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Berkeley, California, USA August 2010

COPYRIGHT

All rights reserved.

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The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. CSiBridge

TM

and Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe® and

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Acrobat® are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a

registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

TM

The computer program CSiBridge and all associated documentation are proprietary and

copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures,

Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form,

without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly

prohibited.

means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written

permission of the publisher.

1995 University Avenue

Berkeley, California 94704 USA

FAX: (510) 649-2299

e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)

e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)

web: www.csiberkeley.com

DISCLAIMER

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER

ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR

IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY

OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN

ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT

ADDRESSED.

THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY

A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST

INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Organization 1-1

1.2 Recommended Reading 1-2

2 Design Prerequisites

2-1 Load Pattern Types 2-1

2.2 Design Load Combinations 2-3

2.3 Default Load Combinations 2-4

3.1 Algorithm for Determining Live Load Distribution

Factors (LLDF) 3-1

3.2 Determine Live Load Distribution Factors 3-2

3.3 Apply LLD Factors 3-3

3.3.1 User Specified 3-4

3.3.2 Calculated by CSiBridge in Accordance with Code 3-4

3.3.3 Read Directly from Girder 3-4

3.3.4 Uniformly Distribution to Girders 3-4

i

CSiBridge Superstructure Design

3.4.1 Stress Check 3-5

3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6

3.5 Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders 3-6

3.5.1 Stress Check 3-6

3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check 3-6

3.6 LLDF Design Example Using Method 2 3-7

4.1 Name and Bridge Object 4-3

4.2 Check Type 4-3

4.3 Station Range 4-5

4.4 Design Parameters 4-5

4.5 Demand Sets 4-10

4.6 Live Load Distribution Factors 4-10

5.1 Stress Design AASHTO-STD-2002 5-1

5.1.1 Capacity Parameters 5-1

5.1.2 Demand Parameters 5-2

5.1.3 Algorithm 5-2

5.2 Stress Design AASHTO-LFRD-2007 5-2

5.2.1 Capacity Parameters 5-2

5.2.2 Algorithm 5-3

5.2.3 Stress Design Example 5-3

5.3 Flexure Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-6

5.3.1 Capacity Parameters 5-6

5.3.2 Variables 5-6

5.3.3 Design Process 5-7

5.3.4 Algorithm 5-8

5.3.5 Flexure Design Example 5-10

5.4 Shear Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-14

5.4.1 Capacity Parameters 5-14

5.4.2 Variables 5-15

5.4.3 Design Process 5-16

5.4.4 Algorithm 5-18

ii

Contents

5.5 Principal Stress Design AASHTO-LRFD-2007 5-31

5.5.1 Capacity Parameters 5-31

5.5.2 Demand Parameters 5-31

5.5.3 Algorithm 5-31

6.1 Stress Design 6-2

6.2 Shear Design 6-3

6.2.1 Variables 6-4

6.2.2 Design Process 6-5

6.2.3 Algorithms 6-6

6.3 Flexure Design 6-10

6.3.1 Variables 6-10

6.3.2 Design Process 6-11

6.3.3 Algorithms 6-11

7.1 Design Stress 7-1

7.2 Design Shear 7-2

7.2.1 Variables 7-3

7.2.2 Design Process 7-5

7.2.3 Algorithms 7-5

7.2.4 Shear Design Example 7-8

7.3 Design of Flexural 7-14

7.3.1 Variables 7-14

7.3.2 Design Process 7-15

7.3.3 Algorithms 7-16

7.3.4 Flexure Design Capacity Example 7-18

8.1 Strength Properties 8-1

8.1.1 Yield Moments 8-1

8.1.2 Plastic Moments 8-3

8.1.2 Section Classification Factors 8-7

8.2 Demand Sets 8-9

iii

CSiBridge Superstructure Design

8.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending Stress f1 8-11

8.2.3 Depth of Web in Compression 8-11

8.3 Strength Design Request 8-13

8.3.1 Flexure 8-13

8.3.2 Shear 8-19

8.4 Service Design Request 8-21

8.5 Web Fatigue Design Request 8-23

8.6 Section Optimization 8-24

9.1 Description of Example Model 9-2

9.2 Design Preferences 9-3

9.3 Load Combinations 9-3

9.4 Bridge Design Request 9-5

9.5 Start Design/Check of Structure 9-6

10 Design Output

10.1 Display Results as a Plot 10-1

10.1.1 Additional Display Examples 10-2

10.2 Display Data Tables 10-7

10.3 Advanced Report Writer 10-8

10.4 Verification 10-11

References

iv

Contents

List of Figures

Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge

Design Form 2-5

Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations form 2-6

Figure 3-2 Lever Rule 3-11

Figure 4-1 Bridge Design Request – Concrete Box Girder Bridges 4-2

Figure 4-2 Bridge Design Request – Compost I or U Girder Bridges 4-2

Figure 4-3 Bridge Design Request form – Steel I Beam

with Composite Slab 4-3

Figure 4-4 Superstructure Design Request Parameters form 4-5

Type BIII-48 5.4

Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Stress Design AASHTO Box

Beam, Type BIII-48 5-4

Figure 5-3 LRFD 2007 Flexure Design Cross-Section, AASHTO Box

Beam, Type BIII-48 5-10

Figure 5-4 Reinforcement, LRFD 2007 Flexure Design Cross-Section,

AASHTO Box Bea, Type BIII-48 5-10

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam,

Type BIII-48 5-24

Figure 7-1

0 Shear design example deck section 7-10

Figure 7-2

1 Shear design example beam section 7-10

Figure 7-3

2 Flexure capacity design example deck section 7-20

Figure 7-4

3 Flexure capacity design example beam section 7-20

Figure 8-2 Steel I-Beam Composite Section 8-6

Figure 9-1 3D view of example concrete box girder bridge model 7-2

Figure 9-2

5 Elevation view of example bridge 7-2

Figure 9-3

6 Plan view of the example bridge 7-3

Figure 9-4

7 Bridge Design Preferences form 9-3

Figure 9-5

8 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design

form 9-4

v

CSiBridge Superstructure Design

Figure 9-6

9 Define Load Combinations form 9-4

Figure 9- 7

1 Define Load Combinations form 9-5

Figure 9-8

1 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure 9-6

Figure 9-9

1 Plot of flexure check results 9-6

Figure 10-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge

design model 10-2

Figure 10-2 Select the location on the beam or slab for which

results are to be displayed 10-3

Figure 10-3 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External

Girders Vertical 10-3

Figure 10-4 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External

Girders Sloped 10-4

Figure 10-5 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External

Girders Clipped 10-4

Figure 10-6 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External

Girders and Radius 10-5

Figure 10-7 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – External

Girders Sloped Max 10-5

Figure 10-8 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section – Advanced 10-6

Figure 10-9 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section -

AASHTO – PCI – ASBI Standard 10-6

Figure 10-10 Choose Tables for Display form 10-7

Figure 10-11 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007

flexure check 10-8

Figure 10-12 Choose Tables for Export to Access form 10-9

Figure 10-13 Create Custom Report form 10-10

Figure 10-14 An example of the printed output 10-11

vi

Chapter 1

Introduction

As the ultimate versatile, integrated tool for modeling, analysis, and design of

bridge structures, CSiBridge can apply the AASHTO STD 2002 or

AASHTO LRFD 2007 code to concrete box girder bridge design or the

AASHTO 2007 LRFD code for design when the superstructure includes Pre-

cast Concrete Box bridges with a composite slab. Additionally, steel I-beam

bridges with composite slabs may be designed in accordance with the

AASHTO 2007 code. The ease with which these tasks can be accomplished

makes CSiBridge the most productive bridge design package in the industry.

Design using CSiBridge is based on load patterns, load cases, load combina-

tions and design requests. The design output can then be displayed graphically

and printed using a customized reporting format.

and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. CSiBridge is a tool to

help the user with that process. Only the aspects of design documented in this

manual are automated by the CSiBridge design capabilities. The user must

check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by CSi-

Bridge.

1-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1.1 Organization

This manual is designed to help you become productive using CSiBridge de-

sign in accordance with the available codes when modeling concrete box girder

bridges and precast concrete girder bridges. Chapter 2 describes design prereq-

uisites. Chapter 3 describes Live Load Distribution Factors. Chapter 4 de-

scribes defining the design request, which includes the design request name, a

bridge object name (i.e., the bridge model), check type (i.e., the type of de-

sign), station range (i.e., portion of the bridge to be designed), design parame-

ters (i.e., overwrites for default parameters) and demand sets (i.e., loading

combinations). Chapters 5 and 6 provide the algorithms used by CSiBridge in

completing concrete box and multicell box girder bridges. Chapter 7 describes

design parameters for precast I and U girder in accordance with the AASHTO

code. Chapter 8 explains how to design and optimize a steel I-beam bridge with

composite slab. Chapter 9 describes how to run a Design Request, and Chapter

10 describes design output, which can be presented graphically as plots, in data

tables, and in reports generated using the Advanced Report Writer feature.

It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-

ble “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials, which are found on our web site,

http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a concrete box girder

or precast concrete bridge using CSiBridge. Additional information can be

found in the on-line Help facility available from within the software’s main

menu.

1-2 Organization

Chapter 2

Define Loads and Load Combinations

This chapter describes the steps that are necessary to define the loads and load

combinations that the user intends to use in the design of the bridge superstruc-

ture. The user may define the load combinations manually or have CSiBridge

automatically generate the code generated load combinations. The appropriate

design code may be selected using the Design/Rating > Superstructure De-

sign > Preference command. Currently, the AASHTO STD 2002 and

AASHTO LRFD 2007 design codes are supported by CSiBridge.

When the code generated load combinations are going to be used, it is impor-

tant for users to define the load pattern type in accordance with the applicable

code. The load pattern type can be defined using the Loads > Load Patterns

command. The user options for defining the load pattern types are summarized

in the Tables 2-1 and 2-2.

Tables 2-1 and 2-2 show the permanent and transient load pattern types that

can be defined in CSiBridge. The tables also show the AASHTO abbreviation

and the load pattern descriptions. Users may choose any name to identify a

load pattern type.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 2-1 PERMANENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTOLRFD 2007 Code

CSiBridge AASHTO

Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern

CREEP CR Force effects due to creep

DOWNDRAG DD Downdrag force

DEAD DC Dead load of structural components and non-

structural attachments

SUPERDEAD DW Superimposed dead load of wearing surfaces

and utilities

BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force

HORIZ. EARTH PR EH Horizontal earth pressures

LOCKED IN EL Misc. locked-in force effects resulting from the

construction process

EARTH SURCHARGE ES Earth surcharge loads

VERT. EARTH PR EV Vertical earth pressure

PRESTRESS PS Hyperstatic forces from post-tensioning

Table 2-2 TRANSIENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Design Code

CSiBridge AASHTO

Load Pattern Type Reference Description of Load Pattern

BRAKING BR Vehicle braking force

CENTRIFUGAL CE Vehicular centrifugal loads

VEHICLE COLLISION CT Vehicular collision force

QUAKE EQ Earthquake

FRICTION FR Friction effects

ICE IC Ice loads

- IM Vehicle Dynamic Load Allowance

BRIDGE LL LL Vehicular live load

LL SURCHARGE LS Live load surcharge

PEDESTRIAN LL PL Pedestrian live load

SETTLEMENT SE Force effects due settlement

TEMP GRADIENT TG Temperature gradient loads

TEMPERATURE TU Uniform temperature effects

STEAM FLOW WA Water load and steam pressure

WIND–LIVE LOAD WL Wind on live load

WIND WS Wind loads on structure

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

The code generated design load combinations make use of the load pattern

types noted in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Table 2-3 shows the load factors and com-

binations that are required in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.

Table 2-3 Load Combinations and Load Factors Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code

DC

DD

DW

EH LL

EV IM

ES CE

Load EL BR

Combo PS PL

Limit CR LS WA WS WL FR TU TG SE EQ IC CT CV

State SH

Str I

P 1.75 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Str II

P 1.35 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Str III

P - 1.00 1.40 - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Str IV

P - 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20 - - - - -

Str V

P 1.35 1.00 0.40 1.00 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Ext Ev I

P EQ 1.00 - - 1.00 - - 1.00 - - -

Ext Ev II

P 0.5 1.00 - - 1.00 - - - 1.00 1.00 1.00

TG SE - - - -

Serv III 1.00 1.00 1.00 - - 1.00 0.5/1.20

TG SE - - - -

Fatigue- - 0.75 - - - - - - - - - - -

LL, IM &

CE Only

Table 2-4 shows the maximum and minimum factors for the permanent loads

in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 2-4 Load Factors for Permanent Loads, P , Used in the AASHTO LRFD 2007 Code

Load Factor

Type of Load Maximum Minimum

DC 1.25 0.90

DC: Strength IV only 1.50 0.90

DD: Downdrag 1.40 0.25

DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities 1.50 0.65

EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure 1.50 0.90

EL: Locked in Construction Stresses 1.00 1.00

EV: Vertical Earth Pressure 1.35 1.00

ES: Earth Surcharge 1.50 0.75

Two combinations for each permanent load pattern are required because of the

maximum and minimum factors. When the default load combinations are used,

CSiBridge automatically creates both load combinations (one for the maximum

and one for the minimum factor), and then automatically creates a third combi-

nation that represents an enveloped combination of the max/min combos.

