fatigue
limit state. Therefore, the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for the single
lane is required to be removed from the value calculated above to deter-
mine the factor used for the fatigue limit state.

6. Skew correction factor for shear.

In accordance with 4.6.2.2.3c, a skew correction factor for support shear


at the obtuse corner must be applied to the distribution factor of all
skewed bridges. The value of the correction factor is calculated using
Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1.

 
0.3
SC = 1.0  0.20 12.0 Lt s3 K g tan 

 
0.3
= 1.0  0.20 12.0 110  8  2 984 704
3
tan 20

= 1.047

7. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with two or
more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.2   S 12    S 35 
2

= 0.2   9.667 12    9.667 35 


2

= 0.929 lane

Apply the skew correction factor:

DV = 1.047  0.929   0.973 lane (eq. 4)

8. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with one de-
sign lane loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.36   S 25.0 

3 - 10 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

= 0.36   9.667 25.0 

= 0.747 lane

Apply the skew correction factor:

DV = 1.047  0.747 
= 0.782 lane (eq. 5)

9. From (1) and (2), the service and strength limit state moment distribution
factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.796 and 0.542 lane.
Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.796 lane.

From (4) and (5), the service and strength limit state shear distribution
factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.973 and 0.782 lane.
Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.973 lane.

10. Exterior girder

Figure 3-2 Lever Rule

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3 - 11


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

11. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with two
or more design lanes using Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM = eDVinterior
e = 0.77  de 9.1

where de is the distance from the centerline of the exterior girder to the
inside face of the curb or barrier.

e = 0.77 + 1.83/9.1 = 0.97


DM = 0.97(0.796) = 0.772 lane (eq. (7)

12. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with one
design lane using the lever rule in accordancd with Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM =  3.5  6   3.5 9.667  1.344 wheels 2

= 0.672 lane (eq. 8)

Notice that this value does not include the multiple presence factor,
therefore, it is adequate for use with the fatigue limit state. For service
and strength limit states, the multiple presence factor for a single lane
loaded needs to be included.

DM = 0.672 1.2 
= 0.806 lane (eq. 9) (Strength and Service)

13. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with two or
more design lanes loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1.

DV = eDVinterior

where:

e = 0.6  de 10

= 0.6  1.83 10

= 0.783

3 - 12 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

DV = 0.783  0.973 
= 0.762 lane (eq. 10)

14. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with one de-
sign lane loaded using the lever rule in accordancd with Table 4.6.2.2.3b-
1. This value will be the same as the moment distribution factor with the
skew correction factor applied.

DV = 1.047  0.806 
= 0.845 lane (eq. 12) (Strength and Service)

Notice that 4.6.2.2.2d includes additional requirements for the calcula-


tion of the distribution factors for exterior girders when the girders are
connected with relatively stiff cross-frames that force the cross-section to
act as a rigid section. As indicated in the introduction, these provisions
are applied to this example; the calculations are shown below.

15. Additional check for rigidly connected girders (4.6.2.2.2d)

The multiple presence factor, m, is applied to the reaction of the exterior


beam (Table 3.6.1.1.2-1)

m1 = 1.20
m2 = 1.00
m3 = 0.85

R = N L N b  X ext  e  x 2
(4.6.2.2.2d-1)

where:

R = reaction on exterior beam in terms of lanes

NL = number of loaded lanes under consideration

e = eccentricity of a design truck or a design land load from


the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft.)

x = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pat-


tern of girders to each girder (ft.)

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3 - 13


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Xext = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pat-


tern to the exterior girder (ft.) See Figure 1 for dimen-
sions.

One lane loaded (only the leftmost lane applied):

R = 1 6  24.167  21 2   24.1672   14.52    4.8332   


2 2 2

= 0.1667 + 0.310
= 0.477 (Fatigue)

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for a single lane:

R = 1.2  0.477 
= 0.572 (Strength)

Two lanes loaded:

R = 2 6  24.167  21  9  2   24.1672   14.52    4.8332   


2 2 2

= 0.333 + 0.443
= 0.776

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.0 for two lanes loaded:

R = 1.0  0.776 
= 0.776 (Strength)

Three lanes loaded:

R =
3 6  24.167  21  9  3  2   24.1672   14.52    4.8332   
2 2 2

= 0.5 + 0.399
= 0.899

Add the multiple presence factor of 0.85 for three or more lanes loaded:

3 - 14 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2


Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

R = 0.85  0.899 
= 0.764 (Strength)

These values do not control over the distribution factors summarized in


Design Step 16.

16. From (7) and (9), the service and strength limit state moment distribution
factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.772 and 0.806
lane. Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.806 lane.

From (10) and (12), the service and strength limit state shear distribution
factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.762 and 0.845
lane. Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.845 lane.

Table 3.1 Summary of Service and Strength Limit State Distribution Factors
Moment Moment Shear Shear
interior exterior interior exterior
Load Case beams beams beams beams

Distribution factors from Multiple lanes loaded 0.796 0.772 0.973 0.762
Tables in 4.6.2.2.2
Single lane loaded 0.542 0.806 0.782 0.845

Additional check for rigidly Multiple lanes loaded NA 0.776 NA 0.776


connected girders Single lane loaded NA 0.572 NA 0.572
Design Value 0.796 0.806 0.973 0.845

Value reported by CSiBridge 0.796 0.807 0.973 0.845

LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3 - 15


Chapter 4
Define a Bridge Design Request

This chapter describes the Bridge Design Request, which is defined using the
Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Requests command.

Each Bridge Design Request is unique and specifies which bridge object is to
be designed, the type of check to be performed (e.g., concrete box stress, pre-
cast composite stress, and so on), the station range (i.e., the particular zone or
portion of the bridge that is to be designed), the design parameters (i.e., pa-
rameters that may be used to overwrite the default values automatically set by
the program) and demand sets (i.e., the load combination[s] to be considered).
Multiple Bridge Design Requests may be defined for the same bridge object.

Before defining a design request, the applicable code should be specified using
the Design/Rating > Superstructure > Preferences command. Currently, the
AASHTO STD 2002 or AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is available for the design
of a concrete box girder, the AASHTO 2007 LRFD code is available for the
design of a Precast I or U Beam with Composite Slab, and the AASHTO
LFRD 2007 for Steel I-Beam with Composite Slab superstructures.

Figure 4-1 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for
a concrete box girder bridge, and the check type is concrete box stress. Figure
4-2 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for a
Composite I or U girder bridge and the check type is precast composite stress.

Name and Bridge Object 4-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 4-3 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for
a Steel I-Beam bridge and the check type is composite strength.

Figure 4-1 Bridge Design Request - Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 4-2 Bridge Design Request - Composite I or U Girder Bridges

4-2 Name and Bridge Object


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Figure 4-3 Bridge Design Request - Steel I Beam with Composite Slab

4.1 Name and Bridge Object


Each Bridge Design Request must have unique name. Any name can be used.

If multiple Bridge Objects are used to define a bridge model, select the bridge
object to be designed for the Design Request. If a bridge model contains only a
single bridge object, the name of that bridge object will be the only item avail-
able from the Bridge Object drop-down list.

4.2 Check Type


The Check Type refers to the type of design to be performed and the available
options depend on the type of bridge deck being modeled.

For a Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following check
type options:

Name and Bridge Object 4-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

AASHTO STD 2002

 Concrete Box Stress

AASHTO LRFD 2007

 Concrete Box Stress

 Concrete Box Flexure

 Concrete Box Shear and Torsion

 Concrete Box Principal

For Multi-Cell Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following
check type options:

 Concrete Box Stress

 Concrete Box Flexure

 Concrete Box Shear

For bridge models with precast I or U Beams with Composite Slabs, CSi-
Bridge provides three check type options, as follows:

AASHTO LRFD 2007

 Precast Comp Stress

 Precast Comp Shear

 Precast Comp Flexure

For bridge models with steel I-beam with composite slab superstructures,
CSiBridge provides the following check type option:

AASHTO LRFD 2007

 Steel Comp Strength

The bold type denotes the name that appears in the check type drop-down list.
A detailed description of the design algorithm can be found in Chapter 5 for
concrete box girder bridges, in Chapter 6 for multi-cell box girder bridges, in

4-4 Check Type


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Chapter 7 for precast I or U beam with composite slabs, and in Chapter 8 for
steel I-beam with composite slab.

4.3 Station Range


The station range refers to the particular zone or portion of the bridge that is to
be designed. The user may choose the entire length of the bridge, or specify
specific zones using station ranges. Multiple zones (i.e., station ranges) may be
specified as part of a single design request.

When defining a station range, the user specifies the Location Type, which de-
termines if the superstructure forces are to be considered before or at a station
point. The user may choose the location type as before the point, after the point
or both.

4.4 Design Parameters


Design parameters are overwrites that can be used to change the default values
set automatically by the program. The parameters are specific to each code,
deck type, and check type. Figure 4-4 shows the Superstructure Design Pa-
rameters form.

Figure 4-4 Superstructure Design Request Parameters form

Station Range 4-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-1 shows the parameters for concrete box girder bridges. Table 4-2
shows the parameters for multi-cell concrete box bridges. Table 4-3 shows the
parameters applicable when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast
I or U girders with composite slabs. Table 4-4 shows the parameters applicable
when the superstructure has a deck that includes steel I-beams.

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


AASHTO STD 2002
 Resistance Factor - multiplies both compression and tension
Concrete Box Stress stress limits
 Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

 Multiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given


in the units specified
 The tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi
units for f c and the resulting tension limit
AASHTO LRFD 2007
Concrete Box Stress  Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits
 Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on f c
to calculate the compression stress limit
 Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on
sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units
specified
 Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-
tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c and the
resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear  Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits
 Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that
multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored resistance
for light-weight concrete
 Include Resal (Hunching-girder) shear effects – Yes or No. Speci-
fies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or
tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth
members shall or shall not be considered when determining the
design factored shear force in accordance with Article 5.8.6.2.
 Concrete Box Shear Rebar Material - A previously defined rebar
material label that will be used to determine the area of shear
rebar required
 Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material - A previously defined
rebar material that will be used to determine the area of longi-

4-6 Design Parameters


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


tudinal torsional rebar required
Concrete Box Flexure  Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Principal  See the Box Stress design parameter specifications

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Multi-Cell Concrete Box


AASHTO LRFD 2007
Multi-Cell Concrete Box  Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that
Stress multiplies both compression and tension stress limits
 Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multi-
plier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
 Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Mul-
tiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in
the units specified

 Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension


limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c
and the resulting tension limit
Multi-Cell Concrete Box  Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that mul-
Shear tiplies both compression and tension stress limits
 Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Fac-
tor that multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored
resistance for light-weight concrete
 Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal rein-
forcement – in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value =
-0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3
 Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforce-
ment - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value =
6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3
 PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; De-
fault Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0
 Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default
Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0
 Specifies which method for shear design will be used – either
Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with
5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3. Cur-
rently only the MCFT option is available.
 A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to
determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

 A previously defined rebar material that will be used to deter-


mine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Design Parameters 4-7


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Multi-Cell Concrete Box


Multi-Cell Concrete Box  Multi-Cell Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that
Flexure multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Table 4-3 Design Request Parameters for Precast I or U Beams


AASHTO

Precast Comp Stress  Precast Comp Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both
compression and tension stress limits
 Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on fc
to calculate the compression stress limit
 Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on
sqrt(fc) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units
specified
 Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-
tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for fc and the
resulting tension limit

Precast Comp Shear  PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and
tension stress limits
 PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that multiplies nominal shear
resistance to obtain factored resistance for light-weight concrete
 Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal rein-
forcement – in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = -
0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3
 Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforce-
ment - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value =
6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3
 PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default
Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0
 Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default
Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0
 Specifies what method for shear design will be used - either
Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with
5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3 Currently
only the MCFT option is available.
 A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to de-
termine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder
 A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine
the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Precast Comp Flexure  Precast Comp Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies
both compression and tension stress limits

4-8 Design Parameters


Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-4 Design Request Parameters for Steel I-Beam


AASHTO LRFD 2007
Steel I-Beam Strength  Positive Yield Moment, My. Yield moment of composite section in
positive flexure determined by the program in accordance with
section D6.2.2 of the code and user-defined input: Mdnc and Mdc,
the factored permanent load applied before the concrete deck
has hardened or is made composite, and the remainder of the fac-
tored permanent load (applied to the composite section), respec-
tively.
 Composite Sections in Negative Flexure. The negative My is cal-
culated based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands specified by the user.
 Plastic Moment of Composite Section in Positive Flexure. Positive
plastic moment, Mp, calculated as the moment of the plastic
forces about the plastic neutral axis.
 Plastic Moment of Composite Section in Negative Flexure. Nega-
tive plastic moment, Mp, calculated as the moment of the plastic
forces about the plastic neutral axis.
 Hybrid Factor Rh for Sections in Positive Flexure. Taken as 1.0 for
rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections and built-up sec-
tions with a higher strength steel in the web than in both flanges.
 Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb for Section in Positive Flexure.
Taken as equal to 1.0 for composite sections in positive flexure.
 Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb for Section in Negative Flexure.
Taken as less than or equal to 1.0 for composite sections in nega-
tive flexure.
 User-defined combinations based on LRFD strength combina-
tions. All combos are enveloped and used to calculate D/C ratios.
 Flange stress, fbu without consideration of flange lateral bending.
If staged construction analysis is not used, fbu is calculated by the
program using the demand moment on the noncomposite sec-
tion MNC, the demand moment on the long-term composite sec-
tion MLTC, and the demand moment on the short-term composite
section, MSTC. If staged construction analysis is considered, stresses
on each flange are read directly from the section cut results.
 Composite Section in Positive Flexure – Compact. Nominal flex-
ural resistance of the section, Dp.
 Composite Section in Positive Flexure – Non-Compact. Nominal
flexural resistance of the top compression flange and the bottom
tension flange used in evaluating the demand over capacity ratio.
 Local buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(FLB) as
specified in Article 6.10.8.2.2.
 Local buckling resistance of the compression flange MncFLB as
specified in Article A6.3.2.
 Lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange
MncLTB as specified in Article A6.3.3.

