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IN
SCHOOL PHYSICS
U DC 530(075.3) = 20
First published /97.J
Revised from tile 1968 Russian edition
It:' English translation, Mir Publishers, 1973
Ha UHZIlUUCKOM R3b1Xe
0232230
T 041(01)73
:ONTENTS
From the Editor of the Russian Edition . . . . .
Foreword. . ....................... .
§ I. C:m You Analyse Graphs Representing the Kinematics of
StraightLine }\\otion? . . . . . . . . . .
§ 2. Can You Show the Forces Applied to a Body? .. .
§ 3. Can You Determine the Friction Force? .... .
§ 4. How Well Do You Know I\ewton's Laws of Motion?
§ 5. How Do You Go About Solving Problems in Kinematics?
§ 6. How Do You Go About Solving Problems in Dynamics?
§ 7. Are Problems in Dynamics Much More Difficult to Solve if
Friction [s Taken into Account? ........ .
§ 8. How Do You Deal With 1Il0tion in a Circle? ...... .
§ 9. How Do You Explain the Weightlessness of Bodies?
§ 10. Can You Apply Ine Laws of Conservation of Energy and Linear
Momenlum? .................... .
§ 11. Can You Deal with Harmonic Vibrations? . . . . . . .
§ 12. What Happens to a Pendulum in a State of Weightlessness?
§ 13. Can You Use the Force R,esolution Method Efficiently?
§ 14. What Do You Know about the Equilibrium of Bodies?
§ 15. How Do You Locate the Centre of Gravity? . .
§ 16. Do You Koo\\' Archimedes' Principle? ..... .
§ 17. I:; Archimedes' Principle Valid in a Spaceship? .. .
§ 18. What Do You Know about the Molecular·Kinetic Theory
of Matter? ..................... .
§ 19. How Do You Account for the Peculiarity in the Thermal
Expansion of Water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
§ 20. How Well Do You Know the Gas Laws? . . . . .
§ 21. How Do You Go About Solving Problems on Gas Laws?
7
8
11
17
25
29
40
18
53
60
71
77
93
100
106
110
115
121
126
130
141
143
151
§ 22. Let Us Discuss Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . .. 163
§ 23. How Is an Elec trostatic Field Described? . . . . . . .• 168
§ 24. How Do Lines of Force Behave Near the Surface of a Conduc
tor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 176
§ 25. How Do You Deal With Motion in a Uniform Electrostatic
Field? . . . . . . . . • . . . • 180
§ 26. Can You Apply Coulomb's Law? . . . . . . . . . . .. H39
§ 21. Do You Know Ohm's Law? . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 196
§ 28. Can a Capacitor Be Connected into a DirectCurrent Circuin 203
§ 29. Can You Compute the Resistance of a Branched Portion of a
Circuit? . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 206
§ 30. Why Did the Electric Bulb Burn Out? . . . . . . . .. 211
§ 31. Do You Know How Light Beams Are ReOected and Re
fracted? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . .. 218
§ 32. How Do You Construct Images Formed by Mirrors and Lenses? 223
§33. How Well Do You Solve Problems Involving Mirrors and
Lenses? 231
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •. 236
FROM THE EDITOR
OF THE RUSSIAN EDITION
It can safely be asserted that no student preparing for an
entrance examination in physics, for admission to an enginee
ring institute has yet opened a book similar to this one.
Employing the extremely lively form of dialogue, the authors
were able to comprehensively discuss almost all the subjects
in the syllabus, especially questions usually considered dif
ficult to understand. The book presents a detailed analysis
of common mistakes made by students taking entrance exa
minations in physics. Students will find this to be an excep
tionally clear and interesting textbook which treats of compli
cated problems from various viewpoints and contains a great
many excellent illustrations promoting a deeper understan
ding of the ideas and concepts involved.
The authors are lecturers of the Moscow Institute of Electro
nics Engineering and are well acquainted with the general
level of training of students seeking admission to engineering
i n s t i t u t e ~ they have years of experience in conducting entran
ce examinations. The expert knowledge of the authors, in
conjunction with the lively and lucid presentation, has made
this a very useful study guide for students preparing for physics
examinations.
Pro!. G. Epifanov, D.Se. (Phys. and Math.)
FOREWORD
This book was planned as an aid to students preparing for
an entrance examination in physics for admission to an engi
neering institute. It has the form of a dialogue between the
author (the TEACHER) and an inquisitive reader (the STU
DENT). This i5 exceptionally convenient for analysing com
mon errors made by students in entrance examinations, for
reviewing different methods of solving the same problems
and for discussing difficult questions of physical theory.
A great many questions and problems of school physics are
dealt with. Besides, problems are given (with answers) for
home study. Most of the questions and problems figu
red in the entrance examinations of the .Moscow Institute of
Electronics Engineering in the years 196466.
An analysis of mistakes made by students is always in
structive; Attention can be drawn to various aspects of the
problem, certain fine points can be made, and a more thor
ough understanding of the fundamentals can be reached.
Such an analysis, however, may prove to be very difficult.
Though there is only one correct answer, there can be a great
many incorrect ones. It is practically impossible to foresee
all the incorrect answers to any question; many of them re
main concealed forever behind the distressing silence of
a student being oraUy examined. Nevertheless, one can point
out certain incorrect answers to definite questions that are
heard continually. There are many questions that are
almost ine\·itably answered incorrectly. This book is based
mainly on these types of questions and problems,
8
We wish to warn the reader that this is by no means a
textbook embracing all the items of the syllabus. He will not
find here a systematic account of the s u b 1 ~ c t matter that may
be required by the study courie in physics. He will find this
text to be perhaps more like a freely told story or, rather,
a freely conducted discussion. Hence, it will be of little use
to those who wish to begin their study of physics or to systema
tize their khowledge of this science. It was intended, instead,
for those who wish to inCr&8.86 their knowledge of physics on
the threshold of their exam inations.
Our ideal reader, as we conceive him, has completed the
required course in school physics, has a good general idea of
what it is all about, remembers lhe principal relationships,
can cite various laws and has a fair kno\vledge of the units
employed. He is in that "suspended" state in which he is no
longer a seconc1ary school student and has not yet become a
fullfledged student of an institute. He is eager, however, to
become one. If this reguires an extension of his knowledge in
physics, our book can help him.
Primarily, we hope our book will prove that memorizing
a textbook (even a very good one) is not only a w@arisome
business, but indeed a fruitless one. A student must learn to
think, to ponder over the material and not simply learn it
by heart. If such an understanding is achieved, to some extent
or other, we shall consider our efforts worthwhile.
In conclusion, we wish to thank Prof. G. Epifanov without
whose encouragement and invaluable aid this book could not
have been written and prepared for P4blication. We also
gratefully acknowledge the many helpful suggestions and
constructh·e criticism that were made on the manuscript by
Prof. V. A. Fabrikant, AssociateProf. A. G. Chertov, and
E. N. Vtorov, Senior Instructor of the Physics Department
Clf the Moscow Power Engineering Institute.
L. Tarasou
A. T arasova
Do not neglect kinematics! The question of how a body tra
vels in space and time is of considerable interest both from
the physical and practical points of view. I
§ I.
CAN YOU ANALYSE
TEACHER: You have seen graphs
showing the dependence of the
velocity and distance travelled
by a body on the time of travel
GRAPHS REPRESENTING for straightline, uniformly va
THE KINEMATICS
OF STRAIGHTLINE
MOTION?
riable motion. In this connection,
I wish to put the following ques
tion. Consider a velocity graph
of the kind shown in Fig. 1. On
its basis, draw a graph showing
the dependence of the distance tra
velled on time.
STUDENT: But I have never
drawn such graphs.
TEACHER: There should be no
difficulties. However, let us rea
son this out together. First we
will divide the whole interval of time into three periods:
1,2 and 3 (see Fig. I). How does the body travel in period l?
What is the formula for the distance travelled in this period?
STUDENT: In period 1. the body has uniformly accelerated
motion with no initial velocity. The formula fOT tbe distance
v travelled is of the form
where a is the acceleration
of the body.
TEACHER: Using the velo
city graph, can you find the
Fig. 1
velocity in unit time. It
to length OC.
acceleration?
STUDENT: Yes. The acce
leration is the change in
equals the ratio of length AC
TEACHER: Good. Now consider periods 2 and 3.
STUDENT: In period 2 the body travels with uniform velo
city v acquired at the end of period 1. The formula for the dis
tance travelled is
s=vt
TEACHER: Just a minute, your answer is inaccurate. You
have forgotten that the uniform motion began, not at the ini
11
tial instant of time, but at the instant tl' Up to that time, the 1
body had already travelled a distance equal to atU2. The
dependence of the distance travelled on the elapsed time for
period 2 is expressed by the equation j
at
2
s(t)"""f+V(ttl) (2)
Wi th this in mind, please write the formula for the distance
travelled in period 3.
STUDENT: The motion of the body in period 3 is uniformly r
decelerated. If I understand it correctly, the formula of the
distance travelled in this period should be
s (t) = + v (!atl) +v (tt2) Qd
t
;tz)2
where al is the acceleration in period 3. It is only one half
of the acce1eration a in period I, because period 3 is twice
as long as period 1.
TEACHER: Your equation can be simplified somewhat:
s(t)= +V(ttl) QtC
t
;tz)2 (3)
Now, it remains to summarize the results of equations (I),
(2) and (3). .
STUDENT: I understand. The graph of the distance travelled
has the form of a parabola for period I, a straight line for
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
 tt
Fig. 2
period 2 and another parabola
(but turned over, with the con
vexity facing upward) for pe
riod 3. Here is the graph I
have drawn (Fig. 2).
TEACHER: There are two
faults in your drawing: the
graph of the distance travelled
should have no kinks. It should
be a smooth curve,,," i.e. the
parabolas should be tangent
to the straight line. Moreover, the vertex of the upper
(inverted) parabola should correspond to the instant of time
Here is a correct drawing of the graph (Fig. 3).
STUDENT: Please explain it.
TEACHER: Let us consider a portion of a distancetravelled
V5 time graph (Fig. 4). The average velocity of the body in
12
the interval from t to t + III equals
s (t +M)s (t) _ t
M  anet
where a is the angle between chord AB and the horizontal.
To determine the velocity of the body at the instant t it is
necessary to find the limit of such average velocities for
Thus
(t)
 ,. s(t+M)s(t)
v = 1m ... At
AI ... 0 
(4)
In the limit. the chord becomes a tangent to the distance
travelled vs time curve. passing through point A (see the dash
ed line in Fig. 4). The tangent of the angle this line (tangent
s
s
Fig. 3 Fig. 4
to the curve) makes with the horizontal is the value of the
velocity at the instant t. Thus it is possible to find the velo
city at any instant of time from the angle of inclination of the
tangent to the distancetravelled vs time curve at the corres
ponding point.
But let us return to your drawing (see Fig. 2). It follows
from your graph that at the instant of time tl (and at the
velocity of the body has two different values. If we afproach
t 1 from the left. the veloci ty equals tan et i. while i we ap
proach it from the right the velocity equals tan eti. According
to your graph. the velocity of the body at the instant t 1
(and again at t
2
) must have a discontinuity. which actually it
has not (the velocity vs time graph in Fig. 1 is continuous).
STUDENT: I understand now. Continuity of the velocity
graph leads to smoothness of the distancetravelled vs time
graph.
13
TEACHER: Incidentally, the vertices of the para bolas should
correspond to the instants of time 0 and La because at these
instants the velocity of the body equals zero and the tangent
to the curve must be horizontal for these points .
. Now, using the velocity graph in Fig. I, find the distance
travelled by a body by the instant tao
STUDENT: First we determine the acceleration a in period 1
from the velocity graph and then the velocity v in period 2.
Next we make use of formula (2). The distance travelled by
the body during the time ta equals
at'
s(tJ=f+v(t
l
i
1
) •
TEACHER: Exactly. But there is a simpler way. The distan
ce travelled by the body during the time t2 is numerically
equal to the area of the figure OABD under the velocity vs
time graph in the interval Ott. Let us consider another pro
blem to fix what we have learned.
Assume that the distancetravelled vs time graph has kinks.
This graph is shown in Fig. 5, where the curved line is a para
bola with its ver tex at point A. D raw the velocity v ~ time graph.
s
t
z
Fig. 5
1I
t
B
Fig. 6
I
I
I
I t
STUDENT: Since there are kinks in the distancetraveJ1ed
graph, there should be discontinuities in the velocity graph
at the corresponding instants of time (/1 and t 2). Here is my
graph (Fig. 6).
TEACHER: Good. What is the length of Be?
STUDENT: It is equal to tan "I (see Fig. 5). We don't,
however, know the value of angle al'
TEACHER: Nevertheless, we should have no difficulty in'
determining the length of BG. Take notice that the distance
travelled by the l'()dy by the time ta is the 3ame as if it had
14
travelled at uniform velocity all the time (the straight line
in the interval from t2 to is in Fig. 5 is a continuation of
the straight line in the interval from 0 to tl)· Since the distan
ce travelled is measured by the area under the velocity graph,
it follows that the area of rectangle ADEC in Fig. 6 is equal
to the area of triangle ABC. Consequently, BC=2EC, i.e.
the velocity at instant t2 when approached from the left is
twice the velocity of uniform motion in the intervals from 0
to tl and from t2 to ta·
The concept of a force is one of the basic physical concepts.
Can you apply it with sufficient facility? Do you have a good
understanding of the laws of dynamics?
f
CAN YOU SHOW
THE FORCES APPLIED
TO A BODY?
STUDENT: Problems in mecha
nics seem to be the most diffi
cult of all. How do you begin
to solve them?
TEACHER: Frequently, you can
begin by considering the forces
applied to a body. As an exam
ple, we can take the following
cases (Fig. 7): (a) the body is
thrown upward at an angle to
the horizontal, (b) the body slides
down an inclined plane, (c)
the body rotates on the end of a
string in a vertical plane, and
(d) the body is a pendulum.
Draw arrows showing the forces
applied to the body in each of
these cases, and explain what the arrows represent.
STUDENT: Here is my drawing (Fig. 8). In the first case, P
is the weight of the body and F is the throwing force. In the
.....  .. ,"" .
, ......
, ,
t!llIImJT//I/7/T77/T,r)/II,
(a)
I l' I
\ I
\ I
\ J
, ,
'..... ,."."
.. 
(0)
Fig. 7
second, P is the weight. F is the force
which keeps the body sliding along the
plane and FIT is the friction force. In
the third, P is the weight, Fe is the
centripetal force and T is the tension
in the string. In the fourth case, P is
the weight. F is the restoring force and
T is the tension in the string.
TEACHER: You have made mistakes
in all four cases. Here I have the cor
~ e c t drawing (Fig. 9).
. One thing that you must understand
clear ly is that a force is the result of
interaction between bodies. Therefore.
to show the forces· applied to a body
you must first establish what bodies
interact with the given body. Thus,
in the first case, only the earth inte
racts with the body by attracting it
(Fig. 9a). Therefore, only one force.
the weight p, is applied to the 'body.
If we wished to take into considera
tion the resistance of the air or, say,
17
the action of the wind, we would have to introduce additionall
forces. No "throwing force", shown in your drawing, actually
exists, since there is no interaction creating such a force. .
STUDENT: But to throw a body, surely some kind of force i
must be exerted on it. '
F
";r;"",,,
..
It,
\ ':; /
, 7',
'. "".i'
P
(e,
7'
iF
I
I f
(d)
( (1)
(e)
It'
\ I
\ I
\ ,
"'" ,'"
p
! Tp
Fig. 8 Fig. 9
TEACHER: Yes, that's true. When you throw a body you
exert a certain force on it. In the case above, however, we
dealt with the motion of the body after it was thrown, i.e.
after the force which imparted a definite initial velocity of
flight to the body had ceased to act. It is impossible to "accu
mulate" forces; as soon as the interaction of the bodies ends,
the force isn't there any more.
STUDENT: But if only the weight is acting on the body.
why doesn't it fall vertically downward instead of travelling
alooga curved path?
TEACHER: It surprises you that in the given case the direc
tion of motion of the body does not coincide with the direc
tion of the force acting on it. This, however, fully agrees with
18
Ne\\1ton's second law. Your question shows that you haven't
given sufficient thought to Newton's laws of dynamics.
I intend to discuss this later (see § 4). Now I want to continue
our analysis of the four cases of motion of. a body. In the
second case (Fig. 9b), a body is sliding down an inclined pla
ne. What bodies are interacting with it? ,
STUDENT: Evidently, two bodies: the earth and the in
clined plane.
TEACHER: Exactly. This enables us to find the forces ap
plied to the body. The earth is responsible for the weight P,
and the inclined plane causes the force of sliding friction FIt'
and the force N ordinarily called the bearing reaction. Note
that you entirely omitted force N in your drawing.
. STUDENT: Just a moment! Then the inclined plane acts on
the body with two forces and not one?
TEACHER: There is, of course, only one force. It is, however,
more convenient to deal with it in the form of two component
forces, one directed along the inclined plane (force of sliding
friction) and the other perpendicular to it (bearing reaction).
The fact that these forces have a common origin, i.e. that they
are components of the same force, can be seen in the existence
of a universal relation between FIt' and N:
FIr = kN (5)
where k is a constant called the coefficient of sliding friction.
We shall deal with this relationship in more detail later (§ 3).
STUDENT: In my drawing, I showed a sliding force which
keeps the body sliding down the plane. Evidently, there is no
such force. But I clearly remember hearing the term "sliding
force" used frequently in the past. What can you say about
this?
TEACHER: Yes, such a term actually exists. You must bear
i ~ mind, however, that the sliding force. as you call it, is
Simply one of the components of the body's weight, obtained
when the weight is resolved into two forces, one along the
plane and the other normal to it. If, in enumerating the forces
applied to the body, you have named the weight, there is no
reason to add the sliding force, one of its components.
In the third case (Fig. 9c), the body rotates in a vertical
plane. What bodies act on it?
STUDENT: Two bodies: the earth and the string.
TEACHER: Good, and that is why two forces are applied
to the body: the weight and the tension of the string.
19
STUDENT: But what about the centripetal force?
TEACHER: Don't be in such a hurryl So many mistakes are
made in problems concerning the motion of a body in a circle
that I intend to dwell at length on this further on (see § 8).
Here I only wish to note that the centripetal force is not some
kind of additional force applied to the body. It is the resultant
force. In our case (when the body is at the lowest point of its
path), the centripetal force is the difference between the
tension of the string and the weight.
STUDENT: If I understand it correctly, the restoring force
in the fourth case (Fig. 9d) is also the resultant of the tension
in the string and the weight?
TEACHER: Quite true. Here, as in thE! third case, the
string and the earth interact with the body. Therefore, two
forces, the tension of the string and the weight, are applied
to the body.
I wish to em'phasize again that forces arise only as a result
of interaction of bodies; they cannot originate from any
"accessory" considerations. Find the bodies acting on the gi
ven object and you will reveal the forces applied to the object.
STUDENT: No doubt there are more complicated cases than
the ones you have iIll.lstrated in Fig. 7. Can we consider them?
TEACHER: There are many examples of morecomplicated
interaction of bodies. For instance, a certain constant hori
zontal force F acts on a body a5 a result of which the body mo
ves upward along an inclined surface. The forces applied to
the body in this case are shown in Fig. 10.
P
Fig. 10 FIg. 11
+
p
Another example is the oscillation of an electrically char
ged pendulum placed inside a parallelplate capacitor. Here
we have an additional force Fe with which the fieldoi the
capacitor acts on the charge of the pendulum (Fig. 11). It is
20
\
obviously impossible to mention all the conceivable cases
that may come up in solving problems.
STUDENT: What do you do when there are several bodies
in the problem? Take, for example, the case illustrated in
Fig. 12.
TEACHER: You should clearly realize each time the motion
of what bodies or combination of bodies you Intend to consi·
der. Let us take, for instance, the motion of Dody 1 in the
example you proposed. The ~
earth, the inclined plane and
string AB interact with this
body.
STUDENT: Doesn't body 2
interact with body J?
TEACHER: Only through
string AB. The forces applied
to body I are the weight P',
force FrT of sl id ing friction,
bearing reaction N' and the ten (bJ
sion T' of string AB (Fig. 13a).
Fig. 12
(a)
N'
p'
r"
(GJ
J
pH
Fig. 13
STL:DENT: But why is the friction force directed to the left
in your drawing? It would seem just as reasonable to have it
act in the opposite direction.
TEACHER: To determine the direction of the friction force,
it is necessary to know the direction in which the body is
travelling. If this has not been specified in the problem, we
should assume either one or the other direction. In the given
problem, I assume that body 1 (together with the whole
system of bodies) is travelling to the right and the pulley is
rotating clockwise. Of course, I cannot know this beforehand;
the direction of motion becomes definite only after the corre
~ p o n d ing numerical values are substituted. If my assumption
IS wrong, I shall obtain a negative value when I calculate the
21
acceleration. Then I will have to assume that the body moves
to the left instead of to the right (with the puHey rotating
counterclockwise) and to direct the force of sliding friction
correspondingly. After this I can derive an equation for cal
culating the acceleration and again check its sign by substi
tuting the numerical values.
STUDENT: Why check the sign of the acceleration a second
time? If it was negative when motion was assumed to be to the
right, it will evidently be positive forthesecond assumption.
TEACHER: No, it can turn out to be negative in the second
case as well.
STUDENT: 1 can't understand that. Isn't it obvious that if
the body is not moving to the right it must be moving to the
left? .
TEACHER: You forget that the body can also be at rest. We
shaH return to this question later and analyse in detail the
complications that arise when we take the friction force into
consideration (see § 7). '
For the present, we shaH just assume that the pulley rotates
clockwise and examine the motion of body 2.
STUDENT: The earth, the inclined plane, string AB and
string CD interact with body 2. The forces applied to body
2 are shown in Fig. 13b.
TEACHER: Very well. Now let us go over to body 3.
STUDENT: Body 3 interacts only with the earth and with
string CD. Figure 13c shows the forces applied to body 3.
TEACHER: Now, after establishing the forces applied to each
body, you can write the equation of motion for each one and
then solve the system of equations you obtain.
STUDENT: You mentioned that it was not necessary to deal
with each body separately, but that we could also consider
the set of bodies as a whole.
TEACHER: Why yes; bodies I, 2 and 3 can be examined, not
separately as we have just done, but as a whole. Then, the
tensions in the strings need not be taken into ccmsideration
since they become, in this case, internal forces, i.e. forces
of interaction between separate parts of the item being con
sidered. The system of the three bodies as a whole interacts
only with the earth and the inclined plane.
STUDENT: I should like to clear up one point. When I de
picted the forces in Fig. 13b and c, I assumed that the tension
in string CD is the same on both sides of the pulley. Would
that be correct?
22

TEACHER: Strictly speaking, that's incorrect. If the pulley
is rotating clockwise, the tension in the part of string CD
attached to body 3 should be greater than the tension in the
part of the string attached to body 2. This difference in tension
is what causes accelerated rotation of the pUlley. It was
assumed in the given example that the mass of the pulley can
be disregarded. In other words, the pulley has no mass that
is to be accelerated, it is simply regarded as a means of chang
ing the direction of the string connecting bodies 2 and 3.
Therefore, it can be assumed that the tension in string CD is
the same on both sides of the pulley. As a rule. the mass of
the pulley is disregarded unless otherwise stipulated.
Have we cleared up everything?
STUDENT: I still have a question concerning the point of
application of the force. In your drawings you applied all
the forces to a single point of the body. Is this correct? Can
you apply the force of friction, say. to the centre of gravity
of the body?
TEACHER: It should be remembered that we are studying
the kinematics and dynamics, not of extended bodies, but of
material points, or particles, i.e. we regard the body to be of
point mass. On the drawings, however.
(a) we show a body. and not a point, only
Fi'
r
for the sake of clarity. Therefore, all
B Fz the forces can be shown as applied to
a single point of the body.
F, STUDENT: We were taught that any
simplification leads to the loss of cer
tain aspects of the problem. Exactly
what do we lose when we regard the
'I4!::....... ~ F z body as a material point?
TEACHER: In such a simplified ap
proach we do not take into account
Fig. 14
the rotational moments Which, under
real conditions, may result in rota
tion and overturning of the body.
A material point has only a motion of translation. Let us
consider an example. Assume that two forces are applied at
two different points of a body: FI at point A and F2 at point
E, as shown in Fig. 14a. Now let us apply, at point A, force
F; equal and parallel to force F
2
• and also force F; equal to
f ~ r c e F
z
but acting in the opposite direction (see Fig. 14b).
Since forces F; and F; counterbalance each other, their addi
23
tion doe& not alter the physical aspect of the problem in any
way. However, Fig. 14b can be interpreted as follows: forces
PI and f; applied at point A cause motion of translation of
the bod); also a p p l i ~ d to the body is a force couple (forces
Pi and FJ causing rotation. In other words, force F2 can be
transferr'!d to point A of the body if, at the same time, the
corresponding rotational moment is added. When we regard the
body as a material point. or particle, there will evidently
be no rotational moment.
STUDENT: You say that a material point cannot rotate but
has only motion of translation. But we have already dealt
with rotational motionmotion in a circle .•
TEACHER: Do not confuse entirely different things. The
motion of translation of a point can take place along various
paths, for instance in a circle. When I ruled out the possibi
lity of rotational motion of a point I meant rotation about
itself, i.e. about any a x i ~ passing through the point.
§ 3.
CAN YOU
THE FRICTI01\' FORCE?
TEACHER: I should like to
dwell in more detail on the cal
culation of the friction force in
va.rious problems. I have in mind
dry slidIng friction (sliding fri
ction is said to be dry when there
is no layer of any substance,
such as a lubricant, between the
sliding surfaces).
But here everything
seems to be quite clear.
TEACHER: Nevertheless, many
mistakes made in examinations
are due to the inability to cal
culate the friction force. Consi
der the example illustrated in
Fig. 15. A sled of weight P is
being pulled with a force F applied to a rope which mdkes an
angle a with the horizontal; the coefficient of friction is k.
Find the force of sliding friction. How will you go about it?
STUDENT: Why, that seems to be very simple. The friction
force equals kP.
Ii
N
Fsirltr .
F
F
p P
Fig. 15 Fig. 16
TEACHER: Entirely wrong. The force of sliding friction is
equal, not to kP, but to kN, where N is the bearing reaction.
Remember equation (5) from § 2.
STUDENT: But isn't that the same thing?
TEACHER: In a particular case, the weight and the bearing
reaction may be equal to each other, but, in genera!, they
are entirely different forces. Consider the example I proposed.
The forces applied to the body (the sled) are the weight P,
b.earing reaction N, force FIr of sliding friction and the ten
sIon F of the rope (see Fig. 15). We resolve force F into its
vertical (F sin a) and horizontal (F cos a) components. All
25
forces acting in the vertical direction counterbalance one
another. This enables us to find the bearing reaction:
N = PF sina (6)
As you can See, this force is not equal to the weight of the
sled, but is less by the amount F sin a. Physically, this is
what should be expected, because the taut rope, being pulled
at an angle upwards. seems to "raise" the sled somewhat. This
reduces the force with which the sled bears on the surface
and thereby the bearing reaction as well. So, in this case,
F,r=k(PFsina) (7)
If the rope were horizontal (a =0) , then i n s t ~ a d of equation
(6) we would have N=P, from which it follows that Flr=kP.
STUDENT: I understand now. I never thought about this'
before.
TEACHER: This is quite a common error of examinees who
attempt to treat the force of sliding friction as the product
of the coefficient of friction by the weight and not by the
bearing reaction. Try to avoid such mistakes in the future.
STUDENT: I shall follow the rule: to find the friction force.
first determine the bearing reaction.
TEACHER: So far we have been dealing with the force of
sliding friction. Now let us consider static friction. This has
certain specific features to which students do not always pay
sufficient attention. Take the following example. A body is at
rest on a horizontal surface and is acted on by a horizontal
force F which tends to move the body. How great do you think
the friction force will be in this case?
STUDr;NT: If the body tests on a horizontal plane and force
Facts horizontaHy, then N=P. Is that correct?
TEACHER: Quite correct. Continue.
STUDENT: It follows that the friction force equals kP.
TEACHER: You have made a typical mistake by confusing
the forces of sliding and static friction. If the body were slid
ing al<mg the plane. your answer would be correct. But here
the body is at rest. Hence it is necessary that all forces applied
to the body counterbalance one another. Four forces act on
the body: the weight P, bearing reaction N. force F and the
force of static friction FIr (Fig. 16). The vertical forces P and
N counterbalance each other. So should the horizontal forces
F and F fro Therefore
(8)
26
STUDENT: It follows that the force of static friction depends
on the external force tending to move the body. 
TEACHER: Yes,', that is so. The force of static friction in
creases with the force F. It does not increase infinitely, how
ever. The force of static friction reaches a maximum value:
(9)
Coefficient ko slightly exceeds coefficient k which characteri
zes, according to equation (5), the force of sliding friction.
As soon as the external force F reaches the value koN, the body
begins to slide. At this value, coefficient ko becomes equal to
k, and so the friction force is reduced somewhat. Upon further
increase of force F, the friction force (now the force of sliding
friction) ceases to increase further (until very high velocities
are attained), and the body travels with gradually increasing
acceleration. The inability of many examinees to determine
the friction force is disclosed by the following rather simple
question: what is the friction force when a body of weight P
is at rest on an 'inclined plane with an angle of inclination
a? One hears a variety of incorrect answers. Some say that
the friction force equals kP, and others that' it equals kft'=
=kP cos a.
STUDENT: I understand. Since the body is at rest, we have
to deal with the force of static friction. It should be found
from the condition of equilibrium of forces acting along the
inclined plane. There are two such forces in our case: the
friction force FIr and the sliding force
t::" P sin a acting downward along the
plane. the correct answer IS
M/ff/ F I'=P SIn a.
Fig. 17 TEACHER: Exactly. In conclusion,
consider the problem illustrated in
Fig. 17. A load of mass m lies on a body of mass M; the
maximum force of static friction between the two is cha
racterized by the coefficient ko and there is IW friction between
the body and the earth. Find the minimum force F applied to
the body at which the load will begin to slide along it.
STUDENT: First I shall assume that force F is sufficiently
small, so that the load will not slide along the body. Then the
two bodies will acquire the acceleration
F
a=
M+m
27
TEACHER: Correct. What force will this acceleration impart
to the load?
STUDENT: It will be subjected to the force of static friction
FIT by the accelerati,on. Thus
Fm
FIT=ma= Mtm
It follows that with an increase in force F, the force of static
friction FIT also increases. It cannot, however, increase infini
tely. Its maximum value is
FIT I1IQX = koN = komg
Consequently, the maximum value of force F. at which the
two bodies can still travel together as an integral unit is
determined from the condition
from which
F = (kf + m) kog
This, then, is the minimum force at which the load begins to
slide along the body.
TEACHER: Your solution of the proposed problem is cor
rect. I am completely satisfied wLth your reasoning.
§ 4.
HOW WELL DO YOU
KNOW NEWTON'S LAWS
OF MOTION?
TEACHER: Please state New
too's first law of motion.
STUDENT: A body remains at
rest or in a state of uniform motion
in a straight line until the action
of other bodies compels it to
change that state.
TEACHER: Is this law valid in
all frames of reference?
STUDENT: I don't understand
your question.
TEACHER: If you say that a
body is at r ~ t , you mean that it
is stationary with respect to some
other body which, in the given
case, serves as the reference sys
tem, or frame of reference. It
is quite pointless to speak of a body being in a state of rest or
definite motion without indicating the frame of reference.
The nature of the motion of a body depends upon the choice
of the frame of reference. For instance, a body lying on the
floor of a travelling rai Iway car is at rest with respect to a
frame of reference attached to the car, but is moving with
respect to a frame of reference attached to the track. Now we
can return to my question. Is Newton's first law valid for all
frames of reference?
STUDENT: Well; it probably is.
TEACHER: I see that this question has t ~ k e n you unawares.
Experiments show that Newton's first law is not valid for aU
reference systems. Consider the example with the body lying
on the floor of the railway car. We shall neglect the friction
between the body and the floor. First we shall deal with the
position of the body with respect to a frame of reference
attached to the car. We can observe the following: the body
rests on the floor and, all of a sudden, it begins to slide along
the floor even though no action of ahy kind is evident. Here
we have an obvious violation of Newton's first law of motion.
The conventional explanation of this effect is that the car,
which had been travelling in a straight line and at uniform
velocity, begins to slow down, because the train is braked,
and the body. due to the absence of friction, continues to main
tain its state of uniform straightline motion with respect
to the raHway tracks. From this we can conclude that New
29
ton's law holds true in a frame of reference attached to the
railway tracks, but not in one attached to a car being slowed
down.
Frames of reference for which Newton's first law is valid
are said to be inertial; those in which it is not valid are non
inertial. For most of t h ~ phenomena we deal with we can
assume that any frame of reference is inertial if it is attached
to the earth's surface, or to any other bodies which are at rest
with respect to the earth's surface or travel in a straight line
at uniform velocity. Noninertial frames of reference are sys
tems travelling with acceleration (or deceleration), for in
stance rotating systems, accelerating or decelerating lifts,
etc. Note that not only Newton's first law ofomotion is inva
lid for noniner'iial reference systems, but his second law as
well (since the first law is a particular case of the second
law).
STUDENT: But if Newton's laws cannot be employed for
frames of reference travelling with acceleration, then how can
we deal with mechanics in such frames?
TEACHER: Newton's laws of motion can nevertheless be used
fornoninertial frames of reference. To do this, however, it
will be necessary to apply, purely formally, an additional
force to the body. This force, the socalled inertial force,
equals the product of the mass of the body by the acceleration
of the reference system, and its direction is opposite to the
acceleration of the body. I should emphasize that no such
force actually exists but, if it is formally introduced, then
Newton's laws of motion will hold true in a noninertial frame
of reference.
I want to advise you, however, to employ only inertial
frames of reference in solving problems. Then, all the forces
that you have to deal with will be really existing forces.
STUDENT: But if we limit ourselves to inertial frames of
reference, then we cannot analyse, for instance, a problem
about a body lying on a rotating disk.
TEACHER: Why can't we? The choice of the frame of refe
rence is up to you. If in such a problem you use a reference
system attached to the disk (Le. a noninertial system), the
body is consi dered to be at rest. But if your reference system is
attached to the earth (i.e. an inertial reference system),
then the body is dealt with as one travelling in a circle.
I would advise you to choose an inertial frame of reference.
And now please state Newton's second law of motion.
30
STUDENT: This law can bewriftenas F=ma, whereF is the
force acting on the body. m is its m a ~ and aacceleration.
TEACHER: Your laconic answer is very typical. I should
make three critical remarks on your statement; two are not
very imJlortant and one is essential. In the first place, it is
not the force that results from the acceleration, but, on the
contrary, the acceleration is the result of the applied force.
It is therefore more logical to write the equation of the law as
BF
a=  (10)
m
where B is t h ~ prop.ortionalHy factor depending upon the
choice of units of measurement of the quantities in equation
(10). Notice that your version had no mention of the propor
tionality factor B.
Secondly. a body is accelerated by all forces applied to it
(though some may counterbalance one another). Therefore, in
stating the law you should use, not the term "force", but the
more accurate term "resultant force".
. My third remark is the most important. Newton's second
law establishes a relationship between force and acceleration.
But force and acceleration are vector quantities, characterized
not only by their numerical value (magnitude) but by their
direction as well. Your statement of the law fails to sp.ecify
the directions. This is an essential shortcoming. Your state
ment leaves out a vital part of Newton's second law of motion.
Correctly stated it is: the acceleration of a body is directly
proportional to the resultant of all forces acting on the body,
inversely proportional to the masS' of the body and takes place
in the direction of the resultant force. This statement can be
analytically expressed by the formula
+
.... BF
a=
m
(where the arrows over the letters denote vectors).
(11)
STUDENT: When in § 2 we discussed the forces applied to
a body thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal, you said
you would show later that the direction of motion of a body
does not necessarily coincide with the direction of the force
applied to it. You referred then to Newton's second law.
TEACHER: Yes, I remember, and I think it would be quite
appropriate to return to this question. Let us recall what
acceleration is. As we know, acceleration is characterized by
31
the change in velocity in unit time. Illustrated in Fig. 18
+ ...
are the velocity vectors VI and V
2
of a body for two nearby in
stants of time t and t+M. The change in velocity during the
time /).t is the vector /).0=;2V>I' By definition, the accele
ration is
(12)
or, more rigorously,
...
+ Au
a (t) = lim  (13)
At __ O tlt
It follows that the acceleration vector is di;ected along vec
tor /).v, which represents the change in velocity during a suf
ficiently short interval of time. It is eVident from Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Fig. 19
that the velocity vectors and the change in velocity vector
can be oriented in entirely different directions. This means
that, in the general case, the acceleration and velocity vectors
are also differently oriented. Is that clear?
STUDENT: Yes, now I understand. For example, when a body
travels in a circle, the velocity of the body is directed along
a tangent to the circle, but its acceleration is directed along
a radius toward the centre of rotation (I mean centripetal ac
celeration).
TEACHER: Your example is quite appropriate. Now let us
return to relationship (11) and make it clear that it is pre
cisely the acceleration and not the velocity that is oriented
in the direction of the applied force, and that it is again
the and not the velocity that is related to the
magnitude of this force. On the other hand, the nature of a
body's motion at any given instant is determined by the
direction and magnitude of its velocity at the given instant
(the velocity vector is always tangent to the path of the body).
Since the acCeleration and velocity are dilYerent vectors,
32
the direction of the applied force and the direction of motion
of the body may not coincide in the general case. Consequent
ly, the nature of the motion of a body at a given instant is
not uniquely determined by the forces acting on the body at
the given instant.
STUDENT: This is true for the general case. But, of course,
the direction of the applied force and the velocity may coin
cide.
TEACHER: Certainly, that is possible. Lift a body and
release it carefully, so that no initial velocity is imparted
to it. Here the direction of motion wil1 coincide with the
direction of the force of gravity. If, however, you impart a
horizpntal initial velocity to the body then its direction of
motion will not coincide with the direction of the gravity force;
the body will follow a parabolic path. Though in both cases the
body moves due to the action of the same'forceits weight
the nature of its motion differs. A physicist would say that
this difference is due to the different initial conditions: at
the beginning of. the motion the body had no velocity in the
first case and a definite horiwntal velocity in the second.
Illustrated in Fig. 19 are the trajectories of bodies thrown
with initial velocities of different directions, but in all cases
the same force, the weight of the body, is acting on it.
STUDENT: Does that mean that the nature of the motion of
a body at a given instant depends not only on the forces act
ing on the body at this instant, but also on the 'initial con
ditions?