Default design load combinations can be activated using the Design/Rating >

Load Combinations > Add Default command. Users can set the load combi-

nations by selecting the “Bridge” option. The users may select the desired limit

states and load cases using the Code Generated Load Combinations for Bridge

Design form shown in Figure 2-1.

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

After the desired limit states and load cases have been selected, CSiBridge will

generate all of the code-required load combinations. These can be viewed us-

ing the Home > Display > Show Tables command or by using the

Show/Modify button on the Define Combinations form, which is shown in

Figure 2-2.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The load combinations denoted as Str-I1, Str-I2, and so forth refer to Strength I

load combinations. The load case StrIGroup1 is the name given to enveloped

load combination of all of the Strength I combinations. Enveloped load combi-

nations will allow for some efficiency later when the bridge design requests are

defined (see Chapter 4).

Chapter 3

Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge to determine the live

load distribution factors used to assign live load demands to individual girders.

An explanation is given with respect to how the distribution factors are applied

in a shear, stress, and moment check in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD

2007 code. The live load distribution factors are applicable only to superstruc-

tures that have a deck that includes precast I or U girders with composite slabs.

Legend:

Girder = beam + tributary area of composite slab

Section Cut = all girders present in the cross-section at the cut location

tors (LLDF)

CSiBridge gives the user a choice of four methods to address distribution of

live load to individual girders.

outlined in AASHTO LRFD Section 4.6.2.2.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Method 3 – CSiBridge reads the calculated live load demands directly from in-

dividual girders (available only for Area or Solid models).

Method 4 – CSiBridge distributes the live load uniformly into all girders.

Load case must be adjusted depending on which method is selected.

When the LLD factors are user specified or specified in accordance with the

code (Method 1 or 2), only one lane with a MultiLane Scale Factor = 1

should be loaded into a Moving Load cases included in the demand set com-

binations.

When CSiBridge reads the LLD factors directly from individual girders

(Method 3, applicable to area and solid models only) or when CSiBridge ap-

plies the LLD factors uniformly (Method 4), multiple traffic lanes with rele-

vant Multilane Scale Factors should be loaded in accordance with code re-

quirements.

At every section cut, the following geometric information is evaluated to de-

termine the LLD factors.

span lengththe length of span for which moment or shear is being calcu-

lated

girder designationthe first and last girder are designated as exterior girders

and the other girders are classified as interior girders

are ignored

rior web of the left exterior beam at deck level to the interior edge of the curb

or traffic barrier

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

gravity

the thickness of the composite slab t1 and the thickness of concrete slab

haunch t2

girder by the midway distances to neighboring girders and at the exterior

girder; includes the entire overhang on one side, and is bounded by the mid-

way distances to neighboring girder on the other side

Young’s modulus for both the slab and the beamsangle of skew support.

dance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 (eq. 4.6.2.2.1-1). The center of gravity of

the composite slab measured from the bottom of the beam is calculated as the

sum of the beam depth, thickness of the concrete slab haunch t2, and one-half

the thickness of the composite slab t1. Spacing of the girders is calculated as

the average distance between the centerlines of neighboring girders.

CSiBridge then verifies that the selected LLD factors are compatible with the

type of model: spine, area, or solid. If the LLD factors are read by CSiBridge

directly from the individual girders, the model type must be area or solid. This

is the case because with the spine model option, CSiBridge models the entire

cross section as one frame element and there is no way to extract forces on in-

dividual girders. All other model types and LLDF method permutations are al-

lowed.

The application of live load distribution factors varies, depending on which

method has been selected: user specified; in accordance with code; directly

from individual girders; or uniformly distributed onto all girders.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

When this method is selected, CSiBridge reads the girder designations (i.e.,

exterior and interior) and assigns live load distribution factors to the individual

girders accordingly.

When this method is selected, CSiBridge considers the data input by the user

for truck wheel spacing, minimum distance from wheel to curb/barrier and

multiple presence factor for one loaded lane.

against requirements specified in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1,

4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). When any of the parameter values are outside

the range required by the code, the section cut is excluded from the Design Re-

quest.

At every section cut, CSiBridge then evaluates the live load distribution factors

for moment and shear for exterior and interior girders using formulas specified

in the code (Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1).

After evaluation, the LLDF values are assigned to individual girders based on

their designation (exterior, interior). The same value equal to the average of the

LLDF calculated for the left and right girders is assigned to both exterior gird-

ers. Similarly, all interior girders use the same LLDF equal to the average of

the LLDF of all of the individual interior girders.

When this method is selected, CSiBridge sets the live load distribution factor

for all girders to 1.

When this method is selected, the live load distribution factor is equal to 1/n

where n is the number of girders in the section. All girders have identical LLD

factors disregarding their designation (exterior, interior) and demand type

(shear, moment).

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

When the method for determining the live load distribution factors is user-

specified, code-specified, or uniformly distributed (Methods 1, 2 or 4), CSi-

Bridge generates virtual load combination for every valid section cut selected

for design. The virtual combinations are used during a stress check and check

of the shear and moment to calculate the forces on the girders. After those

forces have been calculated, the virtual combination are deleted. The process is

repeated for all section cuts selected for design.

Four virtual COMBO cases are generated for each COMBO that the user has

specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4). The program analyzes the de-

sign type of each load case present in the user specified COMBO and multi-

plies all non-moving load case types by 1/ n (where n is the number of girders)

and the moving load case type by the section cut values of the LLD factors (ex-

terior moment, exterior shear, interior moment and interior shear LLD factors).

This ensures that dead load is shared evenly by all girders, while live load is

distributed based on the LLD factors.

The program then completes a stress check and a check of the shear and the

moment for each section cut selected for design.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points

are read from CSiBridge for every virtual COMBO generated. To ensure that

live load demands are shared equally irrespective of lane eccentricity by all

girders, CSiBridge uses averaging when calculating the girder stresses. It cal-

culates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial and M3 moment demands on

all the beams in the entire section cut and dividing the demands by the number

of girders. Similarly, P and M3 forces in the composite slab are integrated and

stresses are calculated in the individual tributary areas of the slab by dividing

the total slab demand by the number of girders.

When stresses are read from analysis into design, the stresses are multiplied by

n (where n is number of girders) to make up for the reduction applied in the

Virtual Combinations.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the entire section cut forces are read from

CSiBridge for every Virtual COMBO generated. The forces are assigned to in-

dividual girders based on their designation. (Forces from two virtual Combina-

tionsone for shear and one for momentgenerated for exterior beam are as-

signed to both exterior beams, and similarly, Virtual Combinations for interior

beams are assigned to interior beams.)

When the method for determining the live load distribution is based on forces

read directly from the girders, the method varies based on which Design Check

has been specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points

are read from CSiBridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Request.

CSiBridge calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial, M3 and M2

moment demands on the beam at the center of gravity of the beam. Similarly P,

M3 and M2 demands in the composite slab are integrated at the center of grav-

ity of the slab tributary area.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder forces are read from CSiBridge

for every COMBO specified in the Design Request. CSiBridge calculates the

demands on a girder by integrating axial, M3 and M2 moment demands on the

girder at the center of gravity of the girder.

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

The AASHTO-LRFD Specifications allow the use of advanced methods of

analysis to determine the live load distribution factors. However, for typical

bridges, the specifications list equations to calculate the distribution factors for

different types of bridge superstructures. The types of superstructures covered

by these equations are described in Table 4.6.2.2.1-1. From this table, bridges

with concrete decks supported on precast concrete I or bulb-tee girders are des-

ignated as cross-section “K.” Other tables in 4.6.2.2.2 list the distribution fac-

tors for interior and exterior girders including cross-section “K.”

The distribution factor equations are largely based on work conducted in the

NCHRP Project 12-26 and have been verified to give accurate results com-

pared to 3-dimensional bridge analysis and field measurements. The multiple

presence factors are already included in the distribution factor equations except

when the tables call for the use of the lever rule. In these cases, the computa-

tions need to account for the multiple presence factors. The user is providing

those as part of the Design Request definition together with wheel spacing,

curb to wheel distance and lane width.

Notice that the distribution factor tables include a column with the heading

“range of applicability”. The ranges of applicability listed for each equation are

based on the range for each parameter used in the study leading to the devel-

opment of the equation. When any of the parameters exceeds the listed value in

the “range of applicability” column, CSiBridge reports the incompliance and

excludes the section from design.

sections with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor for the exte-

rior beam shall not be taken less than that which would be obtained by assum-

ing that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.” This

provision was added to the specifications because the original study that devel-

oped the distribution factor equations did not consider intermediate dia-

phragms. Application of this provision requires the presence of a sufficient

number of intermediate diaphragms whose stiffness is adequate to force the

cross section to act as a rigid section. For prestressed girders, different jurisdic-

tions use different types and numbers of intermediate diaphragms. Depending

on the number and stiffness of the intermediate diaphragms, the provisions of

4.6.2.2.2d may not be applicable. If the user specifies option “Yes” in the

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

“Diaphragms Present” option the program follows the procedure outlined in the

provision 4.6.2.2.2d.

For this example, one deep reinforced concrete diaphragm is located at the

midspan of each span. The stiffness of the diaphragm was deemed sufficient to

force the cross-section to act as a rigid section; therefore, the provisions of

S4.6.2.2.2d apply.

Required information:

2

Noncomposite beam area, Ag = 1,085 in

4

Noncomposite beam moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in

Deck slab thickness, ts = 8 in.

Span length, L = 110 ft.

Girder spacing, S = 9 ft.-8 in.

Modulus of elasticity of the beam, EB = 4,696 ksi

Modulus of elasticity of the deck, ED = 3,834 ksi

C.G. to top of the basic beam = 35.62 in.

C.G. to bottom of the basic beam = 36.38 in.

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

1. Calculate n, the modular ratio between the beam and the deck.

n = E B E D (4.6.2.2.1-2)

2. Calculate eg, the distance between the center of gravity of the noncompo-

site beam and the deck. Ignore the thickness of the haunch in determin-

ing eg

Kg = n I Aeg2 (4.6.2.2.1-1)

2

beam with two or more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.2b-1.

0.6 0.1

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

0.075 9.667 9.5

0.6

9.667 110 0.2 2 984 704 3

= 0.796 lane (eq. 1)

be applied for bridge skews greater than 30 degrees. The bridge in this

example is skewed 20 degrees, and therefore, no skew correction factor

for moment is allowed.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior beam with one

design lane loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.06 S 14 S L 0.3 K g

0.4 0.1

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

= 0.06 9.667 14

0.4

9.667 110 0.3 2984704 12 100 8

3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Notice that the distribution factor calculated above for a single lane

loaded already includes the 1.2 multiple presence factor for a single lane,

therefore, this value may be used for the service and strength limit states.

However, multiple presence factors should not be used for the fatigue

limit state. Therefore, the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for the single

lane is required to be removed from the value calculated above to deter-

mine the factor used for the fatigue limit state.

at the obtuse corner must be applied to the distribution factor of all

skewed bridges. The value of the correction factor is calculated using

Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1.

0.3

SC = 1.0 0.20 12.0 Lt s3 K g tan

0.3

= 1.0 0.20 12.0 110 8 2 984 704

3

tan 20

= 1.047

7. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with two or

more design lanes loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.2 S 12 S 35

2

2

= 0.929 lane

8. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with one de-

sign lane loaded using Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.36 S 25.0

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

= 0.747 lane

DV = 1.047 0.747

= 0.782 lane (eq. 5)

9. From (1) and (2), the service and strength limit state moment distribution

factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.796 and 0.542 lane.

Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.796 lane.

From (4) and (5), the service and strength limit state shear distribution

factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.973 and 0.782 lane.

Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.973 lane.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

11. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with two

or more design lanes using Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM = eDVinterior

e = 0.77 de 9.1

where de is the distance from the centerline of the exterior girder to the

inside face of the curb or barrier.

DM = 0.97(0.796) = 0.772 lane (eq. (7)

12. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with one

design lane using the lever rule in accordancd with Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

Notice that this value does not include the multiple presence factor,

therefore, it is adequate for use with the fatigue limit state. For service

and strength limit states, the multiple presence factor for a single lane

loaded needs to be included.

DM = 0.672 1.2

= 0.806 lane (eq. 9) (Strength and Service)

13. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with two or

more design lanes loaded using Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1.

DV = eDVinterior

where:

e = 0.6 de 10

= 0.6 1.83 10

= 0.783

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

DV = 0.783 0.973

= 0.762 lane (eq. 10)

14. Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with one de-

sign lane loaded using the lever rule in accordancd with Table 4.6.2.2.3b-

1. This value will be the same as the moment distribution factor with the

skew correction factor applied.