Design Parameters 4-9


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-4 Design Request Parameters for Steel I-Beam


AASHTO LRFD 2007
 The nominal flexural resistance of the bottom compression flange
is taken as the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lat-
eral torsional buckling resistance.
 Nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs, Vn.
 Nominal shear resistance of stiffened interior web panels
 Nominal shear resistance of web end panels

4.5 Demand Sets


A demand set name is required for each load combination that is to be consid-
ered in a design request. The load combinations may be selected from a list of
user defined or default load combinations that are program determined (See
Chapter 2).

4.6 Live Load Distribution Factors


When the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with
composite slabs or multi-cell boxes, Live Load Distribution Factors can be
specified. LLD factors are described in Chapter 3.

4 - 10 Demand Sets
Chapter 5
Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the AASHTO
STD-2002, LRFD 07 code for design and stress check of the superstructure of
a concrete box type bridge deck section.

In CSiBridge, when distributing loads for concrete box design, the section is
always treated as one beam, all load demands (permanent and transient) are
distributed evenly to the webs for stress and flexure and proportionally to the
slope of the web for shear. Torsion effects are always considered and assigned
to the outer webs and the top and bottom slab.

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with Article 5.8.6 of the
code, torsion is considered.

5.1 Stress Design AASHTO-STD-2002

5.1.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

Stress Design AASHTO-STD-2002 5-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4 to


0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression
limit.

FactorTensLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa);


Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)
The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain the tension limit.

5.1.2 Demand Parameters


FactorCompLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service
design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5
The demand compressive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor.
This way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one com-
pression limit.

FactorTensLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;
Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5
The demand tensile stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This
way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one tension
limit.

5.1.3 Algorithm
The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the
bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line
and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account
axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live
load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the
evaluation points.

The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then extremes
are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-
tion 5.1.1).

5-2 Stress Design AASHTO-STD-2002


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.2 Stress Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007

5.2.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4 to


0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.

FactorTensLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa);


Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)
The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

5.2.2 Algorithm
The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the
bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line
and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account
axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live
load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the
evaluation points.

Extremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-
corded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-
tion 5.2.1).

5.2.3 Stress Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-1

Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf



Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi

Stress Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Design span = 95.0 ft


Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
2
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi
Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi
fpu = 243 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Figure 5-1 LRFD 2007 Stress Design, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

5-4 Stress Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Stress Design


AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Reinforcing bars:
yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties
2
A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in
h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in
4
I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in
yb,yt = distance from centroid to the extreme
bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 570:


P = 856.51 kip
M3 = 897.599 kip-in

Top fiber stress =


P M3 856.51 897.599
 top   ytop   19.5  0.9344 ksi
A I 826 170812

Stress Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Bottom fiber stress =


P M3 856.51 897.599
 top   ybot   19.5  1.139 ksi
A I 826 170812
Stresses reported by CSiBridge:
top fiber stress envelope = 0.9345 ksi
bottom fiber stress envelope = 1.13945 ksi

5.3 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007

5.3.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0
The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain
factored resistance.

5.3.2 Variables
 Resistance factor for flexure

Mn Nominal flexural resistance

Mr Factored flexural resistance

tslabeq Equivalent thickness of slab

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab, measured from out to
out

bwebeq Equivalent thickness of all webs in section

Aslab Area of slab

APT Area of PT in tension zone

yPT Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons

fpu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average


of all tendons in tensile zone)

5-6 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

fpy Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all
tendons in tensile zone)

fps Average stress in prestressing steel (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

k PT material constant (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

1 Stress block factor is as specified in Section 5.7.2.2.

5.3.3 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate
stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between
concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular
concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 f c over a zone bounded by the
edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis
at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is
measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for
concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0
ksi, β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0
ksi, except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.7.3.2.


The resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate
capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based
only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement
is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,
the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-
tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu
(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the
flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported
in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange
(slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-7


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

5.3.4 Algorithm
At each section:

 All section properties and demands are converted from CSIBRIDGE model
units to N, mm.

 The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width
assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab
tslabeq 
bslab

 The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as the summation of all web hori-
zontal thicknesses
nweb
bwebeq  b
1
web

 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-


tion f c

 f   28 
if f c > 28 MPa, then 1  max  0.85  c 0.05; 0.65 
 7 

else 1  0.85

 The tendon location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are
processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-
ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-
cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.

5-8 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas APT


- center of gravity of tendons yPT
- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel fpu
- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)
f py
k  2(1.04  )
f pu

 The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt

 The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if


the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

If c1  tslabeq , the section is a T-section.

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance with


(eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.1.1-1).

c
f ps  f pu (1  k )
y pt

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.2.2-1)

Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-9


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If the section is a T-section,


 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 
else
 c 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1 
 2 
 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .
Mr = Mn
 Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.

5.3.5 Flexure Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-3 LRFD 2007 Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

5 - 10 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5-4 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf


Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)
Design span = 95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
2
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi
Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi
fpu = 243 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Reinforcing bars:
yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties
2
A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in
h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in
4
I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in
yb, yt = distance from centroid to the extreme
bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 570:

Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 11


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

P = 856.51 kip
M3 = 897.599 kip-in

 The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width
assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab 48  5.5
tslabeq    5.5in
bslab 48
Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.5 in

 The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as summation of all web horizon-


tal thicknesses
nweb
bwebeq  b
1
web  5  5  10 in

Value reported by CSiBridge = 10.0 in

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-
ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-
cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas APTbottom  0.153  6  23   4.437 in 2


2
Value reported by CSiBridge = 4.437 in

- distance from center of gravity of tendons to extreme compression fiber


23  2  6  4
yPTbottom  39   36.586 in
23  6
Value reported by CSiBridge = 19.5 + 17.0862 = 36.586 in

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu  270 kip


Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

5 - 12 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)


 f py   243 
k  2  1.04    2  1.04    0.28
 f pu   270 
Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.28


1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-
tion f c

If f c > 28 MPa, then

 f c  28 
1  max  0.85  0.05;0.65 
 7 
 34.473  28 
 max  0.85  0.05;0.65   0.80376
 7 
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.8037 (not reported)

 The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt
4.437  270
  6.91in
0.85  5  0.8037  48  0.28  4.437 36.586
270

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 6.919 in (not reported)

 The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if


the section is a T-section or a rectangular section.

If c1  tslabeq  6.91  0.80376  5.56 in  5.5in , the section is a


T-section.
Value reported by CSiBridge, section = T-section

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance


with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 13


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c 
f pu
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt
4.437  270  0.85  5(48  10)5.5
 7.149 in
0.85  5  0.8037  10  0.28  4.437 36.586
270

Value reported by CSiBridge = 7.1487 in

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.1.1-1).

 c   7.149 
f ps  f pu  1  k   270  1  0.28   255.23 ksi
 y pt   36.586 
Value reported by CSiBridge = 255.228 ksi

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with (5.7.3.2.2-1)

If the section is a T-section, then

 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 
 7.149  0.80376 
 4.437  255.228   36.586  
 2 
 7.149  0.80376 5.5 
0.85  5  48  10  5.5   
 2 2 
 38287.42 kip-in
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in (not reported)

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .

Mr   M n  1.0  38287.42  38287.42 kip-in


Value reported by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in

5 - 14 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.4 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007

5.4.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9
The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by
the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

PhiC (Lightweight) – Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default


Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9
The nominal shear capacity of light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by
the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance

Include Resal (haunched girder) Shear Effect – Typical value: Yes


Specifies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension,
in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth members shall or shall
not be considered when determining the design factored shear force.

Shear Rebar Material


A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the
area of shear rebar required.

Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material


A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the
area of longitudinal torsional rebar required.

5.4.2 Variables
 Resistance factor for shear

Pu ,Vu 2 , M u 3 , Tu Factored demand forces and moments per section

web Web angle of inclination from the vertical

A Gross area of section

AO Area enclosed by shear flow path, including area of holes if any

CGtop, CGbot Distance from the center of gravity of the section to the top and
bottom fiber

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 15


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

ph Perimeter of the polygon defined by the centroids of the longitudinal


chords of the space truss resisting torsion

b Minimum horizontal gross width of web (not adjusted for ducts)

t Minimum normal gross width of web (not adjusted for ducts) =


b cos  web 

bv Minimum effective horizontal width of web adjusted for presence


ducts

be Minimum effective normal width of shear flow path adjusted to ac-


count for presence of ducts

tv Minimum effective normal width of web = bv cos  web 

web Distribution factor for web

h Vertical height of section

dv Effective vertical height of section = max(0.8h, distance from ex-


treme compression fiber to center of gravity of tensile PT)

 Normal or light-weight concrete factor

Avsweb Area of shear reinforcement in web per unit length

Avtweb Area of transverse torsion reinforcement in web per unit length

Al Area of longitudinal torsion reinforcement

5.4.3 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.8.6 (Shear
and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges). The procedure is not applica-
ble to discontinuity regions and applies only to sections where it is reasonable
to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading. The user should select
for design only those sections that comply with the preceding assumptions by
defining appropriate station ranges in the Bridge Design Request.

5 - 16 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

If the option to consider resal effects is activated, the component of inclined


flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-
able depth members is considered when determining the design section shear
force (paragraph 5.8.6.1).

The section design shear force is distributed into individual webs assuming that
the vertical shear that is carried by a web decreases with increased inclination
of the web from vertical. Section torsion moments are assigned to external
webs and slabs.

The rebar area and ratio are calculated using measurements normal to the web.
Thus, vertical shear forces are divided by cos(alpha_web). The rebar area cal-
culated is the actual, normal cross-section of the bars. The rebar ratio is calcu-
lated using the normal width of the web, tweb = bweb  cos(alpha_web).

The effects of ducts in members are considered in accordance with paragraph


5.8.6.1. In determining the web or flange effective thickness, be, one-half of the
diameters of ducts is subtracted. All defined tendons in a section, stressed or
not, are assumed to be grouted. Each tendon at a section is checked for pres-
ence in the web or flange and the minimum controlling effective web and
flange thicknesses are evaluated.

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web or flange effective
thickness even if only part of the duct is within the element boundaries. In such
cases, the entire one-half of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the ele-
ment thickness

If several tendon ducts overlap in one flange or web (when projected on the
horizontal axis for flange, or when projected on vertical axis for the web), the
diameters of ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thick-
ness. In the web, the effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom
of each duct; in the flange, the effective thickness is evaluated at the left and
right side of the duct.

The Shear and Torsion Design is completed first on a per web basis. Rebar
needed for individual webs is then summed and reported for the entire section.
The D/C ratio is calculated for each web. Then the shear area of all webs is
summed and the entire section D/C is calculated. Therefore, the controlling
section D/C does not have to necessarily match the controlling web D/C (in
other words, other webs can make up the capacity for a “weak” web).

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 17


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

5.4.4 Algorithm
 All section properties and demands are converted from CSIBRIDGE model
units to N, mm.

 If the option to consider resal effects is activated, the component of inclined


flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-
able depth members is evaluated as follows:

Inclination angles of the top and bottom slabs are determined

 yslab top2  yslab top1 


 slab top  arctan  
 Stat2  Stat1 
 yslab bot2  yslab bot1 
 slab bot  arctan  
 Stat2  Stat1 

where

yslab top2 , yslab top1  vertical coordinate of the center of gravity of the
top slab at stations 1 and 2. The Y origin is assumed to be at the
top of the section and the + direction is up.

Stat1 , Stat2  stations of adjacent sections. When the section being


analyzed is “Before,” the current section station is Stat2; when
the section being analyzed is “After,” the current section station
is Stat1. Therefore, the statement Stat1  Stat2 is always valid.