TEACHER: Exactly. It should be emphasized_ that the ini
tial conditions reflect the prehistory of the body. They are the
result of forces that existed in the past. These forces no lon
ger exist, but the result of their action is manifested. From
the philosophical point of view, this demonstrates the rela
tion of the past to the present, i.e. the principle of causality_ '
Note that if the formula of Newton's second law contained
the velocity and not the acceleration, this relationship of
the past and present would not be revealed. In this case, the
velocity of a body at a given instant (i.e. the nature of its
motion at a given instant) would be fully determined by the
forces acting on the body precisely at this instant; the past
would have no effect whatsoever on the present.
I want to cite one more example illustrating the aforesaid.
It is shown in Fig. 20: a ball hanging on a string is subject
to the action of two forces, the weight and the tension of the
2118
string. If it is deflected to one side of the equilibrium posi.
tion and then released, it will begin to oscillate. If, however,
a definite velocity is imparted to the ball in a direetion per·
pendicular to the plane of deviation, the ball will begin tc
travel in a circle at uniform velocity. As you can see, depen·
ding upon the initial conditions, the ball either oscillates in
a plane (see Fig. 2Oa), or travels at uniform velocity ina
circle (see Fig. 20b). Only two
act on it in either case: its weight and
the tension of the string.
ra)
II
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
d I
....... i,.,
I
I
i
I
I·
I
1"+.....
........
I
STUDENT: I haven't considered New·
ton's laws from this viewpoint.
TEACHER: No wonder then that some
students, in trying to determine thE
forces applied to a body, base theil
reasoning on the nature of motior
without first finding out what bodie!
interact with the given body. VOl
may recall that you did the same.
That is exactly why, when drawing
Figs. Be and 8d, it seemed to you that
the sets of forces applied to the body
in those cases should be different.
Actually, in both cases two forces arE
applied to the body: its weight anc
the tension of the string.
p STUDENT: Now 1 understand tha1
Fig 20 the same set of forces can cause motiom
. of different nature and therefore data
on the nature of the motion of a body cannot serve as a
starting point in determining the forces applied to the body.
TEACHER: You have stated the matter very precisely. There
is no need, however, to go to the extremes. Though different
kinds of motion may be caused by the same set of forces (as
in Fig. 20), the numerical relations between the acting for
ces differ for the different kinds of motion. This means thai
there will be a different resultant applied force for each mo·
tion. Thus, for instance, in uniform motion of a body in Il
circle, the resultant force should be the centripetal one; in
oscillation in a plane, the resultant force should be the res·
toring force. From this it follows that even though dat2
on the kind of motion of a body cannot serve as the basis fOi
determining the applied forces, they are far from superfluous.
84
In this connection, let us retumto the example illustrated
in Fig. 20. Assume that the angle ct between the vertical
and the direction of the string is known and so is the weight
P of the body. Find the tension T in the string when (1) the
oscillating body is in its extreme position, and (2) when the
body is travelling uniformly in a circle. In the first case,
the resultant force is the restoring force and it is perpendi
cular to the string. Therefore, the weight P of the body is
resolved into two components, with one component along the
(OJ
PCOStr
p
resuaant force and the
other perpendicular to it
(i.e. directed along the
string). Then the forces
perpendicular to the re
sultant force, i. e. those
acting in the direction
along the string, are
equated to each other
(see Fig. 21a). Thus
P. T 1 = P COB a.
Fig. 21 In the second case, the
resultant force is the
centripetal one and is directed horizontally. Hence, the
tension T I of the string should be resolved into a vertical
and a horizontal force, and the forces perpendicular to the
resultant force, i.e. the vertical forces, should be equated to
each other (Fig. 21b). Then
Tgcos cx= P or
p
T
2 cosa.
As you can see, a knowledge of the nature of the body's mo
tion proved useful in finding the tension of the string.
STUDENT: If I understand all this correctly, then, knowing
the interaction of bodies, you can find the forces applied
to one of them; if you know these forces and the initial con
ditions, you can predict the nature of the motion of the body
(the magnitude and direction of its velocity at any instant).
On the other hand, if you know the kind of motion of a body
you can establish the relationships between the forces applied
to it. Am I reasoning correctly?
TEACHER: Quite so. But let us continue. I want to propose
a comparatively simple problem relating to Newton's second
2*
35
ts caused by the resultant of all the forces applied to it.
There are four such forces and their resultant is Ff. This
Is what causes the acceleration of the system. Now you see
that this acceleration is not associated with the interaction
between the horse and the waggon.
STUDENT: SO the earth's surface turns out to be, not simply
the place on which certain events occur, but an active parti
cipant of these events.
TEACHER: Your pictorial comment is quite true. Inciden
tally, if you locate the horse and waggon on an ideal icy surfa
ce, thereby excluding all horizontal interaction between this
system and the earth, there will be no motion,. whatsoever.
It should be stressed that no internal interaction can
impart acceleration to a system as a whole. This can be done
only by external action (you can't lift yourself by your hair,
or bootstraps either): This is an Important practical inference
of Newton's third law of motion.
If you know mechanics well, you can easily solve problems.
The converse Is just as true: if you solve problems readily, you
evidently have a good knowledge of mechanics. Therefore,
extend your knowledge of mechanics by solving as many
problems as you can.
§ 5.
HOW DO YOU GO ABOUT
SOLVING PROBLEMS
IN KINEMATICS?
TEACHER: Assume that two
bodies are falling from a certain
height. One has no initial velo
city and the other has a certain
initial velocity in a horizontal
direction. Here and further on
we shall disregard the resistance
of the air. Compare the time it
takes for the two bodies" to fall
to the ground.
STUDENT: The motion of a
body thrown horizontally can be
regarded as a combination of two
motions: vertical and horizontal.
The time of flight is determined
by the vertical component of the
motion. Since the vertical motions
of the bodies are determined in both cases by the same data
(saine height and the absence of a vertical component of the
initial velocity), the time of fall is the same for the two bodies.
It equals V2H/g; where H is the initial height.
Absolutely right. Now let us consider a more
complex case. Assume that both bodies are falling [rom the
height H with IW initial velocity, but in its path one of them
meets a fixe.d plane, inclined at an angle of 45° to the horizon
tal. As a result of this impact on the plane
the direction of the velocity of the body
becomes horizontal (Fig. 23). The point of
impact is at the height h. Compare the
times of fall of the two bodies. " "
STUDENT: Both bodies take the same
time to fall to the level of the inclined
plane. As a result of the impact on the
. plane one of the bodies acquires a hori
Fig. 23 zontal component of velocity. This hori
zontal component cannot, however,
influence the vertical component of the body's motion. The
refore, it follows that in this case as well the time of fall
should be the same for the bodies.
AI
TEACHER: Your answer is wrong. You were right in saying
that the horizontal component of the velocity doesn't inOuence
the vertical motion of the body and, consequently, its time of
fall. When the body strikes the inclined plane it not only
40
acquires a horizontal velocity component, but also loses the
vertical component of its velocity, and this of course must
affect the time of fall. After striking the inclined plane,
the body falls from the height h with no initial vertical
velocity. The impact against the plane delays the vertical
motion of the body and thereby increases its time of fall.
The time of fall for the body which dropped straight to the
ground is V 2H /g; that for the body striking the plane is
V2 (Hh)/g+V2h/g. .
This leads us to the following question: at what h to H mUo
will the time of fall reach its maximum value? In other words,
at what height should the inclined plane be located so that it
delays the fall most effectively?
STUDENT: I am at a loss to give you an exact answer. It
seems to me that the ratio h/H should not be near to 1 or to 0,
because a ratio of 1 or 0 is equivalent to the absence of any
plane whatsoever. The inclined plane should be located
somewhere in the middle between the ground and the ini
tial point.
TEACHER: Your qualitative remarks are quite true. But you
should find no difficulty in obtaining the exact answer. We
can write the time of fall of the body as
t= y2H (VIx +Vx) where x = ~
g 
Now we find the value of x at which the function t(x) is a
maxLmum. First we square the time of fall. Thus
2H .
t2=g [I +2V(lx)x l
If the time is maximal, ifs square is also maximal. It is
evident from the last equation that i2 is a maximum when the
function Y= (1 x) x is a maximum. Thus, the problem is
reduced to finding the maximum of the quadratic trinomial
Y= x
2
+x= ( x} r + ~
This trinomial is maximal at x=I/2. Thus, height h should be
one half of height H. _
Our further discussion on typical procedure for solving
problems in kinematics wilJ centre around the example of a
body thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal (usually
called the elevation angle).
STUDENT.: I'm not very good at such problems.
_ We shall begin with the usual formulation of the
problem: a body is thrown upward at an angle of ex. to the ho· .
rizon witf!, an initial velocity of Vo. Find the time of {light T,
maximum height reached H and the range L. As usual, we first
find the forces acting on the. body. The only force is gra
vity. Consequently, the body travels at uniform velocity in
the ,horizontal direction and with uniform acceleration g in
the vertical direction. We are going to deal with the vertical
and horizontal components of motion separately, for which
D. '.rin'a
11
Fig. 24
purpose we resolve the initial velocity vector into the verti·
cal (vo sin a) and horizontal (vo cos a) components. The ho·
ritonta" velocity component remains constant throughout
the flight while the vertical component varies as shown in
Fig. 24. Let us examine the vertical component of the motion,
The time of flight T=T where T 1 is the time of ascent
(the body travels verticaHy with uniformly decelerated motion)
and T B is the time of descent (the body travels vertically
.downward with uniformly accelerated motion). The vertical
velocity of the body at the highest point of its tmjectory (at
the instant t=T 1) is obviously equal to zero. On the other
hand, this velocity can be expressed by the formula showing
the dependence of the velocity of uniformly decelerutect motion
on time, Thus we obtain
or
0= Vo sin agTl
T _ Vo sin ex
1 g
When T 1 is known we can obtain
. ", v& sin
2
ex
H = voTl s1I1a
2
 = .2g
42
( 14)
(15)
The time of descent T I can be calculated as the time a body
falls from the known height H without any initial
velocity:
T = ' /w _ Vo sin a
,i V b g
Comparing this with equation (14) we see that the time of
descent is equal to the time of ascent. The total time of flight is
T= 2vosina '
g
(16)
To find the range L, or horizontal distance travelled, we make
use of the horizontal component of motion. As mentioned
before, the body travels horizontally at uniform velocity.
Thus
L = (vo cos cr.) T = =
,g
(17)
It can be seen from equation (17) that if the sum of the angles
at which two bodies are thrown is 90° and if the initial velo
cities are equal, the bodies will fall at the same point.
Is everything clear to you so far?
STUDENT: Why yes, everything seems to be clear.
TEACHER: Fine. Then we shall add some complications.
Assume that a Iwrizonial tail wind of constant force Facts
on the body. The weight of the body is P. Find, as in the
preceding case, the time of flight T, maximum height reached
H, and range L.
STUDENT: In contrast to the preceding problem, the hori
zontal motion of the body is not uniform; now it travels with
a horizontal acceleration of a= (F /P)g.
TEACHER: Have there been any changes in the vertical
component of motion?
STUDENT: Since the force of the wind acts horizontally.
the wind cannot affect the vertical motion of the body.
TEACHER: Good. Now tell me which of the soughtfor quan
tities should have the same values as in the preceding problem.
STUDENT: These will evidently be the time of flight T
and the height H. They are the ones determined on the basis
of the vertical 1)10tion of the body. They will therefore be
the same as in {he preceding pr{)blem.
TEACHER: Excellent. How about the range?
43.
STUDENT: The horizontal acceleration and time of flight
being known, the range Can be readily found. Thus
L
 ( ) T + aT2 _ v: sIn 2a 2F v ~ sin
2
a
 Vo cosq. Tg +1' g
TEACHER: Quite correct. Only the answer would best be
wri tten in another form:
L= v:s;2a (I +; tan a ) (18)
Next we shall consider a new problem: a body is thrown at an
angle a to an inclined plane which makes the. angle ~ with
the horizontal (Fig. 25). The body's initial velocity is Vo.
U
o
Find the distance L from the
point where the body is thrown
to the point where it falls on the
plane.
STUDENT: J once made an at
tempt to solve such a problem
but failed.
TEACHER: Can't you see any
Fig. 25 similarity between this problem
and the preceding one?
STUDENT: No, I can't.
TEACHER: Let us imagine that the figure for this problem
is turned through the angle ~ so that the inclined plane
becomes horizontal (Fig. 200).
Then the force of gravity' is no (b)
longer vertical. Now we resolve !/
it into a vertical (P c o s ~ ) and
(II)
Fig. 26
a horizontal (P sin ~ ) component. You can readily see
now that we have the preceding problem again, in which the
44
force P sin plays the role of the force of the wind, and
p cos the role of the force of gravity. Therefore we can
find the answer by making use of equation (18) p.iovided that
we make the following substitutions:
PSinp for F, for P, and for g.
Then we obtain
L= tana.)
gcos
(19)
At P=O, this coincides with equation (17). Of interest is
another method of solving the same problem. We introduce the
coordinate axes Ox and Oy with the origin at the point the
body is thrown from (Fig. 26b). The inclined plane is repre
sented in these coordinates by the linear function
Yl =
and the trajectory of the body is described by the parabola
Y2= ax
2
+bx
in which the factors a and b can be expressed in terms of
VOl a. and p. Next we find the coordinate XA of the point A
of intersection of functions Yl and Y2 by equating the expres
sions for these functions. Thus
x tan p = ax
2
+ bx
From this it follows that. XA = (tan Then we can
easily find the required distance L=OA:
tan +b
acos
(20)
It remains to express factors a and b in terms of VO, a. and
For this purpose, we examine two points of the parabola
B and C (see Fig. 26b). We write the equation of the parabola
for each of these points:
}
Y2B = + bXB
The coordinates of points C and B are known to us. Conseq uent
ly. the preceding system of equations enables us to determine
factors a and b. I suggest that in your spare time you.complete
45
the solution of this problem and obtain the answer in the form
of equation (19).
STUDENT: I like the first solution better.
TEACHER: That is a matter of taste. The two methods o[
solution differ essentially in their nature. The first could
be called the "physical" method. It employs simulation which
is so typical of the physical approach (we slightly altered
the point of view and reduced oLir problem to the previously
discussed problem with the tail wind); The second method
could be called "mathematical". Here we employed two func
tions and found the coordinates of their points of intersection.
In my opinion, the first method is the more elegant, but less
general. The field of application of the second method is
substantially wider. It can, for instance, be applied in prin
ciple when the profile of the hill from which the body is
thrown is not a straight line. Here, instead of the linear
function y 1, some other function will be used which conforms
to the profile of the hill. The first method is inapplicable
in principle in such cases. We may note that the more exten
sive field of application of mathematical methods is due to
their more abstract nature.
PROBLEMS
J. Body A .is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 20 m per sec.
At what height was body B which, when thrown at a horizontal velocity
of 4 m per sec at the same time body A was thrown, collided with it in its
flight? The horizOntal distance between the initial points of the flight
equals 4 m. Find also the time of flight of each body before the collision
and the velocity of each at the instant of collision.
2. From points A and B, at the respective heights of 2 and 6 m, two
bodies are thrown Simultaneously towards each other: one is thrown hori
zontally with a velocity of 8 m per sec and the other, downward at an angle
of 45° to the horizontal and at an initial velocity such that the bodies
collide in fli.ght. The borizontal distance between points A and B equals
8 m. Calculate the initial velocity Vo of the body thrown at an angle of
45°, the coordinates x and y of the point of collision, the time of flight
t of the bodies before colliding and the velocities VA and VB of the two bodies
at the instant of collision. The trajectories of the bodies lie in a single
plane.
3. Two bodies are thrown from a single point at the angles (Xl and (X2
to the horizontal and at the initial velocities VI and v
2
' respectively. At
what distance from each other will the bodies be after the time t? Consider
two cases: (I) the trajectories of the two bodies lie in a single plane and the
bodies are_thrown in opposite directions, and (2) the trajectories lie in
mutually perpendicular planes.
46
4. A body falls from the height H with no initial velocity. At
the height h it elastically bounces off a plane inclined at an angle
of 30° to the horizontal. Find the time It takes the body to reach the
ground.
5. At what angle to the horizontal (elevation angle) should a body of
weight P be thrown so that the maximum height reached is equal to the
range? Assume that a horizonial tail wind o[ constant force F acts on the
body in its flight.
6. A stone is thrown upward. perpendicular to an inclined plane with
an angle of inclination Ct. If the initial velocity is VOl at what distance from
the point from which it is thrown will the stone fall?
7. A boy 1.5 m tall. standing at a distance of 15 m from a fence 5 m
high. throws a stone at an angle of 45° to the horizontal. With what mini
mum 'l7elocity should the stone be thrown to fly over the fence?
§ 6.
HOW DO YOU GO A.BOUT
SOLVING PROBLEMS
I N DYNAMICS?
TEA.CHER: In solving problems
in dynamics it is especially im
portant to be able to determine
correctly the forces applied to
the body (see § 2).
STUDENT: Before we go any
further, I wish to ask one ques
tion,Assuming that I have correct
ly found al1 the forces applied
to the body, what should I do
next?
TEACHER: If the forces are not
directed along aO single straight
line, they should be resolved
in two mutually perpendicular
directions. The force components
should be dealt with separately
for each of these directions, which we shall call "directions
of resolution". We can begin with some practical advice.
In the first place, the forces should be drawn in large scale to
avoid confusion in resolving them. In trying to save space
students usually represent forces in the form of almost micro
scopic arrows, and this does not help. You will understand
what I mean if you compare your drawing (Fig. 8) with mine
(Fig. 9). Secondly, do not hurry to resolve the forces before
it can be done properly. First you should find all forces
plied to the body, and show them in the drawing. Only then
can you begin to resolve some of them. Thirdly, you must
remember that after you have resolved a force you should
"forget" about its existence and use only its components. Eith
er the force itself, or its components, no compromise.
STUDENT: How do I choose the directions of resolution?
TEACHER: In making your choice you should consider the
nature of the motion of the body. There are two alternatives:
(1) the body is at rest or travels with uniform velocity in a
straight line, and (2) the body travels with acceleration and
the direction of acceleration is given (at least its sign).
In the first case you can the directions of resolu
tion arbitrarily, basing (or not basing) your choice on consi
derations of practical convenience. Assume, for instance, that
in the case illustrated in Fig. 10 the body slides with uniform
velocity up the inclined plane. Here the directions of resolu
tion may be (with equal advantage) either vertical and
48
horizontal (Fig. 27a) or along the inclined plane and perpen
dicular to it (Fig. 27b).
After the forces have been resolved. the algebraic sums of
the component forces for each direction of resolution are
equated to zero (remember that we are still dealing with the
(a) (h)
p
p
Fig. 27
motion of bodies without acceleration). For the case illust
rated in Fig. 27a we can write the system of equations
N cosr:x.F"sinr:x.P= 0 }
F Fjrcosr:x.N sinct= 0 (21)
The system of equations for the case in Fig. 27b is
NPcosr:x.Fsinr:x.=O }
F/
r
+ P sin aF COSct= 0
(22)
STUDENT: But these systems 01 equations differ from each
other.
TEACHER: They do but. nevertheless, lead to the same re
sults, as can readi Iy be shown. Suppose it is required to find
the force F that will ensure the motion of the body at uniform
velocity up along the inclined plane. Substituting eqL1ation
(5) into equations (21) we obtain
N(cosaksina)P=O }
FN(kcosr:x.+sina)=O
From the first equation of this system we get
N= p .
. cos rxk Sin IX
49
which is substituted into the second equation to determine
the required force. Thus
F = pk cos a + s ~ n a
cos akstn a
Exactly the same answer is obtained from equations (22).
You can check this for yourself.
STUDENT: What do we do if the body travels with accele
ration?
TEACHER: In this case the choice of the directions of re
solution depends on the direction in which the body is being
accelerated (direction of the resultant force). Forces should
be resolved in a direction along the accelerationwand in one
perpendicular to it. The algebraic sum of the force components
in the direction perpendicular to the acceleration is equated
to zero, while that of the force components in the direction
along the acceleration is equal, according to Newton's second
law of motion, to the product of the mass of the body by its
acceleration.
Let us return to the body on the inclined p lane in the last
problem and assume that the body slides with a certain acce
leration up the plane. According to my previous remarks, the
forces should be resolved as in the case shown in Fig. 27b.
Then, in place of equations (22), we can write the following
system
a (23)
N ~ P cos aF sin a= 0 }
F cos aFfrPsina= ma= Pg
Making use of equation (5), we find the acceleration of the
body
a= ~ [F cos a(P cos a+F sina) kPsin a]
STUDENT: In problems of this kind dealing with accelera
tion, can the forces be resolved in directions other than
along the acceleration and perpendicular to it? As far as I
understand from your explanation, this should not be done.
TEACHER: Your question shows that I should clear up some
points. Of course, even in problems on acceleration you have
a right to resolve the forces in any two mutually perpendicu
lar directions. In this case, however, you will have to resolve
not only the forces, but the acceleration vector as well. This
'method of solution will lead to addItional difficulties. To
50
avoid unnecessary complications, it is best to proceed exactly
as 1 advised. This is the simplest course. The direction of the
body's acceleration is always known (at least its sign), so
you can proceed on the basis of this direction. The inability
of examinees to choose the directions of force resolution
rationally is one of the reasons for their helplessness in solv
ing more or less ·complex problems in dynamics.
STUDENT: We have only been speaking about resolution in
two directions. In the general case, however, it would pro
bably be more reasonable to speak of resolution in three
mutually perpendicular directions. Space is actually three"
dimensional.
TEACHER: You are absolutely right. The two directions in
our discussions are explained by the fact that we are dealing
with plane (twodimensional) problems. In the general case,
forces should be resolved in three directions. All the remarks
made above still hold true, however. I should mention that,
as a rule, twodimensional problems are given in examina
tions. Though, of course, the examinee may be asked to make a
nottoocomplicated generalization for the threedimensional
case.
PROBLEMS
8. A body with a mass of 5 kg is pulled along a horizontal plane by a
force of 3 kgf applied to the body at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. The
coefficient of sliding friction is 0.2. Find the velocity 01 the body 10 seconds
after the pulling force begins to act, and the work ,
done by the friction force during this time.
9. A man pulls two sleds tied together by
applyIng a force of F= 12 kgf to the pulling rope
at an a.ngle of 45° to the horizontal (Fig.28). The
masses of the sleds are equal to ml=m...= 15 kg.
The coefficient of friction between the runners and
the snow is 0.02. Find the acceleration of the sleds,
Fig. 28 Fig. 29
the tension of the rope. tying the sleds together, and the force with
which the man should pull the rope to impart uniform velocity to the sleds.
10. Three equal weights of a mass 01 2 kg each are hanging on a strin?
passing over a fixed pulley as shown in Fig. 29. Find the acceleration of
the system and the tension 01 the string connecting weights 1 and 2.
51
t t, Calculate the acceferation of the weights and the tension In the
strings for the case illustrated in Fig. 30. Given: ct=30
Q
P
1
=4 kgf P
z
=
=2 kgf, and P
a
=8 kg£. Neglect the friction between t h ~ weights a ~ d the
inclined plane.
P,
Fig. 30 Fig. 31
12. Consider the system of weights shown in Fig. 31. Here P
1
= I kgf,
P
z
=2 kg!, P3=5 kgf, P
4
=O.5 kgf, and ct=30°. The coefficient of friction
between the weights and the planes equals 0.2. Find the acceleration of
the set of weights, the tension of the strings and the force with which
weight P 4 presses downward on weight P
a
.
§ 7.
ARE PROBLEMS IN
DYNAMICS MUCH MORE
TEACHER: Problems may be
come much more difficult when
the friction forces are taken into
account.
STUDENT: But we have already
DIFFICULT TO SOLVE IF discussed the force of friction
FRICTION IS TAKEN (§3). If a body is in motion, the
friction force is determined from
the bearing reaction (F,r=kN);
if the body is at rest, the friction
INTO ACCOUNT?
force is equal to the force that
tends to take it out of this state
of rest. All this can readily be
understood and remembered.
TEACHER: That is so. However,
you overlook one important fact.
You assume that you already
know the answers to the following questions: (I) Is the body
moving or is it at rest? (2) In which direction is the body mov
ing (if at all)? If these items are known beforehand, then the
problem is comparatively simple. Otherwise, it may be very
complicated from the outset and may even require special
investigation.
STUDENT: Yes, now I recall that we spoke of this matter in
§ 2 in connection with our discussion concerning the choice of
the direction of the friction force.
TEACHER: Now I want to discuss this question in more de
tail. It is my firm opinion that the difficulties involved in
. solving problems which take the friction force into account
are obviously underestimated both by students and by certain
authors who think up problems for physics textbooks.
Let us consider the exampLe illustrated in Fig. 10. The
angle of inclination a of the plane, weight P of the body, force
F and the coefficient of friction k are given. For simplicity
we shall assume that ko=k (where ko is the coefficient determiff
ing the maximum possible force of static friction). It is re
quired to determine the kind of motion of the body and to find
the acceLeration.
Let us assume that the body slides upward along the inclined
surface. We can resolve the forces as shown in Fig. 27b and
make use of the result obtained for the acceleration in § 6. Thus
a = ~ . [F cos ctP stn a(P cos a+ F sin a) k] (24)
53
It follows from equation (24) that for the body to slide up
ward along the inclined plane, the following condition must
be complied with:
F cos aP sin a(P cos a + F sin a) k;::: 0
This condition can be written in the form
F2 P k cos a + s ~ n a
,;::; 'cos ak Sm a
or
F ~ P k+tan a
~ Iktana
(25)
We shall also assume that the angle of inclination of the
plane is not too large, so that (lk tan a»O, or
1
tan a < Ii (26)
We shall next assume that the body slides downward along the
inclined plane. We again resolve all the forces as in Fig. 27b
but reverse the friction force. As a reslIlt we obtain the fall o
wing expression for the acceleration of the body
a= ~ [PsinaFcosa(Pcosa+Fsina)k] (27)
From equation (27) it follows that for the body to slide down
ward along the inclined plane, the following condition must
be met:
P sin aF cos a(P cos a + F sin a) k;;?: 0
This condition we write in the form
F ~ P sin ak cos a
"'""" cos a+k sin a
or
tan ak
F ~ P I +ktarl a (28)
1n this case, we shall assume that the angle of inclination
of the plane is not too small, so that (tan ak»O, or
tan a > k (29)
Combining conditions (25), (26), (28) and (29), we can come to
the following conclusions:
54
I. Assume that· the condition
1
k < tana< Ii
holds good for an inclined plane. Then:
(a) if F>P (k+1ana)/ (lk tan a), the body slides upward
with an acceleration that can be determined by equation (24);
(b) if F=P(k+tana)/(lk tana), the body slides upward
at uniform velocity or is at rest;
(c) if F<P(tanak)/(l+k tan a), the body slides down
ward with an acceleration that can be determined by equa
tion (27);
(d) if F=P (tan ak)/ (l +k tan a), the body slides down
ward with unilorm velocity or is at rest;
(e). if P(tan ak)/{l+k tan a)<F<P(k+tan a)/(l
k tan a), the body is at rest.
Note that upon increase in force F from P (tan ak)/ (1 +
+k tan a) to P (k+tan all (lk tan a), the force of static
friction is gradually reduced from k (P cos a+F sin a) to zero;
then, after its direction is reversed, it increases to the value
k(P cos a+F sin a). While this goes on the body remains at
rest.
2. Now assume that the inclined plane satisfies the condition
o < t a n a ~ k
then:
(a) if F>P (k+tan a)/ (lk tan a), the body slides upward
with an acceleration that can be determined by equation (24);
(b) if F=P (k+tan a)/ (lk tan a). the body slides upward
at uniform velocity or is at rest;
(c) if F<P(k+tan a)/(lk tan a). the body is at rest;
no downward motion of the body along the inclined plane is
possible (even if force F vanishes).
3. Finally, let us assume that the inclined plane meets
the condi tion
then:
1
tan ex ~ Ii
(a) if F<P (tan ak)/ (I +k tan a). the body slides down
ward with an acceleration that can be determined by equation
(27);
(b) ifF=P (tan ak)/ (I +k tan a), the body slides down
ward with uniform velocity or is at rest;
55
(c) if F>P(tan tan the body is at rest;
no upward motion of the body along the inclined plane is
possible. On the face of it, this seems incomprehensible be
cause force F can be increased indefinitely I The inclination
of the plane is so large, however, thal, with an increase in
force F,· the pressure of the body against the plane will in
crease at an even faster rale.
STUDENT: Nothing of the kind has ever been demonstrated
to us in school. .
TEACHER: That is exactly why I wanted to draw your
attention to this matter. Of course, in your entrance examina
tions you will evidently have to deal with much simpler cases:
there will be no friction, or there will be fridion but the
nature of the motion will be known beforehand (for instance,
whether the body is in motion or at rest). However, even if
one does not have to swim over deep spots, it is good to know
where they are.
STUDENT: What will happen if we assume that k=O?
TEACHER: In the absence of friction, everything becomes
much simpler at once. For any angle of inclination of the
plane, the results will
at F>P tan the body slides upward with the acceleration
a= (30)
at F=P tan the body slides with uniform veloCity (up
ward or downward) or is at rest;
at F<P tan ex, the body slides downward with an accele
ration
a = (P sin aF cos ex) (31)
Note that the results of equations (30) and (31) coincide with
an accuracy to the sign. Therefore, in solving problems, you
can safely assume any direction of motion, find a and take
notice of the sign of the acceleration. If a>O, the body tra
vels in the direction you have assumed; if a<O, the body
will travel in the opposite direction (the acceleration will·
be equal to la/).
Let us consider one more problem. Two bodies PI and P 2
are connected by a string running aver a pulley. Body P 1 is on
an inclined plane with the angle of inclination ex and coeffi
cient of friction k; body P 2 hangs on the string (Fig. 32).
Find the acceleration of the system.
56
Assume that the system is moving from left to right. Con
sidering the motion of the system as a whole, we can write
the following equation for the acceleration: .
(32)
Assuming now that the system moves from right to left, we
obtain .
(33)
We will carry out an investigation for the given a and k
values, varying the ratio P=P2/Pl' From equation (32) it
Fig. 32
follows that for motion from left to
right, the condition
::;::: I'
P..::: sina+kcosa
should be met. Equation (33) im
Pz plies that for motion from right to
left the necessary condition is
~ 1
p ~ sinakcosa
Here an additional condition is required: the angle of in
clination should not be too small, i.e. tan a>k. If tan a ~ k .
then the system will not move from right to left, however
large the rati<;> P may be.
If tan a>k, the body is at rest provided the following ine
quality holds true: .
I
sina+kcosa < P < sinakcosa
If, instead, tan a ~ k , then the body is at rest at
1
P> sina+kcosa
STUDENT: And what will happen if we change the angle a
or the coefficient k?
TEACHER: I leave investigation from this point of view to
you as a home assignment (see Problems Nos. 13 and 14).
57
PROBLEMS
13. Investigate the froblem illustrated in Fig. 32 assuming that the
angle a of Inclinalion'o the plane and the ratio P=P2/ Pl are given, and
assigning va.rious values to the coefficient k.
14. Investigate the problem iHustrated in,Fig. 32, assuming that the
coefficient of friction k and the ratio P=P
2
/Pl are given and assigning
various values to the angle a of inclination of the plane. For the sake of
simplicity, use only two values of the ratio: p= I (the bodies are of equal
weight) and p= 1/2 (the body on the inclined plane Is twice as heavy as
the one suspended on the string).
I
" ...
,
I I
, .... ~ ,
Motion in a circle is the simplest form of curvilinear motion.
The more important it is to comprehend the specific features
of such motion. You can see that the whole universe is made
up of curvilinear motion. Let us consider uniform and nonuni
form motion of a material point in a circle, and the motion
of orbiting satellites. This will lead us to a discussion of the
physical causes of the weightlessness of b04ies.
§ 8.
HOW DO YOU DEAL
WITH MOTION
IN A CIRCLE?
TEACHER: I have found from
experience that questions and
problems concerning motion of
a body in a <;:ircle turn out to
be extremely difficult for many
examinees. Their answers to such
questions contain a great many
typical errors. To demonstrate
this let us invite another student
to take part in our discussion.
This student doesn't know what
we have discussed previously.
We shall conditionally call him
"STUDENT B" (the first student
will hereafter be called "STU
DENT A").
Will Student B please indicate the forces acting on a
satellite, or sputnik, in orbit around the earth? We will agree
to neglect the resistance of the atmosphere and the attra
ction of the moon, sun and other celestial bodies.
STUDENT .B: The satellite is subject to two forces: the at
traction of the earth and the centrifugal force.
TEACHER: 1 have no objections to the attraction of the
earth, but I don't understand where you got the centrifugal
force from. Please explain.
STUDENT B: If there were no such force, the satellite could
not stay in orbit.
TEACHER: And what would ·happen to it?
STUDENT B: Why, it would fall to the earth.
TEACHER (turning to Student A): Remember what I told
you before! This is a perfect example of an attempt to prove
that a certain force exists, not on the basis of the interaction of
bodies, but by a backdoor manoeuvrefrom the nature of the
motion of bodies. As you see, the satellite must stay in orbit,
so it is necessary to introduce a retaining force. Incidentally,
if this centrifugal force really did exist, then the satellite
could not remain in orbit because the forces acting on the
satellite would cancel out and it would fly at uniform velocity
and in a straight line.
STUDENT A: The centrifugal force is never applied to a
rotating body. It is applied to the tie (string or another bon
ding member). It is the centripetal force that is applied to
the rotating body.
60
STUDENT B: Do you mean that only the weight is applied
to the satellite?
TEACHER: Yes, only its weight.
STUDENT B: And, nevertheless, it doesn't fall to the earth?
TEACHER: The motion of a body subject to the force of
gravity is called falling. Hence, the satellite is falling. Ho
wever, its "falling" is in the form of motion in a circle around
the earth and therefore can continue indefinitely. We have
already established that the direction of motion of a body and
the forces acting on it do not necessarily coincide (see § 4).
STUDENT B: In .speaking of the attraction of the earth and
the centrifugal force, I based my statement on the formula
GmM m v ~
,r=r
(34)
where the lefthand side is the force of attraction (m=mass
of the satellite, M=mass of the earth, r=radius of the or
bit and G=gravitational constant), and the righthand side
is the centrifugal force (v=velocity of the satellite). Do you
mean to say that this formula is incorrect?
TEACHER: No, the formula is quite correct. What is incor
rect is your interpretation of the formu lao You regard equation
(34) as one of equilibrium between two forces. Actually, it
is an expression of Newton's second law of motion
F=ma (34a)
where F=GmM/r2 and a=v
2
/r is the centripetal acceleration.
STUDENT B: I agree that your interpretation enables us to
get along without any centrifugal force. But, if there is no
centrifugal force, there must at least be a centripetal force.
You have not, however, mentioned such a force.
TEACHER: In our case, the centripetal force is the force of
attraction between the satellite and the earth. I want to
underline the fact that this does not refer to two different
forces. By no means. This is one an'd the same force.
STUDENT B: Then why introduce the concept of a centri
petal force at all?
TEACHER: I fully agree with you on this point. The term
"centri petal force", in my opinion, leads to nothing but con
fusion. What is understood to be the centripetal force is
not at all an independent force applied to a body along with
other forces. It is, instead, the resultant of all the forces
applied to a body travelling in a circle at uniform velocity.
61
The quantity mv
l
/( is not a force. It represents the product of
the mass m of the body by the centripetal acceleration vl/r.
This acceleration is. directed toward the centre and, conse
quently. the resultant of all forces, applied to a body tra
velling in a circle at uniform velocity, is directed toward the
centre. Thus, there is a centripetal acceleration and there
are forces which, added together, impart a centripetal acce
leration to the body.
STUDENT B: I must admit that this approach to the motion
of a body in a circle is to my Indeed, this motion is
not a static case, for which an equilIbrium of forces is cha
racteristic, but a dynamic case.
STUDENT A: If we reject the concept of a cedtripetal force.
then we should probably drop the term "centrifugal force" as
well, even in reference to ties.
TEACHER: The introduction of the term "centrifugal force"
is even less justified. The centripetal force actually exists,
if only as a resultant force. The centrifugal force does not
even exist in many cases.
STUDENT A: I don't understand your last remark. The cent
rifugal force is introduced as a reaction to the centripetal
force. If it does not always exist, as you say, then Newton's
third law of motion is not always valid. Is that so?
I
i T
I
I
.... t 
,.. I
\ ........
I
tentripe/at
force
p
P, .
t, centrifllgat
I \ force
I¥
I
\ I 
7'"
Fig. 33 Fig. 34
TEACHER: Newton's third law is valid only for real forces
determined by the interaction of bodies, and not for the
resultants of these forces. I can demonstrate this by the
example of the conical pendulum that you are already familiar
with (Fig. 33). The ball is subject to two forces: the weight P
and the tension T of the string. These forces, taken together,
provide the centripetal acceleration of the ball, and their sum
is called the centripetal force. Force P is due to the inter
action of the baH with the earth. The reaction of this force
is force P 1 which is applied to the earth. Force T results
62
from interaction between the ball and the string. The reaction
of this force is force T 1 which is applied to the string. If
forces PI and T 1 are formally added together we obtain a force
which is conventionally understood to be the centrifugal force
(see the dashed line in Fig. 33). But to what is this force
applied? Are we justified in calling it a force when one of
its components is applied to the earth and the other to an
entirely different bodythe string? Evidently, in the given
case, the concept of a centrifugal force has no physical mean
ing.
STUDENT A: In what cases does the centrifugal force exist?
TEACHER: In the case of a satellite in orbit, for instance,
when only two bodies interactthe earth and the satellite.
The centripetal force Is the force with which the earth attracts
the satellite. The centrifugal force is the <force with which
the satellite attracts the earth.
STUDENT B: You said that Newton's third law was not va
lid for the resultant of real forces. I think that in this case
it will be invalid also for the components of a real force. Is
that true?
TEACHER: Yes, quite true. In this connection I shall cite
an example which has nothing in common with rotary motion.
A ball lies on a floor and touches a wall which makes an obtuse
angle with the floor (Fig. 34). Let us resolve the weight of
the ball into two components: perpendicular to the wall and
parallel to the floor. We shall deal with these two components
instead of the weight of the ball. If Newton's third law were
applicable to separate components, we could expect a reaction
of the wall counterbalancing the component of the weight
perpendicular to it. Then, the component of the weight parallel
to the floor would remain unbalanced and the ball would have
to have a horizontal acceleration. Obviously, this is physical
ly absurd.
STUDENT A: SO far you have discussed uniform motion in a
circle. How do you deal with a body moving nonuniformly in
a circle? For instance, a body slides down from the top of a
vertically held hoop. While it slides along the hoop it is
moving in a circle. This cannot, however, be uniform motion
because the velocity of the body increases. What do you do in
such cases? .