DV = 1.047 0.806

= 0.845 lane (eq. 12) (Strength and Service)

tion of the distribution factors for exterior girders when the girders are

connected with relatively stiff cross-frames that force the cross-section to

act as a rigid section. As indicated in the introduction, these provisions

are applied to this example; the calculations are shown below.

beam (Table 3.6.1.1.2-1)

m1 = 1.20

m2 = 1.00

m3 = 0.85

R = N L N b X ext e x 2

(4.6.2.2.2d-1)

where:

the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft.)

tern of girders to each girder (ft.)

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

tern to the exterior girder (ft.) See Figure 1 for dimen-

sions.

2 2 2

= 0.1667 + 0.310

= 0.477 (Fatigue)

R = 1.2 0.477

= 0.572 (Strength)

2 2 2

= 0.333 + 0.443

= 0.776

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.0 for two lanes loaded:

R = 1.0 0.776

= 0.776 (Strength)

R =

3 6 24.167 21 9 3 2 24.1672 14.52 4.8332

2 2 2

= 0.5 + 0.399

= 0.899

Add the multiple presence factor of 0.85 for three or more lanes loaded:

Chapter 3 - Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

R = 0.85 0.899

= 0.764 (Strength)

Design Step 16.

16. From (7) and (9), the service and strength limit state moment distribution

factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.772 and 0.806

lane. Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.806 lane.

From (10) and (12), the service and strength limit state shear distribution

factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.762 and 0.845

lane. Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.845 lane.

Table 3.1 Summary of Service and Strength Limit State Distribution Factors

Moment Moment Shear Shear

interior exterior interior exterior

Load Case beams beams beams beams

Distribution factors from Multiple lanes loaded 0.796 0.772 0.973 0.762

Tables in 4.6.2.2.2

Single lane loaded 0.542 0.806 0.782 0.845

connected girders Single lane loaded NA 0.572 NA 0.572

Design Value 0.796 0.806 0.973 0.845

Chapter 4

Define a Bridge Design Request

This chapter describes the Bridge Design Request, which is defined using the

Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Requests command.

Each Bridge Design Request is unique and specifies which bridge object is to

be designed, the type of check to be performed (e.g., concrete box stress, pre-

cast composite stress, and so on), the station range (i.e., the particular zone or

portion of the bridge that is to be designed), the design parameters (i.e., pa-

rameters that may be used to overwrite the default values automatically set by

the program) and demand sets (i.e., the load combination[s] to be considered).

Multiple Bridge Design Requests may be defined for the same bridge object.

Before defining a design request, the applicable code should be specified using

the Design/Rating > Superstructure > Preferences command. Currently, the

AASHTO STD 2002 or AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is available for the design

of a concrete box girder, the AASHTO 2007 LRFD code is available for the

design of a Precast I or U Beam with Composite Slab, and the AASHTO

LFRD 2007 for Steel I-Beam with Composite Slab superstructures.

Figure 4-1 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for

a concrete box girder bridge, and the check type is concrete box stress. Figure

4-2 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for a

Composite I or U girder bridge and the check type is precast composite stress.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 4-3 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for

a Steel I-Beam bridge and the check type is composite strength.

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Figure 4-3 Bridge Design Request - Steel I Beam with Composite Slab

Each Bridge Design Request must have unique name. Any name can be used.

If multiple Bridge Objects are used to define a bridge model, select the bridge

object to be designed for the Design Request. If a bridge model contains only a

single bridge object, the name of that bridge object will be the only item avail-

able from the Bridge Object drop-down list.

The Check Type refers to the type of design to be performed and the available

options depend on the type of bridge deck being modeled.

For a Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following check

type options:

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

For Multi-Cell Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following

check type options:

For bridge models with precast I or U Beams with Composite Slabs, CSi-

Bridge provides three check type options, as follows:

For bridge models with steel I-beam with composite slab superstructures,

CSiBridge provides the following check type option:

The bold type denotes the name that appears in the check type drop-down list.

A detailed description of the design algorithm can be found in Chapter 5 for

concrete box girder bridges, in Chapter 6 for multi-cell box girder bridges, in

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Chapter 7 for precast I or U beam with composite slabs, and in Chapter 8 for

steel I-beam with composite slab.

The station range refers to the particular zone or portion of the bridge that is to

be designed. The user may choose the entire length of the bridge, or specify

specific zones using station ranges. Multiple zones (i.e., station ranges) may be

specified as part of a single design request.

When defining a station range, the user specifies the Location Type, which de-

termines if the superstructure forces are to be considered before or at a station

point. The user may choose the location type as before the point, after the point

or both.

Design parameters are overwrites that can be used to change the default values

set automatically by the program. The parameters are specific to each code,

deck type, and check type. Figure 4-4 shows the Superstructure Design Pa-

rameters form.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-1 shows the parameters for concrete box girder bridges. Table 4-2

shows the parameters for multi-cell concrete box bridges. Table 4-3 shows the

parameters applicable when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast

I or U girders with composite slabs. Table 4-4 shows the parameters applicable

when the superstructure has a deck that includes steel I-beams.

AASHTO STD 2002

Resistance Factor - multiplies both compression and tension

Concrete Box Stress stress limits

Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

in the units specified

The tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi

units for f c and the resulting tension limit

AASHTO LRFD 2007

Concrete Box Stress Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on f c

to calculate the compression stress limit

Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on

sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units

specified

Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-

tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c and the

resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that

multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored resistance

for light-weight concrete

Include Resal (Hunching-girder) shear effects – Yes or No. Speci-

fies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or

tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth

members shall or shall not be considered when determining the

design factored shear force in accordance with Article 5.8.6.2.

Concrete Box Shear Rebar Material - A previously defined rebar

material label that will be used to determine the area of shear

rebar required

Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material - A previously defined

rebar material that will be used to determine the area of longi-

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

tudinal torsional rebar required

Concrete Box Flexure Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Principal See the Box Stress design parameter specifications

AASHTO LRFD 2007

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that

Stress multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multi-

plier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Mul-

tiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in

the units specified

limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c

and the resulting tension limit

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that mul-

Shear tiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Fac-

tor that multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored

resistance for light-weight concrete

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal rein-

forcement – in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value =

-0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforce-

ment - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value =

6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3

PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; De-

fault Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default

Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0

Specifies which method for shear design will be used – either

Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with

5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3. Cur-

rently only the MCFT option is available.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to

determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

mine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Multi-Cell Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that

Flexure multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

AASHTO

Precast Comp Stress Precast Comp Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both

compression and tension stress limits

Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier on fc

to calculate the compression stress limit

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier on

sqrt(fc) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the units

specified

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit fac-

tor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for fc and the

resulting tension limit

Precast Comp Shear PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and

tension stress limits

PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that multiplies nominal shear

resistance to obtain factored resistance for light-weight concrete

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal rein-

forcement – in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = -

0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforce-

ment - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value =

6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3

PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default

Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1; Default

Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0

Specifies what method for shear design will be used - either

Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with

5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3 Currently

only the MCFT option is available.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to de-

termine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder

A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine

the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Precast Comp Flexure Precast Comp Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies

both compression and tension stress limits

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

AASHTO LRFD 2007

Steel I-Beam Strength Positive Yield Moment, My. Yield moment of composite section in

positive flexure determined by the program in accordance with

section D6.2.2 of the code and user-defined input: Mdnc and Mdc,

the factored permanent load applied before the concrete deck

has hardened or is made composite, and the remainder of the fac-

tored permanent load (applied to the composite section), respec-

tively.

Composite Sections in Negative Flexure. The negative My is cal-

culated based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands specified by the user.

Plastic Moment of Composite Section in Positive Flexure. Positive

plastic moment, Mp, calculated as the moment of the plastic

forces about the plastic neutral axis.

Plastic Moment of Composite Section in Negative Flexure. Nega-

tive plastic moment, Mp, calculated as the moment of the plastic

forces about the plastic neutral axis.

Hybrid Factor Rh for Sections in Positive Flexure. Taken as 1.0 for

rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections and built-up sec-

tions with a higher strength steel in the web than in both flanges.

Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb for Section in Positive Flexure.

Taken as equal to 1.0 for composite sections in positive flexure.

Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb for Section in Negative Flexure.

Taken as less than or equal to 1.0 for composite sections in nega-

tive flexure.

User-defined combinations based on LRFD strength combina-

tions. All combos are enveloped and used to calculate D/C ratios.

Flange stress, fbu without consideration of flange lateral bending.

If staged construction analysis is not used, fbu is calculated by the

program using the demand moment on the noncomposite sec-

tion MNC, the demand moment on the long-term composite sec-

tion MLTC, and the demand moment on the short-term composite

section, MSTC. If staged construction analysis is considered, stresses

on each flange are read directly from the section cut results.

Composite Section in Positive Flexure – Compact. Nominal flex-

ural resistance of the section, Dp.

Composite Section in Positive Flexure – Non-Compact. Nominal

flexural resistance of the top compression flange and the bottom

tension flange used in evaluating the demand over capacity ratio.

Local buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(FLB) as

specified in Article 6.10.8.2.2.

Local buckling resistance of the compression flange MncFLB as

specified in Article A6.3.2.

Lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange

MncLTB as specified in Article A6.3.3.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

AASHTO LRFD 2007

The nominal flexural resistance of the bottom compression flange

is taken as the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lat-

eral torsional buckling resistance.

Nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs, Vn.

Nominal shear resistance of stiffened interior web panels

Nominal shear resistance of web end panels

A demand set name is required for each load combination that is to be consid-

ered in a design request. The load combinations may be selected from a list of

user defined or default load combinations that are program determined (See

Chapter 2).

When the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with

composite slabs or multi-cell boxes, Live Load Distribution Factors can be

specified. LLD factors are described in Chapter 3.

4 - 10 Demand Sets

Chapter 5

Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the AASHTO

STD-2002, LRFD 07 code for design and stress check of the superstructure of

a concrete box type bridge deck section.

In CSiBridge, when distributing loads for concrete box design, the section is

always treated as one beam, all load demands (permanent and transient) are

distributed evenly to the webs for stress and flexure and proportionally to the

slope of the web for shear. Torsion effects are always considered and assigned

to the outer webs and the top and bottom slab.

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with Article 5.8.6 of the

code, torsion is considered.

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression

limit.

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)

The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain the tension limit.

FactorCompLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service

design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5

The demand compressive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor.

This way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one com-

pression limit.

FactorTensLim – percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;

Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5

The demand tensile stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This

way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one tension

limit.

5.1.3 Algorithm

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the

bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line

and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account

axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live

load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the

evaluation points.

The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then extremes

are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-

tion 5.1.1).

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa)

The f c is multiplied by the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

5.2.2 Algorithm

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the

bottom fiber. The location of the points are extreme left, Bridge Layout Line

and extreme right. The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account

axial (P) and both bending moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. If the demand set contains live

load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at each of the

evaluation points.

Extremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-

corded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-

tion 5.2.1).

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-1

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

2

Area of one strand = 0.153 in

Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi

Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi

fpu = 243 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Figure 5-1 LRFD 2007 Stress Design, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Reinforcing bars:

yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties

2

A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in

h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in

4

I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in

yb,yt = distance from centroid to the extreme

bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

P = 856.51 kip

M3 = 897.599 kip-in

P M3 856.51 897.599

top ytop 19.5 0.9344 ksi

A I 826 170812

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

P M3 856.51 897.599

top ybot 19.5 1.139 ksi

A I 826 170812

Stresses reported by CSiBridge:

top fiber stress envelope = 0.9345 ksi

bottom fiber stress envelope = 1.13945 ksi

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0

The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain

factored resistance.

5.3.2 Variables

Resistance factor for flexure

bslab Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab, measured from out to

out

prestressing tendons

of all tendons in tensile zone)

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

fpy Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all

tendons in tensile zone)

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate

stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between

concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular

concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 f c over a zone bounded by the

edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis

at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is

measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for

concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0

ksi, β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0

ksi, except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

The resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate

capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based

only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement

is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,

the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-

tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu

(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the

flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported

in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange

(slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

5.3.4 Algorithm

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from CSIBRIDGE model

units to N, mm.

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width

assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab

tslabeq

bslab

The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as the summation of all web hori-

zontal thicknesses

nweb

bwebeq b

1

web

tion f c

f 28

if f c > 28 MPa, then 1 max 0.85 c 0.05; 0.65

7

else 1 0.85

The tendon location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are

processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-

ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

- center of gravity of tendons yPT

- specified tensile strength of prestressing steel fpu

- constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

f py

k 2(1.04 )

f pu

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

(eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

5.7.3.1.1-1).

c

f ps f pu (1 k )

y pt

5.7.3.2.2-1)

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

else

c

M n APT f ps yPT 1

2

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .

Mr = Mn

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-3.

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)

Design span = 95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

2

Area of one strand = 0.153 in

Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi

Yield strength fpy = 0.9 ksi

fpu = 243 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Reinforcing bars:

yield strength, fy = 60.0 ksi

Section Properties

2

A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in

h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in

4

I = moment of inertia about centroid of the beam = 170812 in

yb, yt = distance from centroid to the extreme

bottom (top) fiber of the beam = 19.5 in

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

P = 856.51 kip

M3 = 897.599 kip-in

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on slab area and slab width

assuming rectangular shape.