 The magnitudes of normal forces in slabs are determined as follows:

P M 
Pslab top  Aslab top  u  u 3 dslab top 
 A I3 

P M 
Pslab bot  Aslab bot  u  u 3 dslab bot 
 A I3 

where dslab top , dslab bot are distances from center of gravity of the section
to center of gravity of the slab (positive)

5 - 18 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

 The magnitudes of vertical components of slab normal forces are determined


as follows:

Presal top  Pslab top tan  slab top

Presal bot  Pslab bot tan  slab bot

 On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand
values are evaluated

Outer Web Inner Web


Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb
Shear and abs(Vu 2  Presal top  Presal bot )   Abs(Tu) abs(Vu 2  Presal top  Presal bot )   0
Torsion
cos web cos web
Check

cos  |  web |
where  web 
 cos  |  web |
nweb
1

 Evaluate effective thicknesses


Evaluate dv bv be tv

– If bv  0, then

D
WebPassFlag  2,  0; Avsweb  0; Avtweb  0; Avsflag  2; Avtflag  2
C
proceed to report web results

– If be < 0 then SectionPassFlag = 2

 Evaluate design f c

f c min( f c , 8.3 MPa)

 Evaluate stress variable K

Calculate extreme fiber stress

P M3 P M3
 bot   CGbot  top   CGtop  tens  max  top , bot 
A I 33 A I 33

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 19


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

|P|
– If  tens  0.5 f c , then K = 1 else K  1  A
0.166  f c

where K < 2

 Evaluate Vc per web (shear capacity of concrete)

Vcweb  0.1663K  f c bv dv (5.8.6.5-3)

 Evaluate Vs per web (shear force that is left to be carried by rebar)

Vuweb  Vcweb
Vsweb 

– If Vsweb  0 then Avsweb  0

Vsweb
else Avsweb 
f y dv

 Verify minimum reinforcement requirement

– If Avsweb  0.35t f y (eq. 5.8.2.5-2), then

Avsweb  0.35t f y and Aswebflag  0

else Avswebflag  1

 Evaluate nominal capacities

Vsweb  Avsweb f y dv

Vnweb  Vcweb  Vsweb

 Evaluate shear D/C for web

Vuweb
D 
  
 C sweb bv dv f c

5 - 20 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

 Evaluate Tcr (eq. 5.8.6.3-2)

Tcr  0.166 K f c 2 A0 be

 Evaluate torsion rebar

1
If Tuweb   Tcr , then:
3

– Avtflag  0

– Avtweb  0

– Al  0

TorsionEffectsFlag=0

else:

Avtflag  1

Tuweb
Avtweb 
 A0 2 f y

Tuweb ph
Al 
 A0 2 f ylong

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

 Evaluate combined shear and torsion D/C for web

Vuweb T
 uweb
D  b d  2 A0 be
   v v
 C tweb 1.25 f c

 Evaluate controlling D/C for web

D D
If     then RatioFlag = 0
 C  sweb  C tweb

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 21


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

else

RatioFlag=1

D  D  D 
 max    ,  
C   C  sweb  C tweb 

D
If  1, then WebPassFlag=1
C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

 Assign web rebar flags where rebar flag convention is:

Flag = 0 – rebar governed by minimum code requirement


Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand
Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0
Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since web not part of shear flow path for
torsion

 Evaluate entire section values

Vcsection  Vcweb

Vssection  Vsweb

Vnsection  Vnweb

Avssection A vsweb

Avtsection A vtweb

Alsection  Al

 Evaluate entire section D/C

5 - 22 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges


nweb Vuweb
tv
1  bv dv

nweb
D tv
   1
 C  ssection f c

This is equivalent to:


| Vu |

nweb
D  t v dv
   1
 C  s sec tion f c

and

| Vu | | Tu |

  2 A0 be
nweb
D  t v dv
   1
 C tsection 1.25 f c

 Evaluate controlling D/C for section

D D
If     , then RatioFlag = 0 else RatioFlag = 1
 C  ssection  C tsection

D  D  D 
 max    ,  
C   C  ssection  C tsection 

D
If  1, then SectionPassFlag=1
C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

 Assign section design flags where flag convention is:


Flag = 0 – Section Passed all code checks
Flag = 1 – Section D/C >1
Flag = 2 – Section be < 0 (section invalid)

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 23


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

5.4.5 Shear Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Figure 5-6 Shear Design Example Reinforcement


AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

5 - 24 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

φ = 0.9
Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf
λ =1.0
Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)
Design span = 95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
2
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi
Yield strength fpy = 0.9
fpu = 243 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Reinforcing bars: yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi (~413.68 MPa)


Section Properties
2 2
A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in (~532902 mm )
h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in (~990.6 mm)
I = moment of inertia about
4 4
centroid of the beam = 170812 in (~71097322269 mm )
yb,yt = distance from centroid to the
extreme bottom (top) fiber of
the beam = 19.5 in (~495.3 mm)
2 2
Aslabtop = Aslabbot = 485.5 = 264 in (~170322 mm )
= (48  5)  (39  5.5)
2 2
Ao = 1440.5 in (~929353 mm )
Ph = 2  (48  5 + 39  5.5) = 153 in (~3886.2 mm)

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 114 before:


P = 800 kip (~ 3560 E+03 N)
M3 = 7541 kip-in (~ 852 E+06 Nmm)
V2 = 33 kip (~ 148.3 E+03 N)
T = 4560 kip-in (515.2 E+06 Nmm)

 All section properties and demands are converted from CSIBRIDGE model
units to N, mm.

 On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand
values are evaluated.

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 25


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Outer Web Inner Web


Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb
Shear and abs(Vu 2  Presal top  Presal bot )   Abs(Tu)=515.2E+06 N/A 0

Torsion cos  web N/A
Check
abs(148.3E  03  0  0)  1
 74151.9 N
cos0

cos  |  web | cos  | 0 |


where  web    0.5
 cos  |  web |  cos  | 0 |
nweb 2
1 1

 Evaluate effective shear flow path thicknesses

be  min(tfirstweb , t lastweb , t topslabv , t botslabv )


 min(127,127,139.7,139.7)  127mm

 Evaluate effective web width and normal thickness

Since the web is vertical, bv = tv = 127 mm

 Evaluate effective depth

Since M3 < 0 then

dv  max(0.8h, ybot  yPTtop )


 max(0.8  990.6,495.3  419.1)  914.4mm

 Evaluate design f c

f c  min  
f c ,8.3 MPa  min  34.473,8.3 MPa   5.871

 Evaluate stress variable K

Calculate extreme fiber stress

P M3 3560 E  03 852 E  06
 bot   CGbot   495.3  12.616 MPa.
A I 33 532902 71097322269
P M3 3560 E  03 852 E  06
 top   CGtop   495.3  0.745MPa
A I 33 532902 71097322269

5 - 26 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

 tens  max( top , bot )  max(12.61, 0.745)  0.745MPa

 If  tens  0.5 f c then K = 1 false

|P| | 3560 E  03 |
else K  1  A  1 532902  2.8

0.166  f c 0.166  5.871

where K < 2, therefore K = 2

 Evaluate Vc per web (shear capacity of concrete) (5.8.6.5-3)

Vcweb  0.1663K  f c bv dv  0.1663  2  1.0  5.871  127  914.4


 226781N.

 Evaluate Vs per web (shear force that is left to be carried by rebar)

Vuweb  Vcweb 74151.9  0.9  226781


Vsweb    144392 N
 0.9

If Vsweb  0, then Avsweb  0 True

Vsweb
else Avsweb 
f y dv

 Verify minimum reinforcement requirement

If Avsweb  0.35t f y (eq. 5.8.2.5-2) then  true

0.35  127
Avsweb  0.35t f y   0.10745mm 2 / mm and Aswebflag  0
413.68

Else Avswebflag  1

 Evaluate nominal capacities

Vsweb  Avsweb f y dv  0.10745  413.68  914.4  40645N


Vn web  Vcweb  Vsweb  226781  40645  267426 N

 Evaluate shear D/C for web

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 27


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Vuweb 74151.9
 
D  0.9
     0.1208
 C  sweb bv dv f c 127  914.4  5.871

 Evaluate Tcr (eq. 5.8.6.3-2)

Tcr  0.166 K f c 2 A0 be  0.166  2  5.871  2  929353  127


 460 147 419 Nmm

 Evaluate torsion rebar

1 1
If Tuweb   Tcr  515.2 E 6  0.9  460 E 6  false, then:
3 3

Avtflag  1

Tuweb 515.2 E 6
Avtweb    0.7444mm 2 / mm
 A0 2 f y 0.9  929352  2  413.68

Tuweb ph 515.2e6  3886.2


Al    2893mm 2
 A0 2 f ylong 0.9  929352  2  413.68

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

 Evaluate combined shear and torsion D/C for web

Vuweb T 74151.9 515.2 E 6


 uweb 
   
 0.9  127  914.4 0.9  2  929352  127
D b d 2 A b
   v v 0 e
 C tweb 
1.25 f c 1.25  5.871
 0.427

 Evaluate controlling D/C for web

D D
If      , then RatioFlag = 0  false
 C  sweb  C tweb

else

RatioFlag =1  true

5 - 28 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

D  D  D 
 max    ,     max  0.1208, 0.427   0.427
C   C  sweb  C tweb 

D
If  1, then WebPassFlag =1  true
C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

Assign web rebar flags where rebar flag convention is:

Flag = 0 – rebar governed by minimum code requirement


Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand => true
Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0
Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since the web is not part of the shear flow
path for torsion

 Evaluate entire section values

Vcsection  V cweb  2  226 781  453562 N


Vssection  V sweb  2  40645  81290 N
Vnsection  V nweb  2  267 426  534852 N

Avssection A vsweb  2  0.10 745  0.2149 mm 2 / mm

Avtsection A vtweb  2  0.7444887  1.48898mm 2 / mm


Alsection  Al  2893mm 2

 Evaluate entire section D/C


nweb Vuweb
tv
1  bv dv

nweb
D tv
   1
This is equivalent to:
 C  ssection f c

Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5 - 29


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

| Vu | 148.3E 3
  127  914.4  0.1208
nweb 2
D  t v dv 0.9
   1
 1
 C  ssection f c 5.871

and

| Vu | | Tu |

  2 A0 be
nweb
D  t v dv
   1
 C tsection 1.25 f c
148.3E 3 515.2 E 6

 127  914.4 0.9  2  929352  127
2
0.9
 1
 0.427
1.25  5.871

 Evaluate controlling D/C for section

D D
If     , then RatioFlag = 0  false
  ssection  C tsection
C

else RatioFlag = 1 true

D  D  D 
 max    ,    max  0.1208,0.427   0.427
C   C  ssection  C tsection 

D
If  1, then SectionPassFlag = 1  true
C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

Assign section design flags where flag convention is:

Flag = 0 – Section Passed all code checks  true

Flag = 1 – Section D/C >1

Flag = 2 – Section be < 0 (section invalid)

5 - 30 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007


Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.5 Principal Stress Design, AASHTO LRFD 2007

5.5.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0.
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4 to


0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit

FactorTensLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa); Typi-


cal value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f c is multiplied by the
FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

5.5.2 Demand Parameters


FactorCompLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service
design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand compres-
sive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the control-
ling stress can be selected and compared against one compression limit.
FactorTensLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;
Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand tensile stresses are
divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be
selected and compared against one tension limit.

5.5.3 Algorithm
The principal stresses are evaluated at three points at each web: the web cen-
terline at the bottom of the top slab; web centerline at the top of the bottom
slab; and web centerline at the section neutral axis.

The principal stresses are evaluated for each demand set using the Mohr circle
to combine bending, shear, and torsion stresses. The bending stresses assume
linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and both bending moments
(M2 and M3). The shear flow is calculated internally by the program taking
into account section properties at the elevation of the stress point. A shear scale
factor is used to convert the total shear flow acting at an elevation (y-
coordinate) to tangential shear stress in the web. The scale factor is equal to the

Principal Stress Design, AASHTO LRFD 2007 5 - 31


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

web shear-distribution factor divided by the cosine of the angle of inclination


of the web from vertical, and divided again by the design width of the web.

 web
ShearScaleFactor 
bweb cos  web

cos(|  web |)
where  web  and bweb is the horizontal width of web

nweb
1
cos(|  web |)

 A torsion scale factor is used to convert the total torque acting on the section
to tangential shear stress in the web. For interior webs, this is equal to zero.
For exterior webs, this is equal to one divided by the plastic torsional
modulus.

1
TorsionScaleFactor 
Wt

where Wt  2 A0 t min

A0 = area enclosed by shear flow path, including area of holes if any

tmin = minimum normal width of shear flow path

 If the demand set contains live load, the program positions the load to cap-
ture extreme stress at each of the evaluation points.

 The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then the ex-
tremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-
corded.

 The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-
tion 5.6.1).

5 - 32 Principal Stress Design, AASHTO LRFD 2007


Chapter 6
Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the


AASHTO-LRFD-07 code for design checks when the superstructure has a deck
that includes cast-in-place multi-cell concrete box design and uses the Ap-
proximate Method of Analysis, as described in Section 4.6.2.2 of the code.

For MulticellConcBox design in CSiBridge, in distributing loads for cast-in-


place multi-cell concrete box design, each web and its tributary slabs are de-
signed separately, and live loads are distributed to webs using the Approxi-
mate Methods of Analysis in accordance with AASHTO Article 4.6.2.2. Tor-
sion effects are always ignored. When CSiBridge calculates the Live Load Dis-
tribution Factors (LLDFs), the section and span qualification criteria stated in
AASHTO 4.6.2.2 are verified and non-compliant sections are not designed.

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with Article 5.8.3.4.2 of
the code, torsion is ignored.

When the multi-cell concrete box design option is used, moments and shears
due to live load are distributed to individual webs in accordance with the fac-
tors specified in Articles 4.6.2.2.2 and 4.6.2.2.3 of the code. Torsion effects are
ignored. The user can control if the section is designed as “a whole-width

Stress Design 6-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

structure” in accordance with Article 4.6.2.2.1 of the code by selecting “Yes”


for the “Diaphragms Present” option.

6.1 Stress Design


The following parameters are considered during stress design:

 PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The
compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

 FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s):


0.4 to 0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain com-
pression limit

 FactorTensLim – f 'c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa);


Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f 'c is multiplied
by the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the top slab and
three points at the bottom fiber of the bottom slab: the left corner, the center-
line web and the right corner of the relevant slab tributary area. The location is
labeled in the output plots and tables. See Chapter 9, Section 9.1.1.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point, and compression and tension limits
are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim -
f 'c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and ei-
ther both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on
which method for determining LLDF has been specified in the design request
(see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. Extremes are found for each
point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding parameters.

6-2 Stress Design


Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

6.2 Shear Design


The following parameters are considered during shear design:

 PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9.
The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multi-
plied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

 PhiC (Lightweight) – Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default


Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of
light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to ob-
tain factored resistance.

 Check Sub Type – Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear
design will be used: either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT)
in accordance with Section 5.8.3.4.2 of the code; or the Vci/Vcw method in
accordance with Section 5.8.3.4.3 of the code. Currently only the MCFT
option is available.

 Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in


accordance with Section 5.8.3.4.2 of the code; Default Value = 0.4x10 ,
-3

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.4x10


-3

 Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in ac-


-3
cordance with Section 5.8.3.4.2 of the code; Default Value = 6.0x10 ,
-3
Typical value(s): 6.0x10

 PhiC for Nu – Resistance Factor used in Equation 5.8.3.5-1 of the code; De-
fault Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

 Phif for Mu – Resistance Factor used in Equation 5.8.3.5-1 of the code; De-
fault Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0.

