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p h a s e e q u ip m e n t R e fe re n c e s A c k n o w le d g e m e n ts 2 2 4 5 8 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 9 2 2 2 7 2 8 2 8 3 0 ● ● c d D E w 2 2 E m T h h a IE b e e b a s ic te s t m e th o d fo r e m is s io n s o f r m o n ic c u r r e n ts in to th e m a in s s u p p ly is C 6 1 0 0 0 .4 a n d IE C 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -1 2 .C o n te n ts M a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s t e s t in g a n d c o m p lia n c e w it h t h e E M C D ir e c t iv e 1 M a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s te s tin g a n d c o m p lia n c e w ith th e E M C D ir e c tiv e W h a t a r e m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s ? H o w d o m a in s h a r m o n ic s c a u s e p r o b le m s ? P r o b le m s c a u s e d b y m a in s v o lta g e d is to r tio n F u ll c o m p lia n c e te s tin g o f m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s T h e te s t s e t-u p T h e 2 3 0 v a c p o w e r s o u rc e T h e c u rre n t tra n d u c e r T h e w a v e a n a ly s e r T e s t c o n d itio n s E q u ip m e n t c la s s ific a tio n s a n d lim its 'S p e c if ie d p o w e r ' a n d t h e C la s s D lim it s C o m m e r c ia l te s t e q u ip m e n t L o w . ● ● ● ● 6 1 0 0 0 . T h is h a s e n a d o p t e d w it h s o m e 'c o m m o n o d ific a tio n s ' a s th e h a r m o n is e d u ro p e a n s ta n d a rd E N 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -2 E d . S y m m e tr ic a lly c o n tr o lle d h e a tin g e le m e n ts w ith a to ta l r a te d p o w e r le s s th a n o r e q u a l to 2 0 0 W In d e p e n d e n t d im m e r s fo r in c a n d e s c e n t la m p s w ith a r a te d p o w e r le s s th a n o r e q u a l to 1 k W .fa m ily E M C s ta n d a r d s w h ic h m a y a ls o a p p ly .3 . E q u ip m e n t o p e r a tin g fr o m m a in s d is tr ib u tio n s y s te m s w h ic h a r e p o w e r e d a t 2 2 0 V r m s o r le s s .a n d its s c o p e c o v e r s a ll a p p a r a tu s th a t is in te n d e d to b e c o n n e c te d to th e p u b lic L V s u p p ly ( i. E q u ip m e n t th a t is p o w e r e d a t s u p p ly v o lta g e s a b o v e 1 k V r m s .w h ic h m e a n s th a t it a p p lie s r e g a r d le s s o f th e ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t o r o f a n y g e n e r ic o r p r o d u c t.3 .c o s t n o n .1 2 p r o b a b ly b e c o m in g m a n d a to r y fo r E M C D ir e c tiv e c o m p lia n c e fo r e q u ip m e n t u p to 7 5 A /p h a s e in a fe w y e a r s tim e . R e c o m m e n d a tio n s o n th is a r e c o n ta in e d in IE C 6 1 0 0 0 .2 E d .2 :2 0 0 0 [1 ].3 . a n d a ll o th e r e q u ip m e n t w h ic h c o n s u m e s le s s th a n 7 5 W .c o m p lia n t te s tin g fo r m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s T h e m a k e / b u y d e c is io n M a in s s o u r c e a lte r n a tiv e s C u r r e n t tr a n s d u c e r a lte r n a tiv e s W a v e a n a ly s e r a lte r n a tiv e s O n . In c a n d e s c e n t la m p s a n d lu m in a ir e s w h ic h d o n o t in c o r p o r a t e a n 'e le c t r o n ic tr a n s fo r m e r ' o r d im m in g d e v ic e . th e p u b lic 2 3 0 V a c m a in s s u p p ly ) a n d w h ic h c o n s u m e s u p to 1 6 a m p s p e r p h a s e . a n d t o t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y s te p s to p r e v e n t it fr o m b e in g s o ld to th e g e n e r a l p u b lic . b e f o r e g r a n tin g p e r m is s io n . o r im p r o v e m e n ts m a d e to th e o w n e r 's / u s e r 's s u p p ly n e t w o r k s .3 is n o w a r e q u ir e m e n t ( fo r a ll e q u ip m e n t ith in its s c o p e ) fo r c o n fo r m ity w ith th e le c tr o m a g n e tic C o m p a tib ility ( E M C ) ir e c t iv e [ 3 ] w h e n u s in g t h e 's e lf e c la r a tio n to s ta n d a r d s ' r o u te to o n fo r m ity . 'P r o f e s s io n a l' m e a n s : u s e d in t h e c o u r s e o f a tr a d e . p ly b u t s e ts -3 w o n -2 h h ic h r w h o lim a s a n u m b e r o f e ith e r th e s ta n d a r d e re th e s ta n d a rd d o e s its … ● E q u ip m e n t in te n d e d fo r u s e o n a s ite w h ic h h a s its o w n d e d ic a te d d is tr ib u tio n t r a n s f o r m e r a n d s o e n jo y s a 'p r iv a t e L V s u p p ly ' ( a 'p u b lic ' s u p p ly is o n e t h a t is s h a re d b e tw e e n m o re th a n o n e o r g a n is a tio n o r h o u s e h o ld ) .e . E N u s e q s u .2 0 0 0 [2 ]. P r o fe s s io n a l e q u ip m e n t w h ic h c o n s u m e s m o r e th a n 1 k W fr o m its m a in s s u p p ly . B u e x d o a p ● t E N 6 1 0 0 0 c lu s io n s fo r e s n 't a p p ly .3 . p r o fe s s io n o r in d u s tr y a n d n o t in te n d e d fo r s a le to th e g e n e r a l p u b lic . w ith E N 6 1 0 0 0 . P r o fe s s io n a l e q u ip m e n t w h e r e its in s tr u c tio n m a n u a l in c lu d e s a r e q u ir e m e n t fo r its o w n e r /u s e r to a s k th e ir s u p p ly a u th o r ity fo r p e r m is s io n to c o n n e c t.3 . a n d w ill p r o b a b ly b e m a n d a to r y fo r u ip m e n t p o w e r e d fr o m a n M V o r H V p p ly fo r c o m p lia n c e w ith th e E M C D ir e c tiv e in a fe w y e a r s tim e . ● E N 6 1 0 0 0 .s ite te s tin g o f th e m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s T e s tin g th r e e . C o m p lia n c e w ith E N 6 1 0 0 0 . N o te th a t th e s u p p ly a u th o r itie s c o u ld a s k fo r th e ir o w n te s ts to b e p a s s e d . lig h tin g e q u ip m e n t w h ic h c o n s u m e s u n d e r 2 5 W .6 is a v a ila b le fo r o p tio n a l e .2 is a 'h o r iz o n t a l' E M C s ta n d a r d . It is u p to th e m a n u fa c tu r e r to d e c id e w h e th e r a p r o d u c t is in te n d e d fo r 'p r o f e s s io n a l u s e '. E q u ip m e n t th a t c o n s u m e s m o r e th a n 1 6 A m p s p e r p h a s e . IE C 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -4 a n d /o r IE C 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -1 2 a r e a v a ila b le fo r o p tio n a l u s e .

a n d c o u ld r e s u lt in s ig n ific a n t fu tu r e c h a n g e s to e ith e r E N o r IE C 6 1 0 0 0 .3 . ith in d a rd n o f p ly ( e u s o r if th e m u s t e .lin e a r lo a d to th e m a in s s u p p ly .2 :1 9 9 5 .2 . N o te th a t w h e re a p ro d u c t h a s a s a fe ty r e la te d fu n c tio n .3 . F o r e x a m p le . It c o u ld tu r n o u t th a t e v e n th o u g h n o h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s lim its a r e le g a lly r e q u ir e d fo r E M C c o m p lia n c e .s in e w a v e .r e la t e d f u n c t io n a l s a f e t y ' is d e s ig n e d c o r r e c tly a d d itio n a l a n d /o r to u g h e r e m is s io n s a n d /o r im m u n ity r e q u ir e m e n ts m a y b e r e q u ir e d . n 2 :2 0 0 0 n o w e x is ts c o m p lia n c e w ith th e s t J a n u a r y 2 0 0 4 th is e m a n d a to ry fo r u ip m e n t ( c o v e r e d b y p lie d to th e E U b o th th e 1 9 9 5 e d itio n e n ts in c lu d in g A 1 4 . S in c e t h e y o n ly 't o p u p ' t h e ir d c s t o r a g e c a p a c ito r s a t th e p e a k s o f th e a c s u p p ly w a v e fo r m . O n 1 2 n d e d itio n w ill b e c o m c o m p lia n c e fo r a ll e q its s c o p e ) th a t is s u p m a r k e t. th e ir h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts w e r e s till s o h ig h th a t th e y m a d e it im p o s s ib le to r u n th e lig h ts a t m o r e th a n 7 0 % o f fu ll p o w e r w ith o u t o v e r h e a tin g th e 1 M V A tr a n s fo r m e r . n o n . It w a s a v e r y e m b a r r a s s in g s itu a tio n fo r th e d e s ig n e r s .3 .d c p o w e r c o n v e r t e r s u s e d in 'lin e a r ' a n d s w it c h m o d e a c -d c p o w e r c o n v e rte rs to c re a te th e ir u n r e g u la te d d c v o lta g e r a ils p r e s e n t a n o n . o r th a t th e u s e r 's m a in s p o w e r d is t r ib u t io n n e t w o r k n e e d s im p r o v e m e n ts . th e a u th o r h a s s e e n a n e x a m p le o f a r o a d t u n n e l 'lig h t in g s c h e m e ' t h a t h a d 1 M W o f to ta l lig h tin g p o w e r a n d a 1 M V A d is tr ib u tio n tr a n s fo r m e r to p o w e r th e la m p s . w h ic h m a d e s o m e v e r y im p o r ta n t c h a n g e s .3 . th e ir s u p p ly c u r r e n t c o n s u m p tio n is d is c o n tin u o u s . e r th e E N /IE C 6 1 0 0 0 . th e s ta n n its E U D e c la r a tio e n if it d o e s n 't c o m q u ip m e n t w h e r e th is s io n to c o n n e c t) . th e d e b a te s a n d lo b b y in g s e e m s e t to c o n tin u e fo r th e fo r e s e e a b le fu tu r e . n o lim its . It m a y e v e n tu r n o u t th a t fu lly c o m p ly in g w ith th e lim its o f th e r e le v a n t h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s s ta n d a r d is n o t s u ffic ie n t to p r e v e n t p r o b le m s fr o m a r is in g .3 .2 .2 E d . s o m e lim it a t io n o f y o u r e q u ip m e n t 's h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s m ig h t b e a g o o d id e a f o r t h e c u s t o m e r 's s a k e . A lth o u g h m o s t E N E M C s t a n d a r d s d o n 't d if f e r b y m u c h f r o m t h e IE C s ta n d a r d s th e y a r e b a s e d o n . b u t y o u s h o u ld a lw a y s e n s u r e th a t y o u a r e u s in g th e m o s t a p p r o p r ia te v e r s io n o f E N o r IE C 6 1 0 0 0 3 . a n d r ic h in h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts .g .3 . H o w e v e r .c o n s u m in g to s o lv e . m e r e c o m p lia n c e w ith th e E M C D ir e c tiv e is in s u ffic ie n t fo r e n s u r in g t h a t it s 'E M C . s u p e r s e d in g a n d a ll o f its a m e n d m o f to ll N T h e ty p ic a l r e c tifie r . a n d c o s tly a n d tim e .2 a p p lie s lim its o r n o t th e h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s o f y o u r e q u ip m e n t is c o m p a r e d w ith th e le v e ls o f h a r m o n ic s th a t c a n b e c o p e d w ith b y its in te n d e d m a in s s u p p ly w ith o u t c a u s in g p r o b le m s ( ta k in g its e x is tin g h a r m o n ic lo a d in g in to a c c o u n t) .3 . R e fe r to t h e I E E 's g u id e [ 4 ] a n d t h e o n .2 ( p lu s a ll o f its A m e n d m e n ts a n d C o r r ig e n d a ) .m in u te p u b lic a tio n o f A m e n d m e n t A 1 4 :2 0 0 0 to E 6 1 0 0 0 . e s p e c ia lly to th e d e fin itio n o f its “ C la s s D ” .3 . T h is h a n d b o o k d e s c r ib e s h o w to a p p ly E N 6 1 0 0 0 .2 E d itio a n d c a n b e u s e d fo r E M C D ir e c tiv e . E v e n th o u g h a ll th e la m p s m e t th e a p p r o p r ia te lim its in E N 6 1 0 0 0 .lin e a r t ic le . E N 6 1 0 0 0 . 4 H a r m o n ic e m is s io n s a r e a n in c r e a s in g p r o b le m fo r m a n y m a in s s u p p lie s ( p r iv a te a n d p u b lic ) s o it is r e c o m m e n d e d th a t w h e th e r E N 6 1 0 0 0 .2 h a s b e e n th e s u b je c t in te n s e d e b a te a n d lo b b y in g in r e c e n t y e a r s ( in c lu d in g a n a p p e a l b y a la r g e c o n s o r tiu m o f U S m a n u fa c tu r e r s d ir e c tly th e th e n P r e s id e n t C lin to n o f th e U S A ) .W h a t a r e m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s ? 3 W h e re a n e q u s c o p e o f E N 6 s till b e lis te d o C o n fo r m ity e v p r o fe s s io n a l e a s k s fo r p e rm s ta n d a rd s e ts ip m e n t ty p e fa lls w 1 0 0 0 -3 -2 . th is m ig h t n o t b e tr u e in th is c a s e . s o r e m e m b e r th a t th e r e c a n b e im p o r ta n t d iffe r e n c e s b e tw e e n th e IE C a n d E N v e r s io n s o f 6 1 0 0 0 . A th is a c tiv ity r e s u lte d in th e la s t.2 .c a p a c ito r a c .2 :2 0 0 0 .