Aslab 48 5.5

tslabeq 5.5in

bslab 48

Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.5 in

tal thicknesses

nweb

bwebeq b

1

web 5 5 10 in

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-

ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

2

Value reported by CSiBridge = 4.437 in

23 2 6 4

yPTbottom 39 36.586 in

23 6

Value reported by CSiBridge = 19.5 + 17.0862 = 36.586 in

Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

f py 243

k 2 1.04 2 1.04 0.28

f pu 270

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.28

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on sec-

tion f c

f c 28

1 max 0.85 0.05;0.65

7

34.473 28

max 0.85 0.05;0.65 0.80376

7

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.8037 (not reported)

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

4.437 270

6.91in

0.85 5 0.8037 48 0.28 4.437 36.586

270

the section is a T-section or a rectangular section.

T-section.

Value reported by CSiBridge, section = T-section

with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

4.437 270 0.85 5(48 10)5.5

7.149 in

0.85 5 0.8037 10 0.28 4.437 36.586

270

5.7.3.1.1-1).

c 7.149

f ps f pu 1 k 270 1 0.28 255.23 ksi

y pt 36.586

Value reported by CSiBridge = 255.228 ksi

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

7.149 0.80376

4.437 255.228 36.586

2

7.149 0.80376 5.5

0.85 5 48 10 5.5

2 2

38287.42 kip-in

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in (not reported)

Value reported by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9

The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by

the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9

The nominal shear capacity of light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by

the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance

Specifies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension,

in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth members shall or shall

not be considered when determining the design factored shear force.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the

area of shear rebar required.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to determine the

area of longitudinal torsional rebar required.

5.4.2 Variables

Resistance factor for shear

CGtop, CGbot Distance from the center of gravity of the section to the top and

bottom fiber

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

chords of the space truss resisting torsion

b cos web

ducts

count for presence of ducts

treme compression fiber to center of gravity of tensile PT)

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with Paragraph 5.8.6 (Shear

and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges). The procedure is not applica-

ble to discontinuity regions and applies only to sections where it is reasonable

to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading. The user should select

for design only those sections that comply with the preceding assumptions by

defining appropriate station ranges in the Bridge Design Request.

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-

able depth members is considered when determining the design section shear

force (paragraph 5.8.6.1).

The section design shear force is distributed into individual webs assuming that

the vertical shear that is carried by a web decreases with increased inclination

of the web from vertical. Section torsion moments are assigned to external

webs and slabs.

The rebar area and ratio are calculated using measurements normal to the web.

Thus, vertical shear forces are divided by cos(alpha_web). The rebar area cal-

culated is the actual, normal cross-section of the bars. The rebar ratio is calcu-

lated using the normal width of the web, tweb = bweb cos(alpha_web).

5.8.6.1. In determining the web or flange effective thickness, be, one-half of the

diameters of ducts is subtracted. All defined tendons in a section, stressed or

not, are assumed to be grouted. Each tendon at a section is checked for pres-

ence in the web or flange and the minimum controlling effective web and

flange thicknesses are evaluated.

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web or flange effective

thickness even if only part of the duct is within the element boundaries. In such

cases, the entire one-half of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the ele-

ment thickness

If several tendon ducts overlap in one flange or web (when projected on the

horizontal axis for flange, or when projected on vertical axis for the web), the

diameters of ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thick-

ness. In the web, the effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom

of each duct; in the flange, the effective thickness is evaluated at the left and

right side of the duct.

The Shear and Torsion Design is completed first on a per web basis. Rebar

needed for individual webs is then summed and reported for the entire section.

The D/C ratio is calculated for each web. Then the shear area of all webs is

summed and the entire section D/C is calculated. Therefore, the controlling

section D/C does not have to necessarily match the controlling web D/C (in

other words, other webs can make up the capacity for a “weak” web).

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

5.4.4 Algorithm

All section properties and demands are converted from CSIBRIDGE model

units to N, mm.

flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the demand shear, in vari-

able depth members is evaluated as follows:

slab top arctan

Stat2 Stat1

yslab bot2 yslab bot1

slab bot arctan

Stat2 Stat1

where

yslab top2 , yslab top1 vertical coordinate of the center of gravity of the

top slab at stations 1 and 2. The Y origin is assumed to be at the

top of the section and the + direction is up.

analyzed is “Before,” the current section station is Stat2; when

the section being analyzed is “After,” the current section station

is Stat1. Therefore, the statement Stat1 Stat2 is always valid.

P M

Pslab top Aslab top u u 3 dslab top

A I3

P M

Pslab bot Aslab bot u u 3 dslab bot

A I3

where dslab top , dslab bot are distances from center of gravity of the section

to center of gravity of the slab (positive)

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

as follows:

On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand

values are evaluated

Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb

Shear and abs(Vu 2 Presal top Presal bot ) Abs(Tu) abs(Vu 2 Presal top Presal bot ) 0

Torsion

cos web cos web

Check

cos | web |

where web

cos | web |

nweb

1

Evaluate dv bv be tv

– If bv 0, then

D

WebPassFlag 2, 0; Avsweb 0; Avtweb 0; Avsflag 2; Avtflag 2

C

proceed to report web results

Evaluate design f c

P M3 P M3

bot CGbot top CGtop tens max top , bot

A I 33 A I 33

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

|P|

– If tens 0.5 f c , then K = 1 else K 1 A

0.166 f c

where K < 2

Vuweb Vcweb

Vsweb

Vsweb

else Avsweb

f y dv

else Avswebflag 1

Vsweb Avsweb f y dv

Vuweb

D

C sweb bv dv f c

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Tcr 0.166 K f c 2 A0 be

1

If Tuweb Tcr , then:

3

– Avtflag 0

– Avtweb 0

– Al 0

TorsionEffectsFlag=0

else:

Avtflag 1

Tuweb

Avtweb

A0 2 f y

Tuweb ph

Al

A0 2 f ylong

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

Vuweb T

uweb

D b d 2 A0 be

v v

C tweb 1.25 f c

D D

If then RatioFlag = 0

C sweb C tweb

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

else

RatioFlag=1

D D D

max ,

C C sweb C tweb

D

If 1, then WebPassFlag=1

C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand

Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0

Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since web not part of shear flow path for

torsion

Vcsection Vcweb

Vssection Vsweb

Vnsection Vnweb

Alsection Al

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

nweb Vuweb

tv

1 bv dv

nweb

D tv

1

C ssection f c

| Vu |

nweb

D t v dv

1

C s sec tion f c

and

| Vu | | Tu |

2 A0 be

nweb

D t v dv

1

C tsection 1.25 f c

D D

If , then RatioFlag = 0 else RatioFlag = 1

C ssection C tsection

D D D

max ,

C C ssection C tsection

D

If 1, then SectionPassFlag=1

C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

Flag = 0 – Section Passed all code checks

Flag = 1 – Section D/C >1

Flag = 2 – Section be < 0 (section invalid)

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

φ = 0.9

Concrete unit weight, wc = 0.150 kcf

λ =1.0

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c = 5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)

Design span = 95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: ½ in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

2

Area of one strand = 0.153 in

Ultimate strength fpu = 270.0 ksi

Yield strength fpy = 0.9

fpu = 243 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep = 28 500 ksi

Section Properties

2 2

A = area of cross-section of beam = 826 in (~532902 mm )

h = overall depth of precast beam = 39 in (~990.6 mm)

I = moment of inertia about

4 4

centroid of the beam = 170812 in (~71097322269 mm )

yb,yt = distance from centroid to the

extreme bottom (top) fiber of

the beam = 19.5 in (~495.3 mm)

2 2

Aslabtop = Aslabbot = 485.5 = 264 in (~170322 mm )

= (48 5) (39 5.5)

2 2

Ao = 1440.5 in (~929353 mm )

Ph = 2 (48 5 + 39 5.5) = 153 in (~3886.2 mm)

P = 800 kip (~ 3560 E+03 N)

M3 = 7541 kip-in (~ 852 E+06 Nmm)

V2 = 33 kip (~ 148.3 E+03 N)

T = 4560 kip-in (515.2 E+06 Nmm)

All section properties and demands are converted from CSIBRIDGE model

units to N, mm.

On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand

values are evaluated.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Location Vuweb Tuweb Vuweb Tuweb

Shear and abs(Vu 2 Presal top Presal bot ) Abs(Tu)=515.2E+06 N/A 0

Torsion cos web N/A

Check

abs(148.3E 03 0 0) 1

74151.9 N

cos0

where web 0.5

cos | web | cos | 0 |

nweb 2

1 1

min(127,127,139.7,139.7) 127mm

max(0.8 990.6,495.3 419.1) 914.4mm

Evaluate design f c

f c min

f c ,8.3 MPa min 34.473,8.3 MPa 5.871

P M3 3560 E 03 852 E 06

bot CGbot 495.3 12.616 MPa.

A I 33 532902 71097322269

P M3 3560 E 03 852 E 06

top CGtop 495.3 0.745MPa

A I 33 532902 71097322269

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

|P| | 3560 E 03 |

else K 1 A 1 532902 2.8

0.166 f c 0.166 5.871

226781N.

Vsweb 144392 N

0.9

Vsweb

else Avsweb

f y dv

0.35 127

Avsweb 0.35t f y 0.10745mm 2 / mm and Aswebflag 0

413.68

Else Avswebflag 1

Vn web Vcweb Vsweb 226781 40645 267426 N

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Vuweb 74151.9

D 0.9

0.1208

C sweb bv dv f c 127 914.4 5.871

460 147 419 Nmm

1 1

If Tuweb Tcr 515.2 E 6 0.9 460 E 6 false, then:

3 3

Avtflag 1

Tuweb 515.2 E 6

Avtweb 0.7444mm 2 / mm

A0 2 f y 0.9 929352 2 413.68

Al 2893mm 2

A0 2 f ylong 0.9 929352 2 413.68

TorsionEffectsFlag=1

uweb

0.9 127 914.4 0.9 2 929352 127

D b d 2 A b

v v 0 e

C tweb

1.25 f c 1.25 5.871

0.427

D D

If , then RatioFlag = 0 false

C sweb C tweb

else

RatioFlag =1 true

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

D D D

max , max 0.1208, 0.427 0.427

C C sweb C tweb

D

If 1, then WebPassFlag =1 true

C

else

WebPassFlag = 0

Flag = 1 – rebar governed by demand => true

Flag = 2 – rebar not calculated since web bv< 0

Flag = 3 – rebar not calculated since the web is not part of the shear flow

path for torsion

Vssection V sweb 2 40645 81290 N

Vnsection V nweb 2 267 426 534852 N

Alsection Al 2893mm 2

nweb Vuweb

tv

1 bv dv

nweb

D tv

1

This is equivalent to:

C ssection f c

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

| Vu | 148.3E 3

127 914.4 0.1208

nweb 2

D t v dv 0.9

1

1

C ssection f c 5.871

and

| Vu | | Tu |

2 A0 be

nweb

D t v dv

1

C tsection 1.25 f c

148.3E 3 515.2 E 6

127 914.4 0.9 2 929352 127

2

0.9

1

0.427

1.25 5.871

D D

If , then RatioFlag = 0 false

ssection C tsection

C

D D D

max , max 0.1208,0.427 0.427

C C ssection C tsection

D

If 1, then SectionPassFlag = 1 true

C

else

SectionPassFlag = 0

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0.

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit

cal value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f c is multiplied by the

FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

FactorCompLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service

design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand compres-

sive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the control-

ling stress can be selected and compared against one compression limit.

FactorTensLim – Percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;

Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand tensile stresses are

divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be

selected and compared against one tension limit.

5.5.3 Algorithm

The principal stresses are evaluated at three points at each web: the web cen-

terline at the bottom of the top slab; web centerline at the top of the bottom

slab; and web centerline at the section neutral axis.

The principal stresses are evaluated for each demand set using the Mohr circle

to combine bending, shear, and torsion stresses. The bending stresses assume

linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and both bending moments

(M2 and M3). The shear flow is calculated internally by the program taking

into account section properties at the elevation of the stress point. A shear scale

factor is used to convert the total shear flow acting at an elevation (y-

coordinate) to tangential shear stress in the web. The scale factor is equal to the

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

of the web from vertical, and divided again by the design width of the web.

web

ShearScaleFactor

bweb cos web

cos(| web |)

where web and bweb is the horizontal width of web

nweb

1

cos(| web |)

A torsion scale factor is used to convert the total torque acting on the section

to tangential shear stress in the web. For interior webs, this is equal to zero.

For exterior webs, this is equal to one divided by the plastic torsional

modulus.

1

TorsionScaleFactor

Wt

where Wt 2 A0 t min

If the demand set contains live load, the program positions the load to cap-

ture extreme stress at each of the evaluation points.

The stresses are divided by the appropriate demand parameter. Then the ex-

tremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is re-

corded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Sec-

tion 5.6.1).