TEACHER: If a body moves in a circle at uniform velocity.
the resultant of all forces applied to the body must be di·
rected to the centre; it imparts centripetal acceleration to
63
the body. In the more general case of nonuniform motion in a
circle, the resultant force is not directed strictly toward
the centre. In this case, it has a component along a radius
toward the centre and another component tangent to the trajec
tory of the body (i.e. to the circle). The first component is
responsible for the centripetal acceleration of the body, and
the second component, for the socalled tangential acceleration,
associated with the change in velocity. It should be pointed
out that since the velocity of the body changes, the centri
petal acceleration v2/r must also change.
STUDENT A: Does that mean that for each instant of time
the centripetal acceleration will be determined iJy the formula
a=v
2
/r, where v is the instantaneous velocity?
TEACHER: Exactly. While the centripetal acceleration is
.constant in uniform motion in a circle, it varies in the process
of motion in nonuniform motion in a circle.
STUDENT A: What does one do to find out just how the velo
city v varies in nonuniform rotation?
TEACHER: UsuallYl the Jaw of conservation of energy is
resorted to for this purpose. Let us consider a specific example.
A ssume that a body slides
without friction from the top
of a vertically held hoop of
radius R. With what force will (a)
the body press on the hoop as
it passes a point located at a
height h cm below the top of
Fig. 35
}l
H
c·
Fig. 36
the hoop? The initial velocity of the body at the top of the hoop
equals zero. First of all, it is necessary to find what forces
act on the body.
STUDENT A: Two forces act on the body: the weight P and
the bearing reaction N. They are shown in Fig. 35.
TEACHER: Correct. What are you going to do next?
64
STUDENT A: I'm going to do as you said. I shall find the
resultant of these two forces and resolve it into two components:
one along the radius and the other tangent to the circle.
TEACHER: Quite right. Though it would evidently be simp
ler to start by resolving the two forces applied to the body in
the two directions instead of finding the resultant, the more so
because it will be necessary to resolve only one forcethe
weight.
STUDENT A: My resolution of the forces is shown in Fig. 35.
TEACHER: Force P 2 is responsible for the tangential
ration of the body, it does not interest us at present. The
resultant of forces P 1 and N causes the centripetal accelera
tion of the body, i.e.
(35)
The velocity of the body at the point we are interested' in
(point A in Fig. 35) can be found from the law of conservation
of energy
i
Ph_
mv
 2
(36)
Combining (35) and (36) and taking into consideration that
P1=P cos r:x.=P (Rh)/R, we obtain
!..(Rh)N= 2Ph
R R
The soughtfor force with which the body presses on the hoop is
equal, according to Newton's third law, to the bearing reaction
N = P (37)
STUDENT B: You assume that at point A the body is still
on the. surface of the hoop. But it may fly off the hoop b,efore
it gets to point A.
TEACHER: We can find the point at which the body leaves
the surface of the hoop. This point corresponds to the extreme
case when the force with which the body presses against the
hoop is reduced to zero. Consequently, in equation (37), we
assume N=O and solve for h, i.e. the vertical distance from
the top of the hoop to the point at which the body flies off.
Thus . .
R
h
o
= '3 (38)
3118
65
If in the problem as stated the value of h complies with the
condition h<ho, then the result of equation (37) is correct;
if, instead, h ~ h o , then N=O.
STUDENT A: As far as I can make out, two physical laws,
equations (35) and (36), were used to solve this problem.
TEACHER: Very good that you point this out. Quite true,
two laws are involved in the solution of this problem: Newton's
second law of motion [see Eq. (35)] ~ n d the law of conservation
of energy '[see Eq. (36)]. Unfortunately, examinees do not
always Clearly understand just which physical laws they emp
loy in solving some problem or other. This, I think, is an es
sential point.
Take, for instance, the following example. An initial
velocity Va is imparted to a body so that it can travel from
point A to point C. Two alternative paths leading from A to C
are offered (see Fig. 36a and b). In both cases the body must
reach the same height H, but in different ways. Find the mini
mum initial velocity Va for each case. Friction can be neglected.
STUDENT B: I think that the minimum initial velocity
should be the same in both cases, because there is no friction
and the same height is to be reached. This velocity can be
calculated from the law of conservation of energy
mv
2
mgH=T from which VII = V2gH
TEACHER: Your answer is wrong. You overlooked the fact
that in the first case, the body passes the upper point of its
trajectory when it is in a state of rotational motion. This
means that at the top point B (Fig. 36a) it will have a velo
city VI determined from a dynamics equation similar to equa
tion (35). Since the problem involves the finding of a mini
mum, we should consider the extreme case when the pressure
of the body on its support at point B is reduced to zero. Then
only the weight will be acting on the body and imparting to
it the centripetal acceleration. Thus
mv
2
2mv
2
mg = _1 = __ 1 (39)
R H
Adding to the dynamics equation (39) the energy equation
2 2
mvo mV1 + H (40)
2=2 mg
we find that the minimum initial velocity equals, VSgHj2.
[n the second case, the body may pass the top point at ave
66
locity infinitely close to zero and so we can limit ourselveS to
the energy equation. Then your answer is correct.
STUDENT B: Now I understand. If in the first case the body
had no velocity at point B, it would simply falloff its track.
TEACHER: If in the first case the body had the initial
velocity vo=V2gH as you suggested, it would never reach
point B but would fall away from the track somewhat earlier.
J 'propose that you find the height h of the point at which the
body would fall away from the
track if its initial velocity was
v
o
=V2gH.
STUDENT A: Please let me try to
do this problem.
TEACHER: Certainly.
STUDENT A: At the point the body
drops off the track the bearing rea
Fig. 37· ction is evidently equal to zero.
Therefore, only the weight acts on
the body at this point. We can resolve the weight into two
components, one a long the radius (mg cos a) and the other
perpendicular to the radius (mg sin a) as shown in Fig. 37
(point A is the point at which the body falls away from the
track). The component along the radius imparts a centri
petal acceleration to the body, determined by the equation
(41 )
where V2 is the velocity of'the body at point A. To find it
we can make use of the energy equation
2' 2
mV2+ h mvo
2 mg =2
(42)
Combining the dynamics (41) and energy (42) equations, tak
ing into consideration that cos a= (hR)/R, we obtain
from which
mg(hR)=
h=
6g
After substituting the final result is
5
h=fjH
3·
(43)
67
TEACHER: Entirely correct. Note that you can use equation
(43) to find the initial velocity Vo for the body to loop the
loop, For this we'take h=H in equation (43). Then
H
 2 u ~ + g H
 6g
From this we directly obtain the result previously determined
vo= {5;H
STUDENT A: Condition (43) was obtained for a body falling
off its track. How can it be used for the cass in which the
body loops the loop without falling away?
TEACHER: Falling away at the very top point of the loop
actually means that the body does not fall away 'but passes
this point, continuing its motion in a circle.
STUDENT B: One could say that the body falls away as if
only for a single instant.
TEACHER: Quite true. In conclusion I propose the following
problem. A body lies at the bottom ()f an inclined plane with
an angle of inclination a.. This plane rotates at uniform an
gular velocity CI) about a vertical axis. The distan.ce from the
body to the axis of rotation of the plane equals R. Find the
minimum coefficient ko (I remind you that this coefficient
characterizes the maximum possible value of the force of sta
tic friction) at which the body remains on the rotating inclined
plane (Fig. 38a) without sliding off.
Let us begin as always with the question: what forces are
applied to the body?
STUDENT A: Three fOJ;:ces are applied to the body: the weight
P, bearing reaction N, and the force of friction FIr'
TEACHER: Quite correct. It's a good thing that you didn't
add the centripetal force. Now what are you going to do next?
STUDENT A: Next, I shall resolve the forces in the directions
along the plane and perpendicular to it as shown in Fig. 38b.
TEACHER: I'll take the liberty of interrupting you at this
point. I don't like the way you have resolved the forces. Tel I
me, in what direction is the body accelerated?
STUDENT A: The acceleration is directed horizontally. It
is centripetal acceleration.
TEACHER: Good. That is why you should resolve the forces
horizontally (i.e, along the acceleration) and vertically {i,e.
68
perpendicular to the acceleration). Remember what we dis
cussed in § 6.
STUDENT A: Now I understand. The resolution of the forces
in the horizontal and vertical directions is shown in Fig. 38c.
The vertical components of the forces counterbalance one
(a)
rbJ
(e)
another, and the horizontal com
ponents impart. acceleration to
the body. Thus
Ncosa+F/rsina=p}
. mv
2
F/rcosaNsma= R .
Taking into considera tion that
F/r=koN,v2/R=w2R and m=P /g,
we can rewrite these equations in
the form
N(cosa+kosina)=P }
N (k
o
cos asin a) = P(j)2Rg
STUDENT B: You have only
two equations and three un
knowns: ko, P and N.
TEACHER: That is no obstacle.
We don't have to find all three
unknowns, only the coefficient k
o
•
The unknowns P and N can be
F" p 38 easily eliminated by dividing the
Ig. first equation by the second.
STUDENT A: After dividing we obtain
cosa.+kosina. g
ko cos a. sin a. = ro
2
R
which we solve for the required coefficient
k _ ro
2
R cos a.+g sin a .
0 gcos aro
2
R sin a
(44)
TEACHER: It is evident from equation (44) that the condi
tion
(gcos a(j)2R sin a) > 0
should hold true. This condition can also be written in the
form
g
tan a < ro2R
(45)
69
If condition (45) is not complied with, no friction force
is capable of retaining the body on the rotating inclined
plane.
PROBLEMS
15. What is the ratio of the forces with which an army tank bears down
on the middle of a convex and of a concave bridge? The radius of curvature
of the bridge is 40 m in both cases and the speed of the tank is 45 km per hr.
16. A body slides without
friction from the height
H=60 em and then loops the
loop of radius R=20 em
(Fig. 39). Find the ratio of the
::t: B forces with which the body
bears against the track at
points A, Band C.
17. A body can rotate in
A a vertical plane at the end
of a string of length R. What
Fig. 39 horizontal velocity should be
imparted to the body in the
top position so that the tension of the string in the bottom position
is ten times as great as the weight of the body?
lB. Calculate the density of the substance of a spherical planet if
a satell ite rotates about it with a period T in a circular orbit at a
distance from the surface of the planet equal to one half of its radius
R. The gravitational constant is denoted by G.
Fig. 40 Fig. 41
19. A body of mass m can slide without friction along a trough
bent in the form of a circular arc of radius. R. At whilt height h will
the body be at rest if the trough rotates at a uniform anglilar veloci
ty CJ) (Fig. 40) about a veri ical axis? What force F does the body exert'
on the trough?
20. A hoop of radi us R is rlXed vertica Jly on the floor. A body
slides without friction from the top of the hoop (Fig. 41). At what
distance l from the point where the hoop is fixed will the body fall?
§ 9.
HOW DO YOU EXPLAIN
THE WEIGHTLESSNESS
OF BODIES?
TEACHER:. How do you unders
tand the expression: "At the
equator of a planet, a body weighs
less than at the poles"?
STUDENT B: I understand it
as follows. The attraction of a
body by the earth is less at the
equator than at the poles for
two reasons. I n the fi rst place,
the earth is somewhat flattened
at the poles and therefore the dis
lance from the centre of the earth
is somewhat less to the poles than
to the equator. In the second p la
ce, the earth rotates about its
axis as a result of which the force
of attraction at the equator is
weakened due to the centrifugal effect.
STUDENT A: Please make your last remark a little clearer.
STUDENT B: You must subtract the centrifugal force from
the force of attraction.
STUDENT A: I don't agree with you. Firstly, the centrifugal
force is not applied to a body travelling in a circle. We al
ready discussed that in the preceding section (§ 8). Secondly,
even if such a force existed it could not prevent the force of
attraction from being exactly the same as if there was no
rotation of the earth. The force of attraction equals GmM/r
2
and, as .such, does not change just because other forces may
act on the body.
TEACHER: As you can see, the question of the ''weightness of
bodies" is not as simple as it seems at first glance. That's
why it is among the questions that examinees quite frequently
fail to answer correctly. As a matter of fact, if we agree on
the definition that the "weight of a body" is the force with
which the body is attracted by the earth, i.e. the force
GmM /r2, then the reduction of weight at the equator should be
associated only with the flattening at the poles (or bulging
at the equator).
STUDENT B: But you cannot disregard rotation of the earthl
TEACHER: I fully agree with you. But first I wish to point
out that usually, in everyday life, the "weight of a body" is
understood to be, not the force with which it is attracted to
the earth, and, this is quite logical, but the force measured
71
by a spring balance, i. e. the force with which the body bears
against the earth. In other words, the bearing reaction is
measured (the force with which a body bears against a support
is equal to the bearing reaction according to Newton's third
law). It follows that the expression "a body weighs less at the
equator than at the poles" means that at the .it bears
against its support with' a lesser force than at the poles.
Let us denote the force of attraction at the poles by Pi
and at the equator by P 2, the bearing reaction at the poles
by N 1 and at the equator by N 2. At the poles the body is
at rest, and at the equator it travels in a circle. Thus
PlN
1
=0
P
2
N
s
=ma
cp
where a
cp
is the centripetal acceleration, We can ,rewrite
these equations in the form
Nl =P1 }
(46)
Here it is clear that N 2 is less than N f. since, firstly, P 2 is
less than PI (from the effect of the flattening at thf, poles)
and, secondly, we subtract from PI the quantity nta
cp
(the
effect of ro,tation of the earth).
STUDENT B: SO, the expression "a' body has lost half of its
weight" does not mean that the force with which it is attracted
to the earth (or any other planet) has been reduced by one
half?
, TEACHER: No, it doesn't. The force of attraction may not
change at alL This expression means that the force with which
the body bears against its support (in other words, the bearing
reaction) has been reduced by one half.
STUDENT B: But then it follows that I can dispose of the
"weightness" of a body quite freely. What can prevent me from
digging a deep pit under the body and letting it fall into the
pit together with its support? In this case, there will be no
force whatsoever bearing on the support. Does that mean that
the body has completely "lost its weight"? That it is in a
state of weightlessness?
TEACHER: You have lndependently come to the correct con
clusion. As a matter of fact, the state of weightlessness is a
state of fall of a body. In this connection I wish to make
72
several remarks. I have come across the interpretation of
weightlessness as a state in which the force of attraction of
the earth is counterbalanced by some other force. In the case
of a satellite, the cenfrifugal .force was suggested as this
counterbalancing force. The statement was as follows: the
force with which the satellite is attracted by the earth and
the centrifugal force counterbalance each other and, as a
result, the resultant force applied to the satellite equals
zero, and this corresponds to weightlessness.
You now understand, of course, that such a treatment is
incorrect if only because no centrifugal 'force acts on the
satellite. Incidentally, if weightlessness is understood to be
a state in which the force of attraction is counterbalanced by
some other force, then it would be more logical to consider a
body weightless when it simply rests on a horizontal plane.
This is precisely one of the cases where the weight is cOlln
terba lanced by the bearing reactionl Actually, no counter
of the force of attraction is required for weight
lessnbs. On the contrary, for a body to become weightless, it
is necessary to provide conditions in which no other force
acts on it except attraction. In other words, it is necessary
that the bearing reaction equal zero. The motion of a body
subject to the force of attraction is the falling of the body.
Consquently, weightlessness is a state of falling, for example
the falling of a lift In a mine shaft or the orbiting of the earth
by a satellite.
STUDENT A: In the preceding section (§ 8) you mentioned
that the orbiting of a satellite about the earth is none other
than its falling to the earth for an indefinitely long ,period
of time.
TEACHER: That the motion of a satellite about the earth
is falling can be shown very graphically in the following way.
Imagine that you are at the top of a high mountain and throw
a stone horizontally, We shall neglect the air resistance, The
greater the initial velocity of the stone, the farther it will
fall. Figure 420 illustrates how the trajectory of the ,stone
gradually changes with an increase in the initial velocity.
At a certain velocity VI the trajectory of the falling stone
becomes a circle and the stone becomes a satellite of the earth.
The velocity VI is called the circular orbital velocity. It is
found from equation (34)
v
l
= V 0: (47)
. 73
If the radius r of the satellite's orbit is taken approximately
equal to the radius of the earth then u 1 ~ 8 km per sec.
STUDENT A: What will happen if in throwing a stone from
the mountain top we continue to increase the initial velocity?
TEACHER: The stone will orbit the earth in a more and more
elongated ellipse (Fig. 42b). At a certain velocity V2 the
tra jectory of the stone becomes a parabola and the stone
ceases to be a satellite of the earth. The velocity U
2
is called
the escape veloci ty. According
to calculations, U
2
is appro
ximately II km per sec. This
is about V2 times v l'
STUDENT A: Yoo have defi
v, ned the state of weightlessness
as a state of fall. However, if
the initial velocity of the stone
reaches the esc a pe veloci t y.
the stone wi II leave the earth.
In this case, you cannot say
that it is falling to the earth.
How, then, can you interpret
the weightlessness of the stone?
(6) TEACHER: Very simply.
Weightlessness in this case is
the falling of the stone to the
sun.
STUDENT A: Then the
02 weightlessness of a spaceship
located somewhere in inter
stellar space is to be associated
with the falling of the ship
in the gravitational field
of some celestial body?
TEACHER: Exactly.
Fig. 42 STUDENT B: Still, it seems
to me that the definition of
weightlessness as a state of falling requires some refinement.
A parachutist also falls, but he has none of the sensations
associated with weightlessness.
TEACHER: You are right. Weightlessness is not just any
kind of falling. Weightlessness is the socalled free fall, i.e.
the motion of a body subject only (I) to the force of gravity.
I have already mentioned that for a body to become weightless
74
it is necessary to create conditions under which no other
force, except the force of attraction, acts on the body. In
the case of the fall of a parachutist, there is ~ n additional
force, the resistance of the air.
PROBLEM
21. Calculate the density of the substance of a spherical planet where
the daily period of rotation equals 10 hours, if it is known that bodies are
weightless at the equator of the planet.
The role of the physical laws of conservation can scarcely be
overestimated. They constitute the most general rules estab
lished by mankind on the basis of the experience of many
generations. Skillful application of the laws of conservation
enables many problems to be solved with comparative ease.
Let us consi der examples concerning the laws of conser
vation of energy and momentum.
§ 10.
CAN YOU APPLY
THE LAWS
OF CONSERVATION
TEACHER: To begin with I wish
to propose several simple prob
lems. The first problem: Bodies
slide without friction down two
inclined planes of equal height H
but with two different angles of
OF ENERGY AND LINEAR inclination al and a 2· The ini
tial velocity of the bodies equals
zero. Find the velocities of the
MOMENTUM?
bodies at the end of their paths.
The second problem: We know
that the formula expressing the
final velocity of a body in terms
of the acceleration and distance
travelled v= V 2as refers to the
case when there is no initial velo
city. What will this formula be if
the body has an initial velocity vo? The third problem: A body
is thrown from a height H with a horizontal velocity of Vo.
Find its veloei ty when it reaches the ground. The fourth prob
lem: A body is thrown upward at an angle a to the horizontal
with an initial velocity va. Find the maximum height reached
in its {iight.
STUDENT A: I shall solve the first problem in the following
way. We first consider one of the inclined planes, for instance
the one with the angle of inclination a l • Two forces are ap
plied to the body: the force of gravity P and the bearing
reaction N l' We resolve the force P into two components, one
along the plane (P sin a
l
) and the other perpendicular to it
(P cos al)' We then write the equations for the forces per
pendicular to the inclined plane
P cos a
l
 N 1 ~ 0
and for the forces along the plane .
P . Pal
sJOaI=g
where al is the acceleration of the body. From the second
equation we find that aI=g sin a
l
. The distance travelled
by the body is H lsi n a l' Next, using the formula mentioned in
the second problem, we find that the velocity at the end of
the path is
77
Since the final result does not depend upon the angle of inc
lination, it is also applicable to the second plane inclined at
the angle a 2' .
To solve the second problem I shall make use of the well
known kinematic relationships
v=vo+at
at
2
s=vot+
T
From the first equation we find that t= (vvo)Ja. Substituting
this for t in the second equation we obtain •
s = Vo (VU'o) (V_VO)2 •
a 2 a
2
or
2sa = v22ooo +
from which The final result is
V= V2as+v: (48)
To solve the third problem, I shall first find the horizontal
VI and vertical Vs components of the final velocity. Since
the body travels at uniform velocity in the horizontal direc
tion, V1=VO' In the vertical direction the body travels with
acceleration g but has no initial velocity. Therefore, we can
use the formula v
2
=V 2gH. Since the sum of the squares of
the sides of a right triangle equals .the square of the hypote
nuse, the final ans"Yer is
(49)
The fourth problem has already been discussed in § 5. It
is necessary to resolve the initial velocity into the horizontal
(va cos a) and vertical (vo sin a) components. Then we consi
der the vertical motion of the body and, first of all, we find
the time t I of ascent from the formula for the dependence of
the velocity on time in uniformly decelerated motion (vv=
=Vo sin ag£), taking into account that at t=t1 the verti
cal velocity of the body vanishes. Thus Vo sin agt 1 =0,
from which t
1
= (vo/g) sina. The time t1 being known, we find
the height H reached from the formula of the dependence of
the distance travelled on time in uniformly decelerated
motion. Thus
78
TEACHER: In all four cases you obtained the correct ans
wers. I am not, however, pleased with the way you solved
these problems. They could all have been solved much simpleF
if you had used the law of conservation of energy. You
can see for yourself.
First problem. The law of conservation of energy is of the
form mgH=mv
2
j2 (the potential energy of the body at the
top of the inclined plane is equal to its kinetic energy at the
bottom). From this equation we readily find the velocity of
the body at the bottom
v=V2gH
Second problem. In this case, the law of conservation of
energy is of the form mv:J2+mas=mv
2
j2, where mas is the
work done by the forces in imparting the acceleration a to the
body. This leads immediately to or, finally,' to
Third problem. We write the law of of energy
as mgH Then the result is
Fourth problem. At the point the body is thrown its energy
equals At the top point of its trajectory, the energy
of the body is mgH+nwiJ2. Since the velocity VI at the
top point equals Va cos a, then, using the law of conservation
of energy
we find that H=(vU2g) (1cos
2
a) or, finally
.
H=2g
SIn2
a.
STUDENT A: Yes, it's quite clear to me that these problems
can be solved in a much simpler way. It didn't occur to me to
use the law of conservation of energy. ,
TEACHER: Unfortunately, examinees frequently forget about
this law. As a result they begin to solve such problems by
more cumbersome methods, thus increasing the probability
of errors. My adv ice is: make more resourceful and extensive
use of the law of conservation of energy.
79
This poses the question: how skillfully can you employ
this law?
STUDENT A: It seems to me that no 'special skill is required;
the law of conservation of energy as such is quite simple.
TEACHER: The ability to apply a physical law correctly is
not determined by its complexity or simplicity. Consider an
example. Assume that a body travels at uniform velocity in a
circle in a horizontal plane. No friction forces operate. The
body is subject to a centripetal force. What is the work done
by this force in one revolution of the body?
STUDENT A: Work is equal to the product of the force by
the distance through which it acts. Thus, in our case, it eq uals
(mv2/R)2rr.R=2rr.mv2, where R is the radius of the circle and
m and v are the mass and velocity of the body.
TEACHER: According to the law of conservation of energy;
work cannot completely disappear. What has become of the
work you calculated?
STUDENT A: It has been used to rotate the body.
TEACHER: I don't understand. State it more precisely.
STUDENT A: It keeps the body on the circle.
TEACHER: Your reasoning is wrong. No work at all is re
quired to keep the body on the circle.
STUDENT A: Then I don't know how to answer your ques
tion.
TEACHER: Energy imparted to a body can be distributed,
as physicists say, among the following "channels": (1) increas
ing the kinetic energy of the body; (2) increasing its potential
energy; (3) work performed by the given body on other bodies;
and (4) heat evolved due to friction. Such is the general
principle which not all examinees understand with sufficient
clarity ..
Now consider the work of the centripetal force. The body
travels at a constant velocity and therefore its kinetic energy
is not increased. Thus the first channel is closed. The body
travels in a horizontal plane and, consequently, its potential
energy is not changed. The second channel is also closed. The
given body does not perform any work on other bodies, so that
the third channel is' closed. Finally, all kinds of friction
have been excluded. This closes the fourth and last channel.
STUDENT A: But then there is simply no room for the work
of the centripetal force, or is there?
TEACHER: As you, see, none. It remains now for ~ ' o u to dec
lare your position on the matter. Either you. admIt that the
80
law of conservation of energy is not valid, and then all
your troubles are gone, or you proceed from the validity of
this law and then .... However, try to find the way out of
your difficulties.
STUDENT A: I think that it remains to conclude that the
centripetal force performs no work whatsoever.
TEACHER: That is quite a logical conclusion. I want to
point out that' it is the direct consequence of the law of con
servation of energy.
STUDENT B: All this is very well, but what do we do about
the formula for the work done by a body?
TEACHER: In addition to the force and the distance through
which it acts, this formula should also contain the cosine of
(a) the angle between the direction of the
(1;)
(C)
force and the velocity
A =Fscos a
In the given case
J
cos a=O.
STUDENT· A: Oh yes, I entirely for
got about this cosine.
TEACHER: I want ·to propose anoth·
er example. Consider communicating
vessels connected by a narrow t u b ~
with a stopcock. Assume that at· first
all the liquid is In the left vessel and
its height is H (Fig. 430)'. Then we
open the stopcock and the liquid flows
from the left into the right vessel. The
fl ow ceases when there is an equal
Ie vel of H /2 in each vessel (Fig. 43b).
Let us calculate the potential energy
of the liquid in the initial and final
positions. For this we multiply the
weight of the liquid in each vessel by
one half of the column of liquid. In
the initial position the potential energy
equalled PH/2, and in the final one it
Fig. 43 is (P/2) (H/4) + (P/2) (H/4) =PH/.t.
Thus in the final state, the potential
energy of the liquid turns out to be only one half of that in the
initial state. Where has one half of the energy disappeared to?
STUDENT A: I shall attempt to reason as you advised. The
potential energy PH /4 could be used up in performing work on
81
other bodies, on heat evolved in friction and on the kinetio
energy of the liquid itself. Is that right?
TEACHER: Quite correct. Continue.
STUDENT A: In our case, the liquid flowing from one
vessel to the other does not perform any work on other bodies.
The liquid has no kinetic energy in the final state because
it is in a state of rest. Then, it remains to conclude that one
·half of the potential energy has been converted into heat
evolved in friction. True, I don't have a very clear idea of
what kind of friction it is.
TEACHER: You reasoned correctly and came to the right
conclusion. I want to add a few words on the nature of fric
.tion. One can imagine that the liquid is dividetl into layers,
.each characterizing a definite rate of flow. The closer the
layer to the walls of the tube, the lower its velocity. There
is an exchange of molecules between the layers, as a result of
which molecules with a higher velocity of ordered motion find
themselves among molecules with a lower velocity of ordered
motion, and vice versa. As a result, the "faster" layer has an
accelerating effect on the "slower" layer and. conversely, the
"slower" layer has a decelerating effect on the "faster" layer.
This picture allows us to speak of the existence of a peculiar
internal friction between the layers. Its effect is stronger with
a greater difference in the velocities of the layers in the mid
dle part of the tube and near the walls. Note that the velocity
of the layers near the walls is influenced by the kind of inter
action between the molecules of the liquid and those of the
walls. If the liquid wets the tube then the layer directly ad
jacent to the wall is actually stationary.
STUDENT A: Does this mean that in the final state the tern·
perature of the liquid should be somewhat higher than in
·the initial state?
TEACHER: Yes, exactly so. Now we shall change the con
ditions of the prQblem to some extent. Assume that there is no
interaction between the liquid and the tube walls. Hence.
a 11 the layers will flow at the same velocity and there will be
no internal friction. How then will the liquid flow from one
vessel to the other?
STUDENT A: Here the potential energy will be reduced
owing to the kinetic energy acquired by the liquid. In other
words. the state illustrated in Fig. 43b is not one of rest.
The liquid will continue to flow from the left vessel to the
right one until it reaches the state shown in Fig. 43c. In
82
this state the potential energy is again the same as in the
initial state (Fig. 43a).
TEACHER: What will happen to the liquid after this?
STUDENT A: The liquid will begin to flow back in the
reverse direction, from the right vessel to the left one. As
a result, the levels of the liquid will fluctuate in the commu
nicating vessels.
TEACHER: Such fluctuations can be observed. for instance,
in communicating glass vessels containing mercury. We know
that mercury does not wet glass. Of course these fluctuations
Fig. 44
will be damped in the course of time,
since it is impossible to completely
exclude the interaction between the
molecules of the liquid and those of
the tube walls.
STUDENT A: I see that the law of
conservation of energy can be applied
quite actively.
TEACHER: Here is another prob
lem for you. A bullet of mass m,
travelling horizontally with a velocity
vo, hits a wooden block of mass M,
suspended on a string, and sticks in the block. To what height
H will the block rise, after the bullet hits it, due to devia
tion of the string from the equilibrium position (Fig. 44)?
STUDENT A: We shall denote by Vi the velocity of the block
with the bullet immediately after the bullet hits the block.
To find this velocity we make use of the law of conservation
of energy. Th us
2 Z
m;o = (m+ M) (50)
from which
(51)
This velocity being known, we find the soughtfor height H
by again resorting to the law of conservation of energy
v'
(m + M) gH = (m + M)+
(52)
Equations (50) and (52) can be combined
mv
2
(m+M)gH=T
83
from which
v ~ m
H = 2g m+M (53)
TEACHER. (to Student B): What do you think of this solu
tion?
STUDENT B: I don't agree with it. We were told previously
that in such cases the law of conservation of momentum is to
be used. Therefore, instead of equation (50) I would have used
a di fferent relationshi p
mvo = (m + M) v
1
(54)
{the momentum of the bullet before it hits the block is equal
to the momentum of the bullet and block afterward). From
this it follows that
(55)
1f we now use the law of conservation of energy (52) and
substitute the result of equation (55) into (52) we obtain
(56)
TEACHER.: We have two different opinions and two results.
The point is that in one case the law of conservation of ki
netic energy .is ~ p p l i e d when the bullet strikes the block, and
in the other case, the law of conservation of momentum. Which
is cQrrect? (to Student A): What can you say to justify your
position?
STUDENT A: It didn't occur to me to use the law of conser
vation of momentum.
TEACHER (to Student B): And what do you say?
STUDENT B: I don't know how to substantiate my position.
I remember that in dealing with collisions, the law of conser
vation of momentum is always valid, while the law of conser
vation of energy does not always hold good. Since in the given
case these laws lead to differenhesults, my solution is evident
ly correct.
TEACHER: Asa matter of fact, it is indeed quite correct.
It is, however, necessary to get a better insight into the
matter. A collision after which the colliding bodies travel
sluck together (or one inside the other) IS said to be a "comp
letely inelastic collision". Typical of such impacts is the pre
.84
sence of permanent set in the colliding bodies, as a result of
which a certain amount of heat is evolved. Therefore, equation
(50), referring only to the kinetic energy of bodies, is inap
plicable. In our case, it is necessary to employ the law of
conservation of momentum (54) to find the velocity of the
box with the bullet after the impact.
STUDENT A: Do you mean to say that the law of conserva
tion of energy is not valid for a completely inelastic collision?
But this law is universal.
TEACHER: There is no question but that the law of conser
vation of energy is valid for a completely inelastic collision
as well. The kinetic energy is not conserved after such a col
lision. I specifically mean the kinetic energy and not the
whole energy. Denoting the heat evolved in collision by Q, we
can write the following system of laws of conservation refer
ring to the completely inelastic collision discussed above
mvo = (m + M) VI }
= +Q
2 2
(57)
Here the first equation is the law of conservation of momentum,
and the second is the law of conservation of energy (including
not only mechanical energy, but heat as well).
The system of equations (57) contains two unknowns: V 1
and Q. After determining Vi from the first equation, we can
use the second equation to find the evolved heat Q
Q = _ (m+M) = (l_",_m_") (58)
2 2(m+M)2 2 m+M
It is evident from this equation that the larger the mass M,
the more energy is converted into heat. In the limit, for
an infinitely large mass. M, we obtain Q=mvU2, i.e. all the
kinetic energy is converted into heat. This is quite natural:
assume that the bullet sticks in a wall.
STUDENT A: Can there be an impact in which no heat is
evolved?
TEACHER: Yes, such collisions are possible. They are said
to be "perfectly elastic". For instance, the impact of two
steel balls can be regarded as perfectly elastic with a fair
degree of approximation. Purely elastic deformation of the
ba lis occurs and no heat is evolved. After the collision, the
balls return to their original shape.
85
STUDENT A: You mean that in a perfectly elastic collision,
the law of conservation of energy becomes the law of conser
vation of kinetic energy?
TEACHER: Yes, of course.
STUDENT A: But in this case I cannot understand how you
can reconcile the laws of conservation of momentum and of
energy. We obtain two entirely different equations for the
velocity after impact. Or, maybe, the law of conservation of
momentum is not valid for a perfectly elastic collision.
TEACHER: Both conservation laws are valid for a perfectly
elastic impact: for momentum and for kinetic energy. You have
no reason to worry about the reconciliation of these laws
because .after a perfectly elastic impact, t h ~ bodies fly apart
at different velocities. Whereas after a completely inelastic
impact the colliding bodies travel at the same velocity (since
they stick together), after an elastic impact each body tra
vels at its own definite velocity. Two unknowns require two
equations. Let us consider an example. Assume that a body
of mass m travelling at a velocity Vo elastically collides with
a body of mass M at rest. Further assume that as a resul t
of the impact the incident body bounces back. We shall de
note the velocity of body m after the collision by V1 and that
of body M by Vs. Then the laws of conservation of momentum
and energy can be written in the form
mvo = Mvtmvi }
~ M s 2
tmlo _ tis + mVI
22 2
(59)
Note the minus· sign in the first e"quation. It is due to our
assumption that the incident body bounces back.
STUDENT B: But you cannot always know beforehand in
which direction a body will.travel after the impact. Is it im
possible for the body m to continue travelling in the same di
rection but at a lower velocity after the collision?
TEACHER: That is quite possible. In such a case, we shall
obtain a negative velocity VI when solving the system of equa
tions (59).
STUDENT B: I think that the direction of travel of body m
after the collision is determined by the ratio of the masses m
and M.
TEACHER: Exactly. If m<M, body m will bounce back;
at m=M, it will be at rest after the collision; and at m>M,
it will continue its travel in the same direction but at a low
86
er velocity. In the general case, however, you need not wor
ry about the direction traveL It wil.1 be to assume
some direction and begm the calculatIOns. The sIgn of the an
swer will indicate your mistake, if any.
STUDENT B: kno\V thJlt upon collision the balls may fly
apart at an angle to each other. We assumed that motion takes
place along a single straight line. Evidently, this must have
been a special case.
TEACHER: You are right. We considered what is called a
central collision in which the balls travel before and after
the impact along a line passing through their centres. The
more general case of the offcentre collision will be dealt with
later. For the time being, I'd like to know if everything is
quite clear.
STUDENT A: I think I understand now. As I see it, in any
collision (elastic or inelastic), two laws of conservation are
applicable: of momentum and of energy. Simply the different
nature of the impacts leads to different equations for describ
ing the conservation laws. In dealing with inelastic collisions,
it is necessary to take into account the heat evolNed on im
pact.
TEACHER: Your remarks are true and to the point.
STUDENT B: SO far as I understand it, completely elastic
and perfectly inelastic collisions are the two extreme cases.
Are they always suitable for describing real cases?
TEACHER: You are right in bringing up this matter. The
cases of collision we have considered are extreme ones. In real
collisions some amount of heat is always generated (no ideally
elastic deformation exists) and the colliding bodies may fly
apart with different velocities. In many cases, however, real
collisions are described quite well by means of simplified
models: completely elastic and perfectly inelastic colli
sions.
;\low let us consider an example of an offcentre elastic
collision. A body in the form of an inclined plane with a 45°
angle of inclination lies on a lwrizontal plane. A ball of mass
m. {lying lwrizontally with a velocity VOl collides with the body
(inclined plane),· which has a mass of M. A s a result of the
impact, the ball bounces vertically upward and the body M be
g·ins to slide without friction along the horizontal plane. Find
the velocity with which the ball begins its vertical travel after
the collision (Fig. 45). Which of you wishes to try your hand
at this problem?
87
STUDENT B: Allow me to. Let us denote the soughtfor ve
locity of the ball by VI and that of body M by V
2
• Since the
collision is elastic, I have the right to assume that the kinetic
energy is conserved. Thus
mvi Mtli
2 = 2 +2
(60)
I need one more equation, for which I should evidently use the
law of conservation of momentum. I shall write it in the form
mvo = Mv
2
+mv
t
(61)
True, I'm not so sure about this last equation because velocity
v I is at right angles to veloci ty v 2' •
TEACHER: Equation (60) is correct. Equation (61) is in
correct, just as you thought. You should remember that the
m
Fig. 45
M
law of conservation of momentum is a
vector equation, since the momentum
is a vector quantity having the 'same
direction as the velocity. True enough,
when all the velocities are directed
along a single straight line, the vector
equation can be replaced by a scalar
one. That is precisely what happened
when we discussed central collisions.
In the general case, however, it is
necessary to resolve all velocities in mutually perpendicular
directions and to write the law of conservation of momentum
for each of these directions separately (if the is
considered in a plane, the vector equation can be replaced
by two scalar equations for the prOjections of the momen
tum in the two mutually perpendicular directions).
For the given prob lem we can choose the horizontal and
vertical directions. For the horizontal direction, the law of
conservation of momentum is of the form
mvo= MV2
From equations (60) and (62) we find the velocity
,; Mm
V1 =VO VM
(62)
STUDENT B: What do we do about the vertical direction?
TEACHER: At first sight, it would seem that the law of
conservation of momentum is not valid for the vertical dire
88
ction. Actually It is. Before the impact there were no verti
cal velocities; after the impact, there is a momentum mVl
directed vertically upwards. We can readily see that still an
other body participates in the problem: the earth. If it was
not for the earth, body M would not travel horizontally
after the collision. Let us denote the mass of the earth by Me
and the velocity it acquires as a result of the impact by ve'
The absence of friction enables us to treat the interaction
between the body M and the earth as taking place only in
the vertical direction. In other words, the velocity ve of the
earth is directed vertically downwards. Thus, the participa
tion of the earth in our problem doesn't change the form of
equation (62), but leads to an equation which describes the
law of conservation of momentum for the vertical direction
(63)
STUDENT B: Since the earth also participates in this problem
it will evidently be necessary to correct the energy relation
(60).
TEACHER: Just what do you propose to do to equation (60)?