 Shear Rebar Material – A previously defined rebar material label that will
be used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

 Longitudinal Rebar Material - A previously defined rebar material label


that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the
girder.

Shear Design 6-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

6.2.1 Variables
V Resistance factor for shear

P Resistance factor for axial load

F Resistance factor for moment

Vu Factored shear demand per girder excluding force in tendons

Nu Applied factored axial force, taken as positive if tensile

Mu Factored moment at the section

V2 c Shear in Section Cut excluding force in tendons

V2Tot Shear in Section Cut including force in tendons

Vp Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective


prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, the component is re-
sisting the applied shear

a Depth of equivalent stress block in accordance with Section 5.7.3.2.2


of the code. Varies for positive and negative moment.

dv Effective shear depth in accordance with 5.8.2.9 of the code.

dgirder Depth of girder

dPTBot Distance from top of top slab to center of gravity of tendons in the
bottom of the precast beam

b Minimum web width

bv Effective web width adjusted for presence of prestressing ducts in


accordance with Section 5.8.2.9 of the code

Aps Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member

6-4 Shear Design


Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

f pu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel

Ep Pestressing steel Young’s modulus

Avl Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the mem-
ber at the section under consideration

Es Reinforcement Young’s modulus

s Strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement (eq.


5.8.3.4.2-4 of the code)

 sLimitPos ,  sLimitNeg = Max and min value of strain in nonprestressed longitudinal


tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request

Ec Young’s modulus of concrete

Ac Area of concrete on the flexural tension side of the member

AVS Area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length

AVS min Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length in
accordance with Equation 5.8.2.5 of the code

6.2.2 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 of
the code (derived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure
assumes that the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over an area
bv wide and dv deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses (de-
fined by angle θ and shown as D) remains constant over dv, and that the shear
strength of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress con-
ditions at just one location in the web. For design, the user should select only
those sections that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate sta-
tion ranges in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

The effective web width is taken as the minimum web width, measured parallel
to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces

Shear Design 6-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

as a result of flexure. In determining the effective web width at a particular


level, one-quarter the diameter of grouted ducts at that level is subtracted from
the web width.

All defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, are assumed to be grouted.


Each tendon at a section is checked for presence in the web and the minimum
controlling effective web thicknesses are evaluated.

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web effective thickness
even if only part of the duct is within the web boundaries. In such cases, the en-
tire one-quarter of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the element
thickness.

If several tendon ducts overlap in one web (when projected on the vertical
axis), the diameters of the ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the ef-
fective thickness. The effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bot-
tom of each duct.

Shear design is completed on a per-web basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a


description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

6.2.3 Algorithms
 All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.

 For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,
a new force demand set is generated. The new force demand set is built up
from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum absolute values of
V2 and M3 of the two StepTypes (Max and Min) present in the envelope
COMBO case. The StepType of this new force demand set is named ABS and
the signs of the P, V2 and M3 are preserved. The ABS case follows the indus-
try practice where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments that
are not necessarily corresponding to the same design vehicle position. The
section cut is designed for all three StepTypes in the COMBOMax, Min
and ABSand the controlling StepType is reported.

 In cases where the demand moment Mu  Vu  Vp  dv , two new force demand


sets are generated where Mupos  Vu  Vp dvpos and Muneg  Vu  Vp dvneg . The ac-

6-6 Shear Design


Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

ronyms “-CodeMinMuPos” and “-CodeMinMuNeg” are added to the end of


the StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved.

 The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-
ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c  V2Tot
Vp 
ngirders

 The depth of the equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative
moment is evaluated in accordance with Equation 5.7.3.1.1 of the code.

 Effective shear depth is evaluated.

 If Mu > 0, then dv  max(0.72  dgirder ,0.9  dPTBot ,dPTBot  0.5  a)

 If Mu < 0, then

dv  max  0.72  dgirder ,0.9  (dgirder  0.5  dcompslab ),(dgirder  0.5  dcompslab )  0.5  a 

 The demand/capacity ratio (D/C) is calculated based on the maximum per-


missible shear capacity at a section in accordance with Section 5.8.3.2-2 of
the code

Vu
 Vp
D V
 (5.8.3.2-2)
C 0.25  f 'c  b  dv

 Evaluate numerator and denominator of (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Mu
 snumerator   0.5  N u  Vu  Vp  Aps  0.7  f pu
dV

 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl

 Adjust denominator values as follows

If  sdenominator  0 and  snumerator  0 then  s   sLimitPos and

Shear Design 6-7


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

 snumerator
 E p  Aps
s
Avl 
Es

If  snumerator  0 then  sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  Ec  Ac

 Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

 snumerator
s 
 sdenominator

 Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section.

Nu
If  0.52  f 'c then  s  2   s
Agirder

 Check against the limit on the strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension


reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate
how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit.

 s  max( s ,  sLimitNeg ) and  s  min( s ,  sLimitPos )

 Evaluate the angle  of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as de-


termined in Article 5.8.3.4.

18  29  3500   s  45 (5.8.3.4)

 Evaluate the factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to


transmit tension and shear, as specified in Article 5.8.3.4.

4.8
 (5.8.3.4)
1  750   s

 Evaluate the nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the con-
crete (eq. 5.8.3.3-3).

Vc  0.083      f 'c  b  dv

 Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar.

6-8 Shear Design


Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

Vu
VS   V p  Vc
s

Vs
if VS  0 , then AVS  0 else AVS  . (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)
1
f y  dv 
tan

 Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement.

0.083   f 'c  b
If Vu  0.5  s  Vc  Vp , then AVSmin  in accor-
fy
dance with (eq. 5.8.2.5-1), else AVS min  0.

If VS  0, then AVS  AVSmin else AVS  max( AVSmin , AVS ).

 Recalculate Vs in accordance with (eq. 5.8.3.3-4).

1
VS  AVS  f y  dv  .
tan 

 Evaluate the longitudinal rebar on the flexure tension side in accordance with
(eq. 5.8.3.5-1).

 VU  Vu  
  VP  0.5  min  VS ,  
 MU NU S     1
ASLreq    0.5    E p  Aps  
 dv   f P tan   fy
AVL  max( AVL , ASLreq )

 Assign longitudinal rebar to the top or bottom side of the girder based on the
moment sign.

If MU  0, then AVLCompSlabU  AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange  0,

else AVLCompSlabU  0 and AVLBeamBotFlange  AVL .

Shear Design 6-9


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

6.3 Flexure Design


The following parameter is used in the design of flexure:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The
nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain fac-
tored resistance

6.3.1 Variables
 Resistance factor for flexure

Mn Nominal flexural resistance

Mr Factored flexural resistance

tslabeq Thickness of composite slab

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab tributary area,


measured from out to out

bwebeq Thickness of beam web

Aslab Tributary area of slab

a Depth of equivalent stress block in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2.

APT Area of PT in tension zone

yPT Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons

f pu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted aver-


age of all tendons in tensile zone)

f py Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average if


all tendons in tensile zone)

f ps Average stress in prestressing steel (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

6 - 10 Flexure Design
Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

k PT material constant (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

1 Stress block factor is as specified in Section 5.7.2.2.

6.3.2 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate
stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between
concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular
concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 fc over a zone bounded by the edges
of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the
distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is meas-
ured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for con-
crete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,
β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,
except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with paragraph 5.7.3.2. The


resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate ca-
pacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based
only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement
is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,
the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-
tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu
(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the
flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported
in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange
(slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

6.3.3 Algorithms
At each section:

 All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.

Flexure Design 6 - 11
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

 The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the tributary slab area
and the slab width assuming a rectangular shape.

Aslab
tslabeq 
bslab

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based


on section f c

 f   28 
If f c > 28 MPa, then 1  max  0.85  c 0.05; 0.65 
 7 

else 1  0.85

 The tendon location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are
processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on the sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive
moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block
and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of
the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block
extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a
straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from
the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to
the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

– sum of tendon areas APT

– center of gravity of tendons yPT

– specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu

– constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

6 - 12 Flexure Design
Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

 f py 
k  2  1.04  
 f pu 

– Positive moment resistance – first it is assumed that the equivalent com-


pression stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neu-
tral axis and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (eq.
5.7.3.1.1-4)

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt

– The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine


if the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

If c1  tslabeq , the section is a T-section.


 If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance
with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt
 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with (eq.
5.7.3.1.1-1)

 c 
f ps  f pu  1  k
 y pt 

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with (eq.


5.7.3.2.2-1)

If the section is a T-section, then

 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 

else

Flexure Design 6 - 13
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

 c 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1 
 2 

 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by  .

M r  M n

 Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets
and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous.

6 - 14 Flexure Design
Chapter 7
Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the


AASHTO-LRFD-07 code for design and stress check when the superstructure
has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with composite slabs.

7.1 Design Stress


The following parameters are considered during stress design:

 PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The
compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

 FactorCompLim – f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical value(s): 0.4


to 0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression
limit

 FactorTensLim – f ' c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi) 0.5(MPa);


Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f ' c is multiplied by
the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the composite slab:
the left corner, the centerline beam and the right corner of the composite slab
tributary area. The location of stress output points at the slab bottom fiber and

Design Stress 7-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

beam top and bottom fiber depends on the type of precast beam present in the
section cut. The location is labeled in the output plots and tables.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point and compression and tension limits
are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim -
f ' c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and ei-
ther both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on
which method for determining LLDF has been specified in the Design Request
(see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. Extremes are found for each
point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding Parameters.

7.2 Design Shear


The following parameters are considered during shear design:

 PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9.
The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied
by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

 PhiC (Lightweight) – Resistance Factor for lightweight concrete; Default


Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of
light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain
factored resistance.

 Check Sub Type – Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear
design will be used: Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accor-
dance with 5.8.3.4.2; or Vci/Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3 Cur-
rently only the MCFT option is available.

 Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in ac-


cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x10 , Typical value(s):
-3

0 to 0.4x10
-3

7-2 Design Shear


Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

 Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in ac-


-3
cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10 , Typical value(s):
-3
6.0x10

 PhiC for Nu – Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default Value =


1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

 Phif for Mu – Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default Value =


0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0. Shear Rebar Material. A previously defined
rebar material label that will be used to determine the required area of trans-
verse rebar in the girder

 Longitudinal Rebar Material – A previously defined rebar material label that


will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

7.2.1 Variables
V Resistance factor for shear

P Resistance factor for axial load

F Resistance factor for moment

Vu Factored shear demand per girder excluding force in tendons

Nu Applied factored axial force taken as positive if tensile

Mu Factored moment at the section

V2 c Shear in Section Cut excluding force in tendons

V2Tot Shear in Section Cut including force in tendons

Vp Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective


prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, the component is re-
sisting the applied shear

a Depth of equivalent stress block in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2. Varies


for positive and negative moment.

Design Shear 7-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

dv Effective shear depth in accordance with 5.8.2.9

d girder Depth of girder

dcompslab Depth of composite slab (includes concrete haunch t2)

d PTBot Distance from top of composite slab to center of gravity of tendons


in the bottom of the precast beam

b Minimum web width of beam

Aps Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member,

f pu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel

Ep Pestressing steel Young’s modulus

Avl Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the mem-
ber at the section under consideration

Es Reinforcement Young’s modulus

s Strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement (eq.


5.8.3.4.2-4)

 sLimitPos ,  sLimitNeg = Max and min value of strain in nonprestressed longitudi-


nal tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request

Ec Young’s modulus of concrete

Ac Area of concrete on the flexural tension side of the member

AVS Area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length

AVS min Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length in
accordance with (eq. 5.8.2.5)

7-4 Design Shear


Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

7.2.2 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 (de-
rived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that
the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over an area bv wide and dv
deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses (defined by angle θ
and shown as D) remains constant over dv, and that the shear strength of the
section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress conditions at just
one location in the web. The user should select for design only those sections
that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate station ranges in
the design request (see Chapter 4).

It is assumed that the precast beams are pre-tensioned, and therefore, no ducts
are present in webs. The effective web width is taken as the minimum web
width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the ten-
sile and compressive forces as a result of flexure.

Shear design is completed on a per-girder basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a


description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

7.2.3 Algorithms
 All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.

 For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,
two new force demand sets are generated. The new force demand sets are
built up from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum and mini-
mum values of V2 and minimum values of M3 of the two StepTypes (Max
and Min) present in the envelope COMBO case. The StepType of these new
force demand sets are named MaxM3MinV2 and MinM3MaxV2, respec-
tively. The signs of all force components are preserved. The two new cases
are added to comply with industry practice where sections are designed for
extreme shear and moments that are not necessarily corresponding to the
same design vehicle position. The section cut is designed for all four Step-
Types in the COMBOMax, Min, MaxM3MinV2, and MinM3MaxV2and the
controlling StepType is reported.

Design Shear 7-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

 In cases where the demand moment Mu  Vu  Vp  dv , two new force demand


M
upos  V V d
u p vpos M
uneg u  V  V d
p vneg
sets are generated where and .
The acronyms “-CodeMinMuPos” and “-CodeMinMuNeg” are added to the
end of the StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved. The
component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing
force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c  V2Tot
 Vp 
n girders

 Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is
evaluated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1)

 Effective shear depth is evaluated.