Chapter 6

Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

AASHTO-LRFD-07 code for design checks when the superstructure has a deck

that includes cast-in-place multi-cell concrete box design and uses the Ap-

proximate Method of Analysis, as described in Section 4.6.2.2 of the code.

place multi-cell concrete box design, each web and its tributary slabs are de-

signed separately, and live loads are distributed to webs using the Approxi-

mate Methods of Analysis in accordance with AASHTO Article 4.6.2.2. Tor-

sion effects are always ignored. When CSiBridge calculates the Live Load Dis-

tribution Factors (LLDFs), the section and span qualification criteria stated in

AASHTO 4.6.2.2 are verified and non-compliant sections are not designed.

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with Article 5.8.3.4.2 of

the code, torsion is ignored.

When the multi-cell concrete box design option is used, moments and shears

due to live load are distributed to individual webs in accordance with the fac-

tors specified in Articles 4.6.2.2.2 and 4.6.2.2.3 of the code. Torsion effects are

ignored. The user can control if the section is designed as “a whole-width

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

for the “Diaphragms Present” option.

The following parameters are considered during stress design:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The

compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

0.4 to 0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain com-

pression limit

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f 'c is multiplied

by the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the top slab and

three points at the bottom fiber of the bottom slab: the left corner, the center-

line web and the right corner of the relevant slab tributary area. The location is

labeled in the output plots and tables. See Chapter 9, Section 9.1.1.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point, and compression and tension limits

are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim -

f 'c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and ei-

ther both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on

which method for determining LLDF has been specified in the design request

(see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. Extremes are found for each

point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

The following parameters are considered during shear design:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9.

The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multi-

plied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of

light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to ob-

tain factored resistance.

Check Sub Type – Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear

design will be used: either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT)

in accordance with Section 5.8.3.4.2 of the code; or the Vci/Vcw method in

accordance with Section 5.8.3.4.3 of the code. Currently only the MCFT

option is available.

accordance with Section 5.8.3.4.2 of the code; Default Value = 0.4x10 ,

-3

-3

-3

cordance with Section 5.8.3.4.2 of the code; Default Value = 6.0x10 ,

-3

Typical value(s): 6.0x10

PhiC for Nu – Resistance Factor used in Equation 5.8.3.5-1 of the code; De-

fault Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

Phif for Mu – Resistance Factor used in Equation 5.8.3.5-1 of the code; De-

fault Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0.

Shear Rebar Material – A previously defined rebar material label that will

be used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the

girder.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

6.2.1 Variables

V Resistance factor for shear

prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, the component is re-

sisting the applied shear

of the code. Varies for positive and negative moment.

dPTBot Distance from top of top slab to center of gravity of tendons in the

bottom of the precast beam

accordance with Section 5.8.2.9 of the code

Aps Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

Avl Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the mem-

ber at the section under consideration

5.8.3.4.2-4 of the code)

tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request

AVS min Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length in

accordance with Equation 5.8.2.5 of the code

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 of

the code (derived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure

assumes that the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over an area

bv wide and dv deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses (de-

fined by angle θ and shown as D) remains constant over dv, and that the shear

strength of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress con-

ditions at just one location in the web. For design, the user should select only

those sections that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate sta-

tion ranges in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

The effective web width is taken as the minimum web width, measured parallel

to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

level, one-quarter the diameter of grouted ducts at that level is subtracted from

the web width.

Each tendon at a section is checked for presence in the web and the minimum

controlling effective web thicknesses are evaluated.

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web effective thickness

even if only part of the duct is within the web boundaries. In such cases, the en-

tire one-quarter of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the element

thickness.

If several tendon ducts overlap in one web (when projected on the vertical

axis), the diameters of the ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the ef-

fective thickness. The effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bot-

tom of each duct.

description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

6.2.3 Algorithms

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,

a new force demand set is generated. The new force demand set is built up

from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum absolute values of

V2 and M3 of the two StepTypes (Max and Min) present in the envelope

COMBO case. The StepType of this new force demand set is named ABS and

the signs of the P, V2 and M3 are preserved. The ABS case follows the indus-

try practice where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments that

are not necessarily corresponding to the same design vehicle position. The

section cut is designed for all three StepTypes in the COMBOMax, Min

and ABSand the controlling StepType is reported.

sets are generated where Mupos Vu Vp dvpos and Muneg Vu Vp dvneg . The ac-

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

the StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved.

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-

ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c V2Tot

Vp

ngirders

The depth of the equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative

moment is evaluated in accordance with Equation 5.7.3.1.1 of the code.

If Mu < 0, then

dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 (dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ),(dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a

missible shear capacity at a section in accordance with Section 5.8.3.2-2 of

the code

Vu

Vp

D V

(5.8.3.2-2)

C 0.25 f 'c b dv

Mu

snumerator 0.5 N u Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

dV

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

snumerator

E p Aps

s

Avl

Es

snumerator

s

sdenominator

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section.

Nu

If 0.52 f 'c then s 2 s

Agirder

reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate

how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit.

termined in Article 5.8.3.4.

18 29 3500 s 45 (5.8.3.4)

transmit tension and shear, as specified in Article 5.8.3.4.

4.8

(5.8.3.4)

1 750 s

Evaluate the nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the con-

crete (eq. 5.8.3.3-3).

Vc 0.083 f 'c b dv

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

Vu

VS V p Vc

s

Vs

if VS 0 , then AVS 0 else AVS . (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1

f y dv

tan

0.083 f 'c b

If Vu 0.5 s Vc Vp , then AVSmin in accor-

fy

dance with (eq. 5.8.2.5-1), else AVS min 0.

1

VS AVS f y dv .

tan

Evaluate the longitudinal rebar on the flexure tension side in accordance with

(eq. 5.8.3.5-1).

VU Vu

VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU NU S 1

ASLreq 0.5 E p Aps

dv f P tan fy

AVL max( AVL , ASLreq )

Assign longitudinal rebar to the top or bottom side of the girder based on the

moment sign.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The following parameter is used in the design of flexure:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The

nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain fac-

tored resistance

6.3.1 Variables

Resistance factor for flexure

measured from out to out

prestressing tendons

age of all tendons in tensile zone)

all tendons in tensile zone)

6 - 10 Flexure Design

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate

stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between

concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular

concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 fc over a zone bounded by the edges

of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the

distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is meas-

ured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for con-

crete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,

β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,

except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate ca-

pacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based

only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement

is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,

the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-

tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu

(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the

flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported

in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange

(slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

6.3.3 Algorithms

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

Flexure Design 6 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the tributary slab area

and the slab width assuming a rectangular shape.

Aslab

tslabeq

bslab

on section f c

f 28

If f c > 28 MPa, then 1 max 0.85 c 0.05; 0.65

7

else 1 0.85

The tendon location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are

processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on the sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive

moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block

and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of

the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block

extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a

straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from

the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to

the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

6 - 12 Flexure Design

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

f py

k 2 1.04

f pu

pression stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neu-

tral axis and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (eq.

5.7.3.1.1-4)

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

if the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance

with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with (eq.

5.7.3.1.1-1)

c

f ps f pu 1 k

y pt

5.7.3.2.2-1)

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

else

Flexure Design 6 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

c

M n APT f ps yPT 1

2

M r M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets

and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

6 - 14 Flexure Design

Chapter 7

Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

AASHTO-LRFD-07 code for design and stress check when the superstructure

has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with composite slabs.

The following parameters are considered during stress design:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The

compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

to 0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression

limit

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.24 (ksi) 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The f ' c is multiplied by

the FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the composite slab:

the left corner, the centerline beam and the right corner of the composite slab

tributary area. The location of stress output points at the slab bottom fiber and

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

beam top and bottom fiber depends on the type of precast beam present in the

section cut. The location is labeled in the output plots and tables.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point and compression and tension limits

are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim -

f ' c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and ei-

ther both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on

which method for determining LLDF has been specified in the Design Request

(see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set. Extremes are found for each

point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The following parameters are considered during shear design:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9.

The nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied

by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Value = 0.7, Typical value(s): 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of

light-weight concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain

factored resistance.

Check Sub Type – Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear

design will be used: Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accor-

dance with 5.8.3.4.2; or Vci/Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3 Cur-

rently only the MCFT option is available.

cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x10 , Typical value(s):

-3

0 to 0.4x10

-3

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

-3

cordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10 , Typical value(s):

-3

6.0x10

1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0. Shear Rebar Material. A previously defined

rebar material label that will be used to determine the required area of trans-

verse rebar in the girder

will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

7.2.1 Variables

V Resistance factor for shear

prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, the component is re-

sisting the applied shear

for positive and negative moment.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

in the bottom of the precast beam

Aps Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member,

Avl Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the mem-

ber at the section under consideration

5.8.3.4.2-4)

nal tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request

AVS min Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length in

accordance with (eq. 5.8.2.5)

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 (de-

rived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that

the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over an area bv wide and dv

deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses (defined by angle θ

and shown as D) remains constant over dv, and that the shear strength of the

section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress conditions at just

one location in the web. The user should select for design only those sections

that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate station ranges in

the design request (see Chapter 4).

It is assumed that the precast beams are pre-tensioned, and therefore, no ducts

are present in webs. The effective web width is taken as the minimum web

width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the ten-

sile and compressive forces as a result of flexure.

description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

7.2.3 Algorithms

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,

two new force demand sets are generated. The new force demand sets are

built up from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum and mini-

mum values of V2 and minimum values of M3 of the two StepTypes (Max

and Min) present in the envelope COMBO case. The StepType of these new

force demand sets are named MaxM3MinV2 and MinM3MaxV2, respec-

tively. The signs of all force components are preserved. The two new cases

are added to comply with industry practice where sections are designed for

extreme shear and moments that are not necessarily corresponding to the

same design vehicle position. The section cut is designed for all four Step-

Types in the COMBOMax, Min, MaxM3MinV2, and MinM3MaxV2and the

controlling StepType is reported.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

M

upos V V d

u p vpos M

uneg u V V d

p vneg

sets are generated where and .

The acronyms “-CodeMinMuPos” and “-CodeMinMuNeg” are added to the

end of the StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved. The

component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing

force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c V2Tot

Vp

n girders

Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is

evaluated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1)

If Mu < 0 then

dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 (dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ),(dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a

If Mu Vu Vp dv then Mu (Vu Vp ) dv

missible shear capacity at a section in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu

Vp

D V

(5.8.3.2-2)

C 0.25 f 'c b dv

Mu

snumerator 0.5 N u Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

dV

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

snumerator

E p Aps

s

Avl

Es

snumerator

s

sdenominator

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section.

Nu

If 0.52 f 'c then s 2 s

Agirder

reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate

how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit

termined in Article 5.8.3.4

18 29 3500 s 45 (5.8.3.4)

transmit tension and shear, as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8

(5.8.3.4)

1 750 s

eq. 5.8.3.3-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Vc 0.083 f 'c b dv

Vu

VS V p Vc

s

Vs

If VS 0 then AVS 0, else AVS (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1

f y dv

tan

0.083 f 'c b

If Vu 0.5 s Vc Vp then AVSmin in accordance

fy

with (eq. 5.8.2.5-1); else AVS min 0

1

VS AVS f y dv

tan

5.8.3.5-1)

VU Vu

VP 0.5 min(VS , )

MU NU S 1

ASLreq ( 0 .5 E p Aps )

dv f P tan fy

AVL max( AVL , ASLreq )

sign

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

The girder spacing is 9’-8”. The girder type is AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72-

inch-deep, 42-inch-wide top flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO

28/72 Girders). The concrete deck is 8 inches thick, with the haunch thickness

assumed = 0.

Materials

Concrete strength

Prestressed girders 28-day strength, f c = 6 ksi,

Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,415 ksi

Deck slab: 4.0 ksi, Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi

Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi

Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

2

Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in

Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi

Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi

Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Depth = 72 in.

Thickness of web = 8 in.

2

Area, Ag = 1,085 in

Ac = Area of concrete on the flexural

tension side of the member (bordered

2

at mid depth of the beam + slab height) = 551 in

4

Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in

N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.

N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.

P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

width of concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width. For the interior

beam, the bslab 9'8" 116in .

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

7 - 10 Design Shear

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

after girder Section 2, Vu = 319.1 kip; Mu = 3678 kip-ft

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestress-

ing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

V2 c V2Tot

Vp Vp = 0 since no inclined tendons are present.

n girders

Depth of equivalent stress block ‘a’ for both positive and negative moment is

evaluated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1).