L o w . V c c .s iz e d o r e v e n e ig h th . e s p e c ia lly th e tr ip le n s . b u t s in c e th e y c o s t m o r e th a n a v e r a g e r e s p o n d in g m e te r s p e o p le w ill n o d o u b t c o n tin u e to b u y th e c h e a p e r o n e s a n d m a k e e r r o n e o u s m e a s u r e m e n ts o f m a in s c u r r e n ts th a t c o u ld p o s s ib ly le a d to d a n g e r o u s s itu a tio n s . T h (s o a ls th e re m o y e -p h e tim a s o p ro d a s e e s c u rc e u c e a c a lle o f lo w d c p o d 6 -p h a rm le v e w e r u ls e o n ic ls o f c o n v e c o n v e e m is s tr ip le n ( i.p h a s e a c . d u e to th e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts . to x ic fu m e a n d s m o k e h a z a r d s .g .v o lta g e h a lo g e n lig h tin g is in c r e a s in g ly lik e ly to b e p o w e r e d b y a s o . O v e r c u r r e n t p r o te c tio n d e v ic e s ( e .) . P d . A P F o f 1 . a r c fu r n a c e s a n d w e ld in g e q u ip m e n t. b u t c u rre n ts . M a g n e tic a lly b a lla s te d flu o r e s c e n t la m p s ( r u n n in g a t 5 0 o r 6 0 H z ) c a n h a v e a P F a s lo w a s 0 . s u c h a s tr a n s fo r m e r s a n d m o to r s . IE C 6 1 0 h a rm o n T h e re a b y h a rm p o w e r s a . F lu o r e s c e n t la m p s w ith m a g n e tic b a lla s ts h a v e h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s t o o . th e th e r m a l lo s s e s in c o n d u c to r s a n d tr a n s fo r m e r s th a t c a r r y h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts in c r e a s e a n d th e y r u n h o tte r . d e c id in g t h a t t h e c ir c u it is n 't o v e r lo a d e d a t a ll. u e s w o n ic im p r o th e r e c tio h ic h r e d u c e th e c u r r e n ts in to th e o v e th e y a r e u s u a lly c a lle d n (P F C ) r o b le u rre n o lta g u rre n r o b le e le p h d b y h a r m o n ic lv e s n c a u s e d b y h a r m o n ic d b y v o lta g e d is to r tio n fe re n c e P r o b le m s c a u s e d b y th e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts th e m s e lv e s D u e t o t h e 's k in e f f e c t ' in c o p p e r .lin e a r lo a d s w h ic h a ls o c a u s e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts in th e m a in s s u p p ly . s m o k e a n d fir e .g .s a v in g ' la m p s ) a r e a c tu a lly s in g le . .d c s w itc h m o d e p o w e r c o n v e r te r s .7 [6 ] in c lu d e s p o w e r s u p p ly u r k in d s o f p r o b c u r r e n ts flo w in p ly n e tw o r k s … m s c a u s e ts th e m s e e d is to r tio ts m s c a u s e o n e in te r T h e r e a r e m a n y o th e r n o n . R e c tifie r in p u t e le c tr o n ic e q u ip m e n t w ith n o h a r m o n ic r e d u c tio n te c h n iq u e s te n d to h a v e P F s o f a r o u n d 0 . a n d t h e in c r e a s e d e d d y c u r r e n t lo s s e s in s ilic o n s te e l u s e d in m a in s d is tr ib u tio n tr a n s fo r m e r s a t fr e q u e n c ie s a b o v e 5 0 /6 0 H z . T h is 't r a d it io n a l P F ' a s s u m e s s in e w a v e v o lta g e s a n d lin e a r lo a d s ( r e s is tiv e .w a v e s u p p ly v o lta g e a n d th e lo a d c u r r e n t. o f d e lta . w h ic h a r e a p a r tic n u is a n c e b e c a u s e th e y a d d lin e a r ly in n e u tr a l c o n d u c to r s ( n o p h a s e c a n c e lla a n d in z e r o . tr a d itio n a lly a d ju s te d b y e ith e r a d d in g c a p a c ita n c e o r in d u c ta n c e to a p o w e r lin e . s m o k e a n d fir e h a z a r d is c le a r . in d u c tiv e . T h e r e s u lt is o f t e n o v e r h e a te d c a b le s a n d a s ig n ific a n tly in c r e a s e d r is k o f s h o c k .c a p a c ito r in p u t c ir c u it c a u s e s . 9 th . n t its ).H o w d o m a in s h a r m o n ic s c a u s e p r o b le m s ? 5 A p a r tic u la r p r o b le m w ith s in g le .a c p o w e r c o n v e r te r th a t a ls o c o m e s w ith a ll th e h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s p r o b le m s th a t its r e c tifie r . T r ip le n h a r m o n ic c u r r e n t s d o n 't c a n c e l o u t a t a ll in th e z e r o p h a s e ( = n e u tr a l) o f 3 p h a s e p o w e r s y s te m s . w h ic h is th e c o s in e o f th e a n g le b e tw e e n th e s in e . in w h ic h c a s e it lo o k s to th e s u p p ly lik e a p u r e r e s is tiv e lo a d ( a n d th e r e fo r e c a n n o t p o s s ib ly e m it a n y h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts ) .p h a s e tr a n s fo r m e r flu x . to x ic fu m e s . d u e to th e e x tr a h e a tin g e ffe c t o f th e h a r m o n ic s .s in e .c a lle d 'e le c t r o n ic tra n s fo rm e r' a c tu a lly a s w itc h . M o s t m a in s p o w e r d is tr ib u tio n n e tw o r k s n o w d r iv e s ig n ific a n t ● E x c e s s o v e rh e d is tr ib u T h e c o d is tr ib u d u e to iv e a tin tio n re s tio n e x c h a r m o n ic c u r r e n g ) in th e n e u tr a ls s y s te m s . M a n y o ld e r b u ild in g s a r e w ir e d w ith h a lfs iz e n e u tr a ls ( q u a r te r .7 tim e s g r e a te r th a n th e h ig h e s t p h a s e c u r r e n t. le a d in g to … ● D o n 't c o n f u s e r e a l P o w e r F a c t o r ( = W / V A ) w it h t h e 'p o w e r f a c t o r ' t r a d it io n a lly u s e d b y e le c tr ic a l g e n e r a tio n a n d d is tr ib u tio n e n g in e e r s .w o u n d m tra n s fo rm e rs o v e s s iv e z e r o . o r c a p a c itiv e ) a n d is a s p e c ia l c a s e o f r e a l P F .in p u t e le c tr o n ic p o w e r c o n v e r te r c a n n o t b e c o r r e c te d u s in g th e tr a d itio n a l m e th o d s fo r lin e a r lo a d s .s iz e d n e u tr a ls a r e a ls o k n o w n ) . a n d fittin g a la r g e r r a te d o v e r c u r r e n t d e v ic e to s to p it fr o m o p e n in g 'p r e m a t u r e ly '. rte rs rte rs ) a re io n s . p o s s ib ly e v e n fir e a n d e x p lo s io n in s o m e s itu a tio n s . s o lo w e r n u m b e r s o f 'e le c t r C lim a te C h a n g e L in c r e a s in g th e p r e th e lin e a r lo a d s th e le c tr o n ic lo a d s ( b h ig h e r e ffic ie n c y ) .p h a s ts (h e n c e o f 3 -p h a s e a in s e r h e a tin g e flu x .w a v e c u r r e n ts . T h e p r o b le m w ith a v e r a g e r e s p o n d in g a m m e te r s is th a t a lth o u g h th e y a r e c a lib r a te d in r m s . e tc . b u t t h e y u s u a lly d o n 't e x te n d to fr e q u e n c ie s a s h ig h a s th o s e c a u s e d b y r e c tifie r s . a u s e d in s 6 In a la r g e r in s ta lla tio n w ith a lo t o f s in g le p h a s e e le c tr o n ic lo a d s ( e . b u in c r e a s e its c o n s u m p tio n w h e n it is m e a s u r e d in V A . T 0 0 ic s re o n u p -4 in fo ic o n ic lo a d s ' a n d th e e v y ( in th e U K ) is s s u r e to r e p la c e a ll o f a t c a n b e r e p la c e d w ith e c a u s e th e y p r o m is e a s y le g s u rv e s te m m s c in m a y o f s . fu s e s ) th a t d e te c t th e a c tu a l h e a tin g e ffe c t o f th e c o n d u c to r c u r r e n t w ill o p e n a t lo w e r le v e ls o f 5 0 /6 0 H z c u rre n t th a n e x p e c te d .e .c ir c u its a n d /o r e le c tr ic s h o c k s ) . u la r d tio n ) T h e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts d r a w n fr o m a e q u ip m e n t 's a c m a in s s u p p ly h a v e a n e g lig ib le e ffe c t o n its p o w e r c o n s u m p tio n .f r e q u e n c y ' f lu o r e s c e n t la m p s ( a n d in m a n y 'e n e r g y . s P o w e r F a c to r C o r te c h n iq u e s .3 .0 m e a n s th a t th e V A e q u a ls th e W a tts c o n s u m e d b y a n e q u ip m e n t. 1 5 th . T h e r a tio o f a n e q u ip m e n t 's c o n s u m p t io n o f W a t t s t o V A is k n o w n a s its P o w e r F a c to r ( P F w h e r e a n e q u ip m e n t h a s s ig n ific a n t e m is s io n s o f h a r m o n ic s it a ls o h a s a p o w e r fa c to r. a n d s in c e b u ild in g n e u t r a ls a r e n 't f u s e d t h e to x ic fu m e . th e ir c a lib r a tio n is o n ly a c c u r a te fo r p u r e s in e w a v e c u r r e n ts a n d th e y c a n r e a d a s m u c h a s 3 0 % to o lo w w ith s o m e n o n . . w ith a ll o f th e ir h a r m o n ic e m is s io n p r o b le m s .6 . b u t m u c h w o r s e is th e h a b it o f s o m e p e r s o n n e l o f m e a s u r in g th e c u r r e n t w ith a n a v e r a g e r e s p o n d in g a m m e t e r . a m o d e r n o ffic e ) th e to ta l n e u tr a l c u r r e n ts c a n b e a s m u c h a s 1 . P c b .p h a s e p o w e r c o n v e r te r s is th a t th e y e m it s ig n if ic a n t le v e ls o f 't r ip le n ' h a r m o n ic s 3 r d . d a m a g e d in s u la tio n ( p o s s ib ility o f s h o r t. T h is c a u s e s a n u m b e r o f p r o b le m s in c lu d in g d e c r e a s e d r e lia b ility . T h e b a lla s t s in 'h ig h . T h e P F o f a r e c tifie r . A ll a m m e te rs u s e d o n a c p o w e r s y s te m s s h o u ld n o w b e tr u e r m s ty p e s w ith a b a n d w id th o f a t le a s t 2 k H z . E le c tr o n ic te c h n iq e m is s io n s o f h a r m m a in s s u p p ly a ls o e q u ip m e n t 's P F .m o d e a c d c o r a c . a n th e y c a u s e a d d itio n a l ( a n d s o m e tim e s u n e x p e c te d ) h e a tin g o f c a b le s a n d tra n s fo rm e rs . m e a s u r e d in W a tts . T h e u n e x p e c te d lo s s o f p o w e r w h e n a n o v e r c u r r e n t p r o te c tio n d e v ic e o p e n s c a n b e a b ig n u is a n c e . th a t flo w u n c a n c e lle d in th e n e u tr a l c o n d u c to r .

a n d s h o r te r b e a r in g life . D is to r tio n o f th e m a in s v o lta g e a ls o c a u s e s to r q u e r ip p le in e le c tr ic m o to r s .g . P r o b le m s o f te le p h o n e in te r fe r e n c e "H u m " o n " h a r m o n ic it fa lls in to w h e re th e s e n s itiv e . w h e n th e y a r e s u p p lie d fr o m a n o n s in u s o id a l v o lta g e w a v e fo r m . fla t. P o w e r c o n s u m p tio n m e te r in g c a n b e in a c c u r a te . T h e r e c a n b e tim in g e r r o r s in th e z e r o c r o s s in g p o in ts o f th e m a in s w a v e fo r m . d e p e n d in g o n th e c o u n tr y ) . T h w a p e a n ● 8 h a r m o n ic is s p e c ifie d c o n s id e r e d th a t a T H a c a u s e fo r c o n c e rn . 8 % is c a u s e fo r a la r m c a u s e s ig n ific a n t p r o in s th a n d a s b le m D te a d a t e o n e it is s . O th e r w a y s h a in te r fe r e n c e w in d u c tio n . a n d a n y h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts flo w in g in s u c h h ig h im p e d a n c e s c a n c a u s e s o m e v e r y s ig n ific a n t in c r e a s e s in t h e m a in s v o lt a g e w a v e f o r m 's T H D . s o le n o id s . c a u s in g u n r e g u la te d d c p o w e r r a ils to b e to o lo w . a n d p o te n tia ls in M n e u tr a l) m a in s s e a rm is w h p o e s o f te le o n ic c lo n g itu e r e fie w e r c a o v e r lo p h o n e u r r e n ts in d in a l ld s fr o m b le s n g T h e d is to r tio n o f th e m a in s v o lta g e s u p p ly g iv e s r is e to a n u m b e r o f o th e r p r o b le m s . b u t th e y a r e n o t h ig h e r th a n a ll o f th e p o s s ib le h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts . lo n g c o u p lin g . c a u s in g o v e r v o lta g e d a m a g e ( e .to p p th e s e d a c u rre n ts c a p a c ito u s e d b y ( w ith o u t a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts flo w th r o u g h th e c e s o f th e s u p p ly n e tw o r k th e y to p o te n tia l d iffe r e n c e s w h ic h e w a v e s h a p e o f th e s u p p ly T h e s k e tc h s h o w s h o w th e ty p ic a l e d m a in s w a v e fo r m s o fa m ilia r y s is c a u s e d b y th e n o n . T h w a s in h a s o r m o n ic s c a u s e a u d io ith te le p h o n e s in c lu d e lo o p itu d in a l e le c tr o s ta tic c o n d u c tio n d u e to th e e a r th E N ( m u ltip ly . It is u s u a lly x c e e d s 4 % is th a t e x c e e d s lik e ly to e h a v e fo rfo rm d e le r m o n ic rm c a n a n c e o c tr o n ic d is to r tio n le a d to r e r u n r e lia b s y s te m s o f th e m a in s d u c e d ility o f e le c tr ic a l b e c a u s e … T y p ic a lly . . ● ● V o lta g e p e a k s c a n b e lo w e r th a n e x p e c te d . c a p a c ito r b a n k s . a n d m o to r s w ill c o n s u m e in c r e a s e d le v e ls o f h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts . V o lta g e o v e r s h o o ts ( p e a k s ) c a n b e h ig h e r th a n e x p e c te d . lo n g c a b le le n g th s a n d r e a c tiv e lo a d s c r e a te r e s o n a n c e s in m a in s p o w e r d is tr ib u tio n n e tw o r k s a t m u c h h ig h e r fr e q u e n c ie s th a n th e fu n d a m e n ta l fr e q u e n c y ( 5 0 o r 6 0 H z . le a d in g to in c r e a s e d a c o u s tic n o is e a n d v ib r a tio n . th e r e s id u a l c u r r e n ts in c o u p le to te le p h o n e lin d is ta n c e s .lin e a r c o n s u m e d b y tr a d itio n a l r e c tifie r r in p u t m a in s p o w e r c o n v e r te r s a lm o s t a ll e le c tr o n ic e q u ip m e n t P F C in th is c a s e ) . .P r o b le m s c a u s e d b y m a in s v o lt a g e d is t o r t io n 7 E v e n n o m in a lly lin e a r lo a d s s u c h a s tr a n s fo r m e r s . T h e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts flo w in g in th e lo a d s a ls o in c r e a s e s th e ir te m p e r a tu r e s . b u t b e c a u s e c tru m re ● A s th e h im p e d a n g iv e r is e d is to r t th v o lta g e .e a r th e d d is tr ib u tio n s y s te m s . N e a r to a r e s o n a n t fr e q u e n c y th e im p e d a n c e o f th e m a in s d is tr ib u tio n s y s te m c a n r is e to v e r y h ig h le v e ls .w a v e is u r m o n ic d is to m e tim e s th e o f th e m a in a n id e a l 5 s u a lly m e a r tio n ( T H D d is to r tio n s v 0 H s u r ). o v e r s tr e s s in g th e p o w e r fa c to r c o r r e c tio n c a p a c ito r s in flu o r e s c e n t la m p s a n d p o w e r d is tr ib u tio n c e n tr e s ) . a d d in g to th e h e a tin g e ffe c t in c a b le s a n d tr a n s fo r m e r s . a fo r o lta g e z o r 6 0 H z e d a s to ta l lth o u g h e a c h T h e m o s t c o m m o n c a u in te r fe r e n c e fr o m th e h m a in s s u p p ly n e tw o r k s m a g n e tic in te r fe r e n c e . c a u s in g e r r o r s in s o m e ty p e s o f p o w e r c o n tr o l. d u e to th e s k in e ffe c t a n d e d d y c u r r e n t lo s s e s m e n tio n e d e a r lie r a n d c a n le a d to a s h o r te r o p e r a tio n a l life . e d is to r tio n v e fo rm fro m e . a te le p h w h in e " a p a rt o h u m a n o is f e n e m th a r is u c e a is b a d h w o u d io m u c h e n o rs e s p e m o u g h .