STUDENT B: I wish to add a term concerning the motion of
the earth after the impact
2 z M ~ M 2
muo _ mOl + 02 + eVe
22 2 2
(64)
TEACHER: Your intention is quite logical. There is, however,
no need to change equation (60). As a matter of fact, it fol
lows from equation (63) that the velocity of the earth is
Since the mass Me is practically infinitely large, the velo
city Ve of the earth after the impact is practically equal to
zero. Now, let us rewrite the term M e v ~ / 2 in equation (64)
to obtain the form (Meve)ve/2. The quantity Meve in this
product has, according to equation (63), a finite value. If
this value is multiplied by zero (in the given case by ve) the
product is also zero. From this we can conclude that the earth
participates very peculiarly in this problem. It acquires a
certain momentum, but at the same time, receives practically
89
no energy. In other words, it participates in the law of con
servation of momentum, but does not participate in the law
of conservation of energy. Th is circumstance is especial\y
striking evidence of the fact that the laws of conservation
of energy and of momentum are essentially different, mutual
ly independent laws.
PROBLEMS
22. A body with a mass of 3 kg falls from a certain height with an ini
tial velocity of 2 m per sec, directed vertically downward. Find the work
done to overcome the forces of resistance during to sec if it is known that
the body acquired a velocity of 50 m per sec at the end of the 10·sec inter
val. Assume that the force of resistance is constant. •
23. A body slides first down an inclined plane at an angle of 30° and
then along a horizontal surface. Determine the coefficient of friction ii it
is known that the body slides along the horizontal surface the same d is'
tance as along the inclined' plane.
24. Calculate the efficiency of an inclined plane for the case when a
body slides off it at uniform velocity.
25. A ball of mass' m and volume V drops into water from a height
H, plunges to a depth h and then jumps out of the water (the density of the
ball is less than that of water). Find the resistance of the water (assuming
it to be constant) and the height hI to which the ball ascends after jumping
out of the water. Neglect air resistance. The density of water is denoled
by Pill'
26. A railway car with a mass of 50 tons, travelling with a velocity
of 12 km per hr, runs into a flatcar with a mass of 30'tons standing on the
same track. Find the velocity of joint travel of the railway car and flatcar
r   ~ ' " directly after t h ~ automatic coupling device
. operates. Calculate the distance travelled by the
two cars after being coupled if the force of resis·
tance is 5 per cent of the weight.
27. A cannoll of mass M, located at the base
of an inclined plane, shoots a shell of mass m in
tI:: a horizontal direction with an initial velocity Vo.
To what height does the cannon ascend the incli
ned plane as a result of recoil if the angle of
inclination of the plane is a and the coefficient of
friction between the cannon and the plane is k?
. 28. Two balls of masses M and 2M are hang
ing on threads of length 1 fixed at the same
Fig. 46 point. The ball of mass M is pulled to one side
through an angle of a and is released after
imparting to it a tangential velocity of Vo in the direction of the equilib
rium position. To what height will the balls rise after collision if: (I) the
impact is perfectly elastic, and (2) if it is completely inelastic (the balls
stick together as a result of the impact)? .
29. A ball of mass M hangs on a string of length l. A bullet of mass m,
flying horizontally, hits the ball and sticks in it. At what minimum velo
city must the bullet travel so that the ball will make one complete revolu
tion in a vertical plane?
90
30. Two wedges with angles of inclination equal to 45° and each of
mass M lie on a horizontal plane (Fig. 46). A ball of mass m
drops freely from the height H. It first strikes one wedge and then the other
and bounces vertically upward. Find the height to which the ball bounces.
Assume that both impacts are elastic and that there is no friction bdween
the wedges and the plane.
3t. A wedge with an angle of 30
0
and a mass M lies on a horizontal
plane. A ball of mass m drops freely from the H. strikes the wedge
elastically bounces away at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. To
what height does the ball ascend? Neglect friction between the wedge
and the horizontal plane.
The world about us is full of vibrations and waves. Remember
this when you study the branch of physical science devoted
to these phenomena.
Let us discuss harmonic vi brations and, as a special case, the
vibrations of a mathematical pendulum. We shall analyse
the behaviour of the pendulum in noninertial frames of re
ference.
§ II.
CAN YOU DEAL
WITH HARMONIC
VIBRATIONS?
TEACHER: Some examinees do
not have a sufficiently clear
undersfanding of harmonic vi b
rations. First let us discuss their
defini tion.
STUDENT A: Vibrations are
said to be harmonic if they obey
the sine law: the deviation x
of a body from its equilibrium
position varies with time as
follows
x= A'sin (rot +a) (65)
where A is the amplitude of vib
ration (maximum deviation of
the body from the position of
equilibrium), ro is the circular
frequency (ro=21t/T, where T is the period of vibration),
<!nd a. is the initial phase (it indicates the deviation of the
body from the position of equilibrium at the instant of
time t=O). The idea of harmonic vibrations is conveyed by
the motion of the projection of a
point which rotates at uniform angu
lar velocity CJ) in a circle of radius A
(Fig. 47).
STUDENT B: I prefer another defini
tion of harmonic vibrations. As is
known, vibrations occur due to action
of the restoring force, i.e. a force
directed toward the position of equi
librium and increasing as the body
Fig. 47 recedes from the equilibrium position.
Harmonic vibrations are those in
which the restoring force F is proportional to the devia
tion x of the body from the equilibrium position. Thus
F=kx
, (66)
Such a force is said to be "elastic",
TEACHER: I am fully satisfied with both proposed defini
tions. In the first case, harmonic vibrations are defined on
the basis of how they occur; in the second case, on the basis
of their cause. In other words, the first definition uses the
93
spacetime (kinematic) description of the vibrations, and the
second, the causal (dynamic) description.
STUDENT B: But which of the two definitions is preferable?
Or, maybe, they are equivalent?
TEACHER: No, they are not equivalent, and the first (ki
nematic) is preferable. It is more complete.
STUDENT B: But whatever the nature of the restoring force,
it will evidently determine the nature of the vibrations.
1 don't understand, then, why 'my definition is less com
plete.
TEACHER: This is not quite so. The nature of the restoring
force does not fully determine the nature of the vibrations.
STUDENT A; Apparently, now is the time to.recall that the
nature of the motion of a body at a given instant is determined
not only by the forces acting on the body at the given in
stant, but by the initial conditions as well, i.e. the position
and velocity of the body at the initial instant. We discussed
this in § 4.
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. With ,reference to the case
being considered this statement means that the nature of the
vibrations is determined not only by the restoring force, but
by the conditions under which these vibrations started. It is
evident that vibrations can be effected in various ways. For
example, a body can be deflected a certain distance from its
equilibrium position and then smoothly releasee. It will begin
to vibrate. If the beginning of vibration is taken as the zero
instant, then from equation (65), we obtain a.=rr./2, and
the distance the body is deflected is the amplitude of vibra
tion. The body can be deflected di fferent distances from the
equilibrium position, thereby setting different amplitudes of
vibration.
Another method of starting vibrations is toif!lpart a cer
tain initial velocity (by pushing) to a body in a state of
equilibrium. The body will begin to vibrate. Taking the begin
ning of vibration as the zero point, we obtain from equation
(65) that a=O. The amplitude of these vibrations depends
upon the initial velocity imparted to the body. It is evident
ly possible to propose innumerable other, intermediate meth
ods of exciting vibrations. For instance, a body is deflected
from its position of equilibrium and, at the same time, is
pushed or plucked, etc. Each of these methods will set de
finite values of the amplitude A and the initial phase ex of
the vibration.
94
STUDENT B: Do you mean that the quantities A and a. do
not depend upon the nature of the restoring force?
TEACHER: Exactly. You manipulate these two quantities
at your own discretion when you excite vibrations by one or
another method. The restoring force, i. e. coefficient k in
equation (66), determines only the circular frequency ffi or,
in other words, the period of vibration of the body. It can be
said that the period of vibration is an intrinsic characteris
tic of the vibrating body, while the amplitude A al'J.d the
initial phase a depend upon the external conditions that
excite the given vibration.
Returning to the definitions of harmonic we
see that the dynamic definition CQntains no information on
either the amplitude or initial phase. The kinematic defini
tion, on the contrary, contains information on these quanti
ties.
STUDENT B: aut if we have such a free hand in dealing with
the amplitude, maybe it is not so important a characteristic
of a vibrating body?
TEACHER: You are mistaken. The amplitude is a very im
portant characteristic of a vibrating body. To prove this, let
us consider an example. A ball of mass m is attached to two
Fig. 48 Fig. 49
elastic springs and accomplishes harmonic vibrations of amp Ii
tude A in the horizontal direction (Fig. 48). The restoring
force is determined by the coefficient of elasticity k which
characterizes the elastic properties of the springs. Find the
energy of the vibrating ball.
STUDENT A: To find the energy of the ball, we can consider
its position of extreme deflection (x=A). In this position,
the velocity' of the ball equals zero and therefore its total
energy is its potential energy. The latter can be determined as
the work done against the restoring force F in displacing the
95
ball the distance A from its equilibrium position. Thus
w= FA (67)
Next, taking into account that F=kA, according to equation
(66), we obtain
W=kAa
TEACHER: You reasoned along the proper lines, but commit·
ted an error. Equation (67) is applicable only on condition that
the force is constant. In the given case, force F varies wi th
the distance, as shown in Fig. 49. The work done by this force
over the distance x=A is equal to the hatched area under the
force curve. This is the area of a triangle and is equal to
kA 2/2. Thus •
(68)
Note that the total energy of a vibrating body is proporti
onal to the square of the amplitude of vibration. This demon
strates what an important characteristic of a vibrating body
the amplitude is.
If O<x<A, then the total energy W is the sum of two
componentsthe kinetic and potential energies
kA2 mv
2
. kx
2
W=2=2+2
(69)
Equation (69) enables the velocity v of the vibrating ball
to be found at any distance x from the equilibruim position.
My next question is: what is the period of vibration of the
ball shown in Fig. 48?
STUDENT B: To establish the formula for the period of
vibration it will be necessary to employ differential calculus.
TEACHER: Strictly speaking, you are right. However, if we
simultaneously use the kinematic and dynamic definitions of
harmonic vibrations we can manage without differential cal
culus. As a matter of fact, we can' conclude from Fig. 47,
which is a graphical expression of the kinematic definition,
that the velocity of the body at the instant it passes the equi
librium position is
2:rtA
v
1
= roA=y
(70)
Using the result of equation (68), following from the dynamic
definition, we can conclude that velocity VI can be found
96
from the energy relation
kAz
2=2
(71 )
(at the instant the ball passes the equilibrium position the
entire energy of the ball is kinetic energy). Combining equa
tions (70) and (71), we obtain 4:n 2A 2m/P=kA 2, from which
T = 2:n V; (72)
As mentioned previously, the period of vibration is determined
fully by the properties of the vibrating system itself, and is
independent of the way the vib
rations are set up.
STUDENT A: When speaking of
vibrations we usually deal, not
with a ball attached to springs,
but with a pendulum. Can the
obtained results be generalized to
include the pendulum?
TEACHER: For such generali
zation we must first find out
what, in the case of the p.endu
lum, plays the role of the coef
ficient of elasticity k. It is evident
that a pendulum vibrates not due
to an elastic force, but to the force
 mflCIISIr of gravity. Let us consider a ball
mg (called a bob in a pendulum)
Fig. 50 suspended on a string of length I.
We pull the bob to one side of
the equilibrium position so that the string makes an anglea
(Fig. 50) with the vertical. Two forces act on the bob: the
force of gravity mg and the tension T of the string. Their
is the restoring force. As is evident from the figu
re, it equals mg sin a.
STUDENT A: Which of the lengths, AB or AC, should be
considered the of the pendulum from the equilib
rium position (see Fig. 50)? .
TEACHER: We are analysing the harmonic vibrations of a
pendulum. For this it is necessary that the angle of maximum
deviation of the string from the equilibrium position be very
small a 1 (73)
4118
97
(note that here angle a. is expressed in radians; in degrees,
angle a. should, in any case, be less than 10°). If condition
(73) is complied with, the difference between the lengths AB
and AC can be neglected
AB= lsina ~ AC= l tana
Thus your question becomes insignificant. For definiteness,
we can assume that x=AB=l sin a.. Then equation (66) will
take the following form for a pendulum
from which
mg sin a. = kl sin a
k mg
1
(66a)
(74)
Substituting this equation into equation (72), we obtain the
formula for the period of harmonic vibrations of a pendulum
T= 2:rt V; (75)
We shall also take up the question of the energy of the
pendulum. Its total energy is evidently equal to mgh, where h
is the height to which the bob ascends at the extreme position
(see Fig. 50). Thus
. a
W = mgh= mgl (Icos a) = 2mgl sin
2
"2 (76)
Relationship (76) is evidently suitable for all values of
angle a.. To convert this result to relationship (68), it is ne
cessary to satisfy the condition of harmonicity of the pendu
lum's vibrations, i. e. inequality (73). Then, sin a. can be ap
proximated by the angle a expressed in radians, and equation
(76) will change to
W '" 2mgl ( ~ r = mgt ~
Taking equation (74) into consideration, we finally obtain
W = k ( l ~ ) 2 ~ k '(A:)3
which is, in essence, the same as equation (68).
STUDENT B: If I remember correctly, in previously studying
the vibrations of a pendulum, there was generally no require
ment about the smallness of the angle of deviation.
98
TEACHER: This requirement is unnecessary if we only deal
with the energy of the bob or the tension of the string. In·
the given case we are actually considering, not a pendulum,
but the motion of a ball in a circle in a vertical plane. How
ever, if the problem involves formula (75) for the period
of vibrations, then the vibration of the pendulum must neces
sarily be harmonic and, consequently, .the angle of deviation
must be small. For instance, in problem No. 33, the condition
of the smallness of the angle of deviation of the pendulum
is immaterial, while in problem No. 34 it is of vital import
ance.
PROBLEMS
32. A ball accomplishes harmonic vibrations as shown in Fig. 48.
Find the ratio 01 the velocities of the ball at points whose distances from
the equilibrium position equal one hal[ and one third 01 the amplitude.
33. A bob suspended on a string is deflected from the equilibrium po·
sition by an angle of 60° and is then released. Find the ratio 01 the tensions
of the string for the equilibrium position and lor the maximum deviation
01 the bob.
34. A pendulum In the form of a ball (bob) on a thin string is deflected
through an angle 01 5°. Find the velocity 01 the bob at the instant it passes
the equilibrium position il the circular frequency of vibration of the
pendulum equals 2 sec
1
•
§ l2.
WHAT HAPPENS TO
A PENDULUM IN
A STATE
OF WElGHTLESSNESS?
TEACHER: Suppose we drive a
nail in the wall of a lift and
suspend a bob on a string of length
1 tied to the .. nail. Then we set
the bob into motion so that it
accomplishes harmonic vibrations.
Assume that the lift ascends
with an acceleration of a. What
is the period of vibration of the
pendulum?
STUDENT A: When we go up in
a lift travelling with acceleration,
we feel acertain increase in weight.
Evidently, the pendulum should
"feel" the same increase. I think
that its period of vibration can
be found by the formula
T= 2n V g ~ a
(77)
I cannot, however, substantiate this formula rigorously enough.
TEACHER: Your formula is correct. But to substantiate it
we will have to adopt a point of view that is new to us. So far
we have dealt with bodies located in inertial frames of refer
ence only, avoiding noninertial frames. Moreover, I even
warned yoa against employing noninertial h·ames of reference
(see § 4). Be that as it may, in the present section it is more
convenient to use just this frame of reference which, in the
given case, is attached to the accelerating lift. Recall that
in considering the motion of a body of mass m in a non1nertial
frame of reference having an acceleration a, we must, on purely
formal grounds, apply an additional force to the body. This is
called the force of inertia, equal to ma and acting in the
direction opposite to the acceleration. After the force of
inertia is applied to the body we can forget that the frame of
reference is travelling with acceleration, and treat the motion
as if it were in an inertial frame. In the case of the lift, we
must apply an additional force ma to the bob. This force is
. constant in magnitude and its direction does not change and
coincides with that of the force of gravity mg. Thus it follows
that in equation (75) the acceleration g should be replaced by
the arithmetical sum of the accelerations (g+a). As a result,
we obtain the formula (77) proposed by you.
100
STUDENT A: Consequently, if the lift descends with a down
ward <,)cceieration a, the period of vibration will be determi
ned by the difference in the accelerations (ga) , since here
the force of inertia ma is opposite to the gravitational force.
Is that correct? ,
TEACHER: Of course. In this case, the period of vibration
of the pendulum is
T= 2n .. / l
V ga
(78)
This formula makes' sense on condition that a<g. The closer
the value of the acceleration a is to g, the greater the period
of vibration of the pendulum. At a=g, the state of weight
lessness sets in. What will happen to the pendulum in this
case?
STU'DENT A: According to formula (78), the period becomes
infinitely large. This must mean that the pendulum is sta
tionary.
TEACHER: Let us clear up some details of your answer. We
started out with the pendulum vibrating in the lift. All of a
sudden, the lift breaks loose and begins falling freely down
ward (we neglect air resistance). What happens to' the pendu
lum?
STUDENT A: As I said before, the pendulum stops.
TEACHER: Your answer is not quite correct. The pendulum
will indeed be stationary (with respect to the lift, of course)
·if at the instant the lift broke loose the bob happened to be in
one of its extreme positions. If at that instant the bob was
not at an extreme position it will continue to rotate at the
end of the string in a vertical plane at a uniform velocity
equal to its velocity at the instant the accident happened.
STUDENT A: I understand now.
TEACHER: Then make a drawing illustrating the behaviour
of a pendulum (a bob aU ached to a string) inside a spaceship
which is in a state of weightlessness.
STUDENT A: In the spaceship, the bob at the end of the
string will either be at rest (with respect to the spaceship),
or will rotate in a circle whose radius is determined by the
length of the string (if, of course, the walls or ceiling of the
spaceship do not interfere).
TEACHER: Your picture is not quite complete. Assume that
we are inside a spaceship in a state of weightlessness. We
take the bob and string and attach the free end of the string
101
so that neither walls nor ceiling interfere with the motion of
the bob. After this we carefully release the bob. The ball
remains stationary. Here we distinguish two cases: (I) the
string is loose, and (2) the string is taut. Consider the first
case (position 1 in Fig. Sla). We impart a certain velocity
Vo to the bob. As a result, the bob will travel in a straight
line at uniform velocity until the string becomes t a u ~ (posi
tion 2, Fig. 51a). At this instant, the reaction of the string
will act on the bob in the same
manner as the reaction of a wall ra)
acts on a ball bouncing off it. As
a result, the direction of travel of
the bob will change abruptly and
Fig. 51 Fig. 52
it will then again travel at uniform velocity in a straight line
(position 3, Fig. 5Ia). In this peculiar form of "reflection" the
rule of the equality of the angles of incidence and reflection
should be val i d. Now consider the second case: we first stretch the
string taut and then carefully release the bob. As in the first
case, the bob wiH remain stationary in the position it was re
leased (position 1, Fig. 5Ib). Then we impart a certain veloci ty Vo
to the bob in a direction perpendicular to the string. As a
result the bob begins to rotate in a circle at uniform velocity.
The plane of rotation is determined by the string and the ve
ctor of the velocity imparted to the bob.
Let us consider the following problem. A string of length
I with a bob at one end is attached to a truck which slides with
102
out friction down an inclined plane having an angle of incli
nation CG (Fig. 52a). We are to ~ n d the period of vibration of
this pendulum located in a frame of reference which travels
with a certain acceleration. However, in contrast to the pre
ceding problems with the lift, the acceleration of the system is
at a certain angle to the acceleration of the earth's gravity.
This poses an additional question: what is the equilibrium di
rection of the pendulum string?
STUDENT A: I once tried to analyse such a problem but
became confused and couldn't solve it. .
TEACHER: The period of vibration of a pendulum in this
case is found by formula (75) except that g is to be rep laced
by a certain effective acceleration as in the case of the lift.
This acceleration (we shall denote it by geff) is equal to the
vector sum of the acceleration of gravity and that of the given
system. Another matter to be taken into acount is tha t in the
abovementioned sum, the acceleration vector of the truck
should appear with the reversed sign, since the force of iner
tia is in the direction opposite to the acceleration of the system.
The acceleration vectors are shown in Fig. 52b, the accelera
tion of the truck being equal to g sin CG. Next we find gf.n
gefl = V g:" x + g ~ f f y = V (g sin a cosa)2+ (gg sin2 a)2 =
= g cos CG (79)
from which
V
I
T=2n
gcosa
(80)
STUDENT A: How can we determine the equilibrium direc
tion of the string?
TEACHER: It is the direction of the acceleration gel{
On the basis of equation (79) it is easy to see that this di
rection makes an angle CG with the vertical. In other words,
in the equilibrium position, the string of a pendulum on a
truck sliding down an inclined plane will be perpendicular
to the plane.
STUDENT B: Isn't it possible to obtain this last result in
some other way"
TEACHER: We can reach the same conclusion directly by
considering the equilibrium of the bob with respect to the
truck. The forces applied to the bob are: its weight mg, the
tension T of the string and the force of inertia ma (Fig. 53).
We denote the angle the string makes with the vertical by ~ .
103
Next we resolve all these forces in the vertical and horizon
tal directions and then write the conditions of equilibrium
for the force components in each of these directions. Thus
mg } (81)
Tsin macosa.
Taking into consideration that a=g sin a., we rewrite the sys
tem of equations (81) in the form
T cos = mg (1sin2 rx) }
T sin = mg sin a. cosrx
After dividing one equation by the other we obtain
cot = cot a.
Thus, angles and a. turn out to be equal. Consequently,
the equilibrium direction of the pendulum string is perpendi.
cular to the inclined plane.
STUDENT B: I have followed your explanations very closely
.and come to the conclusion that I was not so wrong after all
mu
Fig. 53
when, in answer to your question
about the forces applied to a satel
lite, I indicated the force of gravity
and the centrifugal force (see § 8).
Simply, my answer should be refer
red to the frame of reference atta
ched to the satellHe, and the cent
rifugal force is to be understood as
being the force of inertia. In a noni
nertial frame of reference attached
to the satellite, we have a problem,
not in dynamics, but in statics. It
is a problem of the equilibrium of
forces of which one is the centrifugal
force of inertia.
TEACHER: Such an approach to the satellite problem is
permissible. However, in referring to the centrifugal force in
§ 8, you did not consider it to be a force of inertia. You were
simply trying to think up something to keep the satellite from
falling to the earth. Moreover, in the case you mention, there
was no necessity for passing over to a frame of reference at
tached to the satellite: the physical essence of the problem was
more clearly demonstrated without introducing a centrifugal
force of inertia. My previous advice is still valid: if there is
no special need, do not employ a noninertial frame of reference.
'104
The laws of statics are laws of equilibrium. Study these laws
carefully. Do not forget that they are of immense practical
importance. A builder without some knowledge of the basic
laws of statics is inconceivable. We shall consider examples
illustrating the rules for the resolution of forces. The subse
quent discussion concerns the conditions of equilibrium of
bodies, which are used, in particular, for locating the centre
of gravity.
TEACHER: In solving mecha
§ 13. nical problems it is frequently
CAN YOU USE necessary to resolve forces. The
THE FORCE RESOLUTION refore, I think it would be useful
to discuss this question in 50
METHOD EFFICIENTLY? mewhat more detai I. First let
us recall the main rule: to resolve
a force into any two directions it
is necessary to pass two straight
lines through the head and two
more through the ta i I of the force
vector, each pair of lines being
parallel to the respective directions
of resolution. As a result weob
tain a parallelogram whose sides
are the components of the given
force. This rule is illustrated in
Fig. 54 in which .force F is resolved in two directions: AA 1
and BB l' Let us consider several problems in which force re
solution is the common approach. The first problem is illust
rated in Fig. 55: we have two identical loads P suspended each
p
Fig. 54
Fig. 55
from the middle of a string. The strings sag due to the loads and
make angles of ct 1 and ct 2 with the horizontal. Which of the
strings is subject to greater tension?
STUDENT A: I can resolve the weight of each load on the
same drawing in directions parallel to the branahes of the
strings. From this resolution it follows that the tension in
106
the string is T=P / (2 sin ex). Thus, the string which sags less
is sub jed to greater tension.
TEACHER: Quite correct. Tell me, can we draw up the string
so tightly that it doesn't sag at all when the load is applied?
STUDENT A: And why not?
TEACHER: Don't hurry to answer. Make use of the result
you just obtained.
STUDENT A: Oh yes, I see. The string cannot be made so
taut that there is no sag. The tension in the string increases
with a decrease in angle ex. However strong the string, it will
be broken by the tension when angle ex becomes sufficiently
~ m a l l .
TEACHER: Note that the sagging of a string due to the action
of a suspended load results from the elastic properties of
the string causing its elongation. If the string could not
deform (elongate) no load could be hung from it. This shows
that in construction engineering, the strength analysis of
various structures is closely associated with their capability
to undergo elastic deformations (designers are wont to say
that the structure must "breathe"). Exceedingl y rigi d struc
tures are unsuitable since the stresses developed in them at
small deformations may prove to be excessively large and lead
to fai lure. Such structures may even fail under their own
weight.
If we neglect the weight of the string in the preceding
problem, we can readily find the relationship between the
angle ex of sag of the string and the weight P of the load.
To do this we make use of Hooke's law for elastic stretching
of a string or wire (see problem No. 35).
Consider another example. There' is a Russian proverb, "a
wedge is driven out by a wedge" (the English equivalent being
"like cures like"). This can be demonstrated by applying the
method of force resolution (Fig. 56a). Wedge 1 is driven out
of a slol by driving wedge 2 into the same slot, applying the
force F. Angles IX and ~ are given. Find the force that acts
on wedge 1 and enables it to be driven out of the slol.
STUDENT A: I find it difficult to solve this problem.
TEACHER: Let us begin by resolving force F into components
in the horizontal direction and in a direction perpendicular to
side AB of wedge 2. The components obtained are denoted by
F 1 and F 2 (Fig. 56b). Component Fa is counterbalanced by the
reaction of the left wall of the slot; component F 1, equal to
F /tan IX, will act on wedge 1. Next we resolve this force into
107
components in the vertical direction and in a direction per
pendicular to the side CD of wedge 1. The respective compo
nents are Fa and F, (Fig. 56c). Component F, is counterbalanced
by the reaction of the right wall of the slot, while compo
nent F 8 enables wedge 1 to be driven out of the slot. This is
the force we are seeking. It can readily be seen that it equals
F tan A = F tan ~
1 P tan a
Let us now consider a third example, illustrated in Fig. 57a.
Two weights, PI and P 2, are suspended from a string so that
the portion of the string between them is horizontal. Find
(Q) angle ~ (angle a: being known)
(0) r;
Fig. 56
and the tension in each portion
of the string (TAB, T BC and
T
cD
). This example resembles
the preceding one with the
wedges.
fa)
(e)
Pz
Fig. 57
STUDENT A: First I shall resolve the weight PI into force
components in the directfons AB and Be (Fig. 57b). From this
resolution we find that TAB=P dsin a and T BC=P dtan a.
Thus we have already found the tension in two portions of
the string. Next.! shall resolve the weight P'I. into components
108
in the directions BC and CD (Fig. 57c). From this resolution
we can write the equations: T BC=P 2/tan and TCD=P dsin
Equating the values for the tension in portion BC of the
string obtained in the two force resolutions, we can write
P dtan a=P 2/tan from which
P?, tan a,
= arctan PI
Substituting this value into the equation for TCD we can find
the tension in portion CD of the string.
TEACHER: Is it really so difficult to complete the problem,
i. e. to find the force T CD?
STUDENT A: The answer will contain the sine of the
arctan p, i.e.
T  P
2
CD ( P tan a.)
sin arctan :\ PI
TEACHER: Your answer is correct but it can be written in a
simpler form if sin is expressed in terms of tan As a mat
ter of fact
. A tan
S In I' =
. V 1+ tan
2
Since tan a (P
2
/P
1
), we obtain
T CD = a. V 1 + ( ;: r tan? a
STUDENT B: I see that before taking an examination in phy
sics, you must review your mathematics very thoroughly.
TEACHER: Your remark is quite true.
PROBLEMS
35. An elastic string, stretched from wall to wall in a lift, sags due to
tbe action of a weight suspended from its middle point as shown in Fig. 55.
The angle of sag a. equals 30° when the lift is at rest and 45° when the,lift
travels with acceleration. Find the magnitude
and direction of acceleration of the Ii ft. The
weight of the string is to be neglected.
\
, \
1\
, \
__ 1
Fig. 58
36. A bob of mass m= 100 g is suspended
from a string of length l= I m tied to a bracket
as shown in Fig. 58 (a,=300). A horizontal velo·
city of 2 m per sec is imparted to the bob and it
begins to vibrate as a pendulum. Find the forces
acting in members AB and Be when the bob is at
the points of maximum deviation from the equi
librium position.
§ 14.
WHAT DO YOU KNOW
ABOUT
THE EQUILIBRIUM
OF BODIES?
TEACHER: Two positions of
equilibrium of a brick are shown
in Fig. 59. Both equilibrium po
sitions are stable, but their deg
ree of stability differs. Which of
the two positions is the more
stable?
STUDENT A: Evidently, the
position of the brick in Fig. 59a.
TEACHER: Why?
STUDENT A: Here the centre
of gravity of the brick is nearer
to the earth's surface.
TEACHER: This isn't all.
STUDENT B: The area of the
bearing surface is greater than
in the position shown in Fig. 5gb.
TEACHER: And this isn't all either. To clear it up, let us
consider the equilibrium of two bodies: a rectangular paral
lelepiped with a square base (a)
and a right circular cylinder
/1
(Fig. 60a). Assume that the
parallelepiped and cylinder
I
I
are of the same height H
I
I
and have bases of the same
I
I
area S. In this case, the cen
tres of gravity of the bodies
are at the same height and,
I
I
)..
//' S
in addition, they have bea
/
,,
f .......
f'..
~
I
7

s" 
V
"
."
ring surfaces of the same
area. Their degrees of stab i (0) ,,,.,_,
lity, however, are different.
Fig. 59 Fig. 60
The measure of the stability of a specific state of equi librium
is the energy that must be expended to permanently disturb
the given state of the body.
110
STUDENT B: What do you mean by the word "permanently"?
TEACHER: It means that if the body is subsequently left to
itself, it cannot return to the initial state again. This amount
of energy is equal to the product of the weight of the body by
the height to which the centre of gravity must be raised so
that the body cannot return to its initial position. ·In the
example with the parallelepiped and cylinder, the radius of
the cylinder is R=VS/n and the side of the parallelepiped's
base is a=VS. To disturb theequilibriumofthecylinder, its
centre of gravity must be raised through the height (Fig. 60b)
hI = 1/ ) 2 + R2 
To disturb the equilibrium of the parallelepiped, its centre
of gravity must be raised (Fig. 60b)
h2=
Since (a/2)/R=V nS/2VS=Vn/2<1 it follows that hs<h
1
.
Thus, of the two bodies considered, the cylinder is the more
stable.
Now I propose that we return to the example with the two
positions of the brick.
STUDENT A: If we turn over the brick it will pass consecu
tively frorn one equilibrium position to another. The dashed
line in Fig. 61 shows the trajectory
described by its centre of gravity in
this process. To change the position
of a lying brick its centre of gravity
should be raised through the height
hlJ expending an energy equal to
:W77777'1777?'7777)ilJ7,7777}'7777.m, mghlo and to change its upright
Fig. 61 position, the centre of gravity sho
uld be raised through hs, the energy
expended being mgh
2
• The greater degree of stability of the
lying brick is due to the fact that
> mgh2 (82)
TEACHER: At last you've succeeded in substantiating the
greater stability of the lying position of a body.
STUDENT B: But it is evident that the heights hI and hs
depend upon the height of the centre of gravity above floor
level and on the area of the base. Doesn't that mean that in
III
discussing the degree of stability of bodies it Is correct to com
pare the heights of the centres of gravity and the areas of the
bases?
TEACHER: Why yes, it is, but only to the extent that these
quantities influence the difference between the heights hi
and hi' Thus, In the example with the parallelepiped and
cylinder, the comparison of the heights of the centres of gra
vity and the areas of the bases is insufficient evidence for
deciding which of the bodies is the more stable. Besides, I
wish to draw your attention to the foIlowing. Up till now we
have tacitly assumed that the oodies were made of the same
material. In this case, the inequality (82) could be satisfied
by observing the geometric condition h
J
>h
2
• the general
case, however, bodies may be made'of different materials, and
the inequality (82) may be met even when hl<hz owing to
the different densities of the bodies. For example, a cork brick
will be less stable in the lying position than a lead brick in
the upright position. Let us now see what conditions for the
equilibrium of bodies you know.
STUDENT A: The sum of all the forces applied to a body
should equal zero. In addition, the weight vector of the body
should fall within the limits of its base.
TEACHER: Good. It is beUer, however; to speCify the con
ditions of equilibrium in a different form, more general and
more convenient for practical application. Distinction should
be made between two conditions of equilibrium.
First condition: The projections of all forces applied to the
body onto any should mutually compensate one
another. In other words, the algebraic sum of the projections
of all the forces onto any direction should equal zero. This
condition enables as many equations to be written as there
are independent directions in the problem: one equation for a
onedimensional problem, two for a twodimensional problem
and three for the general case (mutually perpendicular dire
ctions are chosen).
Second condition (moment condition): The algebraic sum of
the moments of the forces about any point should equal zero.
Here, all the force moments tending to turn the body about the
chosen point in one direction (say, clockwise) are taken with
a plus sign and all those tending to turn the body in the op
posite direction (counterclockwise) are taken with a minus
sign. To specify the moment condition, do the following: (a)
establish all forces applied to the body; (b) choose a point
112
with respect to the force moments are to be considered;
(c) find the moments of all the forces with respect to the
chosen point; (d) write the equation for the algebraic sum of
the moments, equating it to zero. In applying the moment
condition, the following should be kept in mind: (I) the above
stated condition refers to the case when all the forces in the
problem and their arms are in a single. plane (the problem is
(h,
(C)
c .D
(l
not threedimensional), and
(2) the algebraic sum of the
moments should be equated
to zero wilh respect to any
point, either within or out
side the body. I t should be
emphasized that though the
values of the force
moments do depend upon
the choice of the point'(with
res pect to which t he force
moments are considered),
the algebraic sum of the
moments equals zero in any
Pz case. To better understand
the conditions of equilib
rium, we shall consider a
speci fic problem. A beam of
weight P 1 is fixed at points
B and C (Fig. 62a). At
point D, a load wi th a we ight
Pz of P 2 is suspended f rom the
Fig. 62 beam. The distances AB=a,
BC=2a and CD=a. Find
the reactions N Band Neat the two supports. A ssume that
the reactions of the supports directed vertically.
As usual, first indicate the forces applied to the body.
STUDENT A: The body in the given problem is the beam.
Four forces are applied to it: weights P
l
and P
2
and reactions
N
n
and N
c
.
TEACHER: Indicate these forces on the drawing.
STUDENT A: But I don't know whether the reactions are
directed upward or downward.
TEACHER: Assume that both reactions are directed upward.
STUDENT A: Well, here is my drawing (Fig. 62b). Next I
can specify the first condition of equilibrium by writing the
113
equation
NB+N
c
= PI +Pg
TEACHER: have no objection to this equation as such.
However, in Oll.r problem it is simpler to use the second
condition of equilibrium (the moment condition), employing
it first with respect to point B and then to point C.
STUDENT A: All right, I'll do just that. As a result I can
write the equations
aP
I
2aN
c
+ 3aPg = 0 83
with respect to point B }
with respect to point C ( )
•
TEACHER: Now you see: each of your equations contains
only one of the unknowns. It can readily be found.
STUDENT A: From equations (83) we find
(84)
(85)
. TEACHER: Equation (85) always has a positive result. This
means that reaction N c is always directed upward (as we as·
sumed). Equation (84) gives a positive result when P l>P 2,
negative when P1<P
z
and becomes zero when P
1
=P2. This
means that when P l>P 2, reaction N B is in the direction
"We assumed, i. e. upward (see Fig. 62b); that when P l<P 2.
reaction N B is downward (see Fig. 62c); and at PI =P 3
there is no reaction N n.
§ 15.
HOW DO YOU LOCATE
THE CENTRE
OF GRAVITY?
TEACHER: In many cases, exa
minees find it difficult to locate
the centre of gravity of a body or
system of bod ies. Is everyth i ng
quite clear to you on this matter?
STUDENT A: No, I can't say
it is. I don't quite understand
how you find the centre of gra
vity in the two cases shown in
Figs. 63a and 64a.
TEACHER: All right.· In the
first case it is convenient to di
vide the plate into two rectangles
as shown by the dashed line in
Fig. 63b. The centre of gravity
of rectangle 1 is at point A; the
weight of this rectangle is pro
portional to its area and is equal, as is evident from the figure,
to 6 units (here the weight is conditionally measured in square
centimetres). The centre of gravity of rectangle 2 is at point B;
Fig. 63 Fig. 64
I
t
"HZ
the weight of this rectangle is equal to (0 units. Next we
project the points A and B on t h ~ coordinate axes Ox and Oy;
these projections are denoted by A 1 and B 1 on the xaxis and
by A 2 and B 2 on the yaxis. Then we consider the "bars" AlB 1
115
and A 282, assuming that the masses are concentrated at the
ends of the "bars", the mass of each end being equal to that of
the corresponding rectangle (see Fig. 63b). As a result, the
problem of locating the centre of gravity of our plate is re
duced to finding the centres of gravity of "bars" A 1B 1 and
A 282' The positions of these centres of gravity will be the
coordinates of the centre of gravity of the plate.
But let us complete the problem. First we determine the
location of the centre of gravity of "bar" A IB 1 using the
wellknown rule of force moments (see Fig. 63b): 6x=1O(2
x). Then x=5/4 cm. Thus, the X coordinate of the centre of
gravity of the plate in the chosen system of coordinates is
X= (l+x) cm=9/4 cm. In a SImilar way we find the centre
.of gravity of "bar" A 2B 2: 6y= 10 (Iy) from which it follows
that y=5/8 cm. Thus the Vcoordinate of the centre of gravity
of the plate is Y= (1.5+y) cm=17/8 cm.
STUDENT A: Now I understand. That is precisely how I
would go about finding coordinate X of the centre of gravity
of the plate. I was not sure that coordinate Y could be found
in the same way.
TEACHER: Let us consider the second case, shown in Fig.64a.
Two approaches are available. For instance, instead of the
given circle wi th one circular hole, we can deal wi tho a system of
two bodies: a circle.with twa symmetrical circular holes and
.. a circle inserted into one of the holes (Fig. 64b). The centres
of gravity of these bodies are located at their geometric cent
res. Knowing that the weight of the circle with two holes is
proportional to its area, i. e. (nR 22nR2/4)=nR 2/2, and
that of the small circle is proportional to its area nR 2/4.
we reduce the problem to finding the point of application
of the resultant of the two parallel forces shown below in
Fig. 64b. We denote by x the distance from the soughtfor
centre of gravity to the geometric centre of the large circle.