Since Mu > 0, then (for calculation of the depth of the compression block,

refer to the Ultimate Flexure example in Section 6.3.4 of this manual)

max(0.72 80", 0.9 75", 75" 0.5 5.314 0.85)

d v max(57.6" ,67.5" ,72.74" ) 72.74"

Check if Mu Vu Vp dv

in accordance with 5.8.3.2-2

Vu 319

Vp 0

D V 0.9

0.406

C 0.25 f 'c b dv 0.25 6 8 72.74

Design Shear 7 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Mu

snumerator 0.5 N u Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

dV

3678 12

0.5 0 319 0 6.73 0.7 270 346.2 kip

72.74

snumerator

E p Aps

s

Avl not applicable

Es

If snumerator 0 then

sdenominator E p Aps Es Avl Ec Ac

28500 6.73 4415 551.4 26 263461 kip

snumerator 346.2

s 1.318e-4

sdenominator 2626346

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section

Nu

If 0.52 f 'c then s 2 s ; not applicable since Nu = 0

Agirder

forcement as specified in the Design Request and recalculate Avl

mined in Article 5.8.3.4

7 - 12 Design Shear

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Value reported by CSiBridge = 28.5 deg

tension and shear as specified in Article 5.8.3.4

4.8 4.8

5.3265

1 750 s 1 750 1.318e-4

Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.3267

(eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Vc 0.0316 f 'c b dv

0.0316 5.32 1.0 6 8 72.74 239.92 kip

Value reported by CSiBridge = 240.00 kip

Vu 319

VS Vp Vc 0 239.6 114.8 kip

s 0.9

Vs 114.8

AVS 1.43e-2 in 2 /in (eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

1 1

f y dv 60 72.74

tan tan 28.5

Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement

0.0316 f 'c b 0.0316 1.0 6 8

AVS min 0.01032in 2 /in (eq.

fy 60

5.8.2.5-1)

If VS 0 then AVS AVS min else AVS max( AVS min , AVS ) 1.43e-2in 2 /2

Design Shear 7 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

2

Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.43e-2in /in

1 1

VS AVS f y dv 0.0143 60 72.74 114.9 kip

tan tan 28.5

Value reported by CSiBridge = 114.6 kip

5.8.3.5-1

VU Vu

VP 0.5 min VS ,

S S

E p Aps

MU NU 1

ASLreq 0.5

dv f P tan fy

319

3678 12 0 0.5 114.9 1

0 0.9

0.5 28500 6.73 3176.3 in 2

72.74 0.9 1.0 tan 28.5 60

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.00 in no additional longitudinal re-

2

The following parameters are used in the design of flexure:

PhiC – Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The

nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain fac-

tored resistance

7.3.1 Variables

Resistance factor for flexure

7 - 14 Design of Flexure

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

measured from out to out

prestressing tendons

age of all tendons in tensile zone)

all tendons in tensile zone)

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on approximate

stress distribution specified in Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between

concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular

concrete compressive stress block of 0.85 fc over a zone bounded by the edges

of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the

distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is meas-

ured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor β1 is taken as 0.85 for con-

crete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,

β1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,

except that β1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

Design of Flexure 7 - 15

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal axis 3. Separate ca-

pacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based

only on bonded tendons defined in the Bridge Object. Mild steel reinforcement

is not considered. If there is no prestressing in the tension zone of the section,

the capacity is reported as zero. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a sec-

tion, stressed or not, have fpe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5 fpu

(specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the

flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported

in section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange (slab)

in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

7.3.3 Algorithms

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

tion fc

f c 28

If f c > 28 MPa, then 1 max(0.85 0.05;0.65)

7

else 1 0.85

The tendon location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are

processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive mo-

ment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

it is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line lo-

7 - 16 Design of Flexure

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

cated parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

f py

k 2 1.04

f pu

sion stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis

and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

APT f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bslab kAPT

y pt

The distance c is compared to the slab thickness. If the distance to the neutral

axis c is larger than the composite slab thickness, the distance c is re-

evaluated. For this calculation, the beam flange width and area are converted

to their equivalents in slab concrete by multiplying the beam flange width by

the modular ratio between the precast girder concrete and the slab concrete.

The web width in the equation for c is substituted for the effective converted

girder flange width. The distance c is recalculated in accordance with (eq.

5.7.3.1.1-3).

c

f pu

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

y pt

Design of Flexure 7 - 17

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If the calculated value of c exceeds the sum of the deck thickness and the

equivalent precast girder flange thickness, the program assumes the neutral

axis is below the flange of the precast girder and recalculates c. The term

0.85 f c b bw in the calculation is broken into two terms, one refers to the

contribution of the deck to the composite section flange and the second refers

to the contribution of the precast girder flange to the composite girder flange.

5.7.3.1.1-1

c

f ps f pu 1 k

y pt

c c tslabeq

M n APT f ps yPT 1 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

else

c

M n APT f ps yPT 1

2

M r M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous, except that

calculation of positive moment resistance is not applicable.

Girder spacing: 9’-8”

7 - 18 Design of Flexure

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)

Materials

Concrete strength

Prestressed girders 28-day strength, fc = 6 ksi,

Girder final elastic modulus, Ec = 4,696 ksi

Deck slab = 4.0 ksi,

Deck slab elastic modulus, Es = 3,834 ksi

Reinforcing steel Yield strength, fy = 60 ksi

Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

Strand area, Aps = 0.153 in2

Steel yield strength, fpy = 243 ksi

Steel ultimate strength, fpu = 270 ksi

Prestressing steel modulus, Ep = 28,500 ksi

Depth = 72 in.

Thickness of web = 8 in.

Area, Ag = 1,085 in2

Moment of inertia, Ig = 733,320 in4

N.A. to top, yt = 35.62 in.

N.A. to bottom, yb = 36.38 in.

P/S force eccentricity e = 31.380 in.

tive flange width of the concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width.

Design of Flexure 7 - 19

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

7 - 20 Design of Flexure

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they re-

sistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment

when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and is con-

sidered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom fi-

ber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a

zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located par-

allel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1c from the extreme compression fi-

ber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

APTBottom 44 0.153 6.732 in 2

2

Value reported by CSiBridge = 6.732 in

12 2 12 4 10 6 6 8 4 10

yPTBottom (72 8) 75 in

12 12 10 6 4

Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

f py 243

k 2 1.04 2 1.04 0.28

f pu 270

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.28

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with 5.7.2.2 based on the

composite slab f c

1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strength not exceeding 4.0 ksi. If f c

> 4 ksi, then 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of

strength in excess of 4.0 ksi. Since fc = 4 ksi, 1 = 0.85

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.85 (not reported)

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with 5.7.3.1.1-4

Design of Flexure 7 - 21

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

APTBottom f pu

c

f pu

0.85 f ' c 1 bslab k APTBottom

yPTBottom

6.732 * 270

5.314 in

270

0.85 4 0.85 116 0.28 6.732

75

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 5.314 in

the c needs to be re-evaluated to include the precast beam flange in the

equivalent compression block.

5.7.3.1.1-1

c 5.314

f ps f pu 1 k 270 1 0.28 264.64 ksi

yPTBottom 75

Value reported by CSiBridge = 264.643 ksi

c 5.314 0.85

M n APTBottom f ps yPTBottom 1 6.732 264.64 75

2 2

129 593.17 / 12 10 799.4 kip-ft

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 107 99 kip-ft (not reported)

Value reported by CSiBridge = 9719.5 kip-ft (116633.5 kip-in)

7 - 22 Design of Flexure

Chapter 8

Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

This chapter describes the algorithms CSiBridge applies when designing steel

I-beam with composite slab superstructures in accordance with the AASHTO

LRFD 2008 Edition, Section 6 or Appendix A.

The positive yield moment, My, is determined by the program in accordance

with section D6.2.2 of the code using the following user-defined input, which

is part of the Design Request (see Chapter 4 for more information about Design

Request).

Mdnc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that

represents the moment caused by the factored permanent load applied

before the concrete deck has hardened or is made composite.

Mdc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that

represents the moment caused by the remainder of the factored perma-

nent load (applied to the composite section).

Section Properties 8- 1

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

M dnc M dc M AD

Fyt (D6.2.2-1)

SNC SLT SST

M y M dnc M dc M AD (D6.2.2-2)

where

3

SNC = Noncomposite section modulus (in. )

3

SLT = Long-term composite section modulus (in. )

3

SST = Short-term composite section modulus (in. )

My is taken as the lesser value calculated for the compression flange, Myc, or the

tension flange, Myt. The positive My is calculated only once based on Mdnc and

Mdc demands specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted

that the My calculated in the procedure described here is used by the program

only to determine Mnpos for compact sections in positive bending in a continuous

span, where the nominal flexural resistance may be controlled by My in accor-

dance with (eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3).

M n 1.3Rh M y

For composite sections in negative flexure, the procedure described for positive

yield moment is followed, except that the composite section for both short-term

and long-term moments consists of the steel section and the longitudinal rein-

forcement within the tributary width of the concrete deck. Thus, SST and SLT are

the same value. Also, Myt is taken with respect to either the tension flange or

the longitudinal reinforcement, whichever yields first.

The negative My is calculated only once based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands

specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted that the My cal-

culated in the procedure described here is used by the program solely to deter-

mine the limiting slenderness ratio for a compact web corresponding to 2Dcp / tw

in (eq. A6.2.1-2).

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

E

Fyc Dcp

pw Dcp rw

2 (A6.2.1-2)

Mp Dc

0.54 0.09

Rh M y

Rh M yc w pw Dc M p Mp

R pc 1 1 (A.6.2.2-4)

M yc M yc

Mp rw pw Dc

Rh M yt w pw Dc M p M p

R pt 1 1 (A6.2.2-5)

M yt M yt

Mp rw pw Dc

The positive plastic moment, Mp, is calculated as the moment of the plastic

forces about the plastic neutral axis. Plastic forces in the steel portions of a

cross-section are calculated using the yield strengths of the flanges, the web,

and reinforcing steel, as appropriate. Plastic forces in the concrete portions of

the cross-section that are in compression are based on a rectangular stress block

with the magnitude of the compressive stress equal to 0.85 fc. Concrete in ten-

sion is neglected. The position of the plastic neutral axis is determined by the

equilibrium condition, where there is no net axial force.

• Calculating the element forces and using them to determine if the plastic neu-

tral axis is in the web, top flange, or concrete deck;

• Calculating the location of the plastic neutral axis within the element deter-

mined in the first step;

and

• Calculating Mp.

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

Equations for the various potential locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA)

are given in Table 8-1.

Table 8-1 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Positive Flexure

Case PNA Condition Y and Mp

D P Pc Ps Prt Prb

Y t 1

2 Pw

I In Web Pt + Pw Pc + Ps + Prb + Pn

Pw 2

Y D Y Ps ds Prt drt Prb d rb Pc dc Pt dt

2

Mp

2D

t Pw Pt Ps Prt Prb

Y c 1

In Top 2 Pc

II Pt + Pw + Pc Ps + Prb + Pn

Flange

Y tc Y Ps ds Pn dn Prb d rb Pw dw Pt dt

Pc 2 2

Mp

2t c

P Pw Pt Prt Prb

Concrete Y ts c

Deck c Ps

III Pt + Pw + Pc rb Ps + Prb + Pn

Below t2 Y Ps

2

2t s

Y crb

Concrete c

IV Deck at Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb rb Ps + Pn Y 2 Ps

Prb ts Mp Prt drt Pc dc Pw dw Pt dt

2t s

Concrete P Pc Pw Pt Prt

Deck Y t s rb

Above c Ps

V Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb rt Ps + Pn

Prb and ts Y 2 Ps

Below Mp Prt drt Prb drb Pc dc Pw dw Pt dt

Prt 2t s

Y crt

Concrete c

VI Deck at Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Pn rt Ps Y 2 Ps

Prt ts Mp Prb drb Pc dc Pw dw Pt dt

2t s

P Pc Pw Pt Prt

Concrete Y t s rb

Deck c Ps

VII Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Prt < rt Ps

Above ts Y 2 Ps

Prt Mp Prt drt Prb drb Pc dc Pw dw Pt dt

2t s

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

bs Arb Crt

Art

Prt

ts Ps Crb Y

Prb PNA

PNA

bc Pc

tc Y Y

Pw PNA

D tw

tt Pt

CASE I CASE II CASES III-VII

bt

Next the section is checked for ductility requirement in accordance with (eq.

6.10.7.3)

Dp 0.42Dt

where,

Dp is the distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the

composite section at the plastic moment.

At the section where the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the plastic mo-

ment of a composite section in positive flexure is set to zero.

The plastic moment of a composite section in negative flexure is calculated by

an analogous procedure. Equations for the two cases most likely to occur in

practice are given in Table 8-2. The plastic moment of a noncomposite section

is calculated by eliminating the terms pertaining to the concrete deck and longi-

tudinal reinforcement from the equations in Tables 8-1 and 8-2 for composite

sections, in which

Ps = 0.85 fc bsts

Prb = Fyrb Arb

Pc = Fycbctc

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

Pw = Fyw Dtw

Pt = Fyt bttt

D P Pt Prt Prb

Y c 1

2 Pw

I In Web Pc + Pw Pt + Prb + Pn

Pw 2

Y D Y Pn dn Prb drb Pt dt Pd

l l

2

Mp

2D

t P Pc Prt Prb

Y l w 1

In Top

2 Pt

II Pc + Pw + Pt Prb + Pn

Flange

Y tl Y Pn dn Prb drb Pw dw Pc dc

Pt 2 2

Mp

2tl

Art Arb

Prt

ts Prb

Pt PNA

bc Y

tt Y

Pw PNA

D tw

tc Pc

bc CASE I CASE II

CASE V

In the equations for Mp given in Tables 8-1 and 8-2, d is the distance from an

element force to the plastic neutral axis. Element forces act at (a) mid-thickness

for the flanges and the concrete deck, (b) mid-depth of the web, and (c) center

of reinforcement. All element forces, dimensions, and distances are taken as

positive. The condition are checked in the order listed in Tables 8-1 and 8-2.