T h e r a n g e o f h a r m o n ic fr e q u e n c ie s c o v e r e d b y E N 6 1 0 0 0 . P C s a n d th e ir m o n ito r s . th e w a v e a n a ly s e r a r e u s u a lly c o m e n t. a lth o u g h it c le a r ly in th e in te r e s ts o f th e o w n e r o f s u c a n in s ta lla tio n to c o n tr o l th e le v e ls o f its h a r m o n ic s to h e lp p r e v e n t c o s tly p r o b le m H o w e v e r .g . a n d th e r e le v a n t s p e c ific a tio n ( fo r th e U K ) is c a lle d E n g in e e r in g R e c o m m e n d a tio n G 5 /4 fa c e d b y le v e ls m c o m e to b e c a lle d ) . h a r m o n ic p r o b le m s a r e m o s tly c a u s e d b y th e la r g e n u m b e r s o f lo w . lo w .F u ll c o m p lia n c e t e s t in g o f m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s 9 S m a ll ite m s o f e q u ip m e n t c a u s e m o s t o f th e p r o b le m s o n p u b lic m a in s s u p p lie s S o m e h ig h . A lth o p e rfe th a n c u rre (s e e a re m h a rm a re c o v e r u g h y o u c a n m a k e a p o te n tia lly c tly a d e q u a te c h e c k w ith n o m o r e s o m e F F T a n a ly s is s o ftw a r e . c a ll c e n tr e s . [1 0 ] m a y a ls o e g s o b y tim 1 0 b e u la r m e e o f 2 .fr e q u e n c y lig h tin g b a lla s ts a n d /o r lo w . is h s . in d u s tr ia l s ite s a r e u s u a lly w ith h a r m o n ic r e q u ir e m e n ts a p p lie d th e ir p o w e r s u p p ly a u th o r itie s . T h e te s t r e s u lts a r e d is p la y e d o n a s c r e e n . & C o m p lia S k in s ' c o lu m s a b o u t p ro r m o n ic s .3 .p o w e r e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s te le v is io n s . id in g d o n 't tio n n ts .e n e r g y a n d lo w . In d u s tr ia l a n d c o m m e r c ia l u s e r s fa c e d a h a r m o n ic s p r o b le m o fte n d e a l w ith it a d d in g m o to r .d e lta t r a n s f o r m e r s . e s u m b e rs : 1 .) w h e r e th e r e a r e a lo t o f p e r s o n a l c o m p u te r s . u p d a te d a s r e q u ir e d to c o r r e s p o n d to E N 6 1 0 0 0 . th e g e th e r [7 ]. e s p e c ia lly t h r o u g h it s 'C la s s D ' c a t e g o r y ( s e e b e lo w ) a lth o u g h o f c o u r s e th e s ta n d a r d c a n b e u s e d v o lu n ta r ily fo r e q u ip m e n t u s e d o n 'p r iv a t e ' L V s u p p lie s in h e a lt h c a r e . 4 6 . w h ic h m ig h t b e s e p a r a te fr o m h a r m o n ic a n a ly s e r o r b u ilt in .v o lta g e lig h tin th e h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s fr o m e a c h c o m p u te r . a n d th e te s t s e o f p lu g g in g th e 2 3 s u a lly s y n th e s is e d e r a n d th e E U T to n e a r b y fig u r e . o r 'p a s s iv e ' o r 'a c t iv e ' h a r m o n ic filte r s to th e ir in s ta lla tio n s .2 E d itio n 2 :2 0 0 0 . T h e s u re m e e n ts a r e th o d o f o f te s t n e a r b y fig u r e n t m e th o d .3 . a n t tr a n s d u c e r a n d a n o s c illo s c o p e la te r ) . n t T h e E M C 'B a n a n a a n e c d o te m a in s h a w r itin g ) n 1 0 4 a n d u s e fu l.p o w e r ite m s o f in d u s tr ia l e q u ip m e n t c a n e m it s u c h h ig h le v e ls o f h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts th a t th e y c a u s e p r o b le m s f o r t h e ir 'p r iv a t e ' m a in s s u p p lie s T h e r e a r e n o h a r m o n ic r e g u la tio n s c o n c e r n in g s u c h in s ta lla tio n s . g o v e r n m e n t a n d c o m m e r c ia b u ild in g s ( e . T h is s e c tio n is b a s e d u p o n C h a p te r 3 o f [1 1 ]. F u r th e r in fo r m a tio n a b o u t h a r m o n ic s a n d th e ir p r o b le m s ● ● ● A im A im A T 2 3 p e c u p e w a h e a c p o w e r s o u r c e w ith a lo w n c e (Z S) n t tr a n s d u c e r w ith a lo w n c e (Z M ) a n a ly s e r u ip m e n t u n d e r te s t ( E U T ) t. e : A s fa r a s th e p u b lic L V m a in s s u p p ly is c o n c e r n e d .3 . o r if th e y flu c tu a te tim e .v o lta g e ( H V ) e le c tr ic ity s u p p lie s . h ig h . u s u a lly c a lle d e r. [9 ] a n d n c e J o u r n a ls ' r n [8 ] in c lu d e s b le m s c a u s e d p e c ia lly ( a t th e 7 . It is th is s itu a tio n th a t E N 6 1 0 0 0 . a s d e s c r ib e d a b o v e . l In h o s p ita ls .2 e x te n d s o n ly u p to 2 k H z ( th e 4 0 th h a r m o n ic o f 5 0 H z ) . 2 0 0 . T h e to ta l h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts fr o m th o u s a n d s o f th e s e c a n b e d a m a g in g to th e n e tw o r k a n d to o th e r e q u ip m e n t. 1 0 1 . m a k in g it n e c e s s a r y to c a r e fu lly fo llo w th e s ta n d a r d in e v e r y d e ta il.g e n e r a to r s e ts . e r a n d b in e d a t-u p 0 V ).fr e q u e n c y b a lla s t o r 'e le c t r o n ic t r a n s f o r m e r ' a r e in s ig n if ic a n t o th e ir o w n . T h e te s t s e t-u p E N 6 1 m e a s u e q u ip m s h o w s a n d its ● 1 0 0 0 re e th b 0 -3 m e n n t is e b a a s ic 0 V d a rre d a v e e q 2 d e t a n s p e s ic c o m fin e d e a c ifie m e a p o n s th e m c h ite m d . in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s . s u p e r m a r k e ts . A lte r n a tiv e ly . s o th e te s t d o e s n o t n e e d to u s e R F m e a s u r e m e n t te c h n iq u e s . c o m m e r c ia l a n d in d u s tr ia l p r e m is e s . fu lly c o m p lia n t m e a s u r e m e n ts o r e c o m p lic a te d .v o lta g e la m p s . T h e ir in s ta lla tio n s m u s t n o t e m it e x c e s s iv e o f h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts in to th e ir m e d iu v o lta g e ( M V ) o r h ig h . h o te ls . s ta r . p r o v t h e y d o n 't e x c e e d t h e G 5 / 4 lim it s a n d m in d th e v o lta g e d is to r tio n . h ig h . ( N t h a t 'a c t iv e f ilt e r s ' a r e n 't r e a lly f ilt e r s a t b u t h a r m o n ic c a n c e lla tio n d e v ic e s . b a n k s . e tc .2 s e e k s to c o n tr o l. N e v e r th e le s s th e re a re s o m e a s p e c ts o f th e m e a s u r e m e n t w h ic h a r e n o t e n tir e ly o b v io u s . a lt h o u g h 'a c t iv e f ilt e r s ' is w h a t t h e y h a v In a p ra c u rre n t in to o n e h a rm o n u s u a lly p o w e r s h a rm o n a s s h o w c tic a l te s tra n s d u c in s tr u m ic a n a ly s c o n s is ts o u rc e (u ic a n a ly s n b y th e g . b u t th e c o m b in e d e ffe c t o f th o u s a n d s o f th e m c a n b e v e r y s ig n ific a n in d e e d . 5 9 . a n in s ta lla c a n s im p ly u p r a te its c a b lin g a n d tr a n s fo r m e r s to c o p e w ith th e e x tr a h e a tin g c a u s e d b y th e h a r m o n ic c u r r e . p a r tic u la r ly if th e o n ic e m is s io n s fr o m th e e q u ip m e n t lo s e to th e lim its . th e w ith b y o te a ll e .