 If Mu > 0 then dv  max(0.72  dgirder ,0.9  dPTBot , dPTBot  0.5  a )

 If Mu < 0 then

 dv  max  0.72  dgirder ,0.9  (dgirder  0.5  dcompslab ),(dgirder  0.5  dcompslab )  0.5  a 

 If Mu  Vu  Vp  dv then Mu  (Vu  Vp )  dv

 The demand/capacity ratio (D/C) is calculated based on the maximum per-


missible shear capacity at a section in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu
 Vp
D V
 (5.8.3.2-2)
C 0.25  f 'c  b  dv

 Evaluate numerator and denominator of (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Mu
 snumerator   0.5  N u  Vu  Vp  Aps  0.7  f pu
dV

 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl

7-6 Design Shear


Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

 Adjust denominator values as follows

If  sdenominator  0 and  snumerator  0 then  s   sLimitPos and


 snumerator
 E p  Aps
s
Avl 
Es

If  snumerator  0 then  sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  Ec  Ac

 Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

 snumerator
s 
 sdenominator

 Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section.

Nu
If  0.52  f 'c then  s  2   s
Agirder

 Check against the limit on the strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension


reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate
how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit

 s  max( s ,  sLimitNeg ) and  s  min( s ,  sLimitPos )

 Evaluate the angle  of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as de-


termined in Article 5.8.3.4

18  29  3500   s  45 (5.8.3.4)

 Evaluate the factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to


transmit tension and shear, as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8
 (5.8.3.4)
1  750   s

 Evaluate nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete


eq. 5.8.3.3-3

Design Shear 7-7


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Vc  0.083      f 'c  b  dv

 Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar

Vu
VS   V p  Vc
s

Vs
If VS  0 then AVS  0, else AVS  (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)
1
f y  dv 
tan

 Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement

0.083   f 'c  b
If Vu  0.5  s  Vc  Vp then AVSmin  in accordance
fy
with (eq. 5.8.2.5-1); else AVS min  0

If VS  0 then AVS  AVSmin , else AVS  max( AVSmin , AVS )

 Recalculate Vs in accordance with (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1
VS  AVS  f y  dv 
tan 

 Evaluate longitudinal rebar on flexure tension side in accordance with (eq.


5.8.3.5-1)

VU Vu
 VP  0.5  min(VS , )
MU NU S  1
ASLreq  (  0 .5    E p  Aps ) 
dv   f P tan  fy
AVL  max( AVL , ASLreq )

 Assign longitudinal rebar to top or bottom side of girder based on moment


sign

If M U  0 then AVLCompSlabU  AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange  0

else AVLCompSlabU  0 and AVLBeamBotFlange  AVL

7-8 Design Shear


Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

7.2.4 Shear Design Example


The girder spacing is 9’-8”. The girder type is AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72-
inch-deep, 42-inch-wide top flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO
28/72 Girders). The concrete deck is 8 inches thick, with the haunch thickness
assumed = 0.

Materials
Concrete strength
Prestressed girders 28-day strength, f c = 6 ksi,
Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,415 ksi
Deck slab: 4.0 ksi, Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi
Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi
Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270
2
Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in
Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi
Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi
Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Basic beam section properties


Depth = 72 in.
Thickness of web = 8 in.
2
Area, Ag = 1,085 in
Ac = Area of concrete on the flexural
tension side of the member (bordered
2
at mid depth of the beam + slab height) = 551 in
4
Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in
N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.
N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.
P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 2007 4.6.2.6, the effective flange


width of concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width. For the interior
beam, the bslab  9'8"  116in .

Design Shear 7-9


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 7-1 Shear design example deck section

Figure 7-2 Shear design example beam section

7 - 10 Design Shear
Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Demands at interior girder Section 2 = station 10’,


after girder Section 2, Vu = 319.1 kip; Mu = 3678 kip-ft

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-
ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c  V2Tot
 Vp  Vp = 0 since no inclined tendons are present.
n girders

 Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is
evaluated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1).

 Effective shear depth is evaluated

Since Mu > 0, then (for calculation of the depth of the compression block,
refer to the Ultimate Flexure example in Section 6.3.4 of this manual)

dv  max(0.72  dgirder , 0.9  dPTBot , dPTBot  0.5  a)


 max(0.72  80", 0.9  75", 75" 0.5  5.314  0.85)
d v  max(57.6" ,67.5" ,72.74" )  72.74"

Value reported by CSiBridge = 72.74”

 Check if Mu  Vu  Vp  dv

Mu  3678  12  44136 kip-in  (319  0)  72.74  23204 kip-in

 D/C is calculated based on maximum permissible shear capacity at a section


in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu 319
 Vp 0
D V 0.9
   0.406
C 0.25  f 'c  b  dv 0.25  6  8  72.74

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.406

 Evaluate the numerator and denominator of (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Design Shear 7 - 11
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Mu
 snumerator   0.5  N u  Vu  Vp  Aps  0.7  f pu
dV
3678  12
  0.5  0  319  0  6.73  0.7  270  346.2 kip
72.74

 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  28500 ksi  6.73 in 2  191805 kip

 Adjust denominator values as follows

If  sdenominator  0 and  snumerator  0 then  s   sLimitPos and


 snumerator
 E p  Aps
s
Avl  not applicable
Es

If  snumerator  0 then
 sdenominator  E p  Aps  Es  Avl  Ec  Ac
 28500  6.73  4415  551.4  26 263461 kip

 Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

 snumerator 346.2
s    1.318e-4
 sdenominator 2626346

Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.318e-4

 Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section

Nu
If  0.52  f 'c then  s  2   s ; not applicable since Nu = 0
Agirder

 Check against limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension rein-


forcement as specified in the Design Request and recalculate Avl

 s  max( s ,  sLimitPos )  max( 1.318e-4,  1.318e-4  4)  1.318e-4

 Evaluate angle  of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as deter-


mined in Article 5.8.3.4

7 - 12 Design Shear
Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

18    29  3500   s  45   29  3500  1.318e-4  28.5deg


Value reported by CSiBridge = 28.5 deg

 Evaluate factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit


tension and shear as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8 4.8
   5.3265
1  750   s 1  750  1.318e-4
Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.3267

 Evaluate nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete


(eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Vc  0.0316      f 'c  b  dv
 0.0316  5.32  1.0  6  8  72.74  239.92 kip
Value reported by CSiBridge = 240.00 kip

 Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar

Vu 319
VS   Vp  Vc   0  239.6  114.8 kip
s 0.9

Value reported by CSiBridge = 114.64 kip

If VS  0 then AVS  0 else

Vs 114.8
AVS    1.43e-2 in 2 /in (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)
1 1
f y  dv  60  72.74 
tan  tan 28.5
 Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement

If Vu  0.5  s  Vc  Vp   319.1 kip  0.5  239.6  119.8 kip is true,


0.0316   f 'c  b 0.0316  1.0 6  8
AVS min    0.01032in 2 /in (eq.
fy 60
5.8.2.5-1)

If VS  0 then AVS  AVS min else AVS  max( AVS min , AVS )  1.43e-2in 2 /2

Design Shear 7 - 13
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

2
Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.43e-2in /in

 Recalculate Vs in accordance with (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1 1
VS  AVS  f y  dv   0.0143  60  72.74   114.9 kip
tan  tan 28.5
Value reported by CSiBridge = 114.6 kip

 Evaluate longitudinal rebar on flexure tension side in accordance with eq.


5.8.3.5-1

 VU  Vu  
  VP  0.5  min  VS ,  
 S S 
  E p  Aps  
MU NU 1
ASLreq   0.5  
 dv   f P tan   fy
 319 
 3678  12  0  0.5  114.9  1
0 0.9
   0.5    28500  6.73    3176.3 in 2
 72.74  0.9 1.0 tan 28.5  60
Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.00 in  no additional longitudinal re-
2

bar required in beam bottom flange

7.3 Design of Flexure


The following parameters are used in the design of flexure:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The
nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain fac-
tored resistance

7.3.1 Variables
 Resistance factor for flexure

Mn Nominal flexural resistance

Mr Factored flexural resistance

t slabeq Thickness of composite slab

7 - 14 Design of Flexure
Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab tributary area,


measured from out to out

bwebeq Thickness of beam web

Aslab Tributary area of slab

a Depth of equivalent stress block in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2.

APT Area of PT in tension zone

yPT Distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons

f pu Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted aver-


age of all tendons in tensile zone)

f py Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average if


all tendons in tensile zone)

f ps Average stress in prestressing steel (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

k PT material constant (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

1 Stress block factor as specified in Section 5.7.2.2

7.3.2 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate
stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between
concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular
concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 fc over a zone bounded by the edges
of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the
distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is meas-
ured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for con-
crete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,
β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,
except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

Design of Flexure 7 - 15
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with paragraph 5.7.3.2. The


resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate ca-
pacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based
only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement
is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,
the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-
tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu
(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the
flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported
in section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange (slab)
in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

7.3.3 Algorithms
At each section:

 All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.

 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-


tion fc

f c  28
If f c > 28 MPa, then 1  max(0.85  0.05;0.65)
7

else 1  0.85

 The tendon location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are
processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-
ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
it is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

7 - 16 Design of Flexure
Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

- sum of tendon areas APT

- center of gravity of tendons yPT

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

 f py 
k  2  1.04  
 f pu 

 Positive moment resistance – first it is assumed that the equivalent compres-


sion stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis
and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

APT f pu
c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bslab  kAPT
y pt

The distance c is compared to the slab thickness. If the distance to the neutral
axis c is larger than the composite slab thickness, the distance c is re-
evaluated. For this calculation, the beam flange width and area are converted
to their equivalents in slab concrete by multiplying the beam flange width by
the modular ratio between the precast girder concrete and the slab concrete.
The web width in the equation for c is substituted for the effective converted
girder flange width. The distance c is recalculated in accordance with (eq.
5.7.3.1.1-3).

APT f pu  0.85 f c (bslab  bwebeq )tslabeq


c
f pu
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
y pt

Design of Flexure 7 - 17
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If the calculated value of c exceeds the sum of the deck thickness and the
equivalent precast girder flange thickness, the program assumes the neutral
axis is below the flange of the precast girder and recalculates c. The term
0.85 f c  b  bw  in the calculation is broken into two terms, one refers to the
contribution of the deck to the composite section flange and the second refers
to the contribution of the precast girder flange to the composite girder flange.

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with


5.7.3.1.1-1

 c 
f ps  f pu  1  k
 y pt 

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2-1

If the section is a T-section, then

 c   c tslabeq 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1   0.85 f c  bslab  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 

else

 c 
M n  APT f ps  yPT  1 
 2 

 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by  .

M r  M n

 Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous, except that
calculation of positive moment resistance is not applicable.

7.3.4 Flexure Capacity Design Example


Girder spacing: 9’-8”

7 - 18 Design of Flexure
Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Girder type: AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72 inches deep, 42-inch-wide top


flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)

Concrete deck: 8 inches thick, haunch thickness assumed = 0

Materials

Concrete strength
Prestressed girders 28-day strength, fc = 6 ksi,
Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,696 ksi
Deck slab = 4.0 ksi,
Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi
Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi
Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270
Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in2
Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi
Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi
Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Basic beam section properties

Depth = 72 in.
Thickness of web = 8 in.
Area, Ag = 1,085 in2
Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in4
N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.
N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.
P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 2007 paragraph 4.6.2.6, the effec-


tive flange width of the concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width.

For the interior beam, the bslab  9'8"  116 in .

Design of Flexure 7 - 19
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 7-3 Flexure capacity design example deck section

Figure 7-4 Flexure capacity design example beam section

7 - 20 Design of Flexure
Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they re-
sistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment
when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and is con-
sidered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom fi-
ber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a
zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located par-
allel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fi-
ber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

 For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

– sum of tendon areas


APTBottom  44  0.153  6.732 in 2
2
Value reported by CSiBridge = 6.732 in

– distance from center of gravity of tendons to extreme compression fiber


12  2  12  4  10  6  6  8  4  10
yPTBottom  (72  8)   75 in
12  12  10  6  4

– specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu  270 kip


Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

– constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)


 f py   243 
k  2  1.04    2  1.04    0.28
 f pu   270 
Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.28


1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on the
composite slab f c

1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strength not exceeding 4.0 ksi. If f c
> 4 ksi, then 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of
strength in excess of 4.0 ksi. Since fc = 4 ksi, 1 = 0.85
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.85 (not reported)

 The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with 5.7.3.1.1-4

Design of Flexure 7 - 21
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

APTBottom  f pu
c
f pu
0.85  f ' c  1  bslab  k  APTBottom 
yPTBottom
6.732 * 270
  5.314 in
270
0.85  4  0.85  116  0.28  6.732 
75
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 5.314 in

 The distance c is compared to the composite slab thickness to determine if


the c needs to be re-evaluated to include the precast beam flange in the
equivalent compression block.

Since c = 5.314 in < 8 in, the c is valid

 Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with


5.7.3.1.1-1

 c   5.314 
f ps  f pu  1  k   270   1  0.28    264.64 ksi
 yPTBottom   75 
Value reported by CSiBridge = 264.643 ksi

 Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with 5.7.3.2.2-1

Since the section is rectangular,

 c   5.314  0.85 
M n  APTBottom f ps  yPTBottom  1   6.732  264.64   75  
 2   2 
 129 593.17 / 12  10 799.4 kip-ft
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 107 99 kip-ft (not reported)

 Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by  .

M r   M n  0.9  10 799.4  9 719.5 kip-ft


Value reported by CSiBridge = 9719.5 kip-ft (116633.5 kip-in)

7 - 22 Design of Flexure
Chapter 8
Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

This chapter describes the algorithms CSiBridge applies when designing steel
I-beam with composite slab superstructures in accordance with the AASHTO
LRFD 2008 Edition, Section 6 or Appendix A.

8.1 Section Properties

8.1.1 Yield Moments

8.1.1.1 Composite Section in Positive Flexure


The positive yield moment, My, is determined by the program in accordance
with section D6.2.2 of the code using the following user-defined input, which
is part of the Design Request (see Chapter 4 for more information about Design
Request).

Mdnc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that
represents the moment caused by the factored permanent load applied
before the concrete deck has hardened or is made composite.