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

The program determines if the section can be qualified as compact based on the

following criteria:

• the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

D

150

tw

2 Dcp E

3.76 . (6.10.6.2.2-1)

tw Fyc

The program does not verify if the composite sections is kinked (chorded) con-

tinuously or horizontally curved.

The program determines if a section qualifies to be designed using Appendix A

of AASHTO LRFD 2008 Edition based on the following criteria:

• the Design Request Parameter “Use Appendix A?” is set to Yes (see Chapter

4 for more information about setting parameters in the Design Request),

• the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

2 Dc E

5.7 (6.10.6.2.3-1)

tw Fyc

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

I yc

0.3. (6.10.6.2.3-2)

I yt

The program does not verify if the composite sections in kinked (chorded) con-

tinuously or horizontally curved.

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a

higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Other-

wise the hybrid factor is taken as:

12 3 3

Rh (6.10.1.10.1-1)

12 2

where

2 Dn t w

(6.10.1.10.1-2)

A fn

Dn = the larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the cross-

section to the inside face of either flange. For sections where the neu-

tral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, Dn is the distance from the

neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on the side of the neutral

axis where yielding occurs first.

For composite sections in positive flexure, the Rb factor is taken as equal to 1.0.

For composite sections in negative flexure, the Rb factor is taken as:

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

awc 2 Dc

Rb 1 rw 1.0 (6.10.1.10.2)

1200 300 awc t w

where

E

rw 5.7 (6.10.1.10.2-4)

Fyc

2 Dc t w

awc (6.10.1.10.2-5)

b fc t fc

When the user specifies the design request parameter “Do webs have longitu-

dinal stiffeners?” as yes, the Rb factor is set to 1.0 (see Chapter 4 for more in-

formation about specifying Design Request parameters).

Demand Set combos (at least one required) are user-defined combination based

on LRFD combinations (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying

Demand Sets). The demands from all specified demand combos are enveloped

and used to calculate D/C ratios. The way the demands are used depends on if

the parameter "Use Stage Analysis?” is set to Yes or No. If “Yes,” the program

reads the stresses on beams and slabs directly from the section cut results. The

program assumes that the effects of the staging of loads applied to non-

composite versus composite section and the concrete slab material time de-

pendent properties were captured by using the nonlinear stage analysis load

case available in CSiBridge.

If “No,” the program decomposes load cases present in every demand set

combo to three Bridge Design Action categories: non-composite, composite

long term, and composite short term. The program uses the load case Bridge

Design Action parameter to assign the load cases to the appropriate categories.

A default Bridge Design Action parameter is assigned to a load case based on

its Design Type. However, the parameter can be overwritten: click the Analy-

sis > Load Cases > {Type} > New command to display the Load Case Data –

{Type} form; click the Design button next to the Load case type drop down

list.

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

Evaluation of the flange stress, fbu, calculated without consideration of flange

lateral bending is dependent on setting the “Use Stage Analysis?” design re-

quest parameter.

P M NC M LTC M STC

fbu

Acomp Ssteel SLTC SSTC

where,

The short term section modulus for positive moment is calculated by trans-

forming the concrete deck using steel to concrete modular ratio. The long term

section modulus for positive moment is using a modular ratio factored by n,

where n is specified in the “Modular ratio long term multiplier” Design Pa-

rameter. The effect of compression reinforcement is ignored. For negative

moment, the concrete deck is assumed cracked and is not included in the sec-

tion modulus calculations, whereas tension reinforcement is taken into account.

If “Use Stage Analysis? = Yes,” then the fbu stresses on each flange are read di-

rectly from the section cut results. The program assumes that the effects of the

staging of the loads applied to non-composite versus composite sectiond and

the concrete slab material time dependent properties were captured by using the

nonlinear stage analysis load case available in CSiBridge.

The program verifies the sign of the stress in the composite slab, and if stress is

positive (tension), the program assumes that the entire section cut demand

moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to reflect the fact that the

concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not contribute to the resis-

tance of the section.

Flange stress ff used in the Service design check is evaluated in the same man-

ner as the stress fbu, with one exception. When the Design Parameter “Does

8 - 10 Demand Sets

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

concrete slab resist tension?” in the Steel Service Design request is set to

“Yes,” the program uses section properties based on a transformed section as-

suming the concrete slab to be fully effective in both tension and compression.

The flange lateral bending stress fl is evaluated only when all of the following

conditions are met:

“Steel Girders” has been selected for the deck section type (Components >

Superstructure Item > Deck Sections command) and the Girder Modeling

In Area Object Models – Model Girders Using Area Objects option is set to

“Yes” on the Define Bridge Section Data – Steel Girder form.

The bridge object is modeled using Area Objects. This option can be set us-

ing the Bridge > Update command to display the “Update Bridge Structural

Model“ form; then select the Update as Area Object Model option.

Set the Live Load Distribution to Girders method to “Use Directly Forces

from CSiBridge” on the Bridge Design Request – Superstructure – {Code}

form, which displays when the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design >

Design Requests command is used (see Chapter 3 for more information

about Live Load Distribution).

In all other cases, the flange lateral bending stress is set to zero. The fl stresses

on each flange are read directly from the section cut results.

For composite sections in positive flexure, the depth of web in compression is

computed using the following equation:

fc

Dc d t fc 0 (D6.3.1-1)

fc f t

Demand Sets 8 - 11

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

where,

DC1, the permanent load acting on the noncomposite section; DC2, the

permanent load acting on the long-term composite section; DW, the wear-

ing surface load; and LL+IM acting on their respective sections. fc is

taken as negative when the stress is in compression. Flange lateral bend-

ing is disregarded in this calculation.

Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.

For composite sections in negative flexure, DC is computed for the section con-

sisting of the steel girder plus the longitudinal reinforcement, with the excep-

tion of the following. For composite sections in negative flexure at the Service

Design Check Request where the concrete deck is considered effective in ten-

sion for computing flexural stresses on the composite section (Design Parame-

ter “Does concrete slab resist tension?” = Yes), DC is computed from (eq. D

6.3.1-1). For this case, the stresses fc and ft are switched, the signs shown in the

stress diagram are reversed, tfc is the thickness of the bottom flange, and DC in-

stead extends from the neutral axis down to the top of the bottom flange.

The strength design check calculates at every section cut positive flexural ca-

pacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. It then compares the ca-

pacities against the envelope of demands specified in the design request.

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

8.3.1 Flexure

The nominal flexural resistance of the section is evaluated as follows:

Dp

M n M p 1.07 0.7 (6.10.7.1.2-2)

Dt

mined as

Mn 1.3RhMy

1

Mu 3 ft S xt f

DoverC max , l

f Mn 0.6 Fyf

Nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flange is taken as:

1

fbu 3 ft fbu f

DoverC max , , l

f Fnt f Fnc 0.6 Fyf

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

The local buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(FLB) as specified in

Article 6.10.8.2.2 is taken as:

Otherwise

Fyr f pf

Fnc 1 1 Rb Rh Fyc (6.10.8.2.2-2)

Rh Fyc rf pf

in which

b fc

f (6.10.8.2.2-3)

2t fc

E

pf 0.38 (6.10.8.2.2-4)

Fyc

E

rf 0.56 (6.10.8.2.2-5)

Fyr

within the cross-section, including residual stress effects, but

not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the

smaller of 0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5 Fyc

specified in Article (6.10.8.2.3) is taken as follows:

Fyr Lb L p

Fnc Cb 1 1 Rb Rh Fyc Rb Rh Fyc . (6.10.8.2.3-2)

Rh Fyc Lr L p

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

in which

E E

Lb unbraced length, L p 1.0rt , Lr rt

Fyc Fyr

Cb Rb 2 E

Fcr 2

(6.10.8.2.3-8)

Lb

r

t

b fc

rt (6.10.8.2.3-9)

1 Dc t w

12 1

3 b fc t fc

the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling

resistance:

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:

f Rh Fyf . (6.10.8.1.3-1)

1

fbu 3 fd fbu f

DoverC max , , t .

f Fm f Rh Fyf 0.6 Fyc

Sections that satisfy the following requirement qualify as compact web sec-

tions:

2 Dcp

pw Dcp (A6.2.1-2)

tw

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

where,

E

Fyc Dcp

pw Dcp 2

(A6.2.1-2)

Mp Dc

0.54 0.09

Rh M y

E

rw 5.7 (A6.2.1-3)

Fyc

Mp

R pc (A6.2.1-4)

M yc

Mp

R pt (A6.2.1-5)

M yt

Sections that do not satisfy the requirement for compact web sections, but for

which the web slenderness satisfies the following requirement:

w rw (A6.2.2-1)

where

2 Dc

w (A6.2.2-2)

tw

E

rw 5.7 (A6.2.2-3)

Fyc

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

Rh M yc w pw Dc M p Mp

R pc 1 1 (A6.2.2-4)

M yc M yc

Mp tw pw Dc

Rh M yt w pw Dc M p M p

R pt 1 1 (A6.2.2-5)

Mp rw pw Dc M yt M yt

where

Dc

pw Dc pw Dc p rw (A6.2.2-6)

Dcp

Article A6.3.2 is taken as:

If f pf , then M nc R pc M yc (A6.3.2-1)

Fyr S xc f pf

Otherwise M nc 1 1 R pc M yc (A6.3.2-2)

R pc M yc rf pf

in which

b fc

f (A6.3.2-3)

2t fc

E

pf 0.38 (A6.3.2-4)

Fyc

Ekc

rf 0.95 (A6.3.2-5)

Fyr

4

For built-up sections, kc (A6.3.2-6)

D

tw

SapObject.SapModel.PropFrame.GetNameList; PropType argument)

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

kc = 0.76

specified in Article A6.3.3 is taken as:

If Lb L p , then M nc R pc M yc . (A6.3.3-1)

If L p Lb Lr , then

Fyr S xc Lb L p

M nc Cb 1 1 R pc M yc R pc M yc . (A6.3.3-2)

R pc M yc Lr L p

in which

Lb unbraced length,

E

L p 1.0rt (A6.3.3-4)

Fyc

2

E J Fyr S xc h

Lr 1.95rt 1 1 6.76 (A6.3.3-5)

Fyr S xc h E J

C b 2 E J

Lb rt

2

Fcr 1 0.078 (A6.3.3-8)

Lb rt

2

S xc h

3

Dt w3 b fc t ft t fc b ft t 3ft t ft

J 1 0.63 1 0.63 (A6.3.3-9)

3 3 b fc 3 b ft

b fc

rt (A6.3.3-10)

1 Dc t w

12 1

3 b fc t fc

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling

resistance:

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:

f R pt M yt

1

Mu 3 ft S xc Mu f

DoverC max , , t

f M nc f R pt M yt 0.6 Fyc

8.3.2 Shear

When processing the design request from the Design module, the program as-

sumes that no vertical stiffeners are present and classifies all web panels as un-

stiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is not suf-

ficient to resist the demand specified in the design request, the program rec-

ommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a Demand over Capacity ratio

equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table

under the column heading d0req.

mize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and the program recal-

culates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels

as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified in

section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled

in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not affect

the magnitude of the demands.

The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:

Vn CVp (6.10.9.2-1)

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

in which

Vp 0.58Fyw Dt w (6.10.9.2-2)

that is determined as follows:

D Ek

If 1.12 , then C = 1.0. (6.10.9.3.2-4)

tw Fyw

Ek D Ek 1.12 Ek

If 1.12 1.40 , then C . (6.10.9.3.2-5)

Fyw t w Fyw D Fyw

tw

D Ek 1.57 Ek

If 1.40 , then C 2 , (6.10.9.3.2-6)

tw Fyw D Fyw

t

w

5

in which k 5 2

. (6.10.9.3.2-7)

dc

D

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at

the section cut proportioned such that

2 Dt w

2.5 (6.10.9.3.2-1)

b fc t fc b ft t ft

is taken as

0.87 1 C

Vn Vp C

2

(6.10.9.3.2-2)

do

1

D

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

where

do = transverse stiffener spacing.

Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

0.87 1 C

Vn Vp C (6.10.9.3.2-8)

2

do do

1

D D

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:

in which

Vp 0.58Fyw Dt w . (6.10.9.3.3-2)

Vu

DoverC .

vVn

At every section cut, the Service design check calculates the stresses, ff, at the

top steel flange and the bottom steel flange of composite sections and compares

them against limits specified in section 6.10.4.2.2 of the code.

f f

DoverC (6.10.4.2.2-1)

0.95Rh Fyf

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

ft

ff

DoverC 2 (6.10.4.2.2-2)

0.95Rh Fyf

ft

ff

DoverC 2 (6.10.4.2.2-3)

0.80 Rh Fxf

The flange stresses are derived in the same way as fbu stress demands (see sec-

tion 8.2.1, the demand flange, of this manual). The user has an option to spec-

ify whether the concrete slab resists tension or not by setting the “Does con-

crete slab resist tension?” design request parameter. It is the responsibility of

the user to verify if the slab qualifies, in accordance with section 6.10.4.2.1 of

the code, to resist tension.

the longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete deck, determined as speci-

fied in Article 6.10.1.1.1d, is checked against 0.6 f c .