T h e e r r o r in m e a s u r in g a c o n s ta n t v a m u s t b e le s s th a n 5 % o f th e p e r m is s lim it.2 :2 0 0 0 o n ly p e r m r e te F o u r ie r tr a n s fo r m e a n a ly s e r s . 9 5 + A m e n d m e n t A 1 E d . u re n ic E N 4 . g o o d v o lta g e a lo w s o u r c e u p t o t h e 4 0 th . a lth o u g h w h e n te s tin g in .2 r e q u ir e s th e v o lta g e to b e s ta b le to w ith in ± 2 % o f th e s e le c te d le v e l d u r in g th e m e a s u r e m e n t. In b o th c a s e s . b u t th e to ta a llo w e d a n e r r o r a t a n fre q u e n c y o f m o re th a p e r m is s ib le lim its . N o te th a t e v e n v e r y p o w e r fu l h i. e tc .o r d e r h a r m o n ic s : 2 n d . T h e w a v e a n a ly s e r T h e a m p 1 fro 2 :1 9 3 -2 d is c w a v w a v e a n a ly s e r m e a s litu d e o f e a c h h a r m o m t h e 2 n d t o t h e 4 0 th . a n d 0 .w a v e o s c illa to r .h o u s e th e p r o d u c t r a n g e to b e te s te d m ig h t n o t c o n s u m e a s m u c h p o w e r s o a s m a lle r a m p lifie r w o u ld b e a d e q u a te ( a n d c o s t le s s ) . a n d th e fr e q u e n c y s ta b le w ith in 0 . F o r u s e in a te s t la b o r a to r y th e a m p lifie r w ill n e e d to b e la r g e e n o u g h to c o p e w ith th e fu ll r a n g e o f p o s s ib le lo a d s th e s ta n d a r d c o v e r s e q u ip m e n t r a te d u p to 1 6 A . r m o n ic m e a s u u ra c y n e e d s a v e r y lo w d is to r s in e w a v e fo r m s e tta b ility . b u t n o te th a t a s h u n t o n its o w n d o e s n o t p r o v id e g a lv a n ic is o la tio n fr o m th e m e a s u r in g c ir c u it a n im p o r ta n t s a fe ty c o n s id e r a tio n .e . T h e h a r m o n ic d is to r tio n m u s t b e le s s th a n 0 . 'h ip o t '. 2 % a t t h e a t t h e 9 th .). 4 % a t t h e 5 th . F o r c o m p lia n c e p u r p o s e s .fi a m p lifie r s a r e n o t u s u a lly to u g h e n o u g h fo r th is a p p lic a tio n . 0 . 1 8 im p e d a n c e a n d a tim e c o n s ta n t le s s th a n 1 0 µ s is a c c e p ta b le . 3 % a t t h e 7 th . w ith n e g a tiv e fe e d b a c k to m a in ta in th e lo w o u tp u t im p e d a n c e .5 % o f n o m in a l.6 8 0 W a t 2 3 0 V . c lo s e to ) . U n lik e r e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n ts . a it th (D s th e c o m p o 6 1 0 0 0 n d E N e u s e F T ) ty n e n t o f -3 6 1 0 0 0 o f p e lu e ib le w e s t ts g e o f d m b y T h e 2 3 0 v a c p o w e r s o u rc e M a k in g a h a r e q u ir e d a c c s o u r c e w ith a p u re 5 0 H z s ta b ility a n d im p e d a n c e . o f th e d a n ility o te m . 9 % a t t h e 3 rd h a r m o n i c . th e Z M is a d d e d to th e s th e to ta l th e a n b e e ith e r u rre n t tra n s d u c e r s o u rc e 1 2 o u tp u t im p e d a n c e a n d th e tw o to g e th e r m u s t c a u s e n e g lig ib le v a r ia tio n in th e lo a d c u r r e n t h a r m o n ic s tr u c tu r e . m a in ta in in g th is a c c u r a c y fr o m th e lo to th e h ig h e s t m e a s u r e m e n t le v e l p u s e v e r e d e m a n d s o n th e d y n a m ic r a n th e c u r r e n t tr a n s d u c e r a n d a s s o c ia te in p u t s ig n a l p r o c e s s in g . S o m e m a n u fa c tu r e r s g e t a r o u n d th is p r o b le u s in g tw o tr a n s d u c e r s . C u r r e n t tr a n s fo r m e r s d o p r o v id e g a lv a n ic is o la tio n . T h e c u rre n t tra n s d u c e r T h e c u rre n E U T m a in s m e a s u r in g a r e s is tiv e tra n s fo rm e im p e d a n c e t tr a n s d u c e r c o u p le s u p p ly c u r r e n t 1 to in s tr u m e n t.e . a n d r e m e n t w ith th e 2 3 0 V a c p o w e r tio n ( i. a n d s h o u ld h a v e th e n e c e s s a r y e le c tr ic a l s tr e n g th r a tin g ( s o m e tim e s c a lle d 'v o lt a g e w it h s t a n d '. 0 . 4 th . b u t th e tra n s fo rm e r re a c ta n c e m u s t n o t a ffe c t th e o u tp u t im p e d a n c e a t th e h ig h e r h a r m o n ic fr e q u e n c ie s . 1 % a t a l l o t h e r h a r m o n i c s a n c e Z o f le s s e d a n c e l s e t-u p y h a rm n 5 % o o u ld 0 . lik e ly v a lu ill b e e s u p p ly c e a n d th e f o th e r lo a d s y o u r lo c a l to b e c a p a b le e s . 2 % a t a ll e v e n . a n d a r e q u ir e d . 6 th . a n d it c c u rre n t s h u n t o r a c r. a lth o u g h s o m e e q u ip m e n t c a n s u b s ta n tia lly e x c e e d th is .o r d e r h a r m o n ic s fr o m th e 2 n d to t h e 1 0 th . In c lu d in g th e m a x im u m a llo w a b le tr a n s ito r y h a r m o n ic s fo r c la s s B e q u ip m e n t. b u t it b e c o m e s im p o r ta n t fo r b o r d e r lin e c a s e s . a n d th e s o u r c e s h o u ld b e a b le to d e liv e r th is c u r r e n t le v e l w ith o u t e x c e e d in g th e w a v e fo r m d is to r tio n lim its . A r e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n t o f le s s th a n 0 .lin e a r ity a n d v a r ia b o n y o u r d is tr ib u tio n s y s m a in s s u p p ly is v e r y u n o f c o m p ly in g w ith th e s e s p e c ia l m a in s s o u r c e w T h e m e a s u r in g im p e d c r e a te a v o lta g e d r o p p e a k . la r g e a n d c o s tly ) . T h e o u tp u t m a y b e fe d th r o u g h a p o w e r tr a n s fo r m e r fo r v o lta g e s te p -u p p u rp o s e s . w h ic h is a p o w e r le v e l o f 3 . T h e s o u r c e im p s p e c ifie d .1 5 V o t o t T o m e e t th e s e r e q u ir e m e n ts ty p ic a l te s t e q u ip m e n t u s e s a p o w e r a m p lifie r d r iv e n . s h th a n is n is n o n ic f th e M IE C 6 1 0 0 0 . B e c a u s e m a in s ' fin ite s o u r c e im p n o n . c u r r e n t tr a n s fo r m e r s n e e d to b e c a lib r a te d a t e a c h h a r m o n ic fr e q u e n c y a n d m a y s u ffe r e r r o n e o u s r e s u lts d u e to s a tu r a tio n w h e n th e m e a s u r e d c u r r e n t in c lu d e s a d c c o m p o n e n t ( th is u s u a lly m a n ife s ts in a c s u p p lie s a s c u r r e n t c o n s u m e d b y th e lo a d a t th e e v e n . 0 .3 . o r 'f la s h t e s t ') a n d in s u la tio n ty p e to p r e v e n t h a z a r d s fr o m a r is in g e v e n d u r in g s in g le fa u lts . F o r h ig h p o w e r a n d h ig h ly d is to r tin g lo a d s th e id e a l m a in s s o u r c e b e c o m e s q u ite d iffic u lt to r e a lis e ( i. 0 . le g itim a te p e a k c u r r e n ts c a n b e a r o u n d 4 0 A . If th e m e a s u r e d h a r m o n ic s a r e w e ll o v e r o r u n d e r th e lim it th e n v o lta g e d is to r tio n is a m in o r c o n s id e r a tio n .1 1 b y a 5 0 H z s in e . o n e fo r h ig h c u r r e n ts a n d o n e fo r lo w c u r r e n ts .

3 . [6 ] in c lu d e s ta ils o f th e s m o o th in g p e r fo r m s th is fu n c tio n o n v a lu e s .p h a s e e q u ip m e n t · h e re n ta in a ra c g a rd e th e m e m is s io w h o le n a n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l s e lfe d ite m s o f e q u ip m e n t a r e in s ta lle d k o r o th e r e n c lo s u r e .1 3 W h w h re s th a tim m o a lg th e e n th e h a rm o ile th e m e a s u p o n s e a t th e t o f a fir s t o r d e c o n s ta n t o f r e s p e c ific d e o r ith m w h ic h d is c r e te d a ta n ic c o m p o n e n ts flu c tu a te r e m e n t is b e in g m a d e . e q u ip m e n t s h o u ld b e o p n o r m a l m o d e ( s ) o f o p e r a tio n e c te d to its n o r m a l lo a d s .p a s s filte r w ith a 1 .2 E d 2 :2 0 0 0 . . p e n d s h a v e s . p a r tic u la r ly b a la n c e d th r e e . in c lu d in g d im m e r s C la s s D fo r P e r s o n a l C o m p u te r s ( a n d th e ir d is p la y m o n ito r s ) a n d T V r e c e iv e r s . T h e h a r m o n ic n s fr o m th e r a c k o r e n c lo s u r e a s a e e d n o t b e te s te d . T h e u p o 6 1 0 d iffe th e 't e s t o n th e w 0 0 -3 -2 re n t ty o b s e rv b s e rv a y th E d . in c lu d in g … · T e le v is io n r e c e iv e r s · A u d io a m p lifie r s · V id e o .in in c a n d e s c e n t la m p d im m e r s · V a c u u m c le a n e r s · W a s h in g m a c h in e s · M ic r o w a v e o v e n s · In fo r m a tio n te c h n o lo g y e q u ip m e n t ( IT E ) · In d u c tio n .5 s e c o n d s . th e y a r e d a s b e in g in d iv id u a lly c o n n e c te d a in s s u p p ly . w it h a 's p e c if ie d p o w e r ' ( s e e la te r ) le s s th a n o r e q u a l to 6 0 0 W C la s s A fo r e v e r y th in g e ls e . E N fo u r s p e c ifie s 1 4 E x a m p le s o f R E O L o a d s .ty p e c o o k e r h o b s · A ir c o n d itio n e r s · K itc h e n m a c h in e s a s d e fin e d b y IE C 6 0 3 3 5 -2 -1 4 · A r c w e ld in g e q u ip m e n t w h ic h is n o t fo r In g e in its c o n n o p e r th e m e m is W c o in re to n e r a l. e ra te d s e t to a te s t · · · E q u ip m e n t c la s s ific a tio n a n d lim its T h e s ta n d a r d e s ta b lis h e s fo u r c la s s e s o f e q u ip m e n t.c a s s e tte r e c o r d e r s ( V C R s ) · L ig h tin g e q u ip m e n t · In d e p e n d e n t o r b u ilt.R E O c a n c r e a te c u s to m lo a d s to m e e t a n y T e s t c o n d itio n s S p e c ia l te s t c o n d itio n s fo r s o m e ty p e s o f e q u ip m e n t a r e g iv e n in E N 6 1 0 0 0 . a n d a te in s u c h a m a n n e r th a t it c r e a x im u m to ta l h a r m o n ic c u r r e n s io n s it is c a p a b le o f. th e in d ic a tin g o u tp u t s h o u ld b e e r lo w . e a c h w ith th e ir o w n h a r m o n ic e m is s io n lim its : C la s s B fo r p o r ta b le to o ls C la s s C fo r lig h tin g e q u ip m e n t.2 p e s o a tio n a tio n e e q u :2 0 0 0 f b e h p e r io p e r ip m id e a v io d fo io e n u r d ' d e n t b e tifie s r a n d e a c h .

a ll th r o u g h . a n d e n s u r e th a t th e te s t g e a r m e e ts th e ir r e q u ir e m e n ts .3 .w a v e r e c tific a tio n m a y o n ly b e e m p lo y e d in a fe w s p e c ifie d s itu a tio n s . b e c o m e p r o p o r tio n a te ly m o r e d iffic u lt to m e e t a s th e m a in s in p u t p o w e r in c r e a s e s . a re n o t m e a s u re d r th e E U T is s w itc h e d s t n o t b e in s ta n d b y 1 0 % o f a n y s h o rt-te rm o th in g b y th e 1 . F o r e a c h h a r m o n ic .2 .2 :2 0 0 0 p la c e s lim ita tio n s o n th e ty p e s o f c ir c u its th a t m a y b e e m p lo y e d . o r d o n o t a p p ly . a s y m m e tr ic a l p o w e r c o n tr o l ( a s d e fin e d in IE V 1 6 1 . E M V ( p ic tu r e d ) o r L a p la c e In s tru m e n ts . E v c o b e c o e n m p in g m p if lia u lia th e te n t it m s e d fo n c e ' o s t e q u ip m e n t is n o t fu lly a y s till b e a c c e p ta b le if it is r d e v e lo p m e n t . T h e s p e c ifie d p o w e r fo r th is p u r p o s e is n o t n e c e s s a r ily th e s a m e a s th e m a n u f a c t u r e r 's r a t e d p o w e r f o r s a f e t y o r fu n c tio n a l p u r p o s e s . p lu s th e v e r s io n o f th e b a s ic h a r m o n ic s a n a ly s e r s ta n d a r d [6 ]. in u s e a t A D C o m p lia n c e S e r v ic e s L td . T h e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts in p u t p o w e r a r e m e a s u r e d s a m e te s t c o n d itio n s b u t n e e d a s u r e d s im u lta n e o u s ly . A lw a y s r e a d th e r e le v a n t v e r s io n o f s ta n d a r d v e r y c a r e fu lly .2 E d . a n d m o d e fo o b s e rv a ic e s e c th e r m tio n m o n E o r p is s io n s d s a fte U T m u e th a n e r io d . T h e p u r p o s e o f th is a p p r o a c h is to p r e v e n t th e s itu a tio n in w h ic h e q u ip m e n t o p e r a tin g n e a r th e b o u n d a ry a n d te s te d u n d e r s lig h tly d iffe r e n t c o n d itio n s m ig h t b e s u b je c t to w id e ly d iffe r in g lim its . b u t th is s p e c ifie d v a lu e m u s t b e w ith in ± 1 0 % o f th e a c tu a l m e a s u r e d v a lu e . H o w e v e r . 'p r e r Q A p u rp o s e s .0 0 0 . to d is c o v e r e x a c tly w h a t lim ita tio n s a r e a p p lie d to th e ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t in q u e s tio n . It g iv e s fu lly c o m p lia n t m e a s u r e m e n ts ( fo r e q u ip m e n t w ith in th e 1 k W r a tin g o f its s o u r c e ) to E N 6 1 0 0 0 . T h c a v o 6 1 b o is p a lta 0 0 o k h a rm b le o g e flu 0 -3 -3 le t) . c o m p le te w ith 1 k W m a in s s o u r c e . te s t g e a r th a t d o e s n o t c o m p ly w ith th e s p e c ific a tio n s in th e la te s t v e r s io n s o f th e s ta n d a r d s m ig h t b e a b le to b e m a d e c o m p lia n t w ith s o ftw a r e u p g r a d e s fr o m th e ir m a n u fa c tu re rs . E N 6 1 0 0 0 . th e m a n u fa c tu r e r is a llo w e d to s p e c ify a p o w e r le v e l fo r e s ta b lis h in g th e lim its . H a rm o n u n til 1 0 o n .C o m m e r c ia l t e s t e q u ip m e n t 1 5 T h e h a r m o n ic lim its a r e a b s o lu te v a lu e s C la s s e s A a n d B .5 in th e h a r m o n ic a llo w e d to e x c e e d 5 0 % a s lo n g a s b e lo w its lim it. p h a s e a n g le c o n tr o lle d tr ia c s ) a r e a ls o s u b je c t to lim ita tio n s . s fo r 'S p e c if ie d p o w e r ' a n d t h e C la s s D T h e C la s s m A p e r W c o m p a re d m a x im u m o b s e r v a tio d u r a tio n o a n d a c tiv e u n d e r th e n o t b e m e A lim its t D e m is s io n lim its a r e g iv e n in a tt. a n d a v e r a g e e m is s io n s a r e w ith th e lim its b a s e d u p o n th e m a in s p o w e r c o n s u m e d in e a c h n tim e w in d o w o v e r th e e n tir e f th e te s t. o n ic s a n d flic k f m e a s u r in g e m c tu a tio n s a n d ( th e s u b je c t o e r is flic f a te s s io k e n o te r n s r to th e is a ls o o f E N r R E O 1 6 B e fo r e p u r c h a s in g E M C te s t g e a r fo r h a r m o n ic s o r flic k e r m e a s u r e m e n ts . 6 0 0 W o r 7 5 W ) . b e in g fix e d . S y m m e tr ic a l p o w e r c o n tr o l m e th o d s th a t te n d to p r o d u c e h a r m o n ic s ( e . w h a te v e r th e in p u t p o w e r . fo r a to ta l c o s t o f a b o u t £ 2 .g . F o r e q u ip m e n t w ith a n in p u t r a tin g g r e a te r th a n 6 0 0 W th e C la s s a n d C la s s B lim its . F o r e x a m p le . T h is e q u ip m e n t is a v a ila b le fr o m T h u r lb y T h a n d a r . T h e C la s s C lim its a r e e x p r e s s e d a s p e rc e n ta g e s o f th e 5 0 H z c u rre n t c o n s u m e d . its flu c tu a tio n s ( a fte r s m o s e c o n d tim e .0 7 1 2 ) a n d h a lf. In o r d e r n o t to a r r iv e a t a p o w e r a t w h ic h lim its c h a n g e a b r u p tly ( fo r e x a m p le . T h e n e a rb y p h o to g ra p h s h o w s a c o m b in e d h a r m o n ic s a n d flic k e r e m is s io n s m e a s u r in g e q u ip m e n t.c o n s ta n t m e a s u r in g c ir c u it) a r e th e s p e c ifie d lim its b y its a v e r a g e v a lu e fa lls . a n d fo r C la s s D th e y a r e a s e o f s lid in g v a lu e s p r o p o r tio n a l to th e m a in p o w e r c o n s u m e d . a lw a y s d is c o v e r w h ic h v e r s io n o f th e s ta n d a r d ( a n d its a m e n d m e n ts ) y o u n e e d to a p p ly .3 . E v e n w h e r e lim it s a r e n 't s p e c if ie d .