Mdc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that
represents the moment caused by the remainder of the factored perma-
nent load (applied to the composite section).

Section Properties 8- 1
CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

The program solves for MAD from the following equation,


M dnc M dc M AD
Fyt    (D6.2.2-1)
SNC SLT SST

and then calculates yield moment based on the following equation


M y  M dnc  M dc  M AD (D6.2.2-2)

where
3
SNC = Noncomposite section modulus (in. )
3
SLT = Long-term composite section modulus (in. )
3
SST = Short-term composite section modulus (in. )

My is taken as the lesser value calculated for the compression flange, Myc, or the
tension flange, Myt. The positive My is calculated only once based on Mdnc and
Mdc demands specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted
that the My calculated in the procedure described here is used by the program
only to determine Mnpos for compact sections in positive bending in a continuous
span, where the nominal flexural resistance may be controlled by My in accor-
dance with (eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3).

M n  1.3Rh M y

8.1.1.2 Composite Section in Negative Flexure


For composite sections in negative flexure, the procedure described for positive
yield moment is followed, except that the composite section for both short-term
and long-term moments consists of the steel section and the longitudinal rein-
forcement within the tributary width of the concrete deck. Thus, SST and SLT are
the same value. Also, Myt is taken with respect to either the tension flange or
the longitudinal reinforcement, whichever yields first.

The negative My is calculated only once based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands
specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted that the My cal-
culated in the procedure described here is used by the program solely to deter-
mine the limiting slenderness ratio for a compact web corresponding to 2Dcp / tw
in (eq. A6.2.1-2).

8-2 Section Properties


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

E
Fyc  Dcp 
 pw Dcp    rw 
2  (A6.2.1-2)
 Mp   Dc 
 0.54  0.09 
 Rh M y 

and web plastification factors in (eqs. A.6.2.2-4 and A6.2.2-5).

  Rh M yc   w   pw Dc   M p Mp
R pc  1   1      (A.6.2.2-4)
  M yc M yc
  Mp   rw   pw Dc  

  Rh M yt   w   pw Dc   M p M p
R pt  1   1      (A6.2.2-5)
  M yt M yt
  Mp   rw   pw Dc  

8.1.2 Plastic Moments

8.1.2.1 Composite Section in Positive Flexure


The positive plastic moment, Mp, is calculated as the moment of the plastic
forces about the plastic neutral axis. Plastic forces in the steel portions of a
cross-section are calculated using the yield strengths of the flanges, the web,
and reinforcing steel, as appropriate. Plastic forces in the concrete portions of
the cross-section that are in compression are based on a rectangular stress block
with the magnitude of the compressive stress equal to 0.85 fc. Concrete in ten-
sion is neglected. The position of the plastic neutral axis is determined by the
equilibrium condition, where there is no net axial force.

The plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is determined by:

• Calculating the element forces and using them to determine if the plastic neu-
tral axis is in the web, top flange, or concrete deck;

• Calculating the location of the plastic neutral axis within the element deter-
mined in the first step;

and

• Calculating Mp.

Section Properties 8-3


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

Equations for the various potential locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA)
are given in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Positive Flexure
Case PNA Condition Y and Mp
 D   P  Pc  Ps  Prt  Prb 
Y    t  1
 2  Pw 
I In Web Pt + Pw  Pc + Ps + Prb + Pn
Pw  2  
Y  D  Y     Ps ds  Prt drt  Prb d rb  Pc dc  Pt dt 
2
Mp 
2D

t   Pw  Pt  Ps  Prt  Prb 
Y  c   1
In Top 2  Pc 
II Pt + Pw + Pc  Ps + Prb + Pn
Flange
Y   tc  Y     Ps ds  Pn dn  Prb d rb  Pw dw  Pt dt 
Pc  2 2

Mp 
2t c 

 P  Pw  Pt  Prt  Prb 
Concrete Y   ts   c 
Deck c   Ps 
III Pt + Pw + Pc   rb  Ps + Prb + Pn
Below  t2   Y Ps 
2

Prb Mp      Prt drt  Prb d rb  Pc dc  Pw dw  Pt dt 


 2t s 

Y  crb
Concrete c 
IV Deck at Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb   rb  Ps + Pn  Y 2 Ps 
Prb  ts  Mp      Prt drt  Pc dc  Pw dw  Pt dt 
 2t s 

Concrete  P  Pc  Pw  Pt  Prt 
Deck Y   t s   rb 
Above c   Ps 
V Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb   rt  Ps + Pn
Prb and  ts   Y 2 Ps 
Below Mp      Prt drt  Prb drb  Pc dc  Pw dw  Pt dt 
Prt  2t s 

Y  crt
Concrete c 
VI Deck at Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Pn   rt  Ps  Y 2 Ps 
Prt  ts  Mp      Prb drb  Pc dc  Pw dw  Pt dt 
 2t s 

P  Pc  Pw  Pt  Prt 
Concrete Y   t s   rb 
Deck c   Ps 
VII Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Prt <  rt  Ps
Above  ts   Y 2 Ps 
Prt Mp      Prt drt  Prb drb  Pc dc  Pw dw  Pt dt 
 2t s 

8-4 Section Properties


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

bs Arb Crt
Art
Prt
ts Ps Crb Y
Prb PNA
PNA
bc Pc
tc Y Y
Pw PNA
D tw
tt Pt
CASE I CASE II CASES III-VII
bt

Next the section is checked for ductility requirement in accordance with (eq.
6.10.7.3)
Dp  0.42Dt
where,

Dp is the distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the
composite section at the plastic moment.

Dt is the total depth of the composite section.

At the section where the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the plastic mo-
ment of a composite section in positive flexure is set to zero.

8.1.2.2 Composite Section in Negative Flexure


The plastic moment of a composite section in negative flexure is calculated by
an analogous procedure. Equations for the two cases most likely to occur in
practice are given in Table 8-2. The plastic moment of a noncomposite section
is calculated by eliminating the terms pertaining to the concrete deck and longi-
tudinal reinforcement from the equations in Tables 8-1 and 8-2 for composite
sections, in which

Prt = Fyrt Art


Ps = 0.85 fc bsts
Prb = Fyrb Arb
Pc = Fycbctc

Section Properties 8-5


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

Pw = Fyw Dtw
Pt = Fyt bttt

Table 8-2 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Negative Flexure

Case PNA Condition Y and Mp

 D   P  Pt  Prt  Prb 
Y    c  1
 2  Pw 
I In Web Pc + Pw  Pt + Prb + Pn
Pw  2  
Y  D  Y     Pn dn  Prb drb  Pt dt  Pd
l l
2
Mp 
2D

 t   P  Pc  Prt  Prb 
Y   l  w  1
In Top  
2 Pt 
II Pc + Pw + Pt  Prb + Pn
Flange
Y   tl  Y     Pn dn  Prb drb  Pw dw  Pc dc 
Pt  2 2
Mp 
2tl 

Art Arb
Prt
ts Prb
Pt PNA
bc Y
tt Y
Pw PNA
D tw

tc Pc
bc CASE I CASE II
CASE V

In the equations for Mp given in Tables 8-1 and 8-2, d is the distance from an
element force to the plastic neutral axis. Element forces act at (a) mid-thickness
for the flanges and the concrete deck, (b) mid-depth of the web, and (c) center
of reinforcement. All element forces, dimensions, and distances are taken as
positive. The condition are checked in the order listed in Tables 8-1 and 8-2.

8-6 Section Properties


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

8.1.3 Section Classification and Factors

8.1.3.1 Compact or Non-Compact - Positive Flexure


The program determines if the section can be qualified as compact based on the
following criteria:

• the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

• the web satisfies the requirement of Article (6.10.2.1.1),

D
 150
tw

• the section satisfies the web slenderness limit,

2 Dcp E
 3.76 . (6.10.6.2.2-1)
tw Fyc

The program does not verify if the composite sections is kinked (chorded) con-
tinuously or horizontally curved.

8.1.3.2 Design in Accordance with Appendix A


The program determines if a section qualifies to be designed using Appendix A
of AASHTO LRFD 2008 Edition based on the following criteria:

• the Design Request Parameter “Use Appendix A?” is set to Yes (see Chapter
4 for more information about setting parameters in the Design Request),

• the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

• the web satisfies the noncompact slenderness limit,

2 Dc E
 5.7 (6.10.6.2.3-1)
tw Fyc

• the flanges satisfy the following ratio,

Section Properties 8-7


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

I yc
 0.3. (6.10.6.2.3-2)
I yt

The program does not verify if the composite sections in kinked (chorded) con-
tinuously or horizontally curved.

8.1.3.3 Hybrid Factor Rh – Positive Flexure


For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a
higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Other-
wise the hybrid factor is taken as:

12    3   3 
Rh  (6.10.1.10.1-1)
12  2 

where

2 Dn t w
 (6.10.1.10.1-2)
A fn

  the smaller of Fyw fn and 1.0

Afn = bottom flange area.

Dn = the larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the cross-
section to the inside face of either flange. For sections where the neu-
tral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, Dn is the distance from the
neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on the side of the neutral
axis where yielding occurs first.

Fn = fy of the bottom flange.

8.1.3.4 Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb – Positive Flexure


For composite sections in positive flexure, the Rb factor is taken as equal to 1.0.

8.1.3.5 Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb – Negative Flexure


For composite sections in negative flexure, the Rb factor is taken as:

8-8 Section Properties


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

 awc  2 Dc 
Rb  1     rw   1.0 (6.10.1.10.2)
 1200  300 awc   t w 

where

E
rw  5.7 (6.10.1.10.2-4)
Fyc

2 Dc t w
awc  (6.10.1.10.2-5)
b fc t fc

When the user specifies the design request parameter “Do webs have longitu-
dinal stiffeners?” as yes, the Rb factor is set to 1.0 (see Chapter 4 for more in-
formation about specifying Design Request parameters).

8.2 Demand Sets


Demand Set combos (at least one required) are user-defined combination based
on LRFD combinations (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying
Demand Sets). The demands from all specified demand combos are enveloped
and used to calculate D/C ratios. The way the demands are used depends on if
the parameter "Use Stage Analysis?” is set to Yes or No. If “Yes,” the program
reads the stresses on beams and slabs directly from the section cut results. The
program assumes that the effects of the staging of loads applied to non-
composite versus composite section and the concrete slab material time de-
pendent properties were captured by using the nonlinear stage analysis load
case available in CSiBridge.

If “No,” the program decomposes load cases present in every demand set
combo to three Bridge Design Action categories: non-composite, composite
long term, and composite short term. The program uses the load case Bridge
Design Action parameter to assign the load cases to the appropriate categories.
A default Bridge Design Action parameter is assigned to a load case based on
its Design Type. However, the parameter can be overwritten: click the Analy-
sis > Load Cases > {Type} > New command to display the Load Case Data –
{Type} form; click the Design button next to the Load case type drop down
list.

Demand Sets 8-9


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

8.2.1 Demand Flange Stresses fbu and ff


Evaluation of the flange stress, fbu, calculated without consideration of flange
lateral bending is dependent on setting the “Use Stage Analysis?” design re-
quest parameter.

If the “Use Stage Analysis? = No,” then

P M NC M LTC M STC
fbu    
Acomp Ssteel SLTC SSTC

where,

MNC is the demand moment on the noncomposite section.

MLTC is the demand moment on the long-term composite section.

MSTC is the demand moment on the short-term composite section.

The short term section modulus for positive moment is calculated by trans-
forming the concrete deck using steel to concrete modular ratio. The long term
section modulus for positive moment is using a modular ratio factored by n,
where n is specified in the “Modular ratio long term multiplier” Design Pa-
rameter. The effect of compression reinforcement is ignored. For negative
moment, the concrete deck is assumed cracked and is not included in the sec-
tion modulus calculations, whereas tension reinforcement is taken into account.

If “Use Stage Analysis? = Yes,” then the fbu stresses on each flange are read di-
rectly from the section cut results. The program assumes that the effects of the
staging of the loads applied to non-composite versus composite sectiond and
the concrete slab material time dependent properties were captured by using the
nonlinear stage analysis load case available in CSiBridge.

The program verifies the sign of the stress in the composite slab, and if stress is
positive (tension), the program assumes that the entire section cut demand
moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to reflect the fact that the
concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not contribute to the resis-
tance of the section.

Flange stress ff used in the Service design check is evaluated in the same man-
ner as the stress fbu, with one exception. When the Design Parameter “Does

8 - 10 Demand Sets
Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

concrete slab resist tension?” in the Steel Service Design request is set to
“Yes,” the program uses section properties based on a transformed section as-
suming the concrete slab to be fully effective in both tension and compression.

8.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending Stress fl


The flange lateral bending stress fl is evaluated only when all of the following
conditions are met:

 “Steel Girders” has been selected for the deck section type (Components >
Superstructure Item > Deck Sections command) and the Girder Modeling
In Area Object Models – Model Girders Using Area Objects option is set to
“Yes” on the Define Bridge Section Data – Steel Girder form.

 The bridge object is modeled using Area Objects. This option can be set us-
ing the Bridge > Update command to display the “Update Bridge Structural
Model“ form; then select the Update as Area Object Model option.

 Set the Live Load Distribution to Girders method to “Use Directly Forces
from CSiBridge” on the Bridge Design Request – Superstructure – {Code}
form, which displays when the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design >
Design Requests command is used (see Chapter 3 for more information
about Live Load Distribution).

In all other cases, the flange lateral bending stress is set to zero. The fl stresses
on each flange are read directly from the section cut results.