Then, according to Fig, 64b, we can write (nR'I./4) (R/2x) =
=(nR2/2)x, from which x=R/6.
There is another possible approach. The given circle with
the hole can be replaced by a solid circle (with no hole) plus
a circle located at the same place where the hole was and
having a negative weight (i. e. one acting upward) (Fig. 64c)
which will compensate for the positive weight or the corres
ponding portion of the solid circle. As a whole, this arrange
ment corresponds to the initial circle with the circular hole.
In this case, the problem is again reduced to finding the point
116
of application of the resultant of the two forces shown at the
bottom of Fig. 64c. According to the diagram we can write:
nR 2x=(nR 2/4)(R/2+x) , from which, as in the preceding
case, x=R/6.
STUDENT A: I like the first approach better because it does
not require the introduction of a negative weight.
TEACHER: In addition, I want to propose a problem invol
ving locating the centre at gravity of the system of loads shown
(0)
N
in Fig. 65a. We are given six
. loads of different weights (P 11
P 2, ... , P
6
), arranged along a bar
at equal distances.a from on,e
P
s
aMther. The weight of the bar is
neglected. How would you go
about solving this problem?
STUDENT A: First I would con
sider two loads, for instance, P 1
and P 2, and find the poi nt of
application of their resultant.
c Then I would indicate this resul
A r"..G>G>l;<i>Cj><tJ taot (equal to the sum PI + P 2)
~
Fig. 65
on the drawing and would cross
p& out forces PI and P 2, from fur
ther consideration. Now, instead
of the six forces, only five would
remain. Next, I· would find the
point of application of the resul
tant of another pair of forces, etc. Thus, by consecutive ope
rations I would ultimately find the required resultant whose
point of application is the centre of gravity of the whole
system.
TEACHER: Though your method of solution is absolutely
correct, it is by far too cumbersome. I can show you a much
more elegant solution. We begin by assuming that we are sup
porting the system at its centre of gravity (at point B in
Fig. 65b).
STUDENT B (interrupting): But you don't yet know the IDea
tion of the centre of gravity. How do you know that it is
between the points of application of forces P
a
and p(?
TEACHER: It makes no difference to me where exactly the
centre of gravity is. I shall not take advantage of the fact
that in Fig. 65b the centre of gravity turned Qut to be bet
ween the points of application of forces P
a
and P
4
• So we
117
assume we are supporting the system at its centre of gravity.
As a result, the bar is in a state of equilibrium. In addition
to the six forces, one more forcethe bearing reaction N
will act on the bar. Since the bar is in a of equilibrium,
we can apply the conditions of equilibrium (see § 14). We
begin with the first condition of equilibrium for the projection
of all the forces in the vertical direction
N=Pt+P,+Ps+p.+p&+p
s
(86)
Then we apply the second condition (moment condition),
considering the force moments with respect to point A in
Fig. 65b (i. e. the left end of the bar). Here, all the forces
tend to turn the bar clockwise, and the bearing reaction tends
to turn it counterclockwise. We can write
N (AB)=aP2+2aPa+3aP4+4aPIi+5aP6 (87)
Combining conditions (86) and (87), we can find the length AS,
i. e. the required position of the centre of gravity measured
from the left end of the bar
AB= (88)
PI +P2 +P3 +P4 +P.+Pa
STUDENT A: Yes, I must admit that your method is much
simpler.
TEACHER: Also note that your method of solving the prob
lem is very sensitive to the number of loads on the bar (the
addition of each load makes the solution more and more
tedious). My solution, on the contrary, does not become more
complicated wilen loads are added. With each new load, only
one term is added to the numerator and one to the denomina
tor in equation (88).
STUDENT B: Can we find the location of the centre of gra
vity of the bar if only the moment condition is used?
TEACHER: Yes, we can. This is done by writing the condi
tion of the equilibrium of force moments with respect to two
different fOints. Let us do precisely that. We will consider
the condi ion for the force moments with respect to points A
and C (see Fig. 6Sb). For point A the moment condition is
expressed by equation (87); for point C. the equation will be
N (5aAB) = aP
b
+ 2aP
4
+ 3aP
a
+ 4aP
2
+ 5aP
t
(89)
118
Dividing equation (87) by (89) we obtain
AB _ aP2+2aPa+3aP4+4aP5+5aPo
5aAB  aP5 +2aP
4
+3aP3 +4aP2+5aP.
From which
AB (aPft + 2aP
4
+3aP
a
+ 4aP
2
+ 5aP
l
+ a P ~ + 2aP
a
+
+3aP.+4aP
s
+ 5aP
s
= 5a (aP
2
+2aP
J
+3aP
4
+ 4aP
5
+ 5aPs)
or
A B x 5a (PI + P 2 + P 3 + P 4 + P D + Po) = 5a (aP 2 + 2aP 3 +
+ 3aP 4 + 4aP ii + 5aP 6)
fig. 66
Thus we obtain the same result as
in equation (88).
PROBLEM
37. Locate the centre of gravity of a
circular disk having two circular holes as
shown in Fig. 66. The radii of the holes are
equal to one half and one fourth of the
radius of the disk.
Archimedes' principle does not usually draw special atten
tion. This is a common mistake of students preparing for
physics exams. Highly interesting questions and problems
can be devised on the basis of this principle.
We shall discuss the problem of the applicability of Archime
des' principle to bodies in a state of weightlessness.
§ 16.
DO YOU KNOW
ARCHJ,'\'\EDES'
PRINCIPLE?
TEACHER: Do you know Archi
medes' principle?
STUDENT'A: Yes, of course. The
buoyant force exerted by a li
quid ona body immersed in it is
exactly equal to the weight of
the liquid displaced by the body.
TEACHER: Correct. Only it
should be extended to include
gases: a buoyant force is also
exerted by a gas on a body "im
mersed" in it. And now can you
"give a theoretical proof of your
statement?
STUDENT A: A proof of Archi
_________ , medes' principle?
, TEACHER; Yes.
STUDENT A: But Archimedes' principle was discovered di
rectly as the result of experiment.
TEACHER: Quite true. It can, however, be derived from
simple energy considerations. Imagine ,that you raise a body
of volume V and density p to a height H, first in a vacuum
and then in a liquid with a density Po. The energy required
in the first case equals pgVH. The energy required in the
second case is less because the raising of a body of volume V
by a height H is accompanied by the lowering of a volume V of
p the liquid by the same height H. There
__ fore'd
the
energy I exP(enVdHed in VH)the
secon case eq ua s pg p of! .
TrY II 'I Regarding the subtrahend pof!VH as
P+'poffh the work done by a certain force, we
can conclude that, compared with a
Fig. 67 vacuum, in a liquid an additional
. force F=PogV ads on the body making
It easier to raise. This force is called the buoyant force.
obviously, it is exactly equal to the weight of the
hqUld in the volume V of the body immersed in the liquid.
that we neglect the energy losses associated with
f[(ctlOn upon real displacements of the body in the liquid.)
Archimedes' principle can be deduced in a somewhat diffe
rent way. Assume that the body immersed in the liquid has
!he form of a cylinder of height h and that the area of its base
IS S (Fig. 67). Assume that the pressure on the upper base is p.
121
Then the pressure on the lower base will equal p+Pogh. Thus,
the difference in pressure on the upper and lower bases equals
Pogh. If we multiply this difference by the area S of the base,
we obtain the force F=PoghS which tends to push the body
upward. Since hS=V, the volume of the cylinder, it can
readily be seen that this is the buoyant force which appears
in Archimedes' principle.
STUDENT A: Yes, now I see that Archimedes' principle can
be arrived at by purely logical reasoning.
TEACHER: Before proceeding any further, let us recall the
condition for the floating of a body.
STUDENT A: I remember that condition. The weight of the
body should be counterbalanced by the lmoyant force acting
on the body in accordance with Archimedes' principle.
TEACHER: Quite correct. Here is an example for you.
A piece of ice floats in a vessel with water. Will the water le
vel change when the ice melts?
STUDENT A: The level will remain uhchanged because the
weight of the ice is counterbalanced by the buoyant force and
is therefore equal to the weight of the water· d isp laced .by
the ice. When the ice melts it converts into water whose
volume is equal to that of the water that was displaced pre
viously.
TEACHER: Exactly. And now let us assume that there is,
for instance, a piece of lead inside the ice. What will happen to
the water level after the ice melts in this case?
STUDENT A: I'm not quite sure, but I think the water level
should reduce slightly. I cannot, however, prove this.
TEACHER: Let us denote the volume of the piece of ice
together with the lead by V, the volume of the piece of lead
by v, the volume of the water displaced by the submerged part
of the ice by V 1, the density of the water by Po. the density
of the ice by P 1 and the density of the lead by p 2' The piece
of ice together with the lead has a weight equal to
PIg (V  v) + P
2
gv
This weight is counterbalanced by the buo'yant force PogV
1
•
Thus
(90)
After melting, the ice turns into water whose volume V 2 is
found from the equation .
Pig (V v) = PogV
2
122
Substituting this equation into (90) we obtain
PogV
2
+ p ~ v = PogV
1
From which we find that the volume of water obtained as a
result of the melting of the ice is
(91 )
Thus, before the ice mel ted, the volume of water displaced
was V l' Then the lead and the water from the melted ice began
to occupy the volume (V 2+V). To answer the question concern
ing the water level in the vessel, these volumes shou ld be
compared. From equation (91) we get
V
2
+v= V1v PzPo (92)
Po
Since P2>PO (lead is heavier than water), it can be seen
from equation (92) that (V z+v)<V i· Consequently, the
water level will reduce as a result of the melting of the ice.
Dividing the difference in the volumes V 1 (V 2+V) by the
crosssectional area S of the vessel (assuming, for the sake
of simplicity. that it is of cylindrical shape) we can find
the height h by which the level drops after the ice melts. Thus
h= v PzPo (93)
Pos
Do you understand the solution of this problem?
STUDENT A: Yes, I'm quite sure I do.
TEACHER: Then, instead of the piece of lead, let us put a
piece of cork of volume v and density Pa inside the ice. What
will happen to the water level when the ice melts?
STUDENT A: I think it will rise slightly.
TE.\CHER: Why?
STUDEl':T A: In the example with lead the level fell. Lead is
heavier than water, and cork is lighter than water. Conse
quently, in the case of cork we should expect the opposite
etTect: the water level should rise.
TEACHER: You are mistaken. Your answer would be correct
if the cork remained submerged after the ice melted. Since the
cork is lighter than water it will surely rise to the surface
a.nd float. Therefore, the example with cork (or any other body
lIghter than water) requires special consideration. Using the
result of equation (91), we can find the difference between
123
the volume of the water displaced by the piece of ice together
with the cork, and that of the water obtained by the melting
of the· ice. Thus
VIVa= v12 (94)
Po
Next we apply the condition for the floating of the piece of
cork:
Pav = POVI (95)
where v 1 is the volume of the part of the cork submerged in
water. Substituting this equation into (94), we obtain
V1=VIl+V
I
Thus the volume of water displaced by the piece of ice is
exactly equal to the sum of the volume of water obtained from
the melted ice, and the volume displaced by the submerged
portion of the floating piece of cork. So in this case the water
level remains unchanged.
STUDENT A: And if the piece of ice contained simply a bub
ble of air instead of the piece of cork? ~
TEACHER: After the ice melts, this bubble will be released.
It can read i ly be seen that the water level in the vessel wi 11
be exactly the same as it was before the ice melted. In short,
the example with the bubble of air iFl the ice is similar to
that with the piece of cork.
STUDENT A: I see that quite interesting questions and prob
lems can be devised on the basis of" Archimedes' principle.
TEACHER: Unfortunately, some examinees don't give enough
attention to this principle when preparing for their physics
examinations.
Let us consider the following example. One pan of a balance
carries a vessel with water and the other, a stand with a weight
suspended from it. The pans are balanced (Fig. 68a). Then
the stand is turned so that the suspended weight is comp letely
submerged in the water. Obviously, the state of equilibrium
is disturbed since the pan with the stand becomes lighter
(Fig. 68b). What additional weight must be put on the pan
with the stand to restore equilibrium?
STUDENT A: The submerged weight is subject to a buoyant
force equal to the weight of the water of the volume displaced
by the submerged weight (we denote this weight of water by P).
Consequently, to restore equilibrium, a weight P should be
placed on the pan with the stand.
124
TEACHER: You are mistaken. You would do well to recall
Newton's third law of motion. According to this law, the force
with which the water in th,e vessel acts on the submerged we
ight is exactly equal to the force with which the submerged
weight acts on the water in the opposite direction. Consequent
Iy, as the weight of the pan with the stand reduces, the weight
of the pap. with the vessel increases. Therefore, to restore equi lib
(0)
8
. ( \,,===
(bJ
Fig. 68
r.ium, a weight equal to 2P
should be added to the pan
with the stand.
STUDENT A: I can't quite
understand your reasoning.
After all, the interaction of
the submerged weight and
the water in no way resem
bles the interaction of two
bodies in mechanics.
TEACHER: The field of
application of Newton's
third law is not limited to
mechanics. The expression
"to every action there is an
. equal and opposite reaction"
refers to a great many kinds
of interaction. We can, however, apply a different line of
reasoning in our case, one to which you will surely have no
ob jections. Let us deal with the stand with the weight and the
vessel with 'the water as part of a single system whose total
weight is obviously the sum of the weight of the left pan and
that of the right pan. The total weight of the system should
not change due to interaction of its parts with one another.
Hence, if as the result of interaction the weight of the right
pan is decreased by P, the weight of the left pan must be
increased by the same amount (P). Therefore, after the weight
is submerged in the vessel with water, the difference between
the weights of the left and right pans should be 2P.
PROBLEM
. 38. A vessel of cylindrical shape with a crosssectional area S is filled
With water in which a piece of ice, containing a lead ball, fioats. The vo
lume of the ice together with the lead ball is V and 1/20 of this volume is
above the water level. To what mark wi II the water level in the vessel
reduce after the ice melts? The densities of water, ice and lead are assu
med to be known.
§ 17.
IS ARCHIMEDES'
PRINCIPLE VALID
IN A SPACESHIP?
TEACHER: Is Archimedes' prin
ciple valid in a spaceship when
it is in a state of weightlessness?
STUDENT A: I think it is not.
The of Archimedes' prin
ciple is that due to the different
densities of. the body and the
liquid (of equal volumes, of
course), different amounts of work
are required to raise them to the
same height. In a state of weight·
lessness, there is no di fference in
these amounts ·of work since the
work required to lift a body and
that required to lift an equal
volume of the liquid is equal
to zero.
We can reach the same conclusion if we consider the pres
sure of the liquid on a body submerged in it because the buo
yant force is due to the difference in the pressures
on the bottom and top bases on the body. In a state of weight
lessness, this difference in pressure vanishes and, with it,
the buoyant force. I may add that in a state of weightlessness
there is no difference between "up" and "down" and so it is
impossible to indicate which base of the body is the upper
and which the lower one.
Thus,· in a state of weightlessness, no buoyant force acts
on a body submerged in a liquid. This means that Archimedes'
principle is not valid for such a state.
STUDENT B: I don't agree with the final conclusion of
Student A. I am sure that Archimedes' principle is valid for
a state of weightlessness. Let us reason more carefully. We
shell not pass over directly to a state of weightlessness,
but begin with a lift travelling with a certain acceleration
a which is in the same direction as the acceleration g of gra
vity. Assume that a<g. It is easy to see that in the given
case a body submerged in a liquid will be subject to the buo
yant force
F= Po (ga) V . (96)
and the weight of the liquid of a volume displaced by the
body is also equal to po(ga)V. Thus, the buoyant force is
still equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body,
126
i. e. Archimedes' principle is valid. Next we will gradually
increase the acceleration a, approaching the value of g. Ac
cording to equation (96), the buoyant force will be gradually
reduced, but simultaneously and in exactly the same way, the
weight of a volume of liquid equal to the volume of the body
will also be reduced. In other words, as acceleration a appro
aches acceleration g, Archimedes' principle will continue
to be valid. In the limit a=g a state of weightlessness sets.
in. At this the buoyant force becomes zero, but so does the
weight of the liquid displaced by the body. Consequently,
nothing prevents us from stating that Archimedes' principle
is valid for a state of weightlessness as well. I wish to illust
rate my argument by the foHowing example. Let us suppose
that a piece of cork floats in a vessel with water. According
to equation (95) the ratio of the volume of the piece of cork
submerged in the water to the total volume of the piece is.
equal to the ratio of the density of cork to the density of wa
ter. Thus
(97)
Next, we suppose that this vessel IS In a lift and the lift
begins to descend with a certain acceleration a. Since this
does not change the densities of cork and water, equation (97)
holds. In other words, in the motion of the lift with accelera
tion, the position of the piece of cork with reference to the
\vater level remains the same as in the absence of acceleration.
Obviously, this condition wiH not change in the limiting case
when a=g and we reach a state of weightlessness. In this way,
the position of the piece of cork with respect to the water
level, determined by Archimedes' principle, turns out to be
independent of the acceleration of the lift. In this case no
distinction can be made between the presence and absence of
weigh t lessness.
TEACHER: I should say that both of your arguments are
well substantiated. However, I must agree with Student A:
Archimedes' principle is not valid for a state of weightlessness.
STUDENT B: But then you must refute my proofs.
TEACHER: That's just what I'll try to do. Your arguments
a.re based on two main points. The first is that at an accelera
bon a<g a body is buoyed up in the liquid in a manner
fully complying with Archimedes' principle. The second is
that this statement must hold for the limiting case as well,
127
when a=g, i. e. a state of weightlessness is reached. I have no
objection to the first point, but I don't agree with the second.
STUDENT B: But you can't deny that the piece of cork
remains in the same position in a state of weightlessness as
weIll And its position directly follows from Archimedes'
principle.
TEACHER: Yes, that's true. The piece of cork actually
does remain in the same position in a state of weightlessness
as well. However, in this state its position with respect to
the surface of the liquid is no longer a result of Archimedes'
principle. Push it deep into the water with your finger and
it wi II remain suspended at the depth you left it. On the
other hand, if there is even the smallest difference (ga),
the piece of cork will come up to the surface and float in
the position determined by Archimedes' principle. Thus, there
is a basic di fference between weightlessness and the presence
of even an insignificant weightness. In other words, in passing
over to a state of weightlessness, at the "very last instant"
there occurs an abrupt change, or jump, that alters the whole
situation qualitatively. .
STUDENT B: But what is this jump due to? Where did it
come from? In my reasoning, acceleration a smoothly ap
proached acceleration g.
TEACHER: This jump is related to the fact that at a=g.
a certain symmetry appears: the difference between "up" and
"down': disappears, which, incidentally, was very aptly pointed
out by Student A. If the difference (ga) is infinitely smail,
but still not "equal to zero, the problem contains a physically
defined direction "upward". It is precisely in this direction
that the buoyant force acts. However, at a=g, this direction
disappears, and all directions become physically equivalent.
That's what I mean by a jump. The destruction or the appear
ance of symmetry always occurs with a jump.
Basically, modern physics is molecular physics. Hence it is
especially important to obtain some knowledge. of the fun
damentals of the molecularkinetic theory of matter, if only
by using the simplest example of the ideal gas. The question
of the peculiarity in the thermal expansion of water is dis
c ~ s s e d separately. The gas laws will be analysed in detail and
will be applied in the solution ofspecific engineering problems.
§ IS'.
WHAT DO YOU KNOW
ABOUT THE
MOLECULARKINETIC
THEORY OF MATTER?
TEACHER: One of the common
examination questions is: what
are the basic principles of the
molecularkinetic theory of mat
ter? How would you answer this
question?
STUDENT A: I would mention
the two basic principles. The
first is that all bodies consist
of . molecules, and the second,
that the molecules are in a state
of chaotic thermal motion.
TEACHER: 'Your answer is very
typical: laconic and quite in
complete. I have noticed that
students usually take a formal
attitude with respect to t h i ~
question. As a rule, they do not know what should be said
about the basic principles of the molecularkinetic theory,
and explain it away with just a few general remarks. 111' this
connection, I feel that the molecularkinetic theory of matter
should be discussed in more detaiL I shall begin by ment io
ning the principles of this theory that can be regarded as the
basic ones.
1. Matter has a "granular" structure: it consists of mole
cules '(or atoms). One grammolecule of a subst.ance contaim
N A =6 X 10
23
molecules regardless of the physical state of the
substance (the number NA is called Avogadro's number).
2. The molecules of a substance are in a state of incessant
thermal motion.
3. The nature of the thermal motion of the molecu les de
pends upon the nature of their interaction and changes when
the substance goes over from one physical state to another.
4. The intensity of the thermal motion of the molecules
depends upon the degree to which the body is heated, this
being characterized by the absolute temperature T. The theory
proves that the mean energy e of a separate molecule is pro
portional to the temperature T. Thus, for instance, for monoa
tomic (singleatom) molecules
e= ;kT (98)
where k= 1.38 X 10
16
erg/deg is a physical constant called
Boltzmann's constant. .
130
5. From the standpoint of the molecularkinetic theory,
the total energy E of a body is the sum of the following terms:
where E k \s the kinetic energy of the body as a whole, E p is
the potential energy of the body as a whole in a certain ex
ternal field, and U is the energy associated with the thermal
motion of the molecules of the body. Energy U is called the
internal energy of the body. Inclusion of the internal energy
in dealing with various energy balances is a characteristic
feature of the molecularkinetic theory.
STUDENT B: We are used to thinking that the grammolecule
and Avogadro's number refer to chemistry. ,
TEACHER: Evidently, that is why students taking a physics
examination do not frequently know what a grammolecule is,
and, as a rule, are always sure that Avogadro's number
refers only to gases. Remember: a grammolecule is the number
of grams of a substance which is numerically equal to its
molecular weight (and by no means the weight of the molecule
expressed in grams, as some students say); the gramatom is
the number of grams of a substance numerically equal to its
atomic weight; and Avogadro's number is the number of mole
cules in a grammolecule (or atoms in a gramatom) of any
substance, regardless of its physical state .
. I want to point out that Avogadro's number is a kind of a
bridge between the macro and microcharacteristics of a sub
stance. Thus, for example, using Avogadro's number, you can
express such a microcharacteristic of a substance as the mean
distance between its molecules (or atoms) in terms of the
density and molecular (or atomic) weight. For instance, let us
consider solid iron. Its density is p=7.B g/cm
3
and atomic
weigh t A =56. We are to find the mean distance between the
atoms in iron. We shall proceed as follows: in A g of iron
there are N A. atoms, then in I g of iron there must be N AlA
atoms. It follows that in I cm
3
there are pNA./A atoms. Thus
each atom of iron is associated with a volume of A / (pN A) cm
3
.
The required mean distance between the atoms is approxima
tely equal to the cube root of this volume
V
A V 56
pNA = 7.8x6x102s cm
STUDENT B: Just before this you said that the nature of the
thermal motion of the molecules depends upon the intermolecu
131
lar interaction and is changed in passing over fwm one phy
sical state to another. Explain this in more detail, please.
TEACHER: Qualitatively, the interaction of two molecules
can be described by means of the curve illustrated in Fig. 69.
This curve shows the dependence of the potential energy E pol
interaction of the molecules on the distance r between tlieir
centres. At a sufficiently large distance between the molecules
the curve E p (r) asymptotically approaches zero, i. e. the
molecules practically cease to interact. As the molecules come
closer together, the curve E p (r) turns downward. Then, when
they are sufficiently close to one another, the molecules be
gin to repulse one another and curve E p (r) turns upward' and
E . continues to rise (this repulsion
P means that the molecules cannot
freely penetrate into each other). As
can be seen, the E p (r) curve has a
characteristic minimum.
STUDENT B: What is negative
energy?
TEACHER: As we know, energy can
o Hi,=:::::;;;;Or· be measured from any value. For in·
e
7
stance, we can measure the potential
Fig. 69
energy of a stone from ground level
of the given locality, or we can mea
sure it from sea level, it makes no difference. In the given case,
the zero point corresponds to the energy of interaction between
molecules separated from each other at an infinitely large dis
tance. Therefore, the negative energy of the molecule means
that it is in a bound state (bound with another molecule).
To "free" this molecule, it is necessary to add some energy to
it to increase the energy of the molecule to the zero level.
Assume that the molecule has a negative energy el (see Fig. 69).
I t is ev ident from the curve that in this case the molecule can
not get farther away from its neighbour than point B or get
closer than point A. In other words, the molecule will vibrate
between points A and B in the field of the neighbouring mole
cule (more precisely, there will be refative vibration of twc
molecules forming a bound system).
In a gas molecules are at such great distances from one
another on an average that they can be regarded as practically
noninteracting. Each molecule travels freely, with relatively
rare collisions. Each molecule partiCipates in three types of
motion: translatory, rotary (the molecule rotates about its
132
own axis) and vibratory (the atoms in the molecule vibrate
with respect to one another). If a molecule is monoatomic,
it will have only translatory motion.
In a crystal the molecules are so close together that they
form a single bound system. In this case, each molecule vibra
tes in some kind of general force field set up by the interac
tion of the whole collective of molecules. Typical of a crystal
as a common bound system of molecules is the existence of an
ordered threedimensional structurethe crystal lattice. The
lattice points are the equilibrium positions of the separate
molecules. The molecules accomplish their complex vibratory
motions about these positions. It should be noted that in some
cases when molecules forip a crystal, they continue to retain
their individuality to some extent. In these cases, distinc
tion is to be made between the vibration of the molecule in
the field of the crystal and the vibration of the atoms in the
separate molecules. This phenomenon occurs when the binding
energy of the atoms in the molecules is substantially higher
than the binding energy of the molec!lles themselves in the
crystal lattice. In most cases, however, 'the molecules do not
retain their individuality upon forming a crystal so that the
crystal turns out to be made up, not of separate molecules,
but of separate atoms. Here, evidently, there is no intramole
cular vibration, but only the vibration of the atoms in the
field of the crystal. This, then, is the minimum amount of
information that examinees should possess about atomic and
molecular thermal motions in, matter. Usually, when speaking
about the nature of thermal motions in matter, examinees get no
farther than saying it is a "chaotic motion", thus trying to cover
up the lack of more detailed knowledge of thermal motion.
STUDENT B: But you haven't said anything about the nature
of the thermal motions of molecules in a liquid.
TEACHER: Thermal motions in a liquid are more involved
than in other substances. A liquid occupying an intermediate
position between gases and crystals exhibits, along with
strong particle interaction, a considerab Ie degree of disorder
in its structure. The difficulty of dealing with crystals, owing
to the strong interaction of the particles, is largely compen
sated for by the existence of an ordered structurethe crystal
lattice. The difficulty of dealing with gases owing to the
disordered position of the separate particles is compensated
for by a practically complete absence of particle interac
tion. In the case of liquids, however, there are both kinds of
133
difficulties mentioned above with no corresponding compensa
ting factors. It can be said that in a liquid the molecules, as
a rule, completely retain their individuality. A great diver
sity of motions exists in liquids: displacement of the molecules,
their rotation, vibration of the atoms in the molecules and
vibration of the molecules in the fields of neighbouring m o ~
lecules. The worst thing is that all of these types of motion
cannot, strictly speaking, be treated separately (or, as they
say, in the pure form) because there is a strong mutual influen
ce of the motions.
STUDENT B: I can't understand how translational motion of
the molecule can be combined with its vibration in the fields
of neighbouring molecules. •
TEACHER: Various models have been devised in which at
tempts were made to combine these motions. In one model,
for instance, it was assumed that the molecule behaves as fol
lows: it vibrates for a certain length of time in the field set up
by its neighbours, then it takes a jump, passing over into new
surroundings, vibrates in these surroundings, takes another
jump, etc. Such a model is called the "jumpdiffusion model".
STUDENT B: It seems that is precisely the way in whiCh
atoms diffuse in crystals.
TEACHER: You are right. Only remember that in crystals
th is process is slower: jumps into a new environment occur
considerably more rarely. There exists another model accor
ding to which a molecule in a liquid behaves as follows: it
vibrates surrounded by its neighbours and the whole enviro
nment smoothly travels ("floats") in space and is gradually
deformed. This is called the "continuousdiffusion model".
STUDENT B: You said that a liquid occupies an intermediate
position between crystals and gases. Which of them is it
closer to?
TEACHER: What do you think?
STUDENT B: It seems to me that a liquid is closer to a gas.
TEACHER: In actuality, however, a liquid is most likely
closer to a crystal.. This is indicated by the similarity of
their densities, speci fic heats and coefficients of volume ex
pansion. It is also known that the heat of fusion is conside
rably less than the heat of vaporization. All these facts
are evidence of the appreciable similarity between the forces
of interparticle bonding in crystals and in liquids. Another
consequence of this similarity is the existence of elements
of ordered arrangement in the atoms of a liquid. This phenome
134
non, known as "shortrange order", was established in Xray
scattering experiments.
S T U D E ~ T B: What do you mean by shortrange order?
TEACHER: Shortrange order is the ordered arrangement of a
certain number of the nearest neighbours about any arbitra
rily chosen atom (or molecule). In contrast to a crystal, this
ordered arrangement with respect to the chosen atom is dis
turbed as we move away· from it, and does not lead to the
formation of a crystal lattice. At short distances, however,
it is quite similar to the arrangement of the atoms of the
given substance in the solid phase. Shown in Fig. 70a is the
longrange order for a chain of atoms. It can be compared
(a)
with the shortrange order
shown in Fig. 70b.
eElS S • S El S ® The similarity between liq
uids and crystals has led to
the term "quasicrystallinity"
(6) of liquids.
~ ~ ~ 9 • 9 Q Q 0 STUDENT B: But in such a
Fig. 70
case, liquids can evidently be
dealt with by analogy with
crystals.
TEACHER: I should warn you against misuse of the concept
of quasicrystallinity of liquids and attributing too much
importance to it. Firstly, you must keep in mind that the
liquid state corresponds to a wide range of temperatures,
and the structuraldynamic properties of liquids cannot be
expected to be the same (or even approximately the same)
throughout this range. Near the critical state, a liquid should
evidently lose all similarity to a solid and gradually trans
form to the gaseous phase. Thus, the concept of quasicrystal
linity of liquids may only be justified somewhere near the mel
ting point, if at all. Secondly, the nature of the intermolecu
lar interaction differs from one liquid to another. Consequent
ly, the concept of quasicrystallinity is not equally applicable
to all liquids. For example, water is found to bea more quasi
crystalline liquid than molten metals. and this explains many
of its special properties (see § 19).
STUDENT B: I see now that there is no simple picture of
the thermal motions of molecules in a liquid.
TEACHER: You are absolutely right. Only the extreme cases
are comparatively simple. Intermediate cases are always
complex.
135
STUDENT A: The physics entrance examination require
ments include the question about the basis for the molecular
kinetic theory of matter. Evidently, one should talk about
Brownian motion.
TEACHER: Yes, Brownian motion is striking experimental
evidence substantiating the basic princi pies of the molecular
kinetic theory. But, do you know what Brownian motion
actua Ily is? ,
STUDENT A: It is thermal motion of molecules.
TEACHER: You are mistaken; Brownian motion can be ob
served with ordinary microscopes! It is motion of separate par
ticles of matter bombarded by molecules of the medium in
their thermal motion. From the molecular point of view these
particles are macroscopic bodies. Nevertheless, by ordinary
standards they are extremely small. As a result of their ran
dom uncompensated collisions with molecules, the Brownian
particles move continuously in a haphazard fashion and thus
move about in the medium, which is usually some kind of liquid.
STUDENT B: But why must the Brownian particles be so
small? Why don't we observe Brownian motion with appre
9 ciable particles of matter such as tea
leaves in a glass of tea?
TEACHER: There are two reasons for
this. In the first place, the number of
collisions of molecules with the surface
of a particle is proportional to the area
of the the mass of the particle
is proportional to its volume. Thus,
with an increase in the size R of a
particle, the number of coll isions of
U R molecules with its surface increases
Fig. 71 proportionally to R2, while the mass of
the particle which is to be displaced by
the collision increases in proportion to RS. Therefore, as the
particles increase in size it becomes more and more difficult
for the molecules to push them about. To make this clear, I
plotted two curves in Fig. 71: y=R 2 and y=R8. You can
readily see that the quadratic relationship predominateS at
small values of R and the cubic. relationship at large values.
This means that surface effects predominate at small values
of R and volume effects at large values.
In the second place, the Brownian particle must be very
small since its collisions with molecules are uncompensated,
136
i. e. the number of collisions from the left and from the right
in unit time should differ substantially. But the ratio of this
difference in the number of collisions to the whole number of
collisions will be the greater, the less the surface of the particle.
STUDENT A: What other facts substantiating the molecu
larkinetic theory are we expected to know?
TEACHER: The very best substantiation of the molecular
kinetic theory is its successful application in explaining
a great number of physical phenomena. For example, we can
give the explanation of the pressure of a gas on the walls of a
vessel containing it. The pressure p is the normal component
of the force F acting on unit area of the walls. Since
F ~ _ i\ (mv)
 m i\t  i\t
(100)
to find the pressure we must determine the momentum trans
mitted to a unit area of the wall surface per unit time due to
the blows with which the molecules of the gas strike the walls.
Assume that a molecule of mass m is travelling perpendicular
to a wall with a velocity v. As a result of an elastic collision
with the wall, the molecule reverses its direction of travel
and fl ies away from the wall with a velocity of v. The change
in the momentum of the molecule equals /). (mu)=mflu=2mv.
This momentum is transmitted to the wall. For the sake of
simplicity we shall assume that all the molecules of the gas
have the same velocity v and six directions of motion in both
directions along three coordinate axes (assume that the wall
is perpendicular to one of these axes). Next, we shall take into
account that in unit time only those molecules will reach the
wall which are at a distance within v from it and whose velo
city is directed toward the wall. Since a unit volume of the
gas contains N IV molecules, in unit time i(N jV)v molecules
strike a unit area of the wall surface. Since each of these mole
cules transmits a momentum of 2mv. as a result of these blows
a unit area of the wall surface receives a momentum equal
to 2muir (N /V)v. According to equation (100), this is the re
quired pressure p. Thus
2 N ·mv
2
p= (101)
3 V 2
According to equation (98), we can replace the energy of
the molecule mv
2
/2 by the quantity i kT [in reference to the
137
translational motion of molecules, equation (98) is valid for
molecules with any number of atoms). After this, equation
(10 I) can be rewri tten as
pV=NkT (102)
Note that this result was obtained by appreciable simplifica
tion of the problem (it was assumed, for instance, that the
molecules of the gas travel with the same velocity). However,
theory shows that this result completely coincides with that
obtained in a rigorous treatment.
Equation (102) is beautifully confirmed by direct measure
ments. It' is good proof of the correctness of the concepts of
the molecularkinetic theory which were usad for deriving
equation (102).
Now let us discuss the phenomena of the evaporation and
boiling of liquids on the basis of molecularkinetic concep
tions. How do you explain the phenomenon of evaporation?
STUDENT A: The fastest molecules of liquid overcome the
attraction 9f the other molecules and fly out of the liquid.
TEACHER: What will intensify evaporation?
STUDENT A: Firstly, an increase in the free surface of the
liquid, and secondly, heating of the liquid.
TEACHER: It should be remembered that evaporation is a
twoway process: while part of the molecules leave the liquid,
another part returns to it. Evaporation will be the more
effective the greater the ratio of the outgoing molecules to
the incoming ones. The heating of the liquid and an increase
of its free surface intensify the escape of molecules from the
liquid. At the same time, measures can be taken to reduce the
return of molecules to the liqutd. For example, if a wind blows
across the surface of the liquid, the newly escaped molecules
are carried away, thereby reducing the probabi lity of their
return. That is why wet clothes dry more rapidly in the wind.
If the escape of molecules from a liquid and their return.
compensate each other, a state of dynamic equilibrium sets in,
and the vapour above the liquid becomes saturated. In some
cases it is useful to retard the evaporation process. For ins
tance, rapid evaporation of the moisture in bread is undesi
rable. To prevent fast drying of bread it is kept in a closed
container (bread box, plastic bag). This impedes the escape
of the evaporated molecules, and a layer of saturated vapour
is formed above the surface of the bread, preventing further
evaporation of water from the bread.
138
Now, please explain the boiling process.
STUDENT A: The boiling process is the same as evaporation,
but proceeds more intensively.
TEACHER: J don't like your definition of the boiling process
at all. I should mention that many examinees do not unders
tand the essence of this process. When a liquid is heated, the
solubility of the gases it contains reduces. As a result, bubbles
of gas are formed in the liquid (on the bottom and walls of the
vessel). Evaporation occurs in these bubbles, they become filled
with saturated vapour, whose pressure increases with the tem
perature of the liquid. At a certain temperature, the pressure
of the saturated vapour inside the bubbles becomes equal to the
pressure exerted on the bubbles from the outside (this pressure
is equal to the atmospheric pressure plus the pressure of the
layer of w ~ t e r above the bubble). Beginning with this instant,
the bubbles rise rapidly to the surface and the liquid boils.
As you can see, the boiling of a liquid differs essentially from
evaporation. Note that evaporation takes place at any tempe
rature, while boiling occurs at a definite temperature called
the boiling point. Let me remind you that if the boiling pro
cess has begun, the temperature of the liquid cannot be raised,
no matter how long we continue to heat it. The temperature
remains at the boiling point until all of the liquid has boiled
away.
It is evident from the above discussion that the boiling
point of a liquid is depressed when the outside pressure reduces.
In this. connection, let us consider the following problem.
A flask contains a small amount of water at room temperature.
We begin to pump out the air above the water from the flask
with a vacuum pump. What will happen to the water?
STUDENT A: As the air is depleted, the pressure in the flask
will reduce and the boiling point will be depressed. When it
comes down to room temperature, the water will begin to boil.
TEACHER: Could the water freeze instead of boiling?
STUDENT A: I don't know. I think it couldn't.
TEACHER: It all depends upon the rate at which the air is
pumped out of the flask. If this process is sufficiently slow,
the water should begin to boil sooner or later. But if the air
is exhausted very rapidly, the water should, on the contrary,
freeze. As a result of the depletion of the air (and, with it,
of the water vapour), the evaporation process is intensified.
Since in evaporation the molecules with the higher energi·es
escape from the water, the remaining water will be cooled. If
139
the air is exhausted slowly, the cooling effect is compensated
for by the transfer of heat from the outside. As a result the
temperature of. the water remains constant. If the air is
exhausted very rapidly. the cooling of the water cannot be
compensated by an influx of heat from the outside, and the
temperature of the water begins to drop. As soon as this hap
pens, the possibility of boiling is also reduced. Continued
rapid exhaustion of the air from the flask will lower the tem
perature of the water to the freezing point, and the unevapo
rated remainder of the water will be transformed into ice.