im p o r ta n t to fo llo w s fa r a s is t g e a r is n o t th e in te r p r e ta tio n o f s ta n d a rd . o r o th e r ty p e s r u n s o le ly fr o m b a tte r ie s w ith o u t a m a in s in p u t. a n u m b e r o f m a n u fa c tu re rs h a v e e n te re d th e r th is ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t w ith v e ls o f p r ic e a n d p e r fo r m a n c e . to h e lp r e d u c e th e lo w . T h e m a k e / b u y d e c is io n A s w a s m h a r m o n ic m a k in g it y o u r o w n te s t g e a r m a rk e t fo v a r io u s le it m a y b e p r o b a b ly a p p r o p r ia e n tio n e d a b o v e . u s in g a lte r n a tiv e te s tin g m e th o d s o r te s t g e a r c o u ld g iv e te r r ib ly in a c c u r a te a n d m is le a d in g r e s u lts u n le s s a n u m b e r o f p r e c a u tio n s a r e ta k e n . If y o u a r e te s tin g s in g le .e ffe c tiv e ( a n d s a fe r !) s im p ly to p u r c h a s e th e te e q u ip m e n t. te s tin g fo r m a in s s d o e s n o t in v o lv e a n y R F is s u e s . s o m o r e c o s t.fr e q u e n c y in te r fe r e n c e fr o m th e r e s t o f th e ir s ite ( filte r s a r e r e q u ir e d to s u p p r e s s r a d io fr e q u e n c ie s ) .G s e ts u s e c r u d e e le c tr o n ic v o lta g e r e g u la to r s w h ic h r e s u lt in p o o r q u a lity o u tp u t w a v e fo r m s . T h e d e s c r ib e d in ls o b e a g r e a t h e lp in th e r e s u lts o f le a d to lo w e r c o s t 5 0 H z s o u r c e s th a n th e tr a d itio n a l lin e a r p o w e r a m p lifie r s . S o m e p e o p le lik e to p o w e r th e ir E M C te s ts v ia a n is o la tin g p o w e r tr a n s fo r m e r . 1 8 E x a m p le s o f R E O tra n s fo rm e rs is o la tin g M o to r .G s e t o r U P S w ith a r a t in g t h a t is m u c h m o r e t h a n t h e E U T 's r a te d p o w e r c o n s u m p tio n . it is b e s t to c h o o s e s p e c ia l 'h ig h is o la t io n ' t y p e s w it h a v e r y lo w v a lu e o f p r im a r y . It is a lm o s t a lw a y s v e r y th e r e le v a n t s ta n d a r d s a p o s s ib le .G s e ts o r U P S s a r e th e q u a lity o f th e ir o u tp u t w a v e fo r m .h a r m o n ic in je c t io n w a v e fo r m c o r r e c tio n ' te c h n iq u e s ( s u c h a s t h e 'a c t iv e h a r m o n ic f ilt e r s ' u s e d f o r m a in s w a v e fo r m c o r r e c tio n in in s ta lla tio n s ) m a y . E x a m p le o f R E O is o la tin g tr a n s fo r m e r s w ith b u ilt in filte r to p r o v id e a tte n u a tio n u p to 9 0 d B M a in s s o u r c e a lte r n a tiv e s T h e c o m b in e d h a r m o n ic s a n d flic k e r te s te r p ic tu r e d e a r lie r u s e s a 1 k W m a in s s o u r c e .p h a s e e q u ip m e n t. R e c e n t d e v e lo p m e n ts in s w itc h m o d e p o w e r c o n v e r s io n ( d ig ita l p o w e r a m p lif ie r s ) a n d 'a n t i. If w o r k in g o n e x p o s e d liv e e q u ip m e n t. H o w e v e r. it is p o s s ib le th a t y o u r r e g u la r m a in s s u p p ly is c le a n e n o u g h to u s e a s a s o u r c e fo r y o u r h a r m o n ic c u r r e n t e m is s io n s te s ts . E v e n if th e te s b e s t.G s e ts a n d U P S s h a v e a r e la tiv e ly h ig h o u tp u t im p e d a n c e ( c o m p a r e d w ith th e m a in s s u p p ly ) w h ic h m e a n s th a t th e ir o u tp u t w a v e fo r m c a n b e m o r e e a s ily d is to r te d b y th e n o n .L o w -c o s t n o n -c o m p lia n t t e s t in g fo r m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s 1 7 A s a lw a y s . a n d th e ir o u tp u t im p e d a n c e . e a s ie r to d e s ig n a n d c o n s tr u c t te s t g e a r.s e c o n d a r y c a p a c ita n c e . w h ic h c o s t s a r o u n d £ 5 0 0 a n d c a n b e u s e d o n its o w n if y o u w is h to u s e a n a lte r n a tiv e w a v e a n a ly s e r ( s e e b e lo w ) . S o y o u m a y n e e d to u s e a n M .c o s t te s ts . o r if t h e m o t o r is a p e t r o l o r d ie s e l e n g in e it c a n o f c o u r s e g e n e r a te a to ta lly in d e p e n d e n t s u p p ly . a n is o la tin g tr a n s fo r m e r c a n b e u s e d to h e lp r e d u c e e le c tr ic s h o c k h a z a rd s in th is c a s e .9 o f [1 2 ] c a n a in im p r o v in g c o n fid e n c e lo w . It is e s s e n tia l to u n d e r s ta n d th e r e le v a n t s ta n d a r d s a n d th e ir a s s o c ia te d te s t g e a r v e r y w e ll.g e n e r a to r s e ts w ith e le c tr ic m o to r s c a n p r o d u c e a 'c le a n ' s in e w a v e f r o m a b u ild in g 's s u p p ly . t h e 'A C 1 0 0 0 '. U n in te r r u p tib le P o w e r S u p p lie s ( U P S s ) w ith r e a s o n a b le p o w e r r a tin g s a r e a lm o s t c o m m o n p la c e b u t th e o n ly s u ita b le o n e s f o r t h is p u r p o s e a r e 'c o n t in u o u s d o u b le c o n v e r s io n ' ty p e s . T u r n in g o ff th e flu o r e s c e n t lig h tin g m a y a ls o h e lp c le a n u p th e w a v e fo r m . Y o u w ill p r o b a b ly fin d th a t t h e m a in s is 'c le a n e s t ' in a n in d u s t r ia l b u ild in g w h ic h h a s its o w n d is tr ib u tio n tr a n s fo r m e r . w h e n n o m a c h in e r y o r H V A C is r u n n in g . th e te s t s e t-u p a n d r e s u lts s h o u ld fo llo w th e 'g o ld e n p r o d u c t ' m e t h o d s e c tio n 1 . A n e x a m p le o f a R E O s y n th e s is e d m a in s s o u r c e fo r te s tin g to E N /IE C 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -2 O f c o u r s e . S e c o n d h a n d M -G s e ts o r U P S s m a y b e a v a ila b le a t v e r y r e a s o n a b le p r ic e s . T w o p o te n tia lly s e r io u s p r o b le m s w ith M . a n d m o s t M . S o m e M . y o u m a y fin d th a t o n e o f th e p h a s e s in t h e b u ild in g is 'c le a n e r ' t h a n t h e o th e rs s o u s e th a t.lin e a r c u r r e n t c o n s u m p tio n o f s o m e E U T s .to . a n d to u n d e r s ta n d h o w y o u r m e th o d o lo g y a n d te s t g e a r m ig h t in flu e n c e th e r e s u lt.

o r if y o u a r e n o t s u r e . d a a n a e o r 2 0 s t b e u s e d w ith d s s o th a t th e y o f th e 0 . p te 6 d o y g e t t r e c a u tio n s to s t g e a r a re 1 0 1 0 -1 .o c u rre n t s u rg e o f th e E U T c a u s e s o v e r v o lta g e d a m a g e to th e w a v e a n a ly s in p u ts ( o r s a fe ty h a z a r d s to p e r s o n n e l) .d o w n t r a n s f o r m e r 'b a c k w a r d s '. W h e n m e a s u r in g s in g le . S te p .A g e n c y A p p r o v e d 2 5 0 V is o la tio n a c c o r d in g to E N 6 1 0 1 0 -1 o r E N 6 0 9 5 0 .B r o w n . A n y c u r r e n t tr a n s d u c e r a n d w a v e a n a ly s e r th a t c a n b e u s e d fo r E N 6 1 0 0 0 .r a te d fu s e s o r o v e r c u r r e n it b r e a k e r s in th e in c o m in g m a in s ly .to n o is e r a tio ( S /N ) fo r th e h ig h e r fr e q u e n c y h a r m o n ic s w h e r e th e E N 6 1 0 0 0 . e tc .1 8 s o a s n o t to a ffe c t th e c ir c u itr y o f th e E U T s o m u c h th a t its h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s a lte r s ig n ific a n tly . w it h it s lo w v o lta g e s e c o n d a r y c o n n e c te d a c r o s s th s h u n t a n d its 1 1 0 o r 2 3 0 V p r im a r y c o n n e c te d to th e w a v e a n a ly s e r . p u ttin g th e r e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n t in th e n e u tr a l le a d in s te a d o f th e p h a s e le a d a n d c h e c k in g th a t th e n e u tr a l le a d r e a lly d o e s h a v e a lo w v o lta g e w ith r e s p e c t to th e p r o te c tiv e e a r th c a n h e lp r e d u c e s a fe ty r is k s . a n d in fu ll a n d u t to c h e c k th a t T h e s e u s e a v a r ie ty o f te c h n iq u e s ( e . It is s a fe s t to u s e a n a m p lifie r w h ic h h a s a S a fe ty . a s u ita b ly r a te d is o la tio n is r e q u ir e d . T h e n e a r b y fig u r e in d ic a te s s o m e c ir c u it te c h n iq u e s w h ic h c a n p r o v id e g a lv a n ic is o la tio n a n d /o r in c r e a s e s ig n a l a m p litu d e s w h e n u s in g r e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n ts . m a g n e tic ) to g e t d c p o w e r a n d s ig n a l a c r o s s th e is o la tio n b a r r ie r .p h a s e e q u ip m e n t.im p e d a n c e d o n 't a f f e c t t h e a c c u r a c u r r e n t s h u n t r e s is ta n w ith a 1 :1 0 s te p .r a te d in s u la tio n fo r b o th w in d in g s ) c o n n e c te d to th e s h u n t. o p tic a l.3 .u p a n s h u n t th e lo a d o n th e b e 1 0 k 8 o r m o re .2 lim its a r e lo w e s t. B u t it d o e s n o t p r o v id e g a lv a n ic is o la tio n a n d is lim ite d to a m a x im u m r e s is ta n c e o f 0 . A 1 :1 is o la tin g tr a n s fo r m e r ( c o m p lia n t w ith th e r e le v a n t p a r ts o f E N 6 1 5 5 8 o r E N 6 0 9 5 0 ) c a n p r o v id e g a lv a n ic is o la tio n . e tc . C u r r e n t tr a n s d u c e r a lte r n a tiv e s T h e r e s is t iv e c u r r e n t s h u n t is a ttr a c tiv e b e c a u s e it h a s a n a tu r a lly fla t fr e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e in th e r a n g e o f in te r e s t.1 9 E v e n w h e n u s in g a p r o p r ie t a r y 'c le a n ' m a in s s y n th e s is e r it is a g o o d id e a to a lw a y s o b s e r v e th e m a in s v o lta g e w a v e fo r m w ith a n o s c illo s c o p e a n d /o r p o w e r q u a lity a n a ly s e r to c h e c k th a t it is a s in e w a v e o f a d e q u a te q u a lity a n d th a t th e c u r r e n t d e m a n d fr o m th e E U T is n o t c a u s in g 'f la t . In s u c h c a s e s .3 . b u t e v e n s o I w o u ld n o t r e c o m m e n d r e d u c in g th e g a lv a n ic is o la tio n r e q u ir e m e n ts . B u t th e s e m a y b e h a r d to fin d a n d y o u m a y h a v e to s e ttle fo r o n e w h ic h g u a r a n te e s 3 k V o r s o e le c tr ic s tr e n g th a n d d o u b le ( o r r e in fo r c e d ) in s u la tio n a c r o s s its is o la tio n b a r r ie r . A n u m b e r o f a n a lo g u e IC m a n u fa c tu r e r s ( L in e a r T e c h n o lo g y C o r p o r a tio n .) a n d d o n 't f o r s u ita b ly . m u lo a c y c e . B e c a u s e th e c u r r e n t s h u n t is c o n n e c te d to th e m a in s .r a te d in s u la tio n ( d o u b le o r 'r e in f o r c e d ' in s u la t io n t e s t e d a t a r o u n d 3 k V e le c tr ic s tr e n g th ) . d ty N o te : T h e w h e n b u ild in r ib e d in d e ta ld a lw a y s b e o p r ia te te s ts e s ig n is s a fe s a fe ty g s u c h il in E N fo llo w e c a r r ie d .g .t o p p in g ' o r o t h e r w a v e f o r m d is to r tio n s . s u c h a s m a in s e le c tr ic ity .u p tr a n s fo r m e r s c a n b e m a d e u s in g a n o r d in a r y s te p . T h e n e a r b y fig u r e a ls o s h o w s a n is o la tio n a m p lifie r m e th o d . . A lw a tra n s th e ir p ro te s u ita re m o to fit c ir c u s u p p S a fe ta k e d e s c s h o u a p p r th e d y s in s ta ll th e c u r r e n t s h u n t a n d a n fo r m e r s o r is o la tin g a m p lifie r s ( a n p o w e r s u p p lie s ) in a n e n c lo s e d c tiv e ly . fo llo w e d b y th e s te p -u p tra n s fo rm e r. a n d a s te p u p is o la tin g tr a n s fo r m e r c a n p r o v id e s ig n a l g a in to o . p n e r S te p -u p tra n s fo rm e rs fa ir ly h ig h . A n a lo g D e v ic e s . A 1 :1 0 1 :2 0 r a tio is p r o b a b ly a s m u c h a s is n e e d e d to g e t a g o o d S /N w ith m o s t a n a ly s e r s b u t ta k e c a re n o t to s te p -u th e v o lta g e s o m u c h th a t th e p r im a r y c u r r e n t c o m p o n e n t o r th e in itia l s w itc h .2 te s tin g c a n a ls o b e u s e d w ith a r e s is tiv e lo a d in p la c e o f a n E U T to c h e c k th e d is to r tio n o f th e m a in s v o lta g e w a v e fo rm .1 8 F o r e x a m p le . S a f e t y N o t e : A lw a y s ta k e a ll s a fe ty p r e c a u tio n s w h e n w o r k in g w ith h a z a r d o u s v o lta g e s . y o u c o u ld in s te a d u s e tw o tr a n s fo r m e r s in s e r ie s : a 2 3 0 :2 3 0 V s a fe ty is o la tin g tr a n s fo r m e r ( w ith m a in s . c a p a c itiv e . B u r r . T h is lo w r e s is ta n c e m e a n s lo w o u tp u t v o lta g e s w ith c o n s e q u e n t d iffic u lty in a c h ie v in g a d e c e n t s ig n a l.e a r th e d m e ta l b o x w ith b le w a r n in g s ig n s ( “ is o la te b e fo r e v in g c o v e r ” .) p r o d u c e a m p lifie r s s p e c ific a lly fo r g a lv a n ic a lly is o la te d m e a s u r e m e n ts . 1 % to le r a n c e ly s e r s id e s h o u ld A s a fe ty is s u e w ith u s in g m a in s t r a n s f o r m e r s 'b a c k w a r d s ' t o b o o s t t h e o u tp u t o f a c u r r e n t s h u n t is th a t th e s e c o n d a r ie s o f ty p ic a l m a in s tr a n s fo r m e r s m a y n o t h a v e m a in s .