8.2.3 Depth of the Web in Compression


For composite sections in positive flexure, the depth of web in compression is
computed using the following equation:

  fc 
Dc    d  t fc  0 (D6.3.1-1)
 fc  f t 

Demand Sets 8 - 11
CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

where,

fc = sum of the compression-flange stresses caused by the different loads, i.e.,


DC1, the permanent load acting on the noncomposite section; DC2, the
permanent load acting on the long-term composite section; DW, the wear-
ing surface load; and LL+IM acting on their respective sections. fc is
taken as negative when the stress is in compression. Flange lateral bend-
ing is disregarded in this calculation.

ft = the sum of the tension-flange stresses caused by the different loads.


Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.

For composite sections in negative flexure, DC is computed for the section con-
sisting of the steel girder plus the longitudinal reinforcement, with the excep-
tion of the following. For composite sections in negative flexure at the Service
Design Check Request where the concrete deck is considered effective in ten-
sion for computing flexural stresses on the composite section (Design Parame-
ter “Does concrete slab resist tension?” = Yes), DC is computed from (eq. D
6.3.1-1). For this case, the stresses fc and ft are switched, the signs shown in the
stress diagram are reversed, tfc is the thickness of the bottom flange, and DC in-
stead extends from the neutral axis down to the top of the bottom flange.

8.3 Strength Design Request


The strength design check calculates at every section cut positive flexural ca-
pacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. It then compares the ca-
pacities against the envelope of demands specified in the design request.

8 - 12 Strength Design Request


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

8.3.1 Flexure

8.3.1.1 Positive Flexure – Compact


The nominal flexural resistance of the section is evaluated as follows:

If Dp  0.1 Dt, then Mn = Mp, otherwise

 Dp 
M n  M p  1.07  0.7  (6.10.7.1.2-2)
 Dt 

In a continuous span the nominal flexural resistance of the section is deter-


mined as

Mn  1.3RhMy

where Rh is a hybrid factor for the section in positive flexure.

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

 1 
 Mu  3 ft S xt f 
DoverC  max  , l 
  f Mn 0.6 Fyf
 

8.3.1.2 Positive Flexure – Non-Compact


Nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flange is taken as:

Fnc = RbRhFyc (6.10.7.2.2-1)

Nominal flexural resistance of the bottom tension flange is taken as:

Fnt = RhFyt (6.10.7.2.2-1)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

 1 
 fbu  3 ft fbu f 
DoverC  max  , , l 
  f Fnt  f Fnc 0.6 Fyf
 

Strength Design Request 8 - 13


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

8.3.1.3 Negative Flexure in Accordance with Article 6.10.8


The local buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(FLB) as specified in
Article 6.10.8.2.2 is taken as:

If f   pf, then Fnc = RbRhFyc. (6.10.8.2.2-1)

Otherwise

  Fyr   f   pf  
Fnc  1   1     Rb Rh Fyc (6.10.8.2.2-2)
  Rh Fyc  rf   pf  

in which

b fc
f  (6.10.8.2.2-3)
2t fc

E
 pf  0.38 (6.10.8.2.2-4)
Fyc

E
rf  0.56 (6.10.8.2.2-5)
Fyr

Fyr = compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding


within the cross-section, including residual stress effects, but
not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the
smaller of 0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5 Fyc

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(LTB) as


specified in Article (6.10.8.2.3) is taken as follows:

If Lb  Lp, then Fnc = RbRhFyc. (6.10.8.2.3-1)

If Lp < Lb  Lr, then

  Fyr  Lb  L p  
Fnc  Cb 1   1     Rb Rh Fyc  Rb Rh Fyc . (6.10.8.2.3-2)
  Rh Fyc  Lr  L p  

If Lb > Lr, then Fnc = Fcr  RbRhFyc. (6.10.8.2.3-3)

8 - 14 Strength Design Request


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

in which

E E
Lb  unbraced length, L p  1.0rt , Lr   rt
Fyc Fyr

Cb = 1 (moment gradient modifier)

Cb Rb 2 E
Fcr  2
(6.10.8.2.3-8)
 Lb 
r 
 t 

b fc
rt  (6.10.8.2.3-9)
 1 Dc t w 
12  1  
 3 b fc t fc 

The nominal flexural resistance of the bottom compression flange is taken as


the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling
resistance:

Fnc  min  Fnc FLB , Fnc LTB 

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:

 f Rh Fyf . (6.10.8.1.3-1)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

 1 
 fbu  3 fd fbu f 
DoverC  max  , , t  .
  f Fm  f Rh Fyf 0.6 Fyc
 

8.3.1.4 Negative Flexure in Accordance with Appendix A6


Sections that satisfy the following requirement qualify as compact web sec-
tions:

2 Dcp
  pw Dcp  (A6.2.1-2)
tw

Strength Design Request 8 - 15


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

where,

E
Fyc  Dcp 
 pw Dcp   2
   (A6.2.1-2)
 Mp   Dc 
 0.54  0.09 
 Rh M y 

E
rw  5.7 (A6.2.1-3)
Fyc

Dc = depth of the web in compression in the elastic range

Dcp = depth of the web in compression at the plastic moment

Then web plastification factors are determined as

Mp
R pc  (A6.2.1-4)
M yc

Mp
R pt  (A6.2.1-5)
M yt

Sections that do not satisfy the requirement for compact web sections, but for
which the web slenderness satisfies the following requirement:

w  rw (A6.2.2-1)

where

2 Dc
w  (A6.2.2-2)
tw

E
rw  5.7 (A6.2.2-3)
Fyc

The web plastification factors are taken as:

8 - 16 Strength Design Request


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

  Rh M yc   w   pw Dc   M p Mp
R pc  1   1      (A6.2.2-4)
  M yc M yc
  Mp   tw   pw Dc  

  Rh M yt   w   pw Dc   M p M p
R pt  1   1      (A6.2.2-5)

 
Mp   rw   pw Dc    M yt M yt

where

 Dc 
 pw Dc    pw Dc p     rw (A6.2.2-6)
 Dcp 

The local buckling resistance of the compression flange MncFLB as specified in


Article A6.3.2 is taken as:

 If  f   pf , then M nc  R pc M yc (A6.3.2-1)

  Fyr S xc   f   pf  
Otherwise M nc  1   1     R pc M yc (A6.3.2-2)
  R pc M yc  rf   pf  

in which

b fc
f  (A6.3.2-3)
2t fc

E
 pf  0.38 (A6.3.2-4)
Fyc

Ekc
rf  0.95 (A6.3.2-5)
Fyr

4
For built-up sections, kc  (A6.3.2-6)
D
tw

For rolled shapes (eFramePropType =SECTION_I as defined in API function


SapObject.SapModel.PropFrame.GetNameList; PropType argument)

Strength Design Request 8 - 17


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

kc = 0.76

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange MncLTB as


specified in Article A6.3.3 is taken as:

 If Lb  L p , then M nc  R pc M yc . (A6.3.3-1)

 If L p  Lb  Lr , then

  Fyr S xc  Lb  L p 
M nc  Cb 1   1     R pc M yc  R pc M yc . (A6.3.3-2)
  R pc M yc  Lr  L p  

 If Lb  Lr , then M nc  Fcr S xc  R pc M yc (A6.3.3-3)

in which

Lb  unbraced length,

E
L p  1.0rt (A6.3.3-4)
Fyc

2
E J  Fyr S xc h 
Lr  1.95rt 1  1  6.76   (A6.3.3-5)
Fyr S xc h  E J 

Cb  1 moment gradient modifier.

C b 2 E J
 Lb rt 
2
Fcr  1  0.078 (A6.3.3-8)
 Lb rt 
2
S xc h

3
Dt w3 b fc t ft  t fc  b ft t 3ft  t ft 
J   1  0.63   1  0.63  (A6.3.3-9)
3 3  b fc  3  b ft 

b fc
rt  (A6.3.3-10)
 1 Dc t w 
12  1  
 3 b fc t fc 

8 - 18 Strength Design Request


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

The nominal flexural resistance of the bottom compression flange is taken as


the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling
resistance:

M nc  min  M nc FLB , M nc LTB 

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:

 f R pt M yt

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

 1 
 Mu  3 ft S xc Mu f 
DoverC  max  , , t 
  f M nc  f R pt M yt 0.6 Fyc
 

8.3.2 Shear
When processing the design request from the Design module, the program as-
sumes that no vertical stiffeners are present and classifies all web panels as un-
stiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is not suf-
ficient to resist the demand specified in the design request, the program rec-
ommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a Demand over Capacity ratio
equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table
under the column heading d0req.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Opti-


mize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and the program recal-
culates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels
as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified in
section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled
in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not affect
the magnitude of the demands.

8.3.2.1 Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs


The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:

Vn  CVp (6.10.9.2-1)

Strength Design Request 8 - 19


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

in which

Vp  0.58Fyw Dt w (6.10.9.2-2)

C = the ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength


that is determined as follows:

D Ek
If  1.12 , then C = 1.0. (6.10.9.3.2-4)
tw Fyw

Ek D Ek 1.12 Ek
If 1.12   1.40 , then C  . (6.10.9.3.2-5)
Fyw t w Fyw D Fyw
tw

D Ek 1.57  Ek 
If  1.40 , then C  2  , (6.10.9.3.2-6)
tw Fyw  D   Fyw 
t 
 w

5
in which k  5  2
. (6.10.9.3.2-7)
 dc 
 
D

8.3.2.2 Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Interior Web Panels


The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at
the section cut proportioned such that
2 Dt w
 2.5 (6.10.9.3.2-1)
 b fc t fc  b ft t ft 
is taken as

 0.87 1  C  
Vn  Vp C 
2 
(6.10.9.3.2-2)
  do  
 1   
 D 

in which Vp  0.58Fyw Dt w (6.10.9.3.2-3)

8 - 20 Strength Design Request


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

where
do = transverse stiffener spacing.
Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

 0.87 1  C  
Vn  Vp C   (6.10.9.3.2-8)
  2 
  do  do 
  1     
   D  D 

8.3.2.3 Nominal Resistance of End Panels


The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:

Vn  Vcr  CVp (6.10.9.3.3-1)

in which

Vp  0.58Fyw Dt w . (6.10.9.3.3-2)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

Vu
DoverC  .
vVn

8.4 Service Design Request


At every section cut, the Service design check calculates the stresses, ff, at the
top steel flange and the bottom steel flange of composite sections and compares
them against limits specified in section 6.10.4.2.2 of the code.

For the top steel flange of composite sections:

f f
DoverC  (6.10.4.2.2-1)
0.95Rh Fyf

For the bottom steel flange of composite sections:

Service Design Request 8 - 21


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

ft
ff 
DoverC  2 (6.10.4.2.2-2)
0.95Rh Fyf

For both steel flanges of noncomposite sections:

ft
ff 
DoverC  2 (6.10.4.2.2-3)
0.80 Rh Fxf

The flange stresses are derived in the same way as fbu stress demands (see sec-
tion 8.2.1, the demand flange, of this manual). The user has an option to spec-
ify whether the concrete slab resists tension or not by setting the “Does con-
crete slab resist tension?” design request parameter. It is the responsibility of
the user to verify if the slab qualifies, in accordance with section 6.10.4.2.1 of
the code, to resist tension.

For compact composite sections in positive flexure used in shored construction,


the longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete deck, determined as speci-
fied in Article 6.10.1.1.1d, is checked against 0.6 f c .

DoverC  fcheck 0.6 f c

Except for composite sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the
requirement of Article 6.10.2.1.1, all section cuts are checked against the fol-
lowing requirement:

fc
DoverC  (6.10.4.2.2-4)
Fcrw

where,

fc = compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due


to demand loads calculated without consideration of flange lateral
bending

Fcrw = nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs without longitudinal


stiffeners, determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.9

8 - 22 Service Design Request


Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

0.9 Ek
Fcrw  2
(6.10.1.9.1-1)
D
t 
 w

but not to exceed the smaller of RhFyc and Fyw/0.7. In which

k = bend buckling coefficient

9
k (6.10.1.9.1-2)
 Dc D
2

where

Dc = depth of the web in compression in the elastic range de-


termined as specified in Article D6.3.1 of the code.

When both edges of the web are in compression, k is taken as 7.2

The highest Demand Over Capacity ratio together with controlling equation is
reported for each section cut.

8.5 Web Fatigue Design Request


The Web Fatigue Design Request is used to calculate the Demand over Capac-
ity ratio as defined in Section 6.10.5.3 of the code – Special Fatigue Require-
ment for Webs. The requirement is applicable to interior panels of webs with
transverse stiffeners. When processing the design request from the Design
module, the program assumes that no vertical stiffeners are present and classi-
fies all web panels as unstiffened. Therefore when the design request is com-
pleted from the Design module, the Design Result Status table shows the mes-
sage text: “No stiffeners defined – use optimization form to define stiffeners.”

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Opti-


mize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and the program recal-
culates the Web Fatigue Request. In that case the program classifies the web
panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria
specified in section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are
not modeled in the Bridge Object, and therefore, adding/modifying stiffeners
does not affect the magnitude of the demands.

Web Fatigue Design Request 8 - 23


CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

DoverC=Vu / Vcr (6.10.5.3-1)

where,

Vu = shear in the web at the section under consideration due to demand speci-
fied in the Design Request demand set combos. If live load distribution
to girders method “Use Factor Specified by Design Code” is selected in
the design request the program adjusts for the multiple presence factor
to account for the fact that fatigue load occupies only one lane (code
section 3.6.1.4.3b) and multiple presence factors shall not be applied
when checking for the fatigue limit state (code section 3.6.1.1.2).

Vcr = shear-buckling resistance as determined from eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1 (see sec-


tion 8.3.2.3 Nominal Resistance of End Panels of this manual)

8.6 Section Optimization


After at least one Steel Design Request has been successfully processed, CSi-
Bridge enables the user to open a Steel Section Optimization module. The Op-
timization module allows interactive modification of steel plate sizes and defi-
nition of vertical stiffeners along each girder and span. It recalculates resistance
“on the fly” based on the modified section without the need to unlock the
model and rerun the analysis. It should be noted that in the optimization proc-
ess the demands are not recalculated and are based on the current CSiBridge
analysis results.