§ 19.
HOW DO YOU ACCOUNT
FOR THE PECULIARITY
IN THE THERMAL
EXPANSION OF WATER?
TEACHER: What are the pecu
liarities of the thermal expansion
of water?
STUDENT A: When water is
heated from 0 to 4 °C its density
increases. It begins to expand
only when its temperature is
raised above 4 0c.
TEACHER: How do you exp
lain this?
STUDENT A: I don't know.
TEACHER: This distinctive fea
ture of water is associated with
its atomic structure. Molecules
of water can interact only in one
way: each molecule of water can
add on only four neighbouring
molecules whose centres then form a tetrahedron (Fig. 72).
This results in a friable, lacelike structure indicative of
the quasicrystallinity of water. Of course, we can speak of
the structure of water, as of any other liquid, only on a short
range level (see § 18). With an increase in the distance from
o
/'
"If \
',\ ,
" e;., \
I, V ,
O·T __ ~
' ..  0
o
Fig. 72
a selected molecule this order will
undergo gradual distortion due to the
bending and rupture of intermolecular
bonds. As the temperature is raised,
the bonds between the molecules are
ruptured more frequently, there are
more and more molecules with unoc
cupied bonds filling the vacancies of
the tetrahedral structure and, conse
quently, the degree of quasicrystalli
nity is reduced. The abovementioned
lacelike structure of water as a quasi
crystalline substance convincingly explains the anomaly of the
physical properties of water, in particular, the peculiarity of its
thermal expansion. On one hand, an increase in temperature
leads to an increase in the mean distances between the atoms
in a molecule due to the intensification of intramolecular vib
rations, i. e. the molecules seem to "swell" slightly. On the
other hand, an increase in temperature breaks up the lace
like structure of water which, naturally, leads to a more dense
packing of the molecules themselves. The first (vibrational)
141
effect should lead to a reduction in the density of water. This
is the common effect causing the thermal expansion of solids.
The second effect, that of structure breakup, should, on the
contrary, increase the density of water as it is heated. In hea
ting water to 4 DC, the structural effect predominates and
the density 6f water consequently increases. Upon further
heating, the vibrational effect begins to predominate and
therefore the density of water is reduced.
§ 20.
HOW WELL DO YOU
KNOW THE GAS LAWS?
TEACHER: Please write the
equation for the combined gas law.
STUDENT A: This equation is
of the form
pV PoVo
r=Y;; (103)
where p, V and T are the pressure,
volume and temperature of a
certain mass of gas in a certain
state, and po, Va and T a are
the same for the initial state. The
temperature is. expressed in the
absolute scale.
STUDENT B: I prefer to use an
equation of a different form
pV = ~ RT. (104)
fA.
where m is the mass of the gas, f.l is the mass of one gram
molecule and R is the universal gas constant.
TEACHER: Both versions of the combined gas law are cor
rect. (To Student B) You have used the universal gas cons
tant. Tell me, how would you compute its value? I don't
think one can memorize it.
STUDENT B: To compute R, I can use equation (103), in
which the parameters po. Va and T a refer to a given mass of
gas but taken at standard conditions. This means that po=
=76 em Hg (em .of mercury column), T 0=273 OK and V 0=
= (m//t) x 22.4 I itres, since a grammolecule of any gas at stall
dard conditions occupies a definite volume equal to 22.4
litres. The ratio tn//t is evidently the number of grammolecu
les contained in the given mass of the gas. Substituting these
values in equation (103) we obtain
V = ~ T 76 em Hgx22.4 Iitres
P J.1 273 OK
Comparing this with expression (104) we find that R=6.2
(cm Hg) litres/deg.
TEACHER: I purposely asked you to do these calculations in
order to demonstrate the equivalence of expressions (103) and
(104). Unfortunately. examinees usually know only equation
(103) and are unfamiliar with (104), which coincides with
equation (102) obtained previously on the basis of molecular
143
kinetic considerations. From a comparison of equations (102)
and (104) it follows that (mIIL)R=Nk. Then
(105)
J.I.
Thus the universal gas constant turns out to be the product of
Avogadro's number by Boltzmann's constant.
Next, we shall see whether you can use the equation of
the combined gas law. Please draw a curve showing an isobaric
process, i. e. a process in which the gas pressure remains con
stant, using coordinate axes V and T.
STUDENT A: I seem to recall that this process is described
by a straight line.
TEACHER: Why recall? Make use of equation (104). On its
basis, express the volume of the gas as a function of its tem
perature.
STUDENT A: From equation (104) we get
V = !!!.!i T . (l06)
I' P
TEACHER: Does the pressure here depend upon the tempe
rature?
STUDENT A: In the given case it doesn't because we are
dealing with an isobaric process. .
TEACHER: Good. Then the product (mIll) (RIp) in equation
(106) is a constant factor. We thus obtain a linear dependence
of the volume of the gas on its temperature. Examinees can
usually depict isobaric (p=const), isothermal (T=const) and
isochoric (V=const) processes in diagrams with coordinate
axes p and V. At the same time they usually find it difficult
to depict these processes with other sets of coordinate axes.
for instance V and Tor T and p. These three processes are shown
in Fig. 73 in different sets of coordinate axes.
STUDENT 8: I have a question concerning isobars in a diag
ram with coordinate axes V and T. From equation (106) and
from the corresponding curve in Fig. 73 we see ·that as the tem
perature zero, the volume of the gas also approaches
zero. However. in no case can the volume of a gas become
less than the total volume of all its molecules. Where is the
error in my reasoning?
TEACHER: Equations (102). (103). (104) and (106) refer to
the socalled ideal gas. The ideal gas is a simpii fled model
144
of a real gas in which neither the size of the molecules nor
their mutual attraction is taken into consideration. All the
curves in Fig. 73 apply to such a simplified model, i. e. the
ideal gas.
STUDENT 8: But the gas laws agree well with experimental
data, and in experiments we deal with real gases whose mqle
cules have sizes of their own.
Fig. 73
TEACHER: Note that such experiments are never conduded
at extremely low temperatures. If a real gas has not been ex
cessively cooled or compressed, it can be described quite ac
curately by the ideal gas model. Note also that for the gases
contained in the air (for instance, nitrogen and oxygen), these
conditions are met at room temperatures and ordinary pres
sures.
STUDENT B: Do you mean that if we plot the dependence
of the volume on the temperature in an isobaric process for a
real gas, the curve will coincide with the corresponding
straight line in Fig. 73 at sufficiently high temperatures but
will not coincide in the low temperature zone?
TEACHER: Exactly. Moreover, remember that on a sufficient
ly large drop in temperature a gas will be condensed into a
liquid.
STUDENT B: I see. The fact that the curve of equation (l06)
in Fig. 73 passes through the origin, or zero point, has no
physical meaning. But then maybe we should terminate the
curve before it reaches this point?
TEACHER: That is not necessary. You are just drawing the
curves for the model of a gas. Where this model can be applied
is another question.
Now I want to propose the following. Two isobars are shown
in Fig. 74 in coordinate axes V and T: one corresponds to the
145
pressure PI and the other to the pressure P 2' Which of these
pressures is higher?
STUDENT A: Most likely, P2 is higher than Pt.
TEACHER: You answer without thinking. Evidently, you
decided that since that isobar is steeper, the corresponding
pressure is higher. This, however, is entirely wrong. The tan
gent of the angle of inclination of an isobar equals (mifL) (Rip)
y
Fig. 74 Fig. 75
according to equation (106). It follows that the higher the
pressure, the less the angle of inclination of the isobar. Thus,
in our case, PZ<Pl' We can reach the same conclusion by diffe
rent reasoning. Let us draw an isotherm in Fig. 74 (see the
dashed line). It intersects isobar P2 at a higher value of the gas
volume than isobar PI' We know that at the same temperature,
the pressure of the gas will be the higher, the smaller its
volume. This follows directly from the combined gas law [see
equation (103) or (104)]. Consequently, P2<Pl'
STUDENT A: Now, I'm sure I understand.
TEACHER: Then look at Fig. 75 which shows two isotherms
(the coordinate axes are p and V) plotted for the same mass of
gas at di fferent temperatures, T 1 and T z. Which is the higher
temperature?
STUDENT A: First I shall draw an isobar (seethe dashed line
in Fig. 75). At a constant pressure, the higher the temperature
of a gas, the larger its volume. Therefore, the outermost iso
therm T z corresponds to the higher temperature.
TEACHER: Correct. Remember: the closer an isotherm is to
the origin of the coordinates P and V, the lower the tempera
ture is.
STUDENT B: In secondary school our study of the gas laws
was of much narrower scope than our present discussion. The
combined gas law was just barely mentioned. Our study was
restricted to Boyle and Mariotte's, GayLussac's and Charles'
laws.
TEACHER: In this connection, I wish to make some remarks
that will enable the laws of Boyle and Mariotte, GayLussac
and Charles to be included in the general scheme. Boyle and
Mariotte's law (more commonly known as Boyle's law) des
cribes the dependence of p on V in an isothermal process. The
equation for this law is of the form
const
P=v
(107)
where the const= (m/Il)RT.
GayLussac's law describes the dependence of p on T in an
isochoric process. The equation of this law is
p=const T ( 108)
where the const= (mIll) (R(V).
The law of Charles describes the dependence of V on T.in an
isobaric process. I ts equation is
V =const T (109)
where the const=(m/Il) (RIp)· [Equation (109) evidently
repeats equation (106).] I will make the following remarks con
cerning the abovementioned gas laws:
l. All these laws refer to the ideal. gas and are applicable
to a real gas only to the extent that the latter is described
by the model of the idea:! gas.
2. Each of these laws establishes a relationship between
some pair of parameters of a gas under the assumption that the
third parameter is constant.
3. As can readily be seen, each of these laws is a corollary
of the combined gas law [see equation (l04)J which establishes
a relationship between all three parameters regardless of any
special conditions.
4. The constants in each of these laws can be expressed, not
in terms of the mass of the gasand the constant third parameter,
but in terms of the same pair of parameters taken for a diffe
rent state of the same mass of the gas. In other words. the
147
gas laws can be rewritten in the following form
Povo
P=V
p= ~ : T'
V = ~ : T
(107a)
(108a) ,
(109a)
STUDENT A: It seems I have finally understood the essence
of the gas laws.
TEACHER: In that case, let us go on. Consider the following
example. A gas expands insuch a manller that its pressure and
volume comply with the condition
pya = canst (110)
We are to tindout whether the gas is heated or, on the cont
rary, cooled in such an expansion.
ST.UDENT A: Why must the temperature 6f the gas cha'nge?
TEACHER: If the temperature remained constant, that would
mean that the gas expands according to the law of Boyle and
p
Fig. 76 Fig. 77
Mariotte [equation (107)1· For an isothermal process prx:(1/V),
while in our case the dependence of p on V is of a different na
ture: po:: (I/V2).
STUDENT .A: Maybe I can try to plot these relationships?
The curves will be of the shape shown in Fig. 76.
TEACHER: That's a good idea. What do the curves suggest?
STUDENT A: I seem to understand now. We can see that in
tracing the curve pcc(ljV2) toward greater volumes, the gas
will gradually pass over to isotherms that are closer and
closer to the origin, i.e. isotherms corresponding to ever
148
decreasing temperatures. This means that in this expansion
process the gas is cooled. .
TEACHER: Quite correct. Only I would reword your answer.
It is better to say that such a gas expansion process is pos
sible only provided the gas is cooled.
STUDENT 8: Can we reach the same conclusion analytically?
TEACHER: Of course. Let us .consider two states of the gas:
PI, V1,'T
I
and P2, Va, Ta· Next we shall write the combined
gas law [see equation (104)1 for each of these states'
PIV
1
=.!!!..RT
I
/l.
P2V2= : RTI
We can write the given gas expansion process, according
to the condition, in the form
=
Substi tuting the two preceding equations of the gas law in the
last equation, we obtain
m V m R V
 RTI 1=  T2 2
/l. /l.
After cancelling the common factors we find that
TtV
I
= TaV!
(111)
From this equation it is evident that if the gas volume is,
for example, doubled, its temperature (in the absolute scale)
should be reduced by one half.
STUDENT A: Does tbis mean that whatever the process, the
gas parameters (p, V and T) will be related to one another in
each instant by the combined gas law)
TEACHER: Exactly. The combined gas law establishes a re
lationship between the gas parameters regardless of any con
ditions whatsoever.
Now let us consider the nature of the energy exchange bet
ween a gas and its environment in various processes. Assume
that the gas is expanding. It will move back all bodies rest
ricting its volume (for instance, a piston in a cylinder). Con
sequently, the gas performs workon these bodies. This work
is not difficult to calculate for isobaric expansion of the gas.
Assume that the gas expands isobarically and pushes back a
piston of area S over a distance Ai (Fig. 77).
149
The pressure exerted by the gas on the piston is p. Find the
amount of work done by the gas in moving the piston:
where V 1 and V 2 are the initial and final volumes of the gas.
The amount of work done by the gas in nonisobaric expansion
is more difficult to calculate because the pressure varies in the
course of gas expansion. In the general case, the work dpne by
the gas when its volume increases from V 1 to V 2 is equa I to the
area under the p (V) curve between the ordinates V 1 and V 2'
The amounts of work done by a gas in isobaric and in isother
mal expansion from volume VIto volume V 2 are shown in
Fig. 78 by the whole hatched area and the crosshatched area,
p
respectively. The initial state of the
gas is the same in both cases.
Thus, in expanding, a gas does work
on the surrounding bodies at the expense
of part of its internal energy. The work
done by the gas upon the
nature of the expansion process. Note
o also that if a gas is compressed, then
r, v work is done on the gas and, conse
quently, its internal energy increases.
Fig. 78
The performance of work, however, is
not the only method of energy exchange
between a gas and the medium. For example, in isothermal
expansion a gas does a certain amount of work A and, the
refore, loses an amount of energy equal to A. On the other
hand, however, as follows from the principles enumerated
in § 18 [see equation (98)], a constant temperature of the
gas in an isothermal process should mean that its internal
energy U remains unchanged (let me remind you thatU is
determined by the thermal motion of the molecules and that
the mean energy of the molecules is proportional to the tem
perature T). The question is: what kind of energy is used to
perform the work in the given case?
STUDENT B: Evidently, the heat transmitted to the gas
from the outside.
TEACHER: Correct. In this' manner, we reach the conclusion
that a gas exchanges energy with the medium through at least
two channels: by doing work associated with a change in the
volume of the gas, and by heat transfer.
150
The energy balance can be expressed in the following form
LiV=QA (113)
where Li U is the increment of internal energy of the gas chao
racterized by an increase in its temperature, Q is the heat
transferred to the gas from the surrounding medium, and A
is the work done by the gas on the surrounding bodies. Equa·
tion (113) is called the first law of thermodynamics. Note that
it is universal and is applicable, not only to gases, but to any
other bodies as well.
STUDENT B: To sum up, we may conclude that in isothermal
expansion, all the heat transferred to the gas is immediately
converted into work done by the gas. If so, then isothermal
processes cannot take place in a thermally insulated system.
TEACHER: Quite true. Now consider isobaric expansion of
gas from the energy point of view.
STUDENT B: The gas expands. That means that it performs
work. Here, as can be seen from equation (106), the tempera·
ture of the gas is raised, i. e. its internal energy is increased.
Consequently, in this case, a relatively large amount of heat
must be transferred to the ga.s: a part of this heat is used to in·
crease the internal energy of the gas and the rest is converted
into the work done by the gas.
TEACHER: Very good. Consider one more example. A gas is
heated so that its temperature is increased by liT. This is done
twice: once at constant volume of the gas and then at constant
pressure. Do we have to expend the same amount of heat to
heat the gas in both cases?
STUDENT A: I think so.
STUDENT B: I wOllld say that different amounts are required.
At constant volume, no work is done, and al1 the heat is ex·
pended to increase the internal energy of the gas, i. e. to raise
its temperature. In this case
Ql=C/':.T (114)
I
At constant pressure, the heating of the gas is inevitably
associated with its expansion, so that the amount of work done
is A=P(VVl)' The supplied heat Q2 is used partly to in·
crease the internal energy of the gas (to raise its temperature)
and partly to do this work. Thus .
Q2=C
1
LiT+p(VV
1
) (115)
Obviously. Ql<Q!.
151
TEACHER: I agree with Student B. What do you call the
quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body
by one degree?
STUDENT B: The heat capacity of the body.
TEACHER: What conclusion can be drawn from the last
example as regards the heat capacity of a gas?
STUDENT B: A gas has two different heat capacities: at
constant volume and at constant pressure. The heat capacity
at constant volume (which is factor C I in the last two equa
tions) is less than the heat capacity at constant pressure.
TEACHER: Can you express the heat capacity at constant
pressure in terms of C 1> that is, the heat capacity at constant
volume?
STUDENT B: 1'\1 try. Let tis denote the heat capacity at
constant pressure by C 2. In accordance with the definition
of heat capacity, we can write C 2= Q2it::. T. Substituting the
value of Q2 from equation (115) we obtain
C = C + p (V  V \) ( 116)
'I I'1T
TEACHER: You stopped too soon. If we apply the equation
of the combined gas law, we can write
RI1T
Il. Il.
after substituting into equation (116), we obtain
Ct=C\ (l17)
fA.
In reference to one grammolecule of the gas (m=f.l) , this
relationship is even more simple:
C,= C
1
+ R (118)
In conclusion, let us consider a certain cycle consisting of
an isotherm, isochore and isobar (see Fig. 79a in which axes p
and V are used as the coordinate axes). Please draw this same
cycle (qualitatively) in a diagram with coordinate axes V
and T, and analyse the nature of energy exchange between the
gas and the medium in each element of the cycle.
STUDENT B: In a diagram with coordinate axes V and T,
the cycle will be of the form illustrated in Fig. 79b.
. TEACHER: Quite correct. Now please analyse the nature of
energy exchange between the gar; and the medium in the se
parate elements of the cycle.
152
STUDENT B: In element 12, the gas undergoes isothermal
expansion. It receives a certain amount of heat from the out
side and spends all this heat in doing work. The internal ener
gy of the gas remains unchanged.
In element 23 of the cycle, the gas is heated isochorically
(at constant volume). Since its volume does not change, no
work is done. The internal energy of the gas is increased only
(a)
o
v
v
due to the heat transferred to the
gas from the outside.
In element 31 the gas is com
pressed isobarically (at constant
pressure) and its temperature drops
as can be seen in Fig. 7gb. Work is
done on the gas, but its internal
energy is reduced. This means that
the gas intensively gives up heat to
the medium.
TEACHER: Your reasoning is abso
lutely correct.
STUDENT A: Our discussion shows
me that I knew very little about
.,
2!V
J
the gas laws. Do we have, to know
all this for the entrance examina
tions? In my opinion, some of the
questions we' discussed are beyond
the scope of the physics syllabus for
ol<..//r students taking entrance ex'amina
tions.
Fig. 79 TEACHER: If you carefully think
. over our discussion, you will see
that it only covered questions directly concerned with the
combined gas law in its general form or as applied in
certain special cases. Your confusion should be attributed not
to the imaginary stretching of the syllabus, but simply to the
fact that yott have not thought over and understood the gas
laws thorough ly enough. Unfortunately, examinees frequently
don't care to go beyond a very superficial idea of the gas laws.
§ 21.
HOW DO YOU GO
ABOUT SOLVING
PROBLEMS ON GAS
LAWS?
STUDENT A: I would like tc
look into the application of ga5
laws in solving various types 01
problems.
TEACHER: In my opinion, al·
most all the problems involving
gas laws that are assigned tc
examinees are quite simple. Most
of them belong to one of the fol·
lowing two groups.
first group: Problems devised
on the basis of a change in the
state in a certain mass of gas;
the value of the mass is not used.
As a result of expansion, heating
and other processes, the gas goes
over from a certain state with
parameters PI, V 1 and T 1 to a state with parameters P 2, V 2
and T 2' The parameters of the initial and final states are re
lated to one another by the equation of the combined gas
law
(119)
The problem consists in finding one of these six parameters.
Second group: Problems in which the state of the gas does
not change but the value of the mass of the gas appears in the
problem. It is required to find either this mass when all the
parameters are known, or one of the parameters when the mass
and the other parameters are known. In such problems the
molecular weight of the gas must be known.
STUDENT B: I think the most convenient way of solving
problems of the second group is to use equation (104) of the
combined gas law.
TEACHER: Of course you can use this equation. To do this,
however, you must know the numerical value of the universal
gas constant R. As a rule, nobody remembers it. For this rea
son, in practice it is more convenient to resort to the follow
ing method: we assume that the gas is brought to standard
conditions, denoting the gas parameters at these conditions
by PS' Vs and Ts· Then we can write the equation
(120)
154
where
Vs = ~ X 22.4 litres
J.I.
STUDENT B: In my opinion, this method of solution is by
no means simpler than the use of equation (104). Here we have
to remember three values: Ps=76 em Hg, Ts=273 oK and
V
s
/(m/fl)=22.4 litres. It is obviously simpler to memorize
one value, the universal gas constant.
TEACHER: Nevertheless, my method is simpler because no
body has any difficulty in remembering the three values you
indicated (pressure, temperature and the volume of the gram
molecule of a gas under standard conditions). Assume that we
are to find the volume of 58 g of air at a pressure of 8 a tm and a
temperature of 91 OC. Let us solve this problem by the method
I proposed. Since the mass of the grammolecule of air equals
29 g, we have 2 grammolecules. At standard conditions they
occupy a volume of 44.8Iitres. From equation (120) we obtain
V = V s ~ ~ =44.8 (litres) X ~ ~ ~ ! =7.5 litres
STUDENT B: I see you have assumed that p,=l atm. The
conditions of the problem, however, most likely referred to
technical atmospheres. Then it should be p,,= 1.034 atm.
TEACHER: You are right. There is a difference between the
physical atmosphere (corresponding to standard pressure)
and the technical atmosphere. I simply neglected this
d iff erence.
STUDENT A, Could you point out typical difficulties in
solving problems of the first and second groups?
TEACHER: I have already mentioned that in my opinion
these problems are quite simple.
STUDENT A: But what mistakes do examinees usually make?
TEACHER: Apart from carelessness, the main cause of errors
is the inability to compute the pressure of the gas in some
state 'or other. Consider a problem involving a glass tube
sealed at one end. The tube contains a column of mercury iso
lating a certain volume of air from the medium. The tube can
be turned in a vertical plane. In the first position (Fig. 80a) ,
the column of air in the tube has the length 11 and in the second
position (Fig. 80b), l2' Find the length L3 of the column of air
ill the .third position when the tube is inclined at an angle of a
to the vertical (Fig. 80c). We shall denote the atmospheric
pressure by PA. in terms of length of mercury column, and the
155
length of the mercury column in the tube by 81. In the
first position, the pressure of the air in the tube is evidently
equal to the atmospheric pressure. In the second position, it
is equal to the difference because the atmospheric
pressure is counterbalanced by the combined pressures of the
(Q)
fe)
Fig. 80
mercury column and the air in
side the tube. Applying the law
of Boyle and Mariotte we write
lIfJA =/
2
(PA81)
from which we find that the at
mospheric; pressure is
2 1
(121 )
In the third position, a part of
the weight of the mercury column
will be counterbalanced by the
reaction of the tube walls. As a
result, the pressure of the air
inside the tube turns out to be
equal to cos a). Using
the law of Boyle and Mariotte for the first and third states
of the gas, we can write
IJPA =1, (PA81 cos a)
from which the atmospheric pressure equals
_ 6.113 cos ex.
PA  laII
(122)
Equating the righthand sides of equations (121) and (122)
we obtain
12 18 cos a
1
2
1
1
= laII
from which we find the required length
1  11/2 (123)
3  /2 (12 II) cos a
You can readily see that if cos a=l, then Is=12' i. e. we
have the second position of the tube, and if cos a=O, then
1
3
=/
1
, which corresponds to the first position of the tube.
STUDENT A: The first and second groups of problems in
your classification are clear to me. But, is it likely that the
156
examination will include combinations of problems from the
first and second groups?
TEACHER: Why yes, such a possibility cannot be ruled out.
Let us consider the following problem. At a pressure of 2 atm,
16 g of oxygen occupies a volume of 5 litres. Haw will the tem
perature of the gas change if it is known that upon increase
in pressure to 5 atm the volume reduces by 1 litre?
STUDENT A: The mass, pressure and volume of the oxygen
being known, we can readily .find its temperature. Thus, 16 g
of oxygen is 0.5 grammolecule, which has a volume of 11.2 lit
res at standard conditions. Next, we find that
TI =T/
1V
\ =273 2 x 5 =244°K (124)
Psv'r . Ix 11.2
TEACHER: Quite right. At the given stage you've handled
the problem as a typical one from the second group.
STUDENT A: Then, since we know the temperature T 1 of the
gas \n the initial state, we can find the temperatureT 2 in the
fi nal state. Thus
T. = TI Pt
V
2 = 244 52 x 45= 488°K
p\V\ x
Comparing this result with equation (124), we find that the
temperature has been raised by 244 deg.
TEACHER: Your "01 uti on is absolutely correct. As you could
see, the second half of the problem was dealt with as a typical
one from the first group.
STUDENT B: At the very beginning of our discussion, in
speaking of the ·possible, groups of problems, you said m·osl
problems belong to these groups. Are there problems that differ
in principle from those of the first and second groups?
TEACHER: Yes, there are. In the problems of these groups,
it was assumed that the mass of the gas remained unchanged.
Problems can be devised, however, in which the mass of the
gas is changed (gas is pumped out of or into the container). We
will arbitrarily classify such problems in the third group.
There are no readymade rules for solving such problems;
they require an individual approach in each case. However,
in each speci fic case, problems of the third group can be re
duced to problems of the first two groups or to their combina
tion. This can be illustrated by two examples.
Here is the first one. The gas in a vessel is subject to a pre
ssure of 20 atm at a temperature of 27 OC. Find the pressure
157
of the gas in the vessel after one half of the mass of the gas
is released from the vessel and the temperature of the remainder
is raised by 50 deg. '
This problem resembles those of the first group, since
it involves a change in the state of the gas. With the change
in state, however, the mass of the gas also changes. In order to
make use of the combined gas law, we must study the change in
state of the same mass of the gas. We shall choose the mass of
the gas that is finally left in the vessel. We denote its final
parameters by Pz, Vs and Ts. Then T
s
=(273+27+50)=
=350 oK; V z=V, where V is the volume of the vessel; and Ps
is the required pressure. How can we express the initial para
meters of this mass of gas? •
STUDENT A: It will have the same temperature as the whole
mass of gas: T 1= (273+27)=300 OK; its volume will be one
half of the volume of the vessel, i. e. V /2; and its pressure is
the same as that of the whole mass of gas: Pl=20 atm.
STUDENT B: I would deal with the initial parameters of the
abovementioned mass of gas somewhat differently: T 1=
(0)
Fig. 81
=300 OK; the volume is the same as
for the whole mass of gas (V 1=V), but
the pressure is equal to one half of the
pressure of the whole mass of gas, i. e.
Pl= 10 atm.
TEACHER: Since the pressure and
volume appear in the equation in the
form of their product, both of your
proposa:s, though they differ, lead to
the sar.1e result. For this reason, we
could have, refrained from discussing
these differences if they didn't happen
to be of interest from the physical
point of view. We shall arbitrarily
call the molecules of the portion of
the gas that finally remains in the vessel "white" molecules,
and those of the portion to be released from the vessel, "black"
molecules. Thus, we have agreed that the white molecules
remain in the vessel and the black molecules are released
from it. The initial state of the gas can be treated in two
ways: (I) the black and white molecules are separated so that
macroscopic volumes can be separated out in the vessel con
taining only white or only black molecules (Fig. 8Ia); (2) the
wh i te and b lack molecules are thoroughly mixed together so
158
that any macroscopic volume contains a practically equal
number of each kind of molecules (Fig. Bib). In the first case,
molecules of each kind form their own gaseous "body" with a
volume of Vj2 which exerts a pressure of 20 atm on the walls
and on the imaginary boundary with the other body. In the
second case, molecules of both kinds are distributed uniformly
throughout the whole volume V of the vessel, and the molecules
of each kind exert only one half of the pressure on the walls
(at any place on the walls, one half of the blows come from
white molecules and the other half from black ones). In this
case, V l=V and Pl=IO atm. In connection with this last
remark, let us recall the law of partial pressures: the pressure
of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of the
component gases. I wish to emphasize that here we are dealing
with a mixture of gases, where molecules of all kinds are in
timately mixed together.
STUDENT B: I think the second approach is more correct
bequse the molecules of both kinds are really mixed together.
TEACHER: In the problem being considered, both approaches
are equally justified. Don't forget that our a priori division
of the molecules into two kinds was entirely arbitrary.
But let us return to the solution of· the problem.! We write
the equation of the combined gas law for the mass of the gas
remaining in the vessel:
10 V P2V
300 350
from which we find that P2=11.7 atm.
Now, consider thefollowing problem. A gas is in a vessel of
volume V at a pressure of po. It is being pumped out of the
vessel by means of a piston pump with a
~ stroke volume of v (Fig. 82). Find the
~ number, n, of strokes required to Lower ihe
. pressure of the gas in the vessel to Pn'
Fig. 82 STUDENT A: This problem seems to be
quite simple: n strokes of the piston lead
to an nfold increase in the volume of the gas by the volume
v. Therefore, we can write the law of Boyle and Mariotte in
the form
PoV = Pn (V + ltv)
from which we can find the number of strokes n.
TEACHER: To what mass of gas does your equation refer?
STUDENT A: To the mass that was initially in the vessel.
159
TEACHER: But even after the first stroke a part of this mass
leaves the system entirely: when the piston moves to the left
it closes valve A and opens valve B through which the gas
leaves the system (see Fig. 82). In other words, the nfold
increase of the volume of the gas by the amount 0 does not
refer to the same mass of gas. Consequently, your equation is
incorrect.
Let us consider each stroke of the piston separately. We shall
begin with the first stroke. For the mass of gas that was
initially in the vessel we can write
PoV = PI (V +0)
where· PI is the pressure of the gas after the piston has comp
leted the first working stroke and is in the extreme right
hand position. Then the piston returns to its initial lefthand
position. At this, as I previously mentioned, valve A is closed,
and the mass of the gas in the vessel is less than the initial
mass. Its pressure is PI. For this mass of gas we can write the
equation
PI V = PI (V + 0)
where pa is the pressure of the gas at the end of the second
stroke. Dealing consecutively with the third, fourth and sub
sequent strokes of the piston, we obtain a system of equations
of the law of Boyle and Mariotte:
PoV = PI (V + 0)
PIV = P
2
(V +v)
pzV = P
a
(V + 0)
J
( 125)
Each of these equations refers to a definite mass of gas. Sol
ving the system of equations (125) we obtain
PII = Po ( V :0) n
Taking the logarithm of this result, we finally obtafn
log (Pn)
n= ':; (126)
.. log (v+J
160
PROBLEMS
39. A glass tube with a sealed end is completely submerged in a ves
sel with mercury (Fig. 83). The column of air inside the tube has a length
of 10 cm. To what height must the upper end of the tube be raised above
the l e v ~ l of the mercury in the vessel so that the level of the mercury
inside the lube is at the level of the mercury in the vessel? Assume stan
dard atmospheric pressure. Calculate the mass of the air inside the tube
if its crosssectional area equals I cm
2
• The temperature is '1:l cc.
40. A glass tube, one end of which is sealed, is submerged with the open
end downward into a vessel with mercury (Fig. 84). How will the level
of the mercury in the tube change if the temperature is raised from 27°
to 77 °C? Neglect the thermal expansion of the tube. Assume standard
atmospheric pressure. Find the mass of the air inside the tube If its cross
sectional area is 0.5 em
2
•
. 
L
{a, {IJ
m
'
Fm W
Fig. 83 fig. 84 Fig. 85
41. The air in a vessel with a volume of 5 litres has a temperature of
27°C and is subject to a pressure of 20 atm. What mass of air must be re
leased from the vessel so that Its pressure drops to 10 atm?
42. Compute the amount of work done by a gas which is being isobarl
cally heated [rom 20° to 100°C if it Is in a vessel closed by a movable
piston with a crosssectional area of 20 em
2
and weighing 5 kg!. Consider
two cases: (I) the vessel is arranged horizontally (Fig. 85a), and (2) the
vessel is arranged vertically (Fig. 85b). The initial volume of the gas is
5 litres. Assume standard atmospheric pressure.
43. A column of air 40 em long in a glass tube with a crosssectional
area of 0.5 em' and arranged vertically with the sealed end upward. is
isolated by a column of mercury 8 em long. The temperature is '1:l cc. How
will the length of the air corumn change if the tube is inclined 60° from the
vertical and the temperature is simultaneously raised by 30 deg? Assum.e
standard atmospheric pressure. Find the mass of the air enclosed In the
tUbe. 
44. What is the mass of the water vapour in a room of a size 6 mX
X 5 mX 3.5 m If, at a temperature of 15 cc, the relative humidity Is 55%?
Will dew be formed if the air temperature drops to 10 °0 What part
of the tolal mass of the air in the room is the mass of the water vapour if
the air pressure equals 75 em Hg?
6 118
What is a field? How is afield described? How does motion
take place in a field? These fundamental problems of physiC!!
can be most conveniently considered using an electrostatic
field as an example.
We shall discuss the motion of charged bodies in a uniform
electrostatic field. A number of problems illustrating Cou
lomb's law will be solved,
§ 22.
LET US DISCUSS
FIELD THEORY
TEACHER: Let us discuss the
field, one of the basic physical
concepts. For the sake of definite .
ness, we shaH deal with elect
rostatic fields. What is your idea
of a field? What do you think it
is?
STUDENT A: I must confess
that I have a very vague idea of
what a field really is. A field
is something elusive, invisible,
a kind of spectre. At the same
time, it is said to be present
throughout space. I do not object
to the field being defined as
a material entity. But this means
nothing to me. When we speak
of matter, I understand what we are talking about. But when
we ~ p e a k of a field, I give up. .
STUDENT B: To me, the concept of the field is quite
tangible. Matter in any substance is in concentrated form, as
it were. In a field, on the contrary. matter is "spread" through
out space, so to speak. The fact that we cannot see a field with
the naked eye doesn't prove anything. A field can be "seen"
excellently by means of relatively simple instruments. A field
acts as a transmitter of interactions between bodies. For in
stance, an electrostatic field transmits interactions between
fixed electric charges. Each charge can be said to set up a field
around itself. A field set up by one charge influences another
charge and, conversely, the field set· up by the second charge
influences the first charge. Thus, Coulomb (electrostatic) in
teraction of charges is accomplished.
STUDENT A: But couldn't we get along without any
"gobetweens"? What prevents IUS from supposing that one
charge acts directly on another charge?
STUDENT B: Your supposition may raise serious objections.
Assume that at some instant one of the charges is displaced
(i.e. "budges") for some reason. If we proceed from the sup
position of, "direct interaction", we have to conclude that the
second charge must also "budge" at the very same instant.
This would mean that a signal from the first charge reaches
the second charge instantaneously. This would contradict the
basic principles of the theory of relativity. If, however, we have
6*
163
a transmitter of interactions, i.e. a field, the signal is propaga
ted from one charge to the other through the field. However
large the velocity of propagation, it is always finite. There
fore, a certain interval of time exists during which the first
charge has stopped "budging" and the second has not yet star
ted. During this interval, only the field contains the signal
for "budging".
STUDENT A: All the same, I would like to hear a precise
definition of the field.
TEACHER: I listened to your dialogue with great interest.
I feel that Student B has displayed a keen interest in problems
of modern physics and has read various popular books on phy
sics. As a result, he has developed \vhat could be called initia
tive thinking. To him the concept of the field is quite a real,
"working" concept. His remarks on the field as a transmitter of
interactions are quite correct. Student A, evidently, confined
himself to a formal reading of the textbook. As a result, his
thinking is inefficient to a considerable extent. I say this,
of course, without any intention to offend him or anyone else,
but only to point Gut that many examinees feel quite helpless
in like situations. Strange as it may be, a comparatively large
number of students almost never read any popularscience li
terature. However, let us return to the essence of the problem.
(To Student A) You demanded a precise definition of the field.
Without such a definition the concept of the field eludes you.
However, you said that you understand what matter is. But do
you really know the precise definition of matter?
STUDENT A: The concept of matter requires no such defini
tion. Matter can be "touched" with your hand.
TEACHER: In that case, the concept of the field also "requi
res no such definition"; it can also be "touched", though not
with your hand. However, the situation with the defini
tion is much more serious. To give a precise, logically fault
less definition means to express the concept in terms of some
more "primary" concepts. But what can be done if the give11
concept happens to be one of the "primary" concepts? Just try
to define a straight line in geometry. Approximately the same
situation exists with respect to the concepts of matter and the
field. These are primary, fundamental concepts for which we
can scarcely hope to find a clearcut blanket definition.
STUDENT A: Can we, nevertheless, find some plausible
definition?
TEACHER: Yes, of course. Only we must bear in mind that
164
no such definition can be exhaustive. Matter can eXrist in va
rious forms. It can be concentrated within a restricted region
of space with more or less definite boundaries (or, as they say,
it can be "localized"), but, conversely, it can also be "delo
calized". The first of these states of matter can be associated
with the concept of matter in the sense of a "substance", and
the second state with the concept of the "field". Along with
their distinctive characteristics, both states have common
physical characteristics. For example, there is the energy of
a unit volume of matter (as a substance) and the energy of
a unit volume of a field. We can speak of the momentum of a
unit volume of a substance and the momentum of a unit volume
of a field. Each kind of field transmits a definite kind of
interaction. It is precisely from this interaction that we can
determine the characteristics of the field at any required
point. An electrically charged body, for instance, sets up an
electrostatic field around itself in space. To reveal this field
and measure its intensity at some point in space, it is ne
cessary to bring another charged body to this point and to
measure the force acting on it. It is assumed that the second
charged body is sufficiently. small so that the distortion it
causes in the field can be neglected. .
The properties of matter are inexhaustible, the process of
seeking knowledge is eternal. Gradually, step by step, we
advance along the road of learning and the practical applica
tion of the properties of matter" that surrounds us. In our prog
ress we have to "stick on labels" from time to time which are
a sort of landmarks along the road to knowledge. Now we label
something as a "field". We understand that this "something" is
actually the primeval abyss. We know much about this abySswe
have called a "field", and therefore we can employ this newly
introduced concept more or less satisfactorily. We know much,
but far from all. An attempt to give it a clearcut definition
is the same as an attempt to measure the depth of a bottomless
chasm.
STUDENT B: I think that the concept of the field, as well as
any other concept emerging in the course of our study of the
material world, is inexhaustible. This, exactly, is the reason
why it is impossible to give an exhaustive, clearcut defini
tion of a field.