S p lit to r o id c o r e s c a n c lip . c o n tr o lle d b y m e a s u r in g th e v o lta g e a c r o s s th e p r e c is io n r e s is to r ) .o n c u r r e n t n c a lle d 'c u r r e n t c la m p s ' ') . e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n t h a s a r e s p o n s e . a u to m a tic a lly th e in s u la tio n o f th e e in g m e a s u r e d is n o t it is w h e n u s in g r e s is tiv e e u s e d to e s p o n s e a c tu a l H a ll g a p in a e c u rre n tju s t a s fo r a m a y h a v e a e le c tr o n ic o lta g e th e te s te d r o b e is a T e s tin g w ith th e s ig n a l g e n e r a to r s e t to v a r io u s fr e q u e n c ie s a n d a s ta n d a r d te s t c u r r e n t ( s a y 0 . s a y .d c c o n v e r te r . c u rre n t tra n s fo rm e r.fo r a s p e c ific ty p e o f E U T te c h n o lo g y a n d d e s ig n .2 1 In s te a d o f p u r c h a s in g a n IC o r m o d u le w ith b u ilt. d r iv in g a p r e c is io n p o w e r r e s is to r w ith th e s o r t o f c u r r e n ts to b e m e a s u r e d ( ta k in g c a r e to a v o id o v e r h e a tin g th e p r e c is io n r e s is to r ) a n d m e a s u r in g th is c u r r e n t w ith th e c u r r e n t tra n s d u c e r..w a v e g e n e r a to r w ith a n a u d io p o w e r a m p lifie r . T h e d r iv in g v o lta g e c a n b e e a s ily a c h ie v e d b y a m p lify in g a s ig n a l fr o m a s in e . T h e n e a r b y f ig u r e s p le c u r r e n t tr a n s fo r m e r s c tr o n ic s In c . b y te s tin g a t.1 0 0 k H z B N C o r tw in b a n a n a p lu g o u tp u t E x a m p le o f a R E O c u r r e n t tr a n s fo r m e r s u ita b le fo r te s tin g to E N /IE C 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -2 C a lib r a tin g c u r r e n t s h u n ts a n d c u r r e n t tra n s fo rm e rs .o p tic ( o r a 3 k V r a te d o p to . W a v e a n a ly s e r a lte r n a tiv e s A lte r n a tiv e s to th e s ta n d a r d w a v e a n a ly s e r a r e p o s s ib le .is o la to r w ith d o u b le in s u la tio n ) th e n c o n v e r t b a c k fr o m F to V fo r th e w a v e a n a ly s e r . s h o u ld a lw a m e a s u re m e r e s u lt. tio n a t a y s b n ts fa p e to c to r' fo r a r tic u la r u s e d to o b ta in a a p a r tic u la r fre q u e n c y . c o r r e c t th e ir r a w n a c c u ra te E x a m p le s o f c lip -o n c u r r e n t tra n s d u c e rs H a ll e ffe c t te c h n o lo g y c a n b m a k e c u r r e n t s e n s o r s w ith a r fro m d c to 2 k H z o r m o re . F o r e x a m p le y o u c o u ld u s e a v o lta g e to fr e q u e n c y c o n v e r te r to d r iv e a n L E D in to a s h o r t le n g th o f fib r e . o r fe ty n d n e v e r is F lu k e i2 0 0 s C u r r e n 0 . S a fe ty N o te : B u t re m fo llo w IE C 6 1 0 1 0 . th e o v e r a ll n tr a n s fo r m e r s o r a m p lifie r s lu d e d m a y n o t b e a s g o o d c h e c k e d to s e e if c a lib r a tio n n e fr e q u e n c y is r e q u ir e d m e r te c h n iq u e s u s e a a w in d in g fo r th e o u tp u t. a n d m e a s u r in g th e o u tp u t v o lta g e fr o m th e c u r r e n t tr a n s d u c e r ( in to its in te n d e d lo a d r e s is to r ) w ill r e s u lt in a g r a p h o f fr e q u e n c y v e r s u s tr a n s d u c e r o u tp u t w h ic h is th e c a lib r a tio n fa c to r fo r th e tr a n s d u c e r .1 to 2 4 A @ 1 0 0 m 4 0 H z .2 w o u ld b e r e q u ir e d to in te r p r e t th e ir m e a s u r e m e n ts a p p r o p r ia te ly . b u t o f c o u r s e th e y w ill n o t c o m p ly w ith [6 ] s o a n u n d e r s ta n d in g o f its r e q u ir e m e n ts p lu s th o s e o f E N 6 1 0 0 0 3 . o r a c a lib r a tio n c h a r t th a t s h o w s h o w th e c a lib r a tio n fa c to r c h a n g e s w ith th e fr e q u e n c y o f th e m e a s u r e d c u r r e n t. It is a ls o a g o o d id e a to c h e c k th a t th e t r a n s d u c e r 's c a lib r a t io n f a c t o r d o e s n o t v a r y w ith th e a c tu a l c u r r e n t le v e l. A s a fe ty a lw a y s 0 in fu ll. B u t if th e y d o n o t h a v e e ith e r . p lu s c lip . 0 . T h e d c p o w e r fo r th e m a in s v o lta g e s id e c o u ld b e fr o m a b a tte r y . T h e e ffe c t d e v ic e s a r e p la c e d in a to r o id a l c o r e th r o u g h w h ic h th c a r r y in g c o n d u c to r is p a s s e d . r r y in g th e c u r r e n t to b e ly p a s s e d th r o u g h th e id . T h e c o re w in d in g o n it to o .o n m F lu k e a n d T e k tr o n ix .0 1 A . T h e 'c a lib r a tra n s d u c e r.9 o f [1 2 ] is a g o o d w a y o f g e t t in g u s e f u l 'p r e . It is a lw a y s th e s a m e if y o u w a n t to s a v e m o n e y o n E M C te s t g e a r y o u h a v e to b e e v e n c le v e r e r a n d a p p ly m o r e s k ill th a n y o u w o u ld h a v e to if y o u h a d th e e x p e n s iv e fu ll. y o u c o u ld d e s ig n y o u r o w n .s p e c ific a tio n te s t e q u ip m e n t. s o m e tim e s u s in g e x is tin g la b o r a to r y te s t g e a r . a k e y b e n e fit o f u s in g r s . P u rc h a s e d c u rre n t tr a n s d u c e r s s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d w ith a c a lib r a tio n fa c to r .0 5 to 1 0 0 A @ 1 0 o r 1 0 0 m V /A D C .o r if y o u m a d e th e tr a n s d u c e r y o u r s e lf th e y c a n b e c a lib r a te d b y d r iv in g a k n o w n c u rre n t th ro u g h th e m a t a k n o w n fr e q u e n c y a n d m e a s u r in g th e ir o u tp u t v o lta g e . F o r m o r e id e a s o n b u ild in g y o u r o w n is o la tio n a m p lifie r . o r a 3 k V is o la tio n ( d o u b le in s u la te d ) d c . o r fr o m a s e p a r a te m a in s p o w e r c o n v e r te r w h ic h is r a te d a n d s a fe ty c e r tifie d fo r u s e w ith its d c o u tp u t r e fe r e n c e d to th e m a in s s u p p ly . T h e T e k tr o n ix A 6 2 2 p H a ll e ffe c t ty p e . T h e u s e o f t h e 'g o ld e n p r o d u c t ' m e t h o d d e s c r ib e d in s e c tio n 1 . C u rre n t tra n s fo r to r o id a l c o r e w ith T h e c o n d u c to r c a m e a s u r e d is s im p m id d le o f th e to r o b e u s e d to c re a te tra n s fo rm e rs (o fte o r 'c u r r e n t p r o b e s s h o w s o m e e x a m fr o m P e a r s o n E le c u rre n t p ro b e s fro T e k tr o n ix A 6 2 2 C u r r e n t P r o b e 0 . a ll a t 5 0 H z ( s a tu r a tio n e ffe c ts in tr a n s fo r m e r s a n d c u r r e n t tr a n s fo r m e r s a r e m o r e lik e ly to a p p e a r a t lo w fr e q u e n c ie s ) . a n d a s m a ll c ir c u it p r o d u c e s a c u r r e n t o r v o u tp u t w h ic h is p r o p o r tio n a l to c u r r e n t. e r c y h e in c b e n o e m E v e is re N b e r to 6 0 9 5 ls o f s a s u e s .1 A . 1 A a n d 1 0 A .1 o r e ls e u s e e q u iv a le n t le e x p e r tis e fo r a ll s a fe ty a s s u m e a n y th in g w h e c o n c e rn e d .c o m p lia n c e ' t y p e t e s t r e s u lts fr o m a lte r n a tiv e te s t g e a r . A lth o u g h th fla t fr e q u e n re s p o n s e w h a v e b e e n a n d s h o u ld a t m o re th a ( s e e la te r ) .1 0 H z B N C o M a x te s t c o n d u c to r t C V a r tw 2 0 m la m p n d 0 /5 to 2 4 0 A @ 1 0 m V /A in b a n a n a p lu g o u tp u t m 2 2 E x a m p le s o f R E O T ra n s fo rm e rs C u rre n t S a fe ty c u rre n a c h ie v m a in s c o m p r c u rre n is o la tio n is t tra n s fo rm e e d b e c a u s e c o n d u c to r b o m is e d ( a s t s h u n ts ). s e e [1 3 ] a n d [1 4 ]. .in g a lv a n ic is o la tio n .