The Optimization form allows simultaneous display of three versions of section


sizes and associated resistance results. The section plate size versions are “As
Analyzed,” “As Designed,” and “Current.” The section plots use distinct colors
for each version – black for As Analyzed, blue for As Designed, and red for
Current. When the Optimization form is initially opened, all three versions are
identical and equal to “As Analyzed.”

Two graphs are available to display various forces, moments, stresses, and ra-
tios for the As Analyzed or As Designed versions. The values plotted can be
controlled by clicking the “Select Series to Plot” button. The As Analyzed se-
ries are plotted as solid lines and the As Designed series as dashed lines.

8 - 24 Section Optimization
Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

To modify steel plate sizes or vertical stiffeners, a new form can be displayed
by clicking on the Modify Section button. After the section modification is
completed, the Current version is shown in red in the elevation and cross sec-
tion views. After the resistance has been recalculated successfully by clicking
the Recalculate Resistance button, the Current version is designated to As De-
signed and displayed in blue.

After the section optimization has been completed, the As Designed plate sizes
and materials can be applied to the analysis bridge object by clicking the OK
button. The button opens a new form that can be used to Unlock the existing
model (in that case all analysis results will be deleted) or save the file under a
new name (New File button). Clicking the Exit button does not apply the new
plate sizes to the bridge object and keeps the model locked. The As Designed
version of the plate sizes will be available the next time the form is opened, and
the Current version is discarded.

Section Optimization 8 - 25
Chapter 9
Run a Bridge Design Request

This chapter identifies the steps involved in running a Bridge Design Request.
(Chapter 4 explains how to define the Request.) Running the Request applies
the following to the specified Bridge Object:

 Program defaults in accordance with the selected codethe Preferences

 Type of design to be performedthe check type (Section 4.2.1)

 Portion of the bridge to be designedthe station ranges (Section 4.1.3)

 Overwrites of the Preferencesthe design request parameters (Section 4.1.4)

 Load combinations the demand sets (Chapter 2)

 Live Load Distribution factors, where applicable (Chapter 3)

For this example, the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is applied to the model of a
concrete box-girder bridge shown in Figure 9-1.

It is assumed that the user is familiar with the steps that are necessary to create
a CSiBridge model of a concrete box girder bridge. If additional assistance is
needed to create the model, a 30-minute Watch and Learn video entitled,
”Bridge – Bridge Information Modeler” is available at the CSI website
www.csiberkeley.com. The tutorial video guides the user through the creation
of the bridge model referenced in this chapter.

Description of Example Model 9-1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 9-1 3D view of example concrete box girder bridge model

9.1 Description of Example Model


The example bridge is a two-span prestressed concrete box girder bridge with
the following features:

Abutments: The abutments are skewed by 15 degrees and connected to the


bottom of the box girder only.
2
Prestress: The concrete box girder bridge is prestressed with four 10-in
tendons (one in each girder) and a jacking force of 2160 kips per tendon.

Bents: The one interior bent has three 5-foot-square columns.

Deck: The concrete box girder has a nominal depth of 5 feet. The deck has
a parabolic variation in depth from 5 feet at the abutments to a maximum
of 10 feet at the interior bent support.

Spans: The two spans are each approximately 100 feet long.

Figure 9-2 Elevation view of example bridge

9-2 Description of Example Model


Chapter 9 - Run a Bridge Design Request

Figure 9-3 Plan view of the example bridge

9.2 Design Preferences


Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Preferences command to
select the AASHTO LRFD 2007 design code. The Bridge Design Preferences
form shown in Figure 9-4 displays.

Figure 9-4 Bridge Design Preferences form

9.3 Load Combinations


For this example, the default design load combinations were activated using the
Design/Rating > Load Combinations > Add Defaults command. After the
Bridge Design option has been selected, the Code-Generated Load Combina-

Design Preferences 9-3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

tions for Bridge Design form shown in Figure 9-5 displays. The form is used to
specify the desired limit states. Only the Strength II limit state was selected for
this example. Normally, several limit states would be selected.

Figure 9-5 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form

The defined load combination for this example are shown in Figure 9-6.

Figure 9-6 Define Load Combinations form

9-4 Load Combinations


Chapter 9 - Run a Bridge Design Request

The Str-II1, Str-II2 and StrIIGroup1 designations for the load combinations are
specified by the program and indicate that the limit state for the combinations
is Strength Level II.

9.4 Bridge Design Request


After the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Request com-
mand has been used, the Bridge Design Request form shown in Figure 9-7 dis-
plays.

Figure 9- 7 Define Load Combinations form

The name given to this example design request is FLEX_1, the Check Type is
for Concrete Box Flexure and the Demand Set, DSet1, specifies the combina-
tion as StrII (Strength Level II).

Bridge Design Request 9-5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The only Design Request Parameter option for a Concrete Box Flexural check
type is for PhiC. A value of 0.9 for PhiC is used.

9.5 Start Design/Check of the Bridge


After an analysis has been run, the bridge model is ready for a design/check.
Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Run Super command to
start the design process. Select the design to be run using the Perform Bridge
Design form shown in Figure 9-8:

Figure 9-8 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure

The user may select the desired Design Request(s) and click on the Design
Now button. A plot of the bridge model, similar to that shown in Figure 7-9,
will display.

If several design requests


have been run, the indi-
vidual Design Requests can
be selected from the Design
Check options drop-down
list. This plot is described
further in Chapter 8.

Figure 9-9 Plot of flexure


check results

9-6 Start Design/Check of the Bridge


Chapter 10
Display Bridge Design Results

Bridge design results can be displayed on screen and as printed output. The
on-screen display can depict the bridge response graphically as a plot or in data
tables. The Advanced Report Writer can be used to create the printed output,
which can include the graphical display as well as the database tables.

10.1 Display Results as a Plot


To view the forces, stresses, and design results graphically, click the Home >
Display > Show Bridge Superstructure Design Results command, which
will display the Bridge Object Response Display form shown in Figure 10-1.

The plot shows the design results for the FLEX_1 design request created using
the process described in the preceding chapters. The demand moments are en-
veloped and shown in the blue region, and the negative capacity moments are
shown with a brown line. If the demand moments do not exceed the capacity
moments, the superstructure may be deemed adequate in response to the flex-
ure design request. Move the mouse pointer onto the demand or capacity plot
to view the values for each nodal point. Move the pointer to the capacity mo-
ment at station 1200 and 536981.722 kip-in is shown. A verification calcula-
tion that shows agreement with this CSiBridge result is provided in Section
10.4.

Display Results as a Plot 10 - 1


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 10-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge design model

10.1.1 Additional Display Examples


Use the Home > Display > Show Bridge Forces/Stresses command to select,
on the example form shown in Figure 10-2, the location along the top or bot-
tom portions of a beam or slab for which stresses are to be displayed. Figures
10-3 through 10-9 illustrate the left, middle, and right portions as they apply to
Multicell Concrete Box Sections. Location 1, as an example, refers to the top
left selection option while location 5 would refer to the bottom center selection
option. Locations 1, 2, and 3 refer to the top left, top center, and top right se-
lection option while locations 4, 5, and 6 refer to the bottom left, bottom center,
and bottom right selection options.

10 - 2 Display Results as a Plot


Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 10-2 Select the location on the beam or slab for which results are to be displayed

1 2 3 1 2 3

Top slab cut line

Bottom slab cut line 4

5 6 4 5 6
Centerline of the web Centerline of the web

Figure 10-3 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Vertical

Display Results as a Plot 10- 3


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1 2 3 1 2 3

Top slab cut

Bottom slab cut line 4

5 6 4 5 6
Centerline of the web
Centerline of the web

Figure 10-4 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped

1 2 3 1 2 3

Top slab cut

Bottom slab cut line 4

5 6 4 5 6

Centerline of the web Centerline of the web

Figure 10-5 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Clipped

10 - 4 Display Results as a Plot


Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

1 2 3 1 2 3

Top slab cut

4
Bottom slab cut line

5 6 4 5 6

Centerline of the web Centerline of the web

Figure 10-6 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders and Radius

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Top slab cut line

Bottom slab cut line


4, 5
6 4
5 6 4 5 6
Centerline of the web Centerline of the web
Centerline of the web

Figure 10-7 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped Max

Display Results as a Plot 10- 5


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1 2 3 1 2 3

Top slab cut line

4
Bottom slab cut line

5 6 4 5 6

Centerline of the web Centerline of the web

Figure 10-8 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - Advanced

1 2 3

Top slab cut line

4
Bottom slab cut line

5 6

Centerline of the web

Figure 10-9 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - AASHTO - PCI - ASBI Standard

10 - 6 Display Results as a Plot


Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

10.2 Display Data Tables


To view design results on screen in tables, click the Home > Display > Show
Tables command, which will display the Choose Tables for Display form
shown in Figure 10-10. Use the options on that form to select which data re-
sults are to be viewed. Multiple selection may be made. When all selections
have been made, click the OK button and a database table similar to that
shown in Figure 10-11 will display. Note the drop-down list in the upper right-
hand corner of the table. That drop-down list will include the various data ta-
bles that match the selections made on the Choose Tables for Display form. Se-
lect from that list to change to a different database table.

Figure 10-10 Choose Tables for Display form

Display Data Tables 10- 7


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 10-11 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007 flexure check

The scroll bar along the bottom of the form can be used to scroll to the right to
view additional data columns.

10.3 Advanced Report Writer


The Orb > Report > Create Report command is a single button click output
option but it may not be suitable for bridge structures because of the size of the
document that is generated. Instead, the Advanced Report Writer feature within
CSiBridge is a simply and easy way to produce a custom output report.

To create a custom report that includes input and output, first export the files
using one of the Orb > Export commands: Access; Excel; or Text. When this
command is executed, a form similar to that shown in Figure 10-12 displays.

10 - 8 Advanced Report Writer


Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 10-12 Choose Tables for Export to Access form

This important step allows control over the size of the report to be generated.
Export only those tables to be included in the final report. However, it is possi-
ble to export larger quantities of data and then use the Advanced Report Writer
to select only specific data sets for individual reports, thus creating multiple
smaller reports. For this example, only the Bridge Data (input) and Concrete
Box Flexure design (output) are exported.

After the data tables have been exported and saved to an appropriate location,
click the Orb > Report > Advanced Report Writer command to display a
form similar to that show in Figure 10-13. Click the appropriate button (e.g.,
Find existing DB File, Convert Excel File, Convert Text File) and locate the
exported data tables. The tables within that Database, Excel, or Text file will be
listed in the List of Tables in Current Database File display box.

Advanced Report Writer 10- 9


CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 10-13 Create Custom Report form

Select the tables to be included in the report from that display box. The se-
lected items will then display in the Items Included in Report display box. Use
the various options on the form to control the order in which the selected tables
appear in the report as well as the headers (i.e., Section names), page breaks,
pictures, and blanks required for final output in .rft, .txt, or .html format.

After the tables have been selected and the headers, pictures, and other format-
ting items have been addressed, click the Create Report button to generate the
report. The program will request a filename and the path to be used to store the
report. Figure 10-14 shows an example of the printed output generated by the
Report Writer.

10 - 10 Advanced Report Writer


Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

Values used in the


verification calculations.

Figure 10-14 An example of the printed output

10.4 Verification
As a verification check of the design results, the output at station 1200 is exam-
ined. The following output for negative bending has been pulled from the Con-
BoxFlexure data table, a portion of which is shown in Figure 10-10:

Demand moment, “DemandMax” (kip-in) = 245973.481


Resisting moment, “ResistingNeg” (kip-in) = 536981.722
2
Total area of prestressing steel, “AreaPTTop” (in ) = 20.0
Top k factor, “kFactorTop” = 0.2644444
Neutral axis depth, c, “CDistForNeg” (in) = 5.1286
2
Effective stress in prestressing, fps, “EqFpsForNeg” (kip/in ) = 266.7879

A hand calculation verifies the results as follows:

 For top k factor, from (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2),

 f   245.1 
k  2  1.04  PY   2  1.04   0.26444 (Results match)
 fPU   270 

Verification 10- 11
CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

 For neutral axis depth, from (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4),

c
 
APT fPU  0.85 f c bslab  bwebeq tslabeq
, for a T-section
f
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT PU
YPT
APT fPU
c , when not a T-section
fPU
0.85 f c 1bwebeq  kAPT
YPT
20.0(270)
c  5.1286 (Results match)
 270 
0.85(4)(0.85)(360)  0.26444(20)  
 114 

 For effective stress in prestressing, from (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1),

 c   5.1286 
fPS  fPU  1  k   270  1  0.26444  266.788 (Results match)
 YPT   144 

 For resisting moment, from (eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1),

 c   c tslabeq 
M N  APT f PS  YPT  1   0.85 f c  bSLAB  bwebeq  tslabeq  1  
 2   2 2 

 c 
M N  APT f PS  YPT  1  , when the box section is not a T-section
 2 
 5.1286(0.85) 
M N  20.0(266.788)  144    596646.5 kip-in
 2 
M R   M N  0.85(596646.5)  536981.8 kip-in (Results match)

The preceding calculations are a check of the flexure design output. Other de-
sign results for concrete box stress, concrete box shear, and concrete box prin-
cipal have not been included. The user is encouraged to perform a similar
check of these designs and to review Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for a detailed descrip-
tions of the design algorithms.

10 - 12 Verification
References

ACI, 2007. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)
and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.
Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

AASHTO, 2009. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge


Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Offi-
cials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 2001

R-1