TEACHER: I completely agree with you.
STUDENT A: I am quite satisfied with your remarks about
SUbstance and the field as two states of matterlocalized and
165
unlocalized. But why did you begin this discussion about the
inexhaustibility of physical concepts and the eternity of
learning? As soon as I heard that, clarity vanished again and
everything became sort of blurred and vague.
TEACHER: I understand your state of mind. You are seeking
for some placid definition of a field, even if it is not absolu
tely precIse. You are willing to conscientiously memorize
this definition and hand it out upon request. You don't wish to
recognize that the situation is not at all static but, on the
contrary, a dynamic one. You shouldn't believe that every
thing becomes blurred and vague. I would say that everything
becomes dynamic in the sense that it tends toward change.
Any precise definition, in itself, is something rigid and final.
But physical concepts should be investigated in a state of their
development. That which we understood to be the concept of
the field yesterday appreciably differs from what we under
stand by this concept today. Thus, for instance, modern phy
sics, in contrast to the classical version, does not draw a dis
tinct boundary between the field and substance. In modern
physics, the field and substance are mutually transformable:
a substance may become a field and a field may become a sub
stance. However, to discuss this subject in more detail now
would mean getting too far ahead.
STUDENT B: Our discussion on physics has taken an obvious
ly philosophical turn.
TEACHER: That is quite natural because any discussion of
physical conceptions necessarily presupposes that the parti
cipants possess a sufficiently developed ability for dialectical
thinking. If this ability has not yet been cultivated, we have,
even against our will, to resort to digressions of a philo
sophical nature. This is exactly why I persist in advising you
to read more and more books of various kinds. Thereby you will
train your thinking apparatus, make it more flexible and dy,
namic. In this connection, invaluable aid can be rendered to
any young person by V. 1. Lenin's book Materialism and
Empiriocriticism. I advise you to read it.
STUDENT A: But that is a very difficult book. It is studied
by students of institutes and universities.
TEACHER: I don't insist on your studying this book. It
certainly was not intended for light reading. Simply try to
read it through carefully. Depending on your background, this
book will exert a greater or lesser influence on your mode of
thinking. In any case, it will be beneficial.
166
In conclusion, I wish to mention the following: Student A is
obviously afraid of vagueness or indefiniteness; he demands
maximum precision. He forgets that there is a reasonable limit
to everything, even precision. Try to imagine a completely
precise world about which we have exhaustive information.
Just conjure up such a world and then tell me: wouldn't you be
amazed at its primitiveness and inability to develop any
further? Think about all this and don't hurry with your eon
a
elusions. And now, for the present, let us attempt to approach
the problem from another angle. I will pose the following
question: "How is a field described?" I know that many people,
after getting the answer, will say: "Now we know what the
fieM is".
§ 23.
HOW IS AN
ELECT ROST A TIC FIELD
DESCRIBED?
TEACHER: Thus, we continue
the discussion that we began in
the preceding section by asking:
"How is an electrostatic field
described?"
STUDENT B: An electrostatic
field is described by means of a
vectorial force characteristic
called the intensity of the electric
field. At each point in the field,
the intensity E has a definite
direction and numerical value.
If we move from one point in a
field to another in such a manner
that the directions of the inten
sity vectors are always tangent
to the direction of motion, the
paths obtained by such motion are called the lines of force
of the field. Lines of force are very convenient for graphically
representing a field.
TEACHER: Good. Now let us reason more concretely. The
Coulomb force of interaction between two charges ql and qa
spaced a distance of r apart can be written in the form
This can be rewritten as
E (r) = q ~
 ,
F.=E (r)qt
( 127)
(128)
(129)
Equation (128) signifies that charge q1 sets up a field
around itself, whose intensity at a distance of r from the
charge equals qt/r
a
. Equation (129) signifies that this field
acts on charge q2, located at a distance of r from charge qll
with a force E (r)qz. Equation (127) could be written thus
because a "gobetween"the quantity E, the characteristic of
the fieldwas introduced. Try to determine the range of ap
plication of equations (127), (128) and (129).
STUDENT B: Equation (27) is applicable for two point
charges. That means that the range of application of equations
(128) and (129) is the same. They were obtained from equation
(127).
168
TEACHER: That is correct only with respect to equations
(127) and (128). Equation (129) has a much wider range of
application. No matter what sets up the field E (a point charge,
a set of point charges or of charged bodies of arbitrary shape),
in all cases the force exerted by this field on charge qo is
equal to the product of this charge by field intensity at the
point where charge qo is located. The more general version of
equ ation (129) has the following vectorial form
.... ... ...
Fe = E (r) qo (130)
where the arrows, as usual, serve to denote the vectors. It is
evident from equation (130) that the direction of the force
acting on charge qo at the given point of the field coincides
with the direction of the field intensity at this point if charge
qo is positive. If charge qo is negative, the direction of the
force is op posi te to the intensity.
Here we can sense the independence of the concept of >the
field. Different charged bodies set up different electrostatio
fields, but each of these fields acts on a charge situated in
it according to the same law (130). To find the force acting on
a charge, you must first calculate the intensity of the field
at the point where the charge is located. Therefore, it is
important to be able to find the intensity of the field set up
by a system of charges. Assume that there are two charges, qt
and qz. The magnitude and direction of the intensity of the
field set up by each of these charges can readily be found for
any point in space that may interest us. Assume that at a cer
...
tain point, specified by the vector r, these intensities are des
+
cribed by the vectors E 1 (r) and E 2 (r). To find the resultant
intensity at point ;, you must add vectorially the intensities
due to the separate charges
+4
E(r)=El (131)
I repeat that the intensities must be added vectorially. (To
Student A) Do you understand?
STUDENT A: Yes, I know that intensities are added vectorial
Iy.
TEACHER: Good. Then we can check how well you can use
this knowledge in practice. Please draw the lines of force of
the field of two equal and opposite charges (+ql and q2)
assuming that one of the charges (for instance, +ql) is several
times greater than the other.
169
STUDENT A: I'm afraid I can't. We Rever discussed such
fields before. .
TEACHER: What kind of fields did you study?
STUDENT A: I know what the picture of the lines of force
looks like for a field set up by two point charges of equal mag
nitude. I have drawn such a picture in Fig. 86.
TEACHER: Your drawing is somewhat inaccurate though
qualitatively it does represent the force lines of a field set up
by two charges of the same magni
tude but of opposite sign. Can't you
vizuaJize how this picture will chan
ge as one of the charges increases?
STUDENT A:" We never did any
thing like that.
Fig. 86 TEACHER: In that case, let us
use the rule for the vectorial addi
tion of intensities. We shall begin with the familiar case
when the charges are equal (Fig. 87a). We select three points
A, Band C and construct a pair of intensi ty vectors for each
7 4 + 4
point: Eland E 2 (E 1 for the field of charge +ql and E 2 for
.... ....
the field of charge·ql)' Then we add the vectors Eland E I
for each of these points to obtain the resultant vectors E
A
,
.... ....
EB and Ee. These vectors must be tangent to the lines of force
of the field at the corresponding points. These three vectors
indicate the behaviour of the lines of force which are. shown
in Fig. 88a. Compare this drawing with Fig. 86 proposed by
you. Note your inaccuracies in the behaviour of the lines of
force to the left of charge q and to the right of charge +q.
Assume now that charge +ql is dou.bled in magnitude, and
charge q2 is halved (Fig. 87b). We select, as before, three
points A, Band C. First we construct the intensity vectors for
these points and then find their resultants: E
A
, EE and E ~ .
The picture of the lines of force corresponding to these vectors
is shown in Fig. 88b. .
Finally, we assume that ql is doubled again and that q2 is
halved again (Fig. 87c). Next we construct .the resultant ve
........ ....
ctors E
A
, EE and Ee for points A, Band C. The corresponding
picture of the lines of force is shown in Fig. 88c.
As you see, the influence of charge +ql becomes greater
with an increase· in its relative magnitude; the field of charge
+ql begins to repress the field of charge qa·
170
STUDENT A: Now I understand how to construct a picture of
the lines of force for a field set up by a system of several
charges.
TEACHER: Let us continue our discussion of an electrostatic
field. This field has one important property which puts it in
the same class with gravitational fields, namely: the work done
by the forces of the field along any closed path equals zero. In
other words, if the charge travelling in the field returns to
(0) its initial point of departure,
the work done by the forces of
the field during this motion is
c equal to zero. Over certain
II £. lJ E portions of the path this work
Cc will be positive and over

Fig. 87 Fig. B8
others negative, but the sum of the work done will equal zero.
Interesting consequences follow from this property of an elect
rostatic field. Can you name them?
STUDENT B: No, I can't think of any.
TEACHER: I'll help you. You probably have noted that the
lines of force of an electrostatic field are never closed on
themselves. They begin and end in charges (beginning in po"
171
sitlve charges and terminating in negative ones) or they end at
infinity (or arrive from infinity). Can you associate this cir
cumstance with the abovementioned property of the elect
rostatic field?
STUDENT B: Now I seem to understand. If a line of force in
an electrostatic field was closed on Itself, then by following it
we could return to the initial point. As a charge moves along a
line of force, the sign of the work done by the field evidently
does not change and, consequently, cannot be equal to zero.
On the other hand, the work done along any closed path must
a be equal to zero. Hence, lines of force of
an electrostatic be closed on
themselves.
TEACHER: Quite correct. There is one
more consequence following from the
b abovementioned property of the electros
tatic field: the work done in moving a
Fig. 89 charge from one point of the field to another
does not depend upon the path followed.
We can move a charge from point a to point b, for instance,
along different paths, 1 and 2 (Fig. 89). Let us denote by A 1 the
amount of work done by the forces of the field to move the
charge along path 1 and that path 2 by A 2' Let us accomp
lish a complete circuit: from point a to point b along path 1
and from point b back to point a along path 2. During the re
turn a'long path 2, the work done will be A 2' The total work
done in a complete circuit is A 1+ (A 2)=A lA 2' Since
the work done along any path closed on itself equals zero,
then A l=A 2' The fact that the work done in moving a charge
is independent of the chosen path but depends only on the
initial and final points, enables this value to be used as a
characteristic of the field (since it depends only upon the cho
sen points of the field!). Thus another characteristic of an
trostatic field, its potential, is introduced. In contrast to the
intensity, this is a scalar quantity since it is expressed in
terms of the work done.
STUDENT B: We were told in secondary school that the
concept of the potential. of a field has no physical meaning.
Only the difference in the potentials of any two points of the
field has a physical meaning.
TEACHER: You are quite right. Strictly speaking, the pre
ceding discussion enables us to introduce precisely the diffe
rence in the potentials; the potential difference between the
172
two points a and b of the field (denoted by CPaq>II) is defined
as the fatio of the work done by the forces of the field in
moving charge qa from point a to point b, to charge qa, i.e.
(132)
However, if we assume that the field is absent at infinity
(i. e. CP .. =0), then equation (13.2) takes the form
CPa = Aa .... '" (133)
qo
In this manner, the potential of the field at the given point
can be determined in terms of the work done by the forces of
the field in moving a positive unit charge from the given
point to infinity. If the work is regarded as being done not
by the field, but against the forces of the field, then the
potential at a given point is the work that must be done in
moving a positive unit charge from infinity to the given point.
Naturally, this definition rules out experimental measurement
of the potential at the given point of the field, because we
cannot recede to infinity in experiment. Precisely for this
reason it is said that the difference of the potentials of two
points in the field has a physical meaning, whilethe potential
itself at some point has not. We can say that the potential at
a given point is determined with an accuracy to an arbitrary
constant. The value of the potential at infinity is commonly
taken as this constant. The potential is measured from this
value. It is assumed, for convenience, that the potential at
Infinity equals zero.
Within the scope of these assumptions, the potential of a
field, set up by a point charge qlt measured at a point a dis
tance r from the charge, equals
cP (r) = q: (134)
You should have no difficulty in determining the potential
of a field, set up by several point charges, at some point ~
STUDENT B: We shall denote the value of the potential at
~ > +
point r due to each of the charges separately as cpdr), £Pdr),
etc. The total potential £ P ( ~ is equal, evidently, to the algeb
raic sum of the potentials from the separate charges. Thus
.... .... >
cP (r) = CPl (r) + CPt (r) + ...
(135 )
173
In this summation, the potential from a positive charge is
taken with a plus sign and that from a negative charge with a
minus sign.
TEACHER: Quite correct. Now let us consider the concept of
equipotential surfaces. The locus of the points in a field
having the same potential is called an equipotential surface
(or surface of constant potential). One line of force and one
equipotential surface pass through each point in a field. How
are they oriented with respect to each other?
STUDENT B: I know that at each point the line of force and
the equipotential surface are mutually perpendicular.
TEACHER: Can you prove that?
STUDENT B: No, I probably can't.
TEACHER: This proof is not difficult. Assume that the line
of force aa
1
and the equipotential surface S (Fig. 90) pass
Fig. 90 Fig. 91
through a certain point a. The field intensity at point a is
. .....
described by vector E(J' Next we shall move charge qo fr6m
point a to a certain point b which lies on the equipotential
surface S at a short distance ~ l from point a. The work done
in this movement is expressed by the equation
A = F edl cos ex = E (Jq odL cos a. (136)
where ex is the angle between vector Ea and the direction of
the movement. This same amount of work can be expressed as
the difference in the field potentials at points a and b. Thus we
can write another relationship:
A=qo(<Pa<Pb) (137)
Since both points a and b lie on the same equipotential
surface, then it follows that lPa=<Pb' This means that accor
ding to equation (137), the work A should be equal to zero.
Substituting this result into equation (136), we obtain
Eaqodl cos ex = 0 (138)
174
Of all the factors in the lefthand side of equation (138),
only cos a can be equal to zero. Thus, we conclude that a=
=90". It is clear to you, I think, that this result is obtained
for various directions of movement ab, provided these move
ments are within the limits of the equipotential surface S.
The curvature of the surface does not impair our argument
because the movement fll is very small.
Along with the use of lines of force, crosssections of equi
potential surfaces are employed to depict an electrostatic
field graphically. Taking advantage of the fact that these
lines and surfaces are mutually perpendicular, a family of
crosssections of equipotential surfaces can be drawn from a
known family of lines of force, or vice versa.
(To Student A) Will you try to draw the crosssections of
equipotential surfaces for the case shown in Fig. 88a? To avoid
confusing them with the lines of force, draw the crosssections
of the surfaces with dashed lines.
STUDENT A: I' shall draw the dashed lines so that they
always intersect the lines of force at right angles. Here is my
drawing (Fig; 91).
TEACHER: Your drawing is correct.
§ 24:
TEACHER: Let us introduce
some conducting body into an
HOW DO LINES OF FORCE electrostatic field. You know well
BEHAVE NEAR
THE SURFACE
OF A CONDUCTOR?
that a conductor in a field is
characterized by a quantity called
the capacitance. But did you
ever ask yourself why we speak of
the capacitance of a condudor,
but never of a dielectric?
STUDENT A: It never occurred
to me.
TEACHER: How do Y0t! define
the capacitoance of an isolated
conductor?
STUDENT A: It is the quantity
of electricity that must be im
parted to the conductor to in
crease its potential by one unit.
TEACHER: Mind you that you speak here of the potential as
being a characteristic of a body. But up till now the potential
was regarded as a characteristic of the field and, as such, it
varied from point to point. The potential is a function of the
coordinates of the con;esponding point of a field. Can we speal\
of it as being a characteristic of a body? If we can, then
why?
STUDI;:NT B: This is possible if the body is a conductor;. The
fact is that all points of a conductor placed in an electrosta
tic field have the same potential. A conductor is an equipo
tential body.
TEACHER: On what do you base your statement?
STUDENT B;' A conductor has free charges. Therefore, if a
difference in potential existed between any two points of the
conductor, there would be an electric current between these
points. This is obviously impossible.
TEACHER: Quite correct. It can be said that when a conduc
tor is brought into an electrostatic field, the free charges in
the conductor are redistributed in such a manner that the
field intensity within the conductor becomes equal to zero.
This actually signifies that all the points of the conductor
(both inside and on its surface) have the same potential. The
uniformity of the potential at all points of a conductor' enable
us to speak of the potential of the conductor as a body. I wish
to point out that there are no free charges in a dielectric and
176
therefore no redistribution of charges can occur. Incidentally,
just how are the free charges redistributed in a conductor?
STUDENT B: They are concentrated on its surface. The grea
ter the curvature of any projecting element of the conductor,
the denser the charges. The maximum charge density will be
at a sharp point.
TEACHER: Exactly. Now it is clear that a conductor in an
electrostatic field is an equipotential body. It follows that
the surface of the conductor is an equipotential surface. On
the basis of this conclusion tell me how the lines of force of
an electrostatic field behave near the surface of a condudor?
Fig. 92
STUDENT B: Since the lines of force are always perpendicular
to equipotential surfaces, they must "run" into the surface of
the condudor. at right angles.
TEACHER: Unfortunately examinees frequently don't know
this. You should have no difficulty in drawing a pidure of
the lines of force in the field of a parallelplate capacitor with
a metal ball between the plates. As a rule, examinees are
greatly puzzled by this question.
STUDENT 8: The lines of force should approach the plates of
the capacitor and the surface of the ball at right angles. Thus,
the picture of the lines of force will resemble that shown in
Fig. 92.
TEACHER: Everything is correct. I can't understand why
some examinees think that the lines of force must bypass the
ball.
Now let us consider the following problem. A point charge
+q is located at a distance r from the earth's surface. It
should induce a charge of opposite sign in the earth. As a
result, a force of electric attraction is developed between the
charge and the earth. Find this force. I suggest that both of
you think about this problem.
171
STUDENT A: The charge induced in the earth should be equal
to the charge +q. It follows that the required force equals
q2/r2.
STUDENT 8: I don't agree with this. Student A assumed that
the charge induced in the earth is concentrated at one point
(point A in Fig. 93a). Actually, however, the induced charge
is not concentrated at one point but is distributed over the
surface of the earth. For this reason, we know beforehand
ihat the required force must be less than q2jr2.
(a) + q
A
Fig. 93
TEACHER: I fully agree with you. How then shall we go
:.about finding the force of attraction between the charge and
the earth?
STUDENT B: It seems to me that we must examine the field
between the charge and the earth's surface. The surface of the
earth is evidently an equipotential one. Consequently, near
the earth's surface the equipotential surfaces of the field must
be close in shape to planes. At the same time, the equipoten
tial surfaces in the vicinity of the charge must be spherical.
This enables us to draw a qualitative picture of the equipo
tential surfaces (or, more exactly, of the crosssections of these
surfaces). When this is done, we can draw the lines of force
according to the familiar rule. This has been done in Fig. 93b,
where the Jines of force are solid and the crosssections of the
surfaces are dashed lines .
.178
TEACHER: Continue your Hne of reasoning, please. Doesn't
your picture of the lines of force in Fig. 93b remind you of
something?
STUDENT B: Yes, of course. This picture certainly resembles
the one with the. lines of force of two point charges that are
equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. I shall draw this
picture at the right (see Fig. 93c). Now everything is quite
clear. In both cases (see Fig. g3b and c), the appearance of
the field near charge +q is the same. According to equation
(\30) this means the same force acts on charge +q in both
cases. Thus, the required force is q2/ (4r2).
TEACHER: Your reasoning is faultless. This problem clearly
shows that the concept of the field may be exceptionally
frui tfu!.
§ 25.
HOW DO YOU DEAL
WITH MOTION
IN A UNIFORM
ELECTROSTATIC FIELD?
TEACHER: Assume. that a char
ged body moves In a uniform elec
trostatic field, i.e. in a field
where each point has the same
intensity E both in magnitude
and direction. An example is
the field between the plates of a
parallelplate capacitor. Can you
see any resemblance between the
problem on the motion of a char
ged body in a uniform electro
static field and any problems con
sidered preViously?
STUDENT B: It seems to me
that it closely resembles the
problem of the motion of a body
in a gravitational field. Over
relatively short distances, the gravitational field of the'
. earth can be regarded as uniform.
TEACHER: Exactly. And what is the difference between
motion in an electrostatic field and in a gravitational
field? '
STUDENT B: Different forces act on the bodies. In an elect
rostatic field, the force acting on the body is F e=Eq (it
imparts an acceleration of ae=Eq/m to the body). The force
in a gravitational field is P=mg (imparting the acceleration g
to the body). Here m is the mass of the body and q is its elect
ric charge.
TEACHER: I wish that all examinees could understand the
simple truth that the motion of a body in any uniform field is
kinematically the same. What differs is only the value of the
force acting on the body in different fields. The motion of a
charged body in a uniform electrostatic field is of the same
nature as the motion of an ordinary stone in the earth's field
of gravitation. Let us consider a problem in which the motion
of a body takes place simultaneously in two fields: gravita
tional and electrostatic. A body of mass m with a charge +q is
thrown upward at an angle of a. to the horizontal with an initial
velocity Va. The body travels simultaneously in the field of
gravitation and in a uniform electrostatic field with an inten
sity E. The lines of force of both fields are directed vertically
downward (Fig. 94a). Find the time of {light Tl,' range Ll and
maximum height reached H ~ .
180
STl..JDENT B: Two forces act on the body: the weight P=mg
and the electric force F e=Eq. In the given case, both forces
are parallel. As in § 5, I can resolve the initial vector
fa) into component5 iR two
!J
IjlL
p
Fig. 94
directions ....
TEA<ijlER (interrupt
ing): Just a minute!
Do you want to repeat
the solution demonstra
ted in a similar problem
in § 5?
STUDENT B: Yes, at
least briefly.
TEACHER: There is no
need to do that. You can
refer directly to the
results in equations (15),
(16) and (17). Just ima
gine that the body tra
vels in a "stronger" field
of gravitation characte
rized by a total acceleration equal to g+Eq/m. Make
the following substitution in equations (15), (16) and (17)
(g + !q) for g (139)
and you will obtain the required results at once:
(140)
(141)
(142)
STUDENT A: There is one point here that I don't understand.
In comparison with the corresponding problem in § 5, an ad
ditional force Fe acts on the body in the given problem. This
force is directed vertically downward and therefore should not
influence the horizontal motion of the body. Why then, in the
given case, does it influence the range of flight Ll?
18J
TEACHeR: The range depends upon the time of flight. and
this time is determined from a consideration of the vertical
motion of the body.
Now let us make a slight change in the conditions of the
problem: assume that the lines of force of the electrostatic
field are directed at an angle to the vertical (Fig. 94b). As be
fore, find the time of [light T 2, range L 2 and maximum height
reached H 2.
STUDENT A: First I shall resolve force· Fe into two compo
nents: vertical (Fe cos and horiwntal (Fe sin This prob
lem reminds me of the problem with the tail wind in § 5. Here
the component Fe sin plays the part of the "force of the wind".
TEACHER: Quite right. Only remember that in contrast to
the problem with the tail wind you mentioned, here we
have a di fferent vertical force, namely: mg+ Fe cos
STUDENT A: I shall make use of equations (15), (16) and
(18), in which I'll make the following substitutions
+
Eqcos f }
g or g
m .
Eq sin f F
or 
mg+Eqcos p
(143)
After this I obtain the required results at once
T = 2v
o
sina (144)
2 g+ Eq cos
m
L = [lao sin 2a (1 + Eq sin tan a) (145)
2
g m
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. Unfortunately, examinees
are often incapable of drawing an analogy between motion in
a field of gravitation and motion in a uniform electrostatic
field. Conseq uently, such problems prove to be excessively
difficult for them.
STUDENT A: We did not study such problems before. The
only problem bf this kind I have ever encountered concerns the
motion of an electron between the plates of a parallelplate
capacitor, but we neglected the influence of the gravitational
182
field on the electron. I remember that such problems seemed
to be exceedingly difficult.
TEACHER: All these problems are special cases of the prob
lem illustrated in Fig. 94a, since in the motion of an electron
inside a capacitor the influence of the gravitational field
can be neglected. Let us consider one such problem.
Having an initial velocity V1> an electron flies into a paral
lelplate capacitor at an angle of 0.1 and leaves the capacitor
+
at an angle of 0.
2
to the plates as
shown in Fig. 95. The length of
the capacitor plates is L. Find the
intensity E of the capacitor field
and the kinetic energy of the ele
ctron as it leaves the capacitor.
The mass m and charge q of the
electron are known.
Fig. 95
I denote by V
2
the velocity of
the electron as it flies out of
the capacitor. Along the plates
the electron flies at uniform velocity. This enables us to
determine the time of flight T inside the capacitor
T=_L_
V
l
cos al
The initial antI final components of the electron velocity
perpendicular to the plates are related by the familiar
kinematic relationship for uniformly decelerated motion
L . . EqT . Eq
v
2
sma
2
=V
1
sm 0.
1
  =v
1
sma
l
 
m m VI cosa1
from which, taking into account that the velocity component
along the plates remains unchanged (VI cos a
1
=V
2
cos 0.
2
), we
obtain E L
VI cos a
1
tan a
2
= VI sin a
1
 m
q
Vl cos  ~ 
From this equation we determine the intensity of the capaci
tor field
(147)
The kinetic energy of the electron as it flies out of the capa
citor is
(148)
Is everything quite clear in this solution?
183
STUDENT A: Yes. Now I know how to solve such problems.
TEACHER: Also of interest are problems concerning the vib
ration of a pendulum with a charged bob located within a pa
+ I ' rallelplate capacitor. We
, 'l shall consider the fOIlOWi,n
g
(a) el I t problem. A bob of mass m
I with a charge q is suspended
: +'1 from a thin string of length
1 inside a parallelplate
+
(C)
\
,
_______ I
£
capacitor with its plates
oriented horizontally. The
intensity of' the capacitor
field is E, and the lines of
force are directed downward
 ~ . : r (Fig. 96a). Find the period
, of vibration of such a pen
.,) dulum.
, STUDENT B: Since in tlie
\ given case the lines of force
u u: of the electrostatic field and
. eff of the gravitational field
are in the same direction,
I can use the result of equ
ation (75) for an ordinary
pendulum after substituting
the sum of the accelerations
(g+ Eq/m) for the accelera
tion of gravity g. Thus the
required period of vibration
:c will be
~ ~ "  
!J
Fig. 96
TEACHER: Quite correct.
As you see, the posed prob
lem is very simple if you
are capable of using the
analogy between motion in
a uniform electrostatic field and in a gravitational field.
STUDENT A: Equation (149) resembles equation (77) in its
structure.
184
TEACHER: This is quite true. Only in equation (77) the
addend to the acceleration g was due to the acceleration of the
frame of reference (in which the vibration of the pendulum was
investigated), while in equation (149) the addend is associated
with the presence of a supplementary interaction.
How will equation (149) change if the sign of the charges
on the capacitor plates is reversed?
STUDENT A: In this case the period of vibration will be
T=21[ ... 1 lEq
V g
m
( 150)
TEACHER: Good. What will happen to the pendulum if we
gradually increase the intensity of the capacitor field?
STUDENT A: The period of vibration will increase, approach
ing infinity at E=mg/q. If E continues to increase further,
then we will have to fasten the string to the lower and not the
upper plate of the capacitor.
TEACHER: What form will the equation for the period take
in this case?
STUDENT A: This equation will be of the form
T=2n ..
1
E/
V m
g
(151)
TEACHER: Good. Now let us complicate the problem to some
extent. We will consider the vibration of a pendulum with a
charged bob inside a capacitor whose plates are oriented, not
horizontally, but vertically (Fig. 96b). In this case, the acce
lerations g and (Eq/m) are directed at right angles to each
other. As before, find the period of vibration of the pendulum
and, in addition, the angLe ex that the string makes with the
vertical when the pendulum is in the equilibrium position.
STUDENT B: Taking into consideration the line of reasoning
given in the present section and in § 12, I can conclude at
once that: (I) the period of vibration is expressed in terms
of the effective acceleration g eft' which is the vector sum
of the accelerations of the earth's gravity and of the electro
static field; and (2) the equilibrium direction of the string
coincides with the vector of the abovementioned effective
acceleration (this direction is shown in Fig. 96b by a dashed
185
line). Thus
and
Eq
g
( 152)
( 153)
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. I think that now it will be
easy to investigate the general case in which the capacitor
plates make an angle of with the horiiOntal (Fig. 96c). The
same problem is posed: find the period of vibration of the pen
dulum and the angle a between the equilibriuin direction of
the pendulum string and the vertical.
STUDENT B: As in the preceding case, the effective accelera
tion is the vector sum of the acceleration of the earth's gravity
and that of the electrostatic field. The direction of this effe
ctive acceleration is the. equilibrium direction of the pendu
lum string. The effective acceleration g sff can be found by
using the law of cosines from trigonometry. Thus
g;ff= +2g
Then
T = 21'(, r . . .. I (154)
J! V g2+ r
The value of tan a. can be found as follows
Eq . R
g.ff x m SIn f'
tan a = = E:;;
g eff Y g+ .!Leos
m
(165)
TEACHER: Your answers are correct. Obviously, at
they should lead to the results for the case of horizontal pla
and at to those for vertical plates. Please check
whether this is so.
STUDENT B: If then cos and sin In this
case, equation (154) reduces to equation (149) and tan a=O
(the equilibrium position of the string is yertical). If
then cos and sin 1. In this case, equation (154) be
186
comes equation (152). and equation (155) reduces to equation
(153).
TEACHER: I think that we have completely cleared up the
problem of the vibration of a pendulum with a charged bob
inside a parallelplate capacitor.
In conclusion, I want you to calculate the period of vibra
tion of a pendulum with a charged bob given that at the point
I . . where the string of the pendulum is attached
~ there is another charge of exactly the same
+q magnitude and sign (Fig. 97). There are no
: capacitors whatsoever.
I STUDENT A: According to Coulomb's law,
: the bob will be repulsed from the point of
I suspension of the string with a force of q2/12.
__ ~ This force should impart an acceleration of
I q2/ (12m) to the bob. The acceleration must
Fig. 97 be taken into account in the equation for
finding the period of vibration. As a result
we obtain the following expression
T = 2n.. ;'7"[ q2
V g+ 12m
(156)
TEACHER (to Student B): Do you agree with this result?
STUDENT B: No, I don't. For equation (156) to be valid, it
is necessary for the acceleration q"/(l2m) to be directed ver
tically downward at all times. Actually, it is so directed
only when the pendulum passes the equilibrium position. Thus
it is clear that equation (156) is wrong. in any case. However,
I don't think that I can give the right answer.
TEACHER: That you understand the error in equation (156)
is a good sign in itself. In the given case, the electric force
is at a1\ times directed along the string and is therefore al
ways counterbalanced by the reaction of the string. It follows
that the electric force does not lead to the development of a
restoring force and, consequently, cannot influence the period
of vibration of the pendulum.
STUDENT 8: Does that mean that in the given case the' pe
riod of vibration of the pendulum will be found by equation
(75) for a pendulum with an uncharged bob?
TEACHER: Exactly. In the case we are considering, the field
of electric forces is in no way uniform and no analogy can be
drawn with a gravitational field.
187
PROBLEMS
45. An electron flies into a parallelplate capacitor in a direction paral
lel to the plates and at a distance of 4 cm from the positively charged pLate
which is 15 cm long. How much time will elapse before the electron falls
on this plate if the intensity of the capacitor field equals 500 Vim (volts
per metre)? At what minimum velocity can the electron fly into the ca
pacitor so that it does not fall on the plate? The mass of the electron is
1
9X g, its charge is 4.8X 10
10
esu (elect
_ + rastatic units). .
..... 46_ An electron flies into a parallelplate
1
capacitor parallel to its plates at a velocity of
ax 10
8
m/sec. Find the intensity of the field in
I l the capacUor If the electron flies out of it at an
I angle of 30° to the plates. The plates are 20 cm
,,T' long. The mass and charge of the electron are
known (see problem 45).
T
Fig. 98
47 _ Inside a parallelplate capacitor with a
field intensity E, a bob with a mass m and
charge +q, suspended from a string of length 1,
rotates with uniform motion in a circle (Fig. 98).
The angle of inclination of the string isa. Find
the tension of the string and the kinetic energy of the bob.
48. Two balls of masses m
1
and and with charges +ql and +q2
are connected by a string which passes over a fixed pulley. Calculate the
acceleration of the balls and the tension in the string if the whole system
is located in a uniform electrostatic field of intensity E whose lines of force
are directed vertically downward. Neglect any interaction between the'
charged balls .
. 49. A ball of mass m with a charge of +q can rotate in a vertical plane
at the end of a string of length l in a uniform electrostatic field whose
lines of force are directed vertically upward. What horizontal velocity
must be imparted to the ball in its upper position so that the tension of
the string in the lower position of the ball Is 10 times the weight of the
ball?
§ 26.
CAN YOU APPLY
COULOMB'S LAW?
is inversely proportional
medium. Is that it?
TEACHER: Let us discuss Cou
lomb's law in more detail, as
'well as problems that are asso
ciated with the application of
this law. First of all, please state
Coulomb's law.
STUDENT A: The force of in
teraction between two charges is
proportional to the product of
the charges and inversely pro
portional to the square of the dis
tance between them.
TEACHER: Your statement of
this law is incomplete; you have
left out some points.
STUDENT B: Perhaps I should
add that the force of interaction
to the dielectric constant Ke of the
TEACHER: It wouldn't be bad to mention it, of course. But
that is not the main omission. You have forgotten again that
a force is a vector quantity. Consequently, in speaking of the
magnitude of a force, don't forget to mention Its direction
(in this connection, remember our discussion of Newton's
second law in § 4).
STUDENT A: Now I understand. You mean we must add that
the force with which the charges interact is directed along the
line connecting the charges?
TEACHER: That is insufficient. There are two directions
along a line.
STUDENT A: Then we must say that the charges repulse each
other if they are of the same sign and attract each other if
they are of opposite signs.
TEACHER: Good. Now, if you collect all these additions,
you will obtain a complete statement of Coulomb's law. It
would do no harm to emphasize that this law refers to inte
raction between point charges.
STUDENT 8: Can the equation of Coulomb's law be written
so that it contains full information concerning the law? The
ordinary form
(157)
yields no information on the direction of the force.
189
TEACHER: Coulomb's law can be written in this way. For
this we first have to find out what force we are referring to.
Assume that we mean the force with which charge ql acts on
charge q2 (and not the other way round). We introduce coor
dinate axes with the origin at charge ql' Then we draw vector
+
r from the origin to the point where charge q" is located (Fig.
99). This vector is called the' radius vector of charge q". In
z
this case, the complete formula of Cou
lomb's law will be
F=B qlq2 ; (\58)
KerB
where factor B denends upon the sele·
ction of the system of units.
STUDf:NT A: But in this equation the.
a: force is inversely proportional, not to the
Fig. 99 square, but to the cube of the distance
between the chargesl
TEACHER: Not at aH. Vector ;,r is numerically equal to
unity (dimensionless unity!). It is called a unit vector. It
serves only to indicate direction.
STUDENT A: Do you mean that I can just write equation
(158) if I am asked about Coulomb's law? Nothing else?
TEACHER: You win only have to explain the notation in
the equation.
STUDENT A: And what if I wri·te equation (157) instead of
(158)?
TEACHER: Then you will have to indicate verbally the di
rection of the Coulomb force.
STUDENT A: How does equation (158) show that the charges
attract or repulse each other?
TEACHER: If the charges are of the same sign, then the
product qlq2 is positive. In this case vector F is parallel
to vector;' Vector F is the force applied to charge q2; charge
q2 is repulsed by charge ql' If the charges are of opposite sign,
the product qlq2 is negative and then vector F will be anti
parallel to vector r: i. e. chargeq2 will be attracted by charge ql'
STUDENT A: Please explain what we should know about
factor B.
TEACHER: This factor depends upon the choice of a system of
units. If you use the absolute electrostatic (cgse) system of
units, then B=I; if you use the International System of Units
190
(SI), then B=1/(4:rt8o), where the constant Bo=8.85xlOlz
couI
2
/Nm
B
(coulombs per newtonm!).
Let us solve a few problems on Coulomb's law.
Problem 1. Four identical charges q are located at the
corners of a square. What charge Q of opposite sign must be
placed at the centre of the square so that the whole system of
charges is in equilibrium?
STUDENT A: Of the system of five charges. four are known and
one is unknown. Since the system is in equilibrium, the sum of
the forces applied to each of the five charges equals zero. In
. other words. we must deal with the
c____ i equilibrium of each of tILe five charges.
q 1 1'1 TEACHER: That will be superfluous.
: : You can readily see that charge Q is in
I I equilibrium, regardless of its magni
I ~ I d
I I tu e, due to its geometric position.
q .. _______ I Fz Therefore. the condition of equilibrium
J) 'I with respect to this charge contributes
,., nothing to the solution. Owing to the
symmetry of the square, the remaining
Fig. 100 four charges q are completely equiva
lent. Consequently, it is sufficient to
consider the equilibrium of only one of these charges, no mat
ter which. We can s e l ~ t , for example. the charge at point
A (Fig. 1(0). What forces act on this charge?
STUDENT A: Force F 1 from the charge' at point B, force F 2
from the charge at point D and, finally, the force from the
soughtfor charge at the centre of the square.
TEACHER: I beg your pardon. but whydidn't you take the
charge at point C into account?
STUDENT A: But it is obstructed by the charge at the centre
of the square.
TEACHER: This is a naive error. Remember: in a system of
charges each charge is subject to forces exerted by all the
other charges of the system without exception. Thus, you will
have to add force F 8 acting on the charge at point A from the
charge at point C. The final diagram of forces is shown in
Fig. 100.
STUDENT A: Now, everything is clear. I choose the direction
AB and project all the forces applied to the charge at point A
on this direction. The algebraic sum of all the force projec
tions should equal zero, i. e. .
F 4 = 2F 1 cos 45° + F 8
191
Denoting the side of the square by a, we can rewrite this
equation in the form
from which
Qq V q2 q2
2= 2
3
+
2a2
a a
"2
(159)
TEACHER: Quite correct. Will the equilibrium of this sys
tem of charges be stable?
STUDENT B: No, it won't. This is unstable equilibrium.
Should anyone of the charges shift slightly, all the charges
(0)
1
I
. 1
r
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
r
I
I p
Pfii,
Fig. 101
will begin moving and the
system will break up.
TEACHER: You are right.
H is quite impossible to
devise a stable equilibrium
configuration of stationary
charges .
Problem 2. Two spherical
bobs of the some mass and
radius, having equal charges
and suspended from strings
of the some length attached
to the same point, are sub
merged in a lUjuid dielect·
ric of permittivity Ke and
density Po. What should the
density p of the bob material
be for the angle at divergence
of the strings to be the some in
the air and in the dielectric?
STUDENT B: The divergence of the strings is due to Coulomb
repulsion of the bobs. Let F el denote Coulomb repulsion in the
air and FeD' in the liquid dielectric.
TEACHER: In what way do these forces differ?
STUDENT B: Since, according to the conditions of the prob
lem, the angle of divergence of the strings is the same in both
cases, the distances between the bobs are also the same. There
fore, the difference in the forces Fel and Fe'4 is due only to
the dielectric permittivity. Thus
(160)
192
Let us consider the case where the bobs are in the air. From
the equilibrium of the bobs we condude that the vector sum of
the forces F el and the weight should be directed along the
string because otherwise it cannot be counterbalanced by the
reaction of the string (Fig. lOla). It follows that
F
~ I = tana
where a is the angle between the string and the vertical.
When the bobs are submerged in the dielectric, force F e1 should
be replaced by force F eS' and the weight P by the difference
(PF b)' where F b is the buoyant force. However, the ratio
of these new forces should, as before, be
equal to tan a (Fig. 10Ib). Thus
~ = t a n a
PFb .
Using the last two equations, we obtain
Fel Fe2
p= PFb
After substituting. equation (160) and
taking into consideration that P=Vgp
and Fb=Vgpo, we obtain
Fig. 102 ~ = _ I _
P PPo
and the required density of the bob material is
p= PoKe (161)
Ke l
TEACHER: Your answer is correct.
Problem 3. Two identically charged spherical bobs of mass m
are suspended on strings of length l each and attached to the
same point. A t the point of suspension there is a third ball
of the same charge (Fig. 102). Calculate the charge q of the
bobs and baLL if the angle between the strings in the equilibrium
posi lion is equal to a.
STUDENT B: We shall consider bob A. Four forces (Fig. 102)
are applied to it. Since the bob'is in equilibrium, I shall
resolve these forces into components in two directions ....
TEACHER (interrupting): In the given case, there is a
simpler solution. The force due to the charge at the point of
suspension has no influence whatsoever on the equilibrium
position of the string: force F e2 acts along the string and is
7 118 193
counterbalanced in any position by the reaction of the string.
Therefore, the given problem can be dealt with as if there were
no charge at all at the point of suspension of the string. As
a rule, examinees don't understand this.
STUDENT B: Then we shall disregard force F e ~ ' Since the
vectQr sum of the forces F el and P must be directed along the
string, we obtain
;L= tan ~ (162)
TEACHER: Note that this result does not depend upon the
presence or absence of a charge at the point of suspension.
STUDENT B: Since
q2
Fel=. a.
4[2 sin
2

2
we obtain from equation (162):
q2 a.
....:....=tan
4[2 mg sin2 .::. 2
. 2
Solving for the required charge, we obtain
q= 21 sin ~ V mgtan ~
(163)
TEACHER: Your answer is correct.
STUDENT A: When will the presence of a charge at the point
of su·spension be of significance?
TEACHER: For instance, when it is required to find the
tension· of the string.
Fig. 103
PROBLEMS
50. Identical charges +q are located at the ver
tices of a regular hexagon. What charge must be
placed at the centre of the hexagon to set the whole
system of charges at equilibrium?
51. A spherical bob of mass m and charge q sus
pended from a string of length I rotates about a
fixed charge identical to that of the bob (Fig. 103).
The angle between the string and the vertical is a..
Find the angular velocity of uniform rotation of the
bob and the tension of the string.
52. A spherical bob of mass m with the charge q
can rotate in a vertical plane at the end of a string
of length t. At the centre of rotation there is a second
ball with a charge identical in sign and magnitude to
that of the rotating bob. What minimum horizontal
velocity must be imparted to the bob in its lower
pOSition to enable it to make a full revolution?
Electric currents have become an integral part of our every
day life, and so there is no need to point out the importance
of the Ohm .and the JouleLenz laws. But how well do you
know these Jaws?
§ 27.
DO YOU KNOW
OHM'S LAW?
TEACHER: Do you know Ohm's
law?
STUDENT A: Yes, of course.
I think everybody knows Ohm's
l a w ~ That is probably the simplest
question in the whole physics
course.
TEACHER: We shall see. A
portion of an electric circuit is
shown in Fig. I04a. Here C is
the electromotive force (emf)
and it is. directed to the right;
R 1 and R 2 are resistors; r is the
internal resistance of the seat of
electromotive force; and QlA and
q> B are the potentia Is a t the ends
of the given portion of the cir
cuit. The current flows from left to right. Find the value I of
this current.
STUDENT A; But you have an open circuit!
TEACHER: I proposed that you consider a portion of some
large circuit. You know nothing about the rest of the circuit.
(a)
Fig. 104
Nor do you need to, since
the potentials at the ends
of this portion are given.
STUDENT A: Previously,
we only dealt with closed
electric circuits. For 'them,
Ohm's law can be written
in the form
~
1= R..L
I r
(164)
TEACHER: You are mista
ken. You also considered
elements of circuits. According to Ohm's law, the current in
an element of a circuit is equal to the ratio of the voltage
to the resistance.
STUDENT A: But is this a circuit element?
TEACHER: Certainly. One such element is illustrated in
Fig. 104b. For this element you can write Ohm's law in the
form
(165)
196
Instead of the potential difference (CPACPB) behcveen the ends
of the elen'lent, you previously employed the simpler term
"voltage". denoting it by the letter V.
STUDENT A: In any case, we did not deal with an element of
a circuit of the form shown in Fig. I04a. .
(a) TEACHER: Thus, we find that
, you know Ohm's law for the
. special cases of a closed circuit
and for the simplest kind of ele
ment which includes no emf. You
A
A
CD
Fig, 105
B
do not, however, know Ohm's
law for the general case. Let us
look into this together.
Figure I05a shows the change
in potential along a given portion
of a circuit. The currerit flows
from left to right and therefore
the potential drops from A to C.
The drop in potential across the
resistor R 1 is equal to 1 R l' Furth
er, we assume that the plates of
a galvanic cell are located at C
and D. At these points upward
potential jumps occur; the sum
of the jumps is the emf equal
to G. Between C and D the po
tential drops across the internal
resistance of the cell; the drop
equals [r, Finally, the drop in
potential across the resistor R a
equals [R 2' The sum of the drops
across all the resistances of the
portion minus the upward poten
tial jump is .equal to V. It is the
potential difference between the ends of the portion being con
sidered. Thus
From this we obtain the expression for the current, i. e. Ohm's
law for the given portion of the circuit
1= t6'+(lPA'PR)
R1 +R2 +r
( 166)
\Q7
Note that from this last equation we can readily obtain the
special cases familiar to you. For the simplest element contain·
ing no emf we substitute G=O and r=O into eauation {l66).
Then
1= IpAIpB
Rl+R?
which corresponds to equation (165). To obtain a closed cir
cuit, we must connect the ends A and B of our portion. This
means that QlA =QlB' Then
This corresponds to equation (164).
STUDENT A: I see now that I really didn't know Ohm's law.
TEACHER: To he more exact, you knew it for special cases
only. Assume that a voltmeter is connected to the terminals
of the cell in the portion of the Circuit shown in Fig. l04a.
Assume also that the voltmeter has a sufficiently high resist
ance so that we can disregard. the distortions due to its int
roduction into the circuit. What will the voltmeter indicate?
STUDENT A: I know that a voltmeter connected to the ter
minals of a· cell should indicate the voltage drop across the
external circuit. In the given case, however, we know nothing
about the external circuit.
TEACHER: A knowledge of the external circuit is not neces
sary for our purpose. If the voltmeter is connected to points C
and D, it will indicate the difference in potential between
these points. You understand this, don't you?
STUDENT A: .Yes, of course.
TEACHER: Now look at Fig. 105a. It is evident that the
difference in potential between points C and D equals (<81 r).
DenotinR the voltmeter reading by V, we obtain the formula
(167)
I \,,'ould advise you to use this very formula since it requi
res no knowledge of any external resistances. This is espe
cially valuable in cases when you deal with a more or less
complicated circuit. Note that equation ([67) lies at the
basis of a wellknown rule: if the circuit is broken and no
current flows (/=0), then V=C. Here the voltmeter reading
coincides with the value of the emf.
198
Do you understand all this?
STUDENT A: Yes, now it is clear to me.
TEACHER: As a check I shall ask you a question which
examinees quite frequently find difficult to answer. A closed
circuit consists of n cells connected in series. Each element has an
emf t8 and internal resistance r. The resistance of the connecting
wires is assumed to be zero. What will be the reading of a volt
meter connected to the .terminals of one of the cellS? As usual,
it is assumed that no current flows. through the voltmeter.
STUDENT A: I shall reason as in the preceding explanation.
The voltmeter reading will be V=t8/ r. From Ohm's law for
the given circuit we can find the current /=(ncl})! (nr)={j!r.
Substituting this in the first equation we obtain V=tB
 ({t/r)r=O. Thus, in this case, the voltmeter will read zero.
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. Only please remember that
this case was idealized. On the one hand, we neglected the
resistance of the connecting wires, and on the other, we assu
med the resistance of the voltmeter to be infinitely large, so
don't try to check this result by experiment.
Now let us consider a case when the current in a portion of
a circuit flows in one direction and the emf acts in the opposite
direction. This is iIlustrated in Fig. W4c. Draw a diagram
showing the change in potential along this portion.
STUDENT A: Is it possible for the current to flow against
the emf?
TEACHER: You forget that we have here only a portion of a
circuit. The circuit may contain other emf's outside the por
tion being considered, under· whose effect the current in this
portion may flow against the given emf.
STUDENT A: I see. Since the current flows from left to
right, there is a potential drop equal to / Rl from A to C. Since
the emf is now in the opposite direction, the potential jumps
at points C and D should now reduce the potential instead of
increasing it. Prom point C to point D the potential should
drop by the amount / r, and from point D to point B, by / R I'
As a result we obtain the diagram of Fig. 105b.
TEACHER: And what form will Ohm's law take in this case?
STUDENT A: It will be of the form
(168)
TEACHER: Correct. And what wiIJ the voltmeter indicate
now?
199
STUDENT A: It can be seen from Fig. 105b that in this case
V = C+ ir (169)
TEACHER: .Exactly. Now consider the following problem.
In the electrical circuit illustrated in Fig. 106, r= I ohm, R=
= 10 ohms and the resistance of the voltmeter
Rv=200 ohms. Compute the relative error of
the voltmeter reading obtained assuming that
the voltmeter has an infinitely high resistance
R and consequently causes no distortion in the
r   ~     ' circuit.
We shall denote the reading of the real
voltmeter by V and that. of the voltmeter
with infinite resistance by V CD' Then the rela
Fig. 106 tive error will be
f= V",v = I_V (170)
v"" v'"
Further, we shall take into consideration that
V 00 = R ~ r R (171)
and
1= ell R R v ( 172)
r+.RRv R+Rv
R+Rv
After substituting equations (171) and (172) into (170) we
obtain
j=]_ Rv(R+r) =1 Rv(R+r)
(R+R
v
) r+RRv (r+R) Rv+rR
I
= 1 rR
1+ (r+R)Rv
Since RvpR and R>r, the fraction in the denominator of
the last equation is much less than unity. Therefore, we can
make use of an approximation formula which is always useful
to bear in mind
(173)
This formula holds true at ~ 1 for any value of ex. (whole
or fractional, positive or negative). Employing approximation
200
formula (173) with a=l and A.=rR (r+R)iR;I, we
obtain
( 174)
Substituting the given numerical values into equation
(174), we find that the error is f",,::,I/220=O.0045.
STUDENT A: Does this mean that the higher the resistance of
the voltmeter in comparison with tbe external resistance, the
fa) lower the relative error, and that
the more reason we have to neg·
8, lect the distortion of the circuit
when the voltmeter is connected
into it?
TEACHER: Yes, that's so. Only
keep in mind that v is a
sufficient, but. not a necessary
condition for the smallness of the
error f. It is evident from equa·
tion (174) that error f is small
when the condition v is
complied with, i.e. the resistance
of the voltmeter is much higher
than the internal resistance of
E l'
.11',
Af:{
the current source. The external
resistance in this case may be
infinitely high.
Fig. 107
Try to solve the following
problem: In the electrical circuit
shown in Fig. 107a, ,fi=6 V, r=2/3 ohm an.d R=2 ohms.
Compute the voltmeter reading.
STUDENT A: Can we assume that the resistance of the volt
meter is infinitely high?
TEACHER: Yes, and the more so because this resistance is
not speci fied in the problem.
STUDENT A: But then, will the current flow through the
resistors in the middle of the circuit? It will probably flow
directly along the elements A IA 2 and BIB B'
TEACHER: You are mistaken. Before dealing with the cur·
I would advise you to simplify the diagram somewhat.
Smce elements A IA 2 and BIB 2 have no resistance, it follows
that CPA 1 = CPA 2 and qJBl=qJB2' Next, we can make use of the
rule: if in a circuit any two points have the same potential.
201
we can bring them together without changing the currents
through the resistors. Let us apply this rule to our case by
making point A i coincide with point A 2, and point B 1 with B 2'
We then obtain the diagram shown in Fig. 107b. This one is
quite easy to handle. Therefore, I' II give you the final answer
directly: the voltmeter reading will be 4 V. I shall leave the
necessary calculations to you as a home assignment.
PROBLEMS
53. An ammeter, connected into a branch of the circuit shown in
Fig. 108, has a reading of 0.5 A. Find the current through resistor R4
if the resistances are: Rl=2 ohms, R:a=4 ohms, Ra=1 ohm, R,=2 ohms
and R 5= I ohm. •
RZ
Fig. 108 Fig. 109
54. In the electric circuit shown In Fig. 109, V, r= I ohm and·
R=2 ohms. Find the reading of the ammeter. •
55. The resistance of a galvanometer equals 0,2 ohm. Connected in
parallel to the galvanometer is a shunt with a resistance of 0.05 ohm.
What resistance should be connected in series with this combination to
make the total equa,l to that of the galv.anometer? 1
56. A voltmeter WIth a resIstance of 100 ohms IS connected to the ter· I
minals of a cell with an emf of 10 V and internal resistance of I ohm."l
Determine the reading of the voltmeter and compute the relative error.
of its reading assuming that its resistance is infinitely high. j
57. An ammeter with a resistance of I ohm is connected into a cirCUi
a
with an external resistance of 49 ohms and with a current source having
an emf of IO V and an internal resistance of I ohm. Determine the readin
of the ammeter and compute the relative error of its reading assuming
that it has no resistance.
§ 28.
CAN A CAPACITOR
BE CONNECTED INTO
A DIRECT·CURRENT
CIRCUIT?
TEACHER: Let us consider the
following problem. In the cir
cuit shown in Fig. no, C is the
capacitance of the capacitor. Find
the charge Q on the capacitor
plates if the emf of the current
source equals <C and its internal
resistance is r.
STUDENT A: But can we use
a capacitor in a directcurrent
circuit? Anyway, no current will
flow through it.
TEACHER: What if it doesn't?
But it will flow in the parallel
branches.
STUDENT A: I think I under
stand now. Since current doesn't
flow through the capacitor in the circuit of Fig. 110, it will
not flow through resistor R 1 either. In the external part of
the circuit, current will flow only through resistor R 2' We can
find the current from the relationship I =IlJ (R s+ r) and then
the potential difference between points A and B will equal
the drop in voltage across resistor R 2, i.e.
CPBCPA = I R2=cC
R
2_
R,+r
(175)
I don't knpw what to do next. To find the charge on the
capacitor plates, I must first find the potential difference
between points A and F.
c
A t    t l  . ~ :
Fig. 110
B
±_ ... _....:.._'
~ l'
Fig. III
TEACHER: You were correct in concluding that no current
flows through resistor R l' In such a case, however, all points
o ~ the resistor should have the same potential (remember the
dlscussion in § 24). That means that CPP=CPB' From this,
203
making use of equation (175); we find the required charge
Q = CI1R
z
(176)
Rz+'
Now consider the following In the electric circuit
shown in Fig. Ill, /1=4 V, r= 1 ohm, R 1 = 3 ohms, R z =2
ohms, C 1=2 microF (microfarads},C 2=8 microF, C 3=4
microF and C,==6 microF. Find the charge on the plates of
each capacitor.
In this connection, recall the rules for adding the capacit
ances of capacitors connected in series and in parallel.
STUDENT A: I remember those rules. When capacitors are
connected in parallel, their combined capacitance is simply the
sum of the individual capacitances, i.e:
C=C
1
+C
2
+C
S
+ ... (177)
and when they are connected in series, the combined capaci
tance is given by the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals
of the individual capacitances. Thus
I I I I
C = C
1
+ C. + c
a
+ . . . (178)
TEACHER: Exactly. Now, making use of rule (177), we find
the capacitance between points A and B:
CAB = 2 . microF + 8 microF = 10 microF
and between points F and D as well:
C
FD
= 4 microF + 6 microF= 10 microF
The difference in potential between points A and D is equal
to the voltage drop across resistor R {. Thus
CPDCPA= lR
1
= llR1 = 3 V
1\1 +r
Obviously, resistor R 2 plays no part in the circuit and can
be ignored.
Since CAB=C
FD
, then
3V
(jJBCPA = (jJDCPF= 2 = 1.5 V
Finally, we can obtain the required charges:
204
Ql = C
1
(CPBQlA) = 3 microC (microcoloumbs)
C
2
(QlBQlA) = 12 microC
QS=Ca(QlDQlF)= 6 microC
Q.= C, (QlDQlp)= 9 microC
PROBLEMS
58. In the circuit (Fig. 112), 1i==5 V, r= 1 ohm, RI=4 ohms, R
1
=3
ohms and C=3 microF. Find the charge on the plates of each capacitor.
59. All the quantities indicated on the diagram of the circuit shown
in Fig. 113 being known, find the charge on the plates of each capacitor.
60. A parallelplate capacitor witb plates
of length I is included in a ci.rcuit as shown
in Fig. 114. Given are the emf cC Qf the cur
rent source, its internal resistance r and the
distance d between the plates. An electron with
a velocity Vo Hies into the capacitor, parallel R
J
to the plates. What resistance R should be lC=J
connected in parallel with the capacitor so {,' C
that the electron flies out of the capacitor at I
an angle Ct to the plates? Assume the mass m ~ r
and the charge q of the electron to be known. .
61. Two identical and mutually perpen FIg. 112
dicular parallelplate capacitors, with plates .
of length I and a distance d between the plates are included in the circuit
shown in Fig. 115. The emf if and the resistance r of the current source
are known. Find the resista.rice R at which an electron Hying at a velo
Fig. 113 Fig. 114
city of Vo into one of the capacitors, parallel to its plates.' Hies into the
second capacitor and then Hies out parallel to its plates. The mass m and
charge q of the electron are known.
, , ~ ,
R 2R
.;;I;
Fig. 115 Fig. 116
62. A parallelplate capacitor with plates of length I and a distance d
between them is included in the circuit shown in Fig. 116 (the emf tR and
the resistances Rand r are known). An electron Hies into the capacilor at
a velOCity Vo parallel to the plates. At what angle to the plates will the
electron fly out of the capacitor if m and q are known.
§ 29.
CAN YOU COMPUTE
THE RESISTANCE
OF A BRANCHED
TEACHER: Compute the resis
tance of the portion of a circuit
shown in Fig. 117a. You can neg
lect the resistance of the wires
(leads).
STUDENT A: If the resistance
PORTION OF A CIRCUIT? of the wire can be neglected then
the leads can be completely dis
regarded. The required resistance
equals 3R.
TEACHER: You answered with
out thinkiJIg. To neglect the
resistance of the wire and to
neglect the leads are entirely
different things (though many
examinees suppose them to be
the same). To throw a lead out of
a circuit means to replace it with an Infinitely high resistance.
Here, on the contrary, the resistance of the leads equals zero.
STUDENT A: Yes, of course,
 ~  ~
~ 1 simply didn't give it any
, thought. But now I shall rea
Fig. 117
son in the following manner.
At point A the current will
be divided into two currents
whose directions I have shown
hi. Fig. 117b by arrows. Here
the middle resistor can be com
pletely disregarded and the
total resistance is R/2.
TEACHER: Wrong again! I
advise you to use the following
rule: find points in the circuit
with the same potential and
then change the diagram so that
these points coindde with 'one
another. The currents in the
various branches of the circuit
will remain unchanged. but the
diagram may be substantially
simplified. I have already spo
ken about this in § 21. Since in the given problem the resi
stances of the leads equal zero, points A and A 1 have the
206
same potential. Similarly. points Band B1 have the same
potential. In accordance with the rule I mentioned, we shall
change the diagram so that points with the same potential
will finally coincide with one another. For this purpose, we
shall gradually shorten the lengths of the leads. The conse
cutive stages of this operation are illustrated in Fig. il7c.
As a result we find that the given connection corresponds to
an arrangement with three resistors connected in parallel.
Hence, the total resistance of the portion is R/3.
(aJ
(a)
( h ~
D ~ ~ 8 .
, 
Ii' Ii' R
++
:j 6 J
R/2
o
Fig. 118 Fig. /19
STUDENT A: Yes, indeed. It is quite evident from Fig. 117c
that the resistors are connected in parallel.
TEACHER: Let us consider the following example. We have a
cube made up of leads, each having a resistance R (Fig: 118a).
The cube is connected into a circuit as shown in the diagram.
Compute the total resistance of the cube.
We can start by applying the rule I mentioned above. Indi
:ate the points having the same potential.
STUDENT A: I think that the three points A, A 1 and A 2 \vill
have the same potential (see Fig. II8a) since the three edges
:>f the cube (DA, DA 1 and DA 2) are equivalent in all respects.
TEACHER: Yes, and so are edges BC, BC
I
and BC
2
• There.
fore, points C, C 1 and C 2 will have the same potentia\. Next,
let us tear apart our wire cube at the indicated points and, af
207
ter bending the edge wires, connect them together" again so
that points with the same potential coincide with one another.
What will the diagram look like now?
STUDENT A: We shall obtain the diagram shown in Fig. 118b.
TEACHER: Exactly. The diagram obtained in Fig. 11Bb is
equivalent to the initial diagram (with the cube) but is appre
ra) ciably simpler. Now you should
A
B
A
B
Fig, 120
have no difficulty in computing
the required total resistance.
STUDENT A: It equals
(1/3) R + (l/6)R + (1/3)R =
= (5j6)R.
S T U ~ E N T B: Haw would you
find the total resistance of a
wire figure in the form of a
square with diagonals, conne
cted into a circuit as shown in
Fig. 119a?
TEACHER: Again we must
search for points with the same
potential. In the given case we
readily see that the diagram
has an axis of symmetry which
I shall indicate in Fig. 1I,9a as a dashed line. It is clear that
all points lying on the axis of symmetry should have the same
potential which is equal to one half the sum of the potentials
of points A and D. Thus the potentials of points 0, 0
1
and O
2
are equal to one another. According to the rule, we can make
these three points coincide with one another. As a result, the
combination of resistances is broken down into two identical
portions connected in series. One of these is shown in Fig. 11gb.
It is not difficult to compute the resistance of this 'portion. If
each of the wires, or leads, in the square has the same resis
tance R, then the total resistance of the portion is (4/15)R.
Thus the required total resistance of the square equals (8/15)R.
STUDENT A: Do you mean to say that the main rule is to
find points on the diagram with the same potential and to
simplify the diagram by making these points coincide?
TEACHER: Exactly. In conclusion, I wish to propose an
example with an infinite portion. We are given a circuit made
up of an infinite number of repeated sections with the resistors
R 1 and R 2 (Fig. 120a). Find the total resistance'between pOints
A and B.
208
STUDENT A: Maybe we should make use of the method of
mathematical induction? First \ve will consider one section,
then two sections, then three, and so on. Finally we shall try
to extend the result to n sections for the case when n+oo.
TEACHER: No', we don't need the
method of mathematical induction here. ra)
We can begin with the fact that infinity
will not change if we remove one ele
ment from it. We shall cut the first
section away from the diagram (along R
the dashed line shown in Fig. 120a).
Evidently, an infinite number of sec
tions wiII still remain and so the
resistance between points C and D
should be equal to the required total
resistance R. Thus the initial diagram
can be changed to the one shown in
Fig. 12Ob. The portion of circuiU
b
;
shown in Fig. 120b has a total resis
tance of Rl+RRz/(R+Ra). Since this
portion is equivalent to the initial
portion of the circuit, its resistance
should equal the required resistance R.
Thus we obtain
R R
I RR2
= ·11 R+R2
Fig, 121
(e)
i.e. a quadratic equation with respect to R:
R2_RR
1
R
1
R.= 0
Solving this equation we obtain
R= (1 + VI )
8 118
Fig, l2:.!
( 179)
209
STUDENT A: Well, that certainly is an interesting method
of solving the problem.
PROBLEMS
63. In the electrical circuit shown in Fig. 121, ~ = 4 V. r= I ohm and
R=45 ohms. Determine the readings of the voltmeter and ammeter.
64. Find the tolal resistance of the square shown in Fig. 119a assuming
that it is connected into the circuit at points A and C.
65. A regular hexagon with diagonals is made of wire. The resistance
of each lead is equal to R. The hexagon is connected into the circuit as
shown in Fig. I 22a. Find the total resistance of the hexagon.
66, Find the total resistance of the hexagon of Problem 65 assuming
that it is connected into the circuit as shown in Fig. 122b.
67. Compute the total resistance of the hexagon given in Problem 65
assuming that it is connected into the circuit as shown in Fig. I 22c.
§ 30.
STUDENT A: Why does an e l ~ c t
ric bulb burn out? From excessive
WHY DID THE ELECTRIC voltage or from excessive cur
BULB BURN OUT?
rent?
TEACHER: How would you an
swer this question?
STUDENT A: I think it is due
to the high current.
TEACHER: I don't much like
your answer. Let me note, first,
that the question, as you put it,
should be classified in the cate
gory of provocative or tricky
questions. An electric bulb burns
out as a result of the evolution
of an excessively large amount
of heat in unit time, i. e. from
a sharp increase in the heating effect of the current. This, in
turn, may be due to a change in any of various factors: the
voltage applied to the bulb, the current through the bulb and
the resistance of the bulb. In this connection, let us recall all
the formulas you know for finding the power developed or
expended when an electric current passes through a certain
resistance R.
STUDENT B: I know the following formulas:
p= (CP1CP.)/
P=/'tR
P
_ ('Pl'PS)2
 R
(180)
(181)
(182)
where P is the power developed in the resistance R, (cp 1<P2)
is the potential difference across the resistance R and I is
the current flowing through the resistance R. .
STUDENT A: We usually used only formula (181), which
expresses the power in terms of the square of the current and
the resistance.
TEACHER: It is quite evident that the three formulas are
equivalent since one can be transformed into the others by
applying Ohm's law. It is precisely the equivalence of the for·
mulas that indicates that in solving our problem we should
not deal with the current or voltage separately. We should
take all three quantitiesthe current, voltage and resistan
8*
211
ceinto account together. (To Student A): By the way, why
do you prefer formula (lSI)?
STUDENT A: As a rule, the voltage supplied to a bulb is
constant. Therefore, the dependence of the power on the vol
tage is of no particular interest. Formula (181) is the most
useful of the three.
TEACHER: You are wrong in assigning a privileged position
to formula (181). Consider the following problem. The burner
of an electric table stove is made up of three sections of equal
(Q)
c:::rc::::r
( b ~
resistance. If the three sections
are connected in parallel, water
in a teakettle begins to boil in 6
minutes. When will the same mass
of water in the teakettle begin to
boil if the sections are connected
as shown in Fig. 123?
STUDENT A: First of all we find
the. total resistance of the burner
for each kind of connection, deno
ting the resistance of one section by R. In the initial case
(connection in parallel), the total resistance R o=Rl3. For
( C ~
Fig. 123
cases a, band c (see Fig. 123) we obtain
Ra=3R
R 3
Rb =R+"2="2 R
2R2 2
Rc= 3R =a
R
}
(183)
Next, if we denote the voltage applied to the electric table
stove by U, then, using Ohm'slawwecan find the total currenf
flowing through the burner in each case ....
TEACHER (interrupting): You don't need to find the cur
rent. Let us denote by to, tal tb and ie the times required to
heat the water in the .teakettle to the boi ling point in each
case. The evolved heat is equal to the power multiplied by the
heating time. In each case, the same amount of heat is gene
rated. Using formula (182) to determine the power. we obtain
U2tD = U2ta = U2tb = U21c (184)
Ro Ra Rb Rc
Substituting equations (183) into (184) and cancelling the
common factors (U2 and I/R), we obtain
212
3t
_.!L_2tb _ 3te
_ 0 3  3  2
from which we readily find the required values: ta=9to=54
min, t&=9to/2=27 min and t,,=2to=12 min. Note that in
the given problem it was more convenient to apply formula
(182) to find the power, exactly because the voltage applied
to the electric table stove is a constant value. But consider the
following question. Given: a current source with an emf tC and
internal resistance r: the source is connected to a certain ex
ternal resistance R. What is the efficiency of the source?
STUDENT B: The efficiency of a current source is the ratio
of the useful power, i. e. the power expended on the external
resistance, to the total power, i. e. to the sum of the powers
expended on the internal and external resistances:
/2R R
1']= /2 (R+,) = R+r (185)
TEACHER: Correct. Assume that the internal resistance of the
current source remains unchanged and only the external resis
tance varies. How will the efficiency of the current source vary
in this [:ase?
STUDENT B: At R=O (in the case of a short circuit). y]=O.
At R=r, 1']=0.5. As R increases infinitely, the efficiency
approaches unity.
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. And how in this case will the
useful power vary (the power expended on the external resist
ance)?
STUDENT B: Since the efficiency of the source increases with
R, it follows that the useful power will also increase. In short,
the larger the R, the higher the useful power will be.
TEACHER: You are wrong. An increase in the efficiency of
the current source means that there is an increase in the ratio
ofthe useful power to the total power of the source. The use
ful power may even be reduced. In fact, the useful power is
tC
2
. ~ x
Pa = (R+,)2 R =: , (x+ IP (186)
where x=R/r. If x ~ l . then P
u
C12X. If x ~ 1 , then Puct:: l/x.
The useful power P" reaches its maximum value at x= I
(i. e. R=r), when P,,=,ff2/(4r). A curve of the function y=
=x/ (x+ I) 2 is given in Fig. 124. It illustrates the variation
in the useful power with an increase in the external resistance.
Consider the following problem. Two hundred identical
electric bulbs with a resistance of 300 ohms each are connected in
parallel to a current source with an emf of 100 V and internal
213
resistance of 0.5 ohm. Compute the power expended on each
bulb and the relative change in the power expended on each bult
if one of the two hundred bulbs burns out. Neglect the resistancE
of the leads (Fig. 125).
STUDENT B: The total current in the external circuit equal!
1,=rC/ (r+R/n) =50 A. The current passing through eact
bulb is 1=It/n=0.25 A. Next we can find the power expendec
on each bulb: P=I2R=37.5 W. To determine the relativE
!!L
(/+.x)Z
Fig. 124 Fig. 125
change In the power per bulb if one of the two hundred b u r n ~
out, I shall first find the power PI per bulb for 11= 199, and
then compute the ratio
f

P1

P
 P
(187;
TEACHER: I do not approve of this method for finding thE
required ratio f. It should be expressed in the general form in
terms of the resistances Rand r, and the number of bulbs n.
Thus
R cC!
P="fit ( R)2
r+
n
R ~
PI = (nI)2' (, _.R )11
+nf
Substituting these equations into (187), we obtain
f=( PI 1)= nr+R
P n,,+R
214
1= 1
1'
n,+R
The fraction in the denominator of the last equation is much
less than unity (because there are many bulbs in the circuit
and the resistance of each one is much higher than the inter
nal resistance of the current source). Therefore,we can apply
the approximation formula (173):
f = (1 n ' ~ R r
9
k:::: n r ~ R (188)
After substituting the numerical values into equation (188)
we find that f=0.0025.
STUDENT B: But why do you object to computing PI fir:.t
and then finding f by substituting the numerical values into
equation (187)?
TEACHER: You see that f=0.0025. This means that if your
(numerical) method was used to obtain this result, we would
have to compute the value of PI with an accuracy to the fourth
decimal place. You cannot even know beforehand to what
accuracy you should compute P I.If in our case you computed
PI to an accuracy of two decimal places, you would come to
the conclusion that power PI coincides with power P.
PROBLEMS
68 .. In the electric circuit shown in Fig. 126, <8= 100 V. r=36 ohms
and the efficiency of the current source equals 50% . Compute the resistance
R and the .useful power. .
R
R
R
Fig. 127
69. A current source is connected to a resistor whose resistance is four
times the internal resistance of the current sourCe. How will the
efficiency of the source change (in per cent) if an additionalresimor with
a resistance twice the internal resistance is connected in parallel to the
external resistance?
10. Several identical resistances R are connected together in an arrange
ment shown in Fig. 127. In one case, this arrangement is connected to
215
the current source at points J and 2, and in another, at points}' and /J.
Compute the internal resistance of the current source il the ratio 01' the
efficiencies of the source in the first ilnd second cases equals : ~ . Find
lhe \'al ues of these efliciencies.
71. The resistances in a burner of an electric table stove are connected
together in an arrangement shown in Fig. 127. This arrangement is con
nected to the supply IT!ains at points J and 2, and, after a certain time,
500 grams of water are heated to the boiling point. How much water can
be heated to the boiling point in the same time interval when the arran
gement of resistances is connected to the supply mains at points i and
3? The initial temperature of the water is the same in both cases. Neglect
all heat losses.
72. One and a half litres of water at a temperature of 20° C is he81ted
for 15 minutes on an electric table stove burner having two sections with
the same resistance. When the sections are connected in parallel, the water
begins to boil and 100 grams of it is converted into sleam. What will
happen to the water if the sections are connected in series and the water
is heated for 60 minutes? The latent heat of vaporization is 539 cal per
gram. How much time will be required to heat this amount of water to the
boiling point if only one section is switched on?
§ 31.
DO YOU KNOW HOW
LIGHT BEAMS
ARE REFLECTED
AND REFRACTED?
TEACHER: Please state the
laws of reflection and refraction
of light.
STUDENT A: The law of refle
ction is: the angle of incidence
is equal to the angle of reflection.
The law of refraction: the ratio
of the sine of the angle of inciden
ce to the sine of the angle of ref
raction is equal to the refraction
index for the medium.
Your statements are
very inaccurate. In the first p la
ce, vou made no mention of the
fact' that the incident and reflec
ted (or refracted) rays lie in the
same plane with a normal to the
boundary of reflection (or refraction) erected at the point of
incidence. If this is not specified, we could assume that reflec
tion takes place as illustrated in Fig. 128. Secondly, your sta
tement of the law of refraction refers to the special case of the
incidence of a ray from the air on the boundary of a certain
medium. Assume that in the general case the ray falls from a
medium with an index of refraction n 1 on the boundary of a
medium with an index of refraction
n2' We denote the angle of inci
dence bya
1
and the angle of refra
ction by a
z
• In this case, the law
of refraction can be written as
( 189)
Fifl. 128 This leads to your statement pro
vided that for air n 1 = 1.
Consider the following problem. A coin lies in water at a
depth H. We will look at it from above along a vertical. At
what depth do we see the coin'?
STUDENT A: I know that the coin will seem to be raised
somewhat. I don't think I can give a more definite answer.
TEACHER: Let us draw two rays from the centre of the coin:
OA and OB IB (Fig. 129). Ray OA is not refracted (because it
is vertical) and ray OB 18 is. Assume that these two diverging
rays ellter the eye. The eye will see an image of the coin at the
218
point of intersection of the diverging rays OA and BIB, i. e.
at point 0 1, It is evident from the diagram that the required
distance h is related to the depth H by the relation
from which
( 190)
Owing to the smanness of angles al and a
2
we can apply the
approximation formula
tan ( 191)
(in which the angle is expressed in radians, not degrees).
Using formula (191), we can rewrite equation (190) in the form
(192)
Since for water n=4/3, h= (3/4)H.
STUDENT B: What will happen if we look at the coin, not
vertically, but from one side?
TEACHER: In this case, the coin will seem, not only raised,
but moved away (see the dashed lines in Fig. 129) .. Obviously,
the computations will be much
\ A B more complicated in this case.
\ \ trl Consider the following prob
\ lem. A diver of height h stands
. \ \ .. _ .. __ A on the bottom of a lake of depth
.. .   H. Compute the minimum dis
  . tance from the point where the
\,: ,'\   diver stands to the points of
 __ _ the bottom that he can !;t'e
:t: reflected from the surface of the
  \  water.
\\ I STUDENT A: I know how to
,.' Fi'l iL.
\\ . solve such problems. Let us
Fill. 129
denote the required distance
by L. The path of the ray from
point A to the diver's eye is
shown in Fig. 130. Point A is
the closest point to the diver that he can see reflected.from the
surface of the lake. Thus, for instance, a ray from a closer
point B is refracted at the surface and does not return to the
diver (see the dashed line in 130). a. is the critical
219
angle for total internal reflection. It is found from the formula
· 1
SlOa=
n
( 193)
It is evident from the diagram that
L = h tan a + 2 (H h) tan a = (2H h) tan a
Since tan a=sina/V Isin 2a, then using equation (193).
we obtain
(194)
After substituting n=4/3, we find thlft L= (3/V 7) (2Hh).
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. And what kind of a picture
will the diver see overhead?
STUDENT A: Directly overhead he will see a luminous circle
of a radius l= (Hh)/V n
2
1 = (3/V7j (Hh)(see Fig. 130).
Fig. 130
Beyond the limits of this
circle he will see images of
objects lying on the bottom
of the lake.
STUDENT B: What will
happen if the part of the lake
bottom where the diver is
standing is not horizontal.
but inclined?
TEACHER: In this case,
the distanceL will evidently
depend on the direction in
which the diver is looking.
You can readily see that
this distance will be minimal when the diver is looking
upward along the inclined surface, and maximal when he looks
in the opposite direction. The result obtained in the preceding
problem will now be applicable only when the diver looks in
a direction along which the depth of the lake doesn't change
(parallel to the shore). A problem with an inclined lake bottom
will be given as homework (see Problem 74).
STUDENT A: Can we change the direction of a beam by in·
serting a system ·of· planeparallel transparent plates in its
path?
TEACHER: What do you think?
220
STUDENT A: In principle, I think we can. We know that
the beam, upon being refracted, travels in a different direction
inside a plate.
STUDENT B: I don't agree. After emerging from the plate
the beam wi 11 sti 11 be parallel to its initial direction.
TEACHER: Just prove this, please, using a system of several
plates having different indices of refraction. .
STUDENT B: I shaH take three plates with indices of refrac
tion nll n,2 and n,3' The path of the beam through the system is
shown in Fig. 131. For refraction of
the beam at each of the boundaries,
we can write
sin ttl) •
n
sint'tt  l'
sin tt2 na.
.=,
510 as n2
sin ttl . nz .
sin at = n
l
'
sin a3
sina
4
= n;
Multiplying together the lefthand
sides and righthand sides of these
equations, respectively