o r th e m a th s f u n c t io n s a v a ila b le in s o m e 's c o p e s o r if y o u c a n d o w n lo a d th e D F T d a ta to a P C a n d p o s t.2 :2 0 0 0 . a n d th e T e k tr o n ix T H S 7 0 0 s e r ie s h a n d .p o w e r e d g a lv a n ic a lly . 4 1 B a n d 4 3 B a n d th e T e k tr o n ix T H S 7 2 0 P in c lu d e D F T s o ftw a r e a n d d is p la y fe a tu r e s w h ic h m a k e s th e m in to w a v e a n a ly s e r s .3 .is o la te d a m p lifie r s a r e s o ld fo r u s e w ith o s c illo s c o p e s .5 s e c o n d s m o o th in g a lg o r ith m fo r flu c tu a tin g h a r m o n ic s . e c tr u m a n a ly s e r e a t w a v e a n a ly s e r . y o u r c o m p a n y m a y a lr e a d y o w n o n e a s k y o u r s it e 's c h ie f e le c t r ic a l e n g in e e r . ) . B u t it is e a s y to m a k e y o u r o w n v e r y lo w c o s t w a v e a n a ly s e r . a n d g e t s o m e id e a o f w h e th e r a p r o d u c t w o u ld p a s s o r fa il a p ro p e r te s t to E N 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -2 E d . W ith th e a d d itio n o f a c u r r e n t p r o b e a c c e s s o r y ( s e e e a r lie r ) th e y c a n a n a ly s e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts . A n u m b e r o f p o r ta b le p o w e r -q u a lity in s t r u m e n t s a r e n o w a v a ila b le . u n le s s t h e 's c o p e o f f e r s a 0 . b u t a t le a s t it w ill a llo w y o u to a c tu a lly s e e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts e a s ily a n d a t lo w c o s t. A lth o u g h in te n d e d fo r te s tin g th e p o w e r q u a lity a n d h a r m o n ic c u r r e n ts in e le c tr ic a l in s ta lla tio n s .o n c u r r e n t p r o b e a c c e s s o r ie s fo r c u r r e n ts u p to 2 0 A a r e 1 0 0 m V /A m p .ty p e fe a tu r e s . e s p e c ia lly a s th e o u tp u t fr o m th e m n a tu r a lly r is e s w ith fr e q u e n c y . O n c e a g a in . If y o u h a v e s o m e a b ility w ith m a th e m a tic s u s in g p a p e r a n d p e n c il. B u t a lth o u g h t h e y d o n 't m a k e c o m p lia n t m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d m ig h t n o t b e s e n s itiv e e n o u g h fo r th e h ig h o r d e r h a r m o n ic s . E x a m p le s o f s u c h in s tr u m e n ts in c lu d e th e F lu k e 3 9 .flu k e . T h e F lu k e 3 9 . a s d e s c r ib e d e a r lie r . th e c ir c u it d o e s n o t p r o v id e th e 1 . w ith a s im p le tu n e a b le b a n d p a s s filte r b a s e d o n a s in g le q u a d o p a m p . a lm o s t a n y o ld o s c illo s c o p e a n d a tr u e r m s v o ltm e te r . th e y c a n o fte n b e u s e d fo r te s tin g th e h a r m o n ic c u r r e n t e m is s io n s fr o m in d iv id u a l ite m s o f e q u ip m e n t. a n d 4 3 B ( w w w .h e ld p r o d e n o u g h to c h e c k th e p r o d u c t 's h ig h e r .1 m V /d iv is io n r a n g e . 2 4 M a n y d ig itis in g o s c illo s c o p e s n o w h a v e D F T ( o r s im ila r k in d s o f F o u r ie r tr a n s fo r m ) fa c ilitie s b u ilt. M o s t c u r r e n t tr a n s fo r m e r s w ill a ls o g iv e r e a s o n a b le o u tp u t v o lta g e s . In fa c t.2 :2 0 0 0 .5 s e c o n d s m o o th in g filte r o r a n y o f th e o th e r c o m p le x m e a s u r e m e n t fe a tu r e s r e q u ir e d b y E N 6 1 0 0 0 . A s s h o w n . T h is is e n o u g h to g e t a r e a s o n a b le S /N o n m o s t o s c illo s c o p e s . p o s t p r o c e s s in g m a th s c o u ld b e u s e d to g e t c lo s e r to th e w a y th e m e a s u r e m e n t is d o n e b y E N 6 1 0 0 0 . H o w e v e r . th e a c r e s o lu tio n o r S /N a v a th e s e h a n d .in o r a v a ila b le a s a r e tr o fitte d o p tio n s . U n fo r tu n a te ly .h a n d o n e c o u ld n a b le p r ic e . ( A n d a n y d e c e n t a n a lo g u e d e s ig n e r s h o u ld b e a b le to a d d a 1 . its fo r th e h ig h o r d e r n o t b e d is c e r n ib le o n S o m e o f th e s e p o r ta b le p o w e r q u a lity in s tr u m e n ts c o u ld b e c o m p a r a b le in c o s t w ith th e c o m b in e d h a r m o n ic s a n d flic k e r a n a ly s e r p ic tu r e d e a r lie r .c o m ) w h ic h s e e m to h a v e s ta r te d life a s h a n d h e ld m u ltim e te r s to w h ic h h a v e b e e n a d d e d o s c illo s c o p e . S e v e r a l b a tte r y . a s s is tin g th e S /N w h e n m a k in g t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f th e lo w e r h a r m o n ic c u r r e n t lim its a t th e h ig h e r fr e q u e n c ie s . 4 1 B . th e y c a n b e u s e d fo r a m u ltip lic ity o f o th e r p u r p o s e s s o th is m ig h t h e lp ju s tify th e ir e x p e n s e . a n d u s in g o n e o f th e s e w ith a r e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n t s h o u ld a llo w r e a s o n a b le m e a s u r e m e n ts to b e m a d e w h ils t a ls o h e lp in g to e n s u r e s a fe ty . T y p ic a l o u tp u ts fr o m p r o p r ie ta r y c la m p .3 .o r d e A lth o u g h th e s e in s tr u m e a s u re to th e 3 1 st o th e E N 6 1 0 0 0 .5 s e c o n d s m o o th in g filte r w ith a r e a s o n a b le m a tc h t o [ 6 ] 's s p e c if ic a t io n s .p r o c e s s it th e r e u s in g a s p r e a d s h e e t o r m a th s a p p lic a tio n p a c k a g e y o u c o u ld p r o b a b ly m a k e a r e a s o n a b le s ta b a t a m a k in g m e a s u r e m e n ts in a c c o r d a n c e w ith E N 6 1 0 0 0 .2 ( a t th e h ig h e s t fr e q u e n c ie s ) th e ty p ic a l v o lta g e is o f th e o r d e r o f 5 m V .p o r ta b le o s c illo s c o p e s to w h ic h h a v e b e e n a d d e d m u ltim e te r fe a tu r e s . w h ic h m e a n s th a t w h e n m e a s u r in g to th e lo w e s t c u r r e n t lim its in E N 6 1 0 0 0 .3 . o r u n le s s a s te p . th e o s c illo s c o p e s u s e d w ill n e e d to h a v e a t le a s t a 2 m V /d iv is io n s e n s itiv ity v e r tic a l c h a n n e l s e ttin g .3 .2 lim h a r m o n ic s ju s t m ig h t th e ir s c r e e n s . in c lu d in g its 1 . a n d th e s e c a n b e v e r y e ffe c tiv e a t o b ta in in g a s p e c tr u m a n a ly s is o f th e h a r m o n ic c o n te n t o f th e m a in s c u r r e n t. M a y b e a b e fo u n d fo r a T h e o u tp u t o f a r e s is tiv e c u r r e n t s h u n t w ill n o t g iv e s u ffic ie n t S /N to m e a s u r e to th e lo w e r e m is s io n s lim its a t th e h ig h e r f r e q u e n c ie s .u p tr a n s fo r m e r o r is o la tio n a m p lifie r is u s e d b e t w e e n t h e s h u n t a n d t h e 's c o p e .2 a n d d e s c r ib e d in [6 ].2 . T h e n e a r b y fig u r e s h o w s e x a m p le s o f s o m e o f th e s e p r o d u c ts . a s s h o w n b y th e n e a r b y c ir c u it. e n o u g h to w o rk e ll a s w ith o th e r c e rs .2 3 A n a u w o u ld a n d s w ith c ty p e s s e c o n re a s o d io fr e q u e n c y s p o f c o u rs e b e a g r h o u ld b e s e n s itiv e u rre n t s h u n ts a s w o f c u rre n t tra n s d u d .3 .2 E d . c u r a c y o r d is p la y ila b le in s o m e o f u c ts m ig h t n o t b e c o m p lia n c e o f a r h a r m o n ic s . m e n ts s a y th e y w ill r 5 0 th o r w h a t e v e r .

T o d o th is . s ig n a l th a t is a n d c ir c u it a in s S a f e t y N o t e : T h is c ir c u it is n o t g a lv a n ic a lly is o la te d fr o m its in p u t s o u rc e . fo llo w th e n o r m a l m e a s u r in g p r o c e d u r e ( s e e b e lo w ) b u t w ith a p r e c is io n h ig h . w h ic h s h o u ld b e a m u ltip le o f th e m a in s fr e q u e n c y .u p . c ) S e t. i) R e p e a t e ) to h ) a b o v e fo r 1 5 0 H z .3 . o r e d e u s e d w ith ly s e r ' c a n h u n t. w h ic h a tte rs .u p ' ( = t u n e in ) t h e d e s ir e d f r e q u e n c y o n th e o s c illo s c o p e . T h is s im p le filte r r e q u ir e s a n o s c illo s c o p e to p e r m it t h e 't u n in g in ' o f e a c h h a r m o n ic a n d a ls o to id e n tify th e fr e q u e n c y o f th e h a r m o n ic th a t h a s b e e n tu n e d to . F o r e x a m p le a 2 . T u n e th e filte r to th e fu n d a m e n ta l m a in s fr e q u e n c y ( a n y h a r m o n ic s ig n a ls s h o u ld b e v e r y s m a ll. h ) M e a s u r e th e s ig n a ls r m s le v e l u s in g th e v o ltm e te r . I h a v e n o t b o t h e r e d t o c a lc u la te th b u t it is n a r in d iv id u a l m is a ll th a t m T h e c u rre n t h is 'b a n d p e ith e r b e a is o la tin g .2 E d . o r 1 V p e r A m p . . t tra n s d u c e r to a s s filte r w a v e r e s is tiv e . o r is 'f u z z y .g a n g p o te n tio m e te r to 2 6 'p e a k .tr tra n s fo rm e e b a n d p a s s f ilt e r 's b a n d w id t h . th is b iq u a d r a tic filte r w a v e a n a ly s e r c a n b e c o n s tr u c te d v e r y q u ic k ly o n a p ie c e o f p r o to ty p in g b o a r d . e ) S e t t h e 's c o p e 's t im e b a s e t o b e s t s u it th e fir s t h a r m o n ic to b e m e a s u r e d (1 0 0 H z ). fo r e a c h o f th e m e a s u re d fr e q u e n c ie s . A ls o c o n n e c t it to a tr u e r m s v o lt m e t e r ( if t h e 's c o p e d o e s n 't p r o v id e th a t fu n c tio n ) .2 E d . u s in g th e o s c illo s c o p e . It h a s n o la y o u t o r w ir in g r e q u ir e m e n ts a p a r t fr o m th e n e e d to s ite t h e t w o 1 0 0 n F d e c o u p lin g c a p a c it o r s v e r y c lo s e to th e p o w e r p in s o f th e o p a m p to h e lp it s ta y s ta b le a n d r e d u c e p o w e r s u p p ly n o is e ( a g r o u n d p la n e u n d e r th e o p a m p is a ls o a g o o d id e a .3 . e s p e c ia lly if fa s te r o p a m p s th a n th e T L 0 7 4 a r e u s e d ) . d ) C o n n e c t th e b a n d p a s s o u tp u t fro m th e filte r c ir c u it to a n o s c illo s c o p e v e r tic a l c h a n n e l a m p lifie r w ith 1 M 8 in p u t. a c o r d c c o u p le d . T h e n o r m a l m e a s u r in g p r o c e d u r e fo r th e 'b a n d p a s s f ilt e r w a v e a n a ly s e r ' is a s fo llo w s … a ) A tta c h th e c u rre n t tra n s d u c e r to th e m a in s le a d to b e te s te d . o r in te r fe r e n c e .1 0 0 A r m s w h e n p o w e r e d fr o m 2 3 0 . b ) A t t a c h t h e m a in s le a d t o t h e 'c le a n ' 2 3 0 V p o w e r s o u r c e ( s e e e a r lie r ) . f) A d ju s t th e d u a l. g ) M e a s u r e a n d r e c o r d th e d is p la y e d fr e q u e n c y .o n a n d o p e r a te th e E U T e x a c tly a s s p e c ifie d in E N 6 1 0 0 0 . to th e m e a s u r e d r e s u lts to c a lc u la te th e a c tu a l a m p litu d e s a t e a c h o f th e h a r m o n ic fr e q u e n c ie s .3 .0 V r m s . A d ju s t t h e 's c o p e 's in p u t s e n s itiv ity a n d tr ig g e r le v e ls a s a p p r o p r ia te to g e t a g o o d c le a r w a v e fo r m d is p la y . o r is n o t a m u lt ip le o f t h e m a in s fr e q u e n c y th e r e is a fa u lt. a n d s o o n fo r a ll o f th e h a r m o n ic s u n til y o u h a v e a ll th a t y o u n e e d to m e a s u re . It u s u a lly h e lp s to a d ju s t th e g a in o f th e a m p lifie r s t a g e in t h e 'b a n d p a s s f ilt e r w a v e a n a ly s e r ' s o th a t th e s c a le fa c to r is a h a n d y r a tio .c u r r e a n s fo rm e r ty p e r . a n d its p h a s e a n g le w ith th e B e c a u s e it is w o r k in g w ith s u c h lo w fr e q u e n c ie s ( m a x : 2 k H z ) . 2 0 0 H z .p lu s a c u rre n t a r lie r . k ) F o r C la s s e s A a n d B s im p ly c o m p a r e th e c a lc u la te d a m p litu d e s fo r e a c h o f th e h a r m o n ic s w ith its lim its a s s p e c ifie d in E N 6 1 0 0 0 .2 .2 :2 0 0 0 a n d d e c id e w h e th e r e a c h is a p a s s o r a fa il. F o r C la s s C th e m a in s c u r r e n t c o n s u m p tio n a t th e fu n d a m e n ta l fr e q u e n c y . s w itc h . p lu s a tr u e r m s v o ltm e te r to a c tu a lly m e a s u r e th e h a r m o n ic 's le v e l.3 0 0 8 lo a d r e s is to r w ill r e s u lt in a c u r r e n t o f 0 .p o w e r r e s is to r in s e r ie s w ith a p r e c is io n a c a m m e te r ( e ith e r tr u e r m s o r c a lib r a te d r m s ) in p la c e o f a n a c tu a l E U T . If th e w a v e fo r m is n o t a g o o d s in e w a v e . b o th d e s c r ib b e a n a n t-s . t o f in d t h e s c a le f a c t o r a t t h e fu n d a m e n ta l m a in s fr e q u e n c y . r o w e n o u g h to r e s o lv e a in s h a r m o n ic s c le a r ly . j) A p p ly t h e c u r r e n t t r a n s d u c e r 's c a lib r a t io n fa c to rs . s u c h a s 1 0 0 m V p e r A m p o f E U T m a in s c u r r e n t.2 5 B e f o r e u s in g t h e 'b a n d p a s s f ilt e r w a v e a n a ly s e r ' to m e a s u r e a n E U T its s c a le fa c to r s h o u ld fir s t b e m e a s u r e d a n d a d ju s te d if n e c e s s a r y . If th e s ig n a l le v e l o f th e h a r m o n ic is v a r y in g ( n o t d u e t o v a r ia t io n s in t h e E U T 's h a r m o n ic c u r r e n t d e m a n d ) .2 :2 0 0 0 r u le s fo r d e a lin g w ith flu c tu a tin g h a r m o n ic s . if th e s o u r c e is c le a n e n o u g h ) a n d th e n c o m p a r e th e p r e c is io n a c a m m e te r r e a d in g w ith th e o u t p u t f r o m t h e 'b a n d p a s s f ilt e r w a v e a n a ly s e r '. a n d w ill d is s ip a te 2 3 w a tts . r e c o r d th e m a x im u m v a lu e to b e o n th e s a fe s id e . W h e r e th e s ig n a l m e a s u r e d is v a r y in g a s a r e s u lt o f t h e E U T 's c u r r e n t d e m a n d ( e . a n E U T th a t g o e s th r o u g h a r e p e titiv e c y c le o f o p e r a tio n s w ith d iffe r e n t c u r r e n t d e m a n d s in e a c h ) th e n m a k e a n u m b e r o f m e a s u r e m e n ts a s n e c e s s a r y to a p p ly th e E N 6 1 0 0 0 . 2 5 0 H z . s o th e c u rre n t tra n s d u c e r u s e d m u s t b e g a lv a n ic a lly is o la te d in s u la te d s u ffic ie n tly to p r o te c t th e fr o m a t le a s t 3 k V a c r m s o n th e m c ir c u it b e in g te s te d . g . T h is s h o u ld lo o k lik e a f a ir ly p u r e s in e w a v e .