Except for composite sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the

requirement of Article 6.10.2.1.1, all section cuts are checked against the fol-

lowing requirement:

fc

DoverC (6.10.4.2.2-4)

Fcrw

where,

to demand loads calculated without consideration of flange lateral

bending

stiffeners, determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.9

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

0.9 Ek

Fcrw 2

(6.10.1.9.1-1)

D

t

w

9

k (6.10.1.9.1-2)

Dc D

2

where

termined as specified in Article D6.3.1 of the code.

The highest Demand Over Capacity ratio together with controlling equation is

reported for each section cut.

The Web Fatigue Design Request is used to calculate the Demand over Capac-

ity ratio as defined in Section 6.10.5.3 of the code – Special Fatigue Require-

ment for Webs. The requirement is applicable to interior panels of webs with

transverse stiffeners. When processing the design request from the Design

module, the program assumes that no vertical stiffeners are present and classi-

fies all web panels as unstiffened. Therefore when the design request is com-

pleted from the Design module, the Design Result Status table shows the mes-

sage text: “No stiffeners defined – use optimization form to define stiffeners.”

mize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and the program recal-

culates the Web Fatigue Request. In that case the program classifies the web

panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria

specified in section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are

not modeled in the Bridge Object, and therefore, adding/modifying stiffeners

does not affect the magnitude of the demands.

CSiBridge Superstructure Design Guide

where,

Vu = shear in the web at the section under consideration due to demand speci-

fied in the Design Request demand set combos. If live load distribution

to girders method “Use Factor Specified by Design Code” is selected in

the design request the program adjusts for the multiple presence factor

to account for the fact that fatigue load occupies only one lane (code

section 3.6.1.4.3b) and multiple presence factors shall not be applied

when checking for the fatigue limit state (code section 3.6.1.1.2).

tion 8.3.2.3 Nominal Resistance of End Panels of this manual)

After at least one Steel Design Request has been successfully processed, CSi-

Bridge enables the user to open a Steel Section Optimization module. The Op-

timization module allows interactive modification of steel plate sizes and defi-

nition of vertical stiffeners along each girder and span. It recalculates resistance

“on the fly” based on the modified section without the need to unlock the

model and rerun the analysis. It should be noted that in the optimization proc-

ess the demands are not recalculated and are based on the current CSiBridge

analysis results.

sizes and associated resistance results. The section plate size versions are “As

Analyzed,” “As Designed,” and “Current.” The section plots use distinct colors

for each version – black for As Analyzed, blue for As Designed, and red for

Current. When the Optimization form is initially opened, all three versions are

identical and equal to “As Analyzed.”

Two graphs are available to display various forces, moments, stresses, and ra-

tios for the As Analyzed or As Designed versions. The values plotted can be

controlled by clicking the “Select Series to Plot” button. The As Analyzed se-

ries are plotted as solid lines and the As Designed series as dashed lines.

8 - 24 Section Optimization

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

To modify steel plate sizes or vertical stiffeners, a new form can be displayed

by clicking on the Modify Section button. After the section modification is

completed, the Current version is shown in red in the elevation and cross sec-

tion views. After the resistance has been recalculated successfully by clicking

the Recalculate Resistance button, the Current version is designated to As De-

signed and displayed in blue.

After the section optimization has been completed, the As Designed plate sizes

and materials can be applied to the analysis bridge object by clicking the OK

button. The button opens a new form that can be used to Unlock the existing

model (in that case all analysis results will be deleted) or save the file under a

new name (New File button). Clicking the Exit button does not apply the new

plate sizes to the bridge object and keeps the model locked. The As Designed

version of the plate sizes will be available the next time the form is opened, and

the Current version is discarded.

Section Optimization 8 - 25

Chapter 9

Run a Bridge Design Request

This chapter identifies the steps involved in running a Bridge Design Request.

(Chapter 4 explains how to define the Request.) Running the Request applies

the following to the specified Bridge Object:

For this example, the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is applied to the model of a

concrete box-girder bridge shown in Figure 9-1.

It is assumed that the user is familiar with the steps that are necessary to create

a CSiBridge model of a concrete box girder bridge. If additional assistance is

needed to create the model, a 30-minute Watch and Learn video entitled,

”Bridge – Bridge Information Modeler” is available at the CSI website

www.csiberkeley.com. The tutorial video guides the user through the creation

of the bridge model referenced in this chapter.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The example bridge is a two-span prestressed concrete box girder bridge with

the following features:

bottom of the box girder only.

2

Prestress: The concrete box girder bridge is prestressed with four 10-in

tendons (one in each girder) and a jacking force of 2160 kips per tendon.

Deck: The concrete box girder has a nominal depth of 5 feet. The deck has

a parabolic variation in depth from 5 feet at the abutments to a maximum

of 10 feet at the interior bent support.

Spans: The two spans are each approximately 100 feet long.

Chapter 9 - Run a Bridge Design Request

Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Preferences command to

select the AASHTO LRFD 2007 design code. The Bridge Design Preferences

form shown in Figure 9-4 displays.

For this example, the default design load combinations were activated using the

Design/Rating > Load Combinations > Add Defaults command. After the

Bridge Design option has been selected, the Code-Generated Load Combina-

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

tions for Bridge Design form shown in Figure 9-5 displays. The form is used to

specify the desired limit states. Only the Strength II limit state was selected for

this example. Normally, several limit states would be selected.

The defined load combination for this example are shown in Figure 9-6.

Chapter 9 - Run a Bridge Design Request

The Str-II1, Str-II2 and StrIIGroup1 designations for the load combinations are

specified by the program and indicate that the limit state for the combinations

is Strength Level II.

After the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Request com-

mand has been used, the Bridge Design Request form shown in Figure 9-7 dis-

plays.

The name given to this example design request is FLEX_1, the Check Type is

for Concrete Box Flexure and the Demand Set, DSet1, specifies the combina-

tion as StrII (Strength Level II).

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The only Design Request Parameter option for a Concrete Box Flexural check

type is for PhiC. A value of 0.9 for PhiC is used.

After an analysis has been run, the bridge model is ready for a design/check.

Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Run Super command to

start the design process. Select the design to be run using the Perform Bridge

Design form shown in Figure 9-8:

The user may select the desired Design Request(s) and click on the Design

Now button. A plot of the bridge model, similar to that shown in Figure 7-9,

will display.

have been run, the indi-

vidual Design Requests can

be selected from the Design

Check options drop-down

list. This plot is described

further in Chapter 8.

check results

Chapter 10

Display Bridge Design Results

Bridge design results can be displayed on screen and as printed output. The

on-screen display can depict the bridge response graphically as a plot or in data

tables. The Advanced Report Writer can be used to create the printed output,

which can include the graphical display as well as the database tables.

To view the forces, stresses, and design results graphically, click the Home >

Display > Show Bridge Superstructure Design Results command, which

will display the Bridge Object Response Display form shown in Figure 10-1.

The plot shows the design results for the FLEX_1 design request created using

the process described in the preceding chapters. The demand moments are en-

veloped and shown in the blue region, and the negative capacity moments are

shown with a brown line. If the demand moments do not exceed the capacity

moments, the superstructure may be deemed adequate in response to the flex-

ure design request. Move the mouse pointer onto the demand or capacity plot

to view the values for each nodal point. Move the pointer to the capacity mo-

ment at station 1200 and 536981.722 kip-in is shown. A verification calcula-

tion that shows agreement with this CSiBridge result is provided in Section

10.4.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 10-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge design model

Use the Home > Display > Show Bridge Forces/Stresses command to select,

on the example form shown in Figure 10-2, the location along the top or bot-

tom portions of a beam or slab for which stresses are to be displayed. Figures

10-3 through 10-9 illustrate the left, middle, and right portions as they apply to

Multicell Concrete Box Sections. Location 1, as an example, refers to the top

left selection option while location 5 would refer to the bottom center selection

option. Locations 1, 2, and 3 refer to the top left, top center, and top right se-

lection option while locations 4, 5, and 6 refer to the bottom left, bottom center,

and bottom right selection options.

Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 10-2 Select the location on the beam or slab for which results are to be displayed

1 2 3 1 2 3

5 6 4 5 6

Centerline of the web Centerline of the web

Figure 10-3 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Vertical

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1 2 3 1 2 3

5 6 4 5 6

Centerline of the web

Centerline of the web

Figure 10-4 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped

1 2 3 1 2 3

5 6 4 5 6

Figure 10-5 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Clipped

Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

1 2 3 1 2 3

4

Bottom slab cut line

5 6 4 5 6

Figure 10-6 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders and Radius

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

4, 5

6 4

5 6 4 5 6

Centerline of the web Centerline of the web

Centerline of the web

Figure 10-7 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped Max

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1 2 3 1 2 3

4

Bottom slab cut line

5 6 4 5 6

1 2 3

4

Bottom slab cut line

5 6

Figure 10-9 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - AASHTO - PCI - ASBI Standard

Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

To view design results on screen in tables, click the Home > Display > Show

Tables command, which will display the Choose Tables for Display form

shown in Figure 10-10. Use the options on that form to select which data re-

sults are to be viewed. Multiple selection may be made. When all selections

have been made, click the OK button and a database table similar to that

shown in Figure 10-11 will display. Note the drop-down list in the upper right-

hand corner of the table. That drop-down list will include the various data ta-

bles that match the selections made on the Choose Tables for Display form. Se-

lect from that list to change to a different database table.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 10-11 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007 flexure check

The scroll bar along the bottom of the form can be used to scroll to the right to

view additional data columns.

The Orb > Report > Create Report command is a single button click output

option but it may not be suitable for bridge structures because of the size of the

document that is generated. Instead, the Advanced Report Writer feature within

CSiBridge is a simply and easy way to produce a custom output report.

To create a custom report that includes input and output, first export the files

using one of the Orb > Export commands: Access; Excel; or Text. When this

command is executed, a form similar to that shown in Figure 10-12 displays.

Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

This important step allows control over the size of the report to be generated.

Export only those tables to be included in the final report. However, it is possi-

ble to export larger quantities of data and then use the Advanced Report Writer

to select only specific data sets for individual reports, thus creating multiple

smaller reports. For this example, only the Bridge Data (input) and Concrete

Box Flexure design (output) are exported.

After the data tables have been exported and saved to an appropriate location,

click the Orb > Report > Advanced Report Writer command to display a

form similar to that show in Figure 10-13. Click the appropriate button (e.g.,

Find existing DB File, Convert Excel File, Convert Text File) and locate the

exported data tables. The tables within that Database, Excel, or Text file will be

listed in the List of Tables in Current Database File display box.

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Select the tables to be included in the report from that display box. The se-

lected items will then display in the Items Included in Report display box. Use

the various options on the form to control the order in which the selected tables

appear in the report as well as the headers (i.e., Section names), page breaks,

pictures, and blanks required for final output in .rft, .txt, or .html format.

After the tables have been selected and the headers, pictures, and other format-

ting items have been addressed, click the Create Report button to generate the

report. The program will request a filename and the path to be used to store the

report. Figure 10-14 shows an example of the printed output generated by the

Report Writer.

Chapter 10 - Display Bridge Design Results

verification calculations.

10.4 Verification

As a verification check of the design results, the output at station 1200 is exam-

ined. The following output for negative bending has been pulled from the Con-

BoxFlexure data table, a portion of which is shown in Figure 10-10:

Resisting moment, “ResistingNeg” (kip-in) = 536981.722

2

Total area of prestressing steel, “AreaPTTop” (in ) = 20.0

Top k factor, “kFactorTop” = 0.2644444

Neutral axis depth, c, “CDistForNeg” (in) = 5.1286

2

Effective stress in prestressing, fps, “EqFpsForNeg” (kip/in ) = 266.7879

f 245.1

k 2 1.04 PY 2 1.04 0.26444 (Results match)

fPU 270

Verification 10- 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

c

APT fPU 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq

, for a T-section

f

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT PU

YPT

APT fPU

c , when not a T-section

fPU

0.85 f c 1bwebeq kAPT

YPT

20.0(270)

c 5.1286 (Results match)

270

0.85(4)(0.85)(360) 0.26444(20)

114

c 5.1286

fPS fPU 1 k 270 1 0.26444 266.788 (Results match)

YPT 144

c c tslabeq

M N APT f PS YPT 1 0.85 f c bSLAB bwebeq tslabeq 1

2 2 2

c

M N APT f PS YPT 1 , when the box section is not a T-section

2

5.1286(0.85)

M N 20.0(266.788) 144 596646.5 kip-in

2

M R M N 0.85(596646.5) 536981.8 kip-in (Results match)

The preceding calculations are a check of the flexure design output. Other de-

sign results for concrete box stress, concrete box shear, and concrete box prin-

cipal have not been included. The user is encouraged to perform a similar

check of these designs and to review Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for a detailed descrip-

tions of the design algorithms.

10 - 12 Verification

References

ACI, 2007. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)

and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.

Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Offi-

cials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 2001

R-1

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