3 . p p 2 h ttp ://w w w A rm s tro n g e la te d F u n c tio n a l S a fe ty ” . a n d th e p o w e r c a lc u la te d fr o m th a t d a ta . T h e s w e e p r a te s h o u ld n o t b e s o fa s t th a t th e a m p litu d e s o f th e h a r m o n ic s a r e a ffe c te d ( th e n a r r o w e r th e filte r b a n d w id th . a ta b le th e E N s ta n d a r d s lis te d u n d e r th e D ir e c tiv e .2 E d itio n 2 . R e fe r e n c e s 2 7 s u p p ly v o lta g e . J a n u a r y 4 . C la s s D r e a lly r e q u ir e s a tr u e r m s w a ttm e te r to b e u s e d to m e a s u r e th e in p u t p o w e r to th e E U T d u r in g th e te s t. A lo t o f fu tu r e tim e c o u ld b e s a v e d b y a u t o m a t in g t h e f ilt e r 's t u n in g a n d lo c k in g it to th e s w e e p s ig n a l fr o m th e o s c illo s c o p e to c r e a te a r u d im e n ta r y lo w . m a g n e tic c o m p a tib ility ( E M : L im its .2 E d . B u t n o te d s (e .h tm . s u c h a s IE C (o r E 6 1 0 1 0 .ie e . lis ts o f a p p o in te d C o m p e te n t B o d ie s . 2 0 0 0 . a ll a t: h ttp ://e u r o p a . o n . K e ith A r m s tr o n g . th e s lo w e r th e m a x im u m s w e e p r a te fo r a n a c c u r a te m e a s u re m e n t). o te th a t e v e n if g r e a t c a r e h a s b e e n k e n in m e a s u r in g .c fm . T h e D ir e c t iv e 's o f f ic ia l h o m e p a g e in c lu d e s a d o w n lo a d a b le v e r s io n o f th e E M C D ir e c tiv e . if y o u d o ta k e s u c h c a r e a n d th e h a r m o n ic s y o u m e a s u r e a r e le s s th a n 5 0 % o f th e ir lim its .” /E E C E U o f a ll o w to E M C th e / [2 ] E N 6 “ E le c tr o P a rt 3 -2 c u rre n t u p to a n [3 ] E u r o p e a n U n io n D ir e c tiv e 8 9 /3 3 6 ( a s a m e n d e d ) o n E le c tr o m a g n e tic C o m p a t ib ilit y . th e c h a n c e s a r e th a t th e e q u ip m e n t w o u ld p a s s a 'p r o p e r ' h a r m o n ic s t e s t .O n -s it e t e s t in g o f m a in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s T e s t in g t h r e e -p h a s e e q u ip m e n t E N th r m a tim /IE C 6 1 0 0 0 . fo r s o m e a t s h o u ld b e [1 ] IE “ E le c P a rt c u rre u p to C 6 1 0 0 0 . c a n b e d o w n lo a d e d a s a 'C o r e ' d o c u m e n t p lu s n in e 'I n d u s t r y A n n e x e s ' fro m h ttp ://w w w . th e c h a n c e s a r e th a t th e e q u ip m e n t w o u ld fa il a p ro p e r te s t. E M C & e J o u r n a l. S a f e t y N o t e : A ll th e s a fe ty is s u e s a s s o c ia te d w ith m a in s p o w e r m u s t w ith c o r r e c tly ! A lw a y s a p p ly a ll th e p a r ts o f th e la te s t is s u e s o f th e r e le s a fe ty s ta n d a rd s . a r e a ls o r e q u ir e d to c a lc u la te p a s s /fa il.c o m p lia n c e .tu n e d r e c e iv e r . in fu ll.lin e a t: . a g u id a n c e d o c u m e n t o n h a p p ly th e D ir e c tiv e .2 : L im its . a n d th e s e c a n b e h a d b y tu n in g th e b a n d p a s s filte r to m e a s u r e a t 5 0 H z .” C )  ic t c u rre n t ). a n d p r o g r e s s o n 2 n d E d itio n E M C D ir e c tiv e .in t/c o m m /e n te r p r is e e le c tr _ e q u ip m e n t/e m c /in d e x . n o r e q u ir e m e n ts to p e rfo rm th e te o te s ts c a n b e c a ll a s in a la b o r a to o f th e te s t m e th o u ip m e n t) s p e c ify n ta l c o n d itio n s th in E N /IE C s ts o n a n E M C r r ie d o u t o n ry . It is r e c o m m e n d e d th a t e v e r y o n e d o w n lo a d s th e C o r e d o c u m e n t a n d a t le a s t r e a d s its fir s t fe w p a g e s .L im its fo r h a r m o n n t e m is s io n s ( e q u ip m e n t in p u a n d in c lu d in g 1 6 A p e r p h a s e 1 0 0 0 . th e r e s u lts w ill s till n o t b e v e r y a c c u r a te . C o m p ly in g w ith th is IE E g u id e c o u ld r e d u c e e x p o s u r e to lia b ility c la im s . H o w e v e r .p h a s e e q u ip m e n t to b e te s te d fo r in s h a r m o n ic e m is s io n s o n e p h a s e a t a e .c o m /K e ith P o r tfo lio .3 .o r g /P o lic y /A r e a s /E m c / in d e x . [5 ] “E M C -r A n U p d a te C o m p lia n c 2 0 0 3 . B u t if s u c h a n it e m o f e q u ip m e n t is n 't a v a ila b le th e 5 0 H z m a in s c u r r e n t c a n b e m e a s u r e d a lo n g w ith its p h a s e a n g le r e la tiv e to th e 2 3 0 V s in e w a v e v o lta g e s u p p ly b y tu n in g th e b a n d p a s s filte r to 5 0 H z .2 E d itio n 2 .L im its fo r h a r m o n e m is s io n s ( e q u ip m e n t in p u d in c lu d in g 1 6 A p e r p h a s e 2 8 C ) ic t c u rre n t ). tr o m a g n e tic c o m p a tib ility ( E M 3 .1 . b e d e a lt r e le v a n t v a n t N ) N ta in [2 T h e re a re 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -2 te s t s ite .g .e u . s s ite a s w e th a t s o m e lig h tin g e q e n v ir o n m e m e t. N o .c lu b . c a lc u la tin g a n d te r p r e tin g th e a b o v e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith ] a n d [6 ]. A n d if th e h a r m o n ic s y o u m e a s u r e a r e m o r e th a n 5 0 % h ig h e r th a n th e ir lim its . [ 4 ] T h e I E E 's 2 0 0 0 g u id e : “ E M C & F u n c tio n a l S a fe ty ” .3 0 . 4 4 . Is s . S o try a fe w s w e e p ra te s a n d o n ly u s e th o s e th a t g iv e th e s a m e p e a k a m p litu d e s .2 :2 0 0 0 r e q u ir e s e e . 2 0 0 0 .3 .fr e q u e n c y s w e e p .

c o n c e r n in g E N 6 1 0 0 0 -3 -3 . K e ith h a s b e e n a C h a r te E n g in e e r ( U K ) s in c e 1 9 7 E u r o p e a n E n g in e e r s in c w r itte n a n d p r e s e n te d a p a p e r s o n E M C . a n d in s ta lla tio n s . IS B N 0 -7 5 0 6 -4 9 3 0 -5 . m le tio n s z in o m a rt 1 : R a s tro n g a p lia n c e 2 7 -3 9 .a r m th e C h e r w w w . h ttp [8 ] E M w w th e c lic c o m “T C w h k h e & . [1 2 ] “E M C T e e m is s io n s ” .S c ( H o n s .c o m p lia A rm s tro n g P o [1 3 ] “ in d u s E D N 6 0 . s y s te m s . fo r e n t E R ic v o lta g e . .7 :2 0 0 2 “ E le c tr o m ility ( E M C ) P a rt 4 -7 : T s u r e m e n t te c h n iq u e s G h a r m o n ic s a n d in te r h a r m m e n ts a n d in s tr u m e n ta tio p p ly s y s te m s a n d e q u ip m d th e re to . E M F e b ru a ry 2 0 0 w w w . h a s e d S I) a t: a b o u t e r r e .c o f th is m h e d in 2 0 lia n c e " . p a g e s n c e .c o .e m c tla .o r g .c o . a n d h a g re a t m a n y p a s t c h a ir m a n ro u p (E 2 ) o n tib ility . w w s tin g .e lm a c . a n G r o u p o n 'E M C [7 ] E n g in e G 5 /4 : “ P la d is to r tio n e q u ip m e n d is tr ib u tio K in g d o m ” 2 0 0 1 .a u th o r fo r th a t s e r ie s .c o m e p a g e t o f in d 'B a e re s h o w n to d o w d iu m . [1 0 ] “P o B r a d le y IS B N 0 p o w e r h to m e a s c a n h a v w e r a n d 4 7 1 a rm u re e . K W illia m s . T h is is a k e y w o r k o n o n ic s : w h a t c a u s e s th e m . A r r ila g a . 1 9 th M a y 2 0 0 0 . u ly 2 0 1 9 9 8 . a n d w h a t e ffe c ts th e y T h is g u id e a s e r ie s . M a n y th a n k s a r e d u e to T im W illia m s o f E lm a c S e r v ic e s : h ttp ://w w w . E N a n d IE C s fr o m B r itis h S o r d e r s @ b s i. J c d e s ig n .2 0 0 2 in ttp ://w w w .u k .c o m . S y s te m H a r m o n ic s ” .T h e A u th o r 2 9 [6 ] IE C 6 c o m p a tib a n d m e a g u id e o n m e a s u re p o w e r s u c o n n e c te 1 0 0 0 . p p 5 9 .c lu b r tfo lio . a l. 3 r d E d itio n ” T im W illia m s . is a M C S o c ie ty . fo r a v a r ie ty o f c o m p a n ie s a n d o r g a n is a tio n s in a r a n g e o f in d u s tr ie s .c o o m w h p e n n a m p lifie r s u its ” A n d r e w R u s s e l.lin e a r s & tio n .c c u rr tio n s ig n w .c h e K e ith s tro n r y C lo r r y c lo A r g @ u g u g m s c h h w h . m . E m a in @ r e o y o u w o u ld r e c e iv e a ll m in i g u id e b e e n te re d m a ilin g lis is o n e o f m a il u s a t . N e w n e s 2 0 0 1 .g a p ro d u c t o r s S e r v ic e s o n + th e m a t c s e rv ta n d a rd s m a y b e p u rc ta n d a r d s In s titu tio n ( B lo b a l. M u c h o f h is life s in c e th e n h a s in v o lv e d c o n tr o llin g r e a l. T h e E le c tr ic ity A ://w w w .u k a g n e tic e s tin g e n e ra l o n ic s n .) fr o m Im p e r ia l C o lle g e L o n d o n in 1 9 7 2 .” e r in g R e c o m m e n n n in g le v e ls fo r h & th e c o n n e c tio n t to tr a n s m is s io n n n e tw o r k s in th e . ic ity in d u s tr y n e e d s to ic e m is s io n s a n d s s o c ia te d w ith s s th a n 1 6 A ” G .e le c tr ic ity d a tio n a rm o n o f n o n s y s te m U n ite d s s o c ia .g lo b a l.c o m . tim w @ e lm a c . F e b 2 0 0 0 .e e n ”. h o w th e m .e d n im p le ic is o la n ic D e 1 0 . a G ro u p 1 e 1 9 8 8 . S c r o ll d o w n n a n a S k in s ' a n d n lo a d th e [1 4 ] “S g a lv a n E le c tr o p a g e 1 t s e n s o r fe J o s e A . m y c o . m p e n d iu m ” . . 9 0 6 4 0 9 . C a a g a z in e . a tu re s rra s c o . .u k . [1 1 ] “ E M C fo r P r o d u c t D e s ig n e r s .4 . H e is a th e IE E ’s P r o fe s s io n a l G E le c tr o m a g n e tic C o m p a m e m b e r o f th e IE E E ’s E c h a ir s th e IE E ’s W o r k in g a n d F u n c t io n a l S a f e t y '. w ith a U p p e r S e c o n d C la s s H o n o u r s ( C u m L a u d e ) .c A rm s tro n g P p r e v io u s ly th e "E M C o m p lia n c e o r tfo lio . m a jo r in g in a n a lo g u e c ir c u it d e s ig n a n d e le c tr o m a g n e tic fie ld th e o r y .P e ith A r m C & C o m 1 .c o m /K e d ia te d n d T im J o u rn a l ith 3 0 K e ith A r m s tr o n g g r a d u a te d in e le c tr ic a l e n g in e e r in g w ith a B . J o h n W ile y 1 9 8 5 .S .F in la y . w L o w c o s tr ia l a p p E u ro p e w w .te c h n o lo g y p r o d u c ts .c o . B o d g e r . h o m /K e ith a te r ia l w a s 0 1 .c lu b .u k if lik e to o f o u r s a n d to o n to o u r t o n g b y e m a il a t r r y c lo u g h . C o n ta c t: k e ith .o rg . t is o la lic a tio m a g a m a g .m a il B a n a n a S k in s C o C o m p lia n c e J o u r n m p lia n c e . T o e n q u ir e e r v ic e c a ll B S I C u s to m 4 4 (0 )2 0 8 9 9 6 9 0 0 1 o ic e s @ b s i.c o m o r v is it b s ite A c k n o w le d g e m e n ts S o m e p u b lis C o m p c lu b .c o K e ith A r m s tr o n g o f C h e r r y C lo u g h C o n s u lta n ts s o f d [9 ] “ W h y th e e le c tr c o n tro l th e h a rm o n v o lta g e c h a n g e s a e q u ip m e n t r a te d le E M C T L A S e m in a r 3 -2 a n d E N 6 1 0 0 0 w w w . e .c tr e e o m r e d E le c tr ic a l 8 .life in te r fe r e n c e p r o b le m s in h ig h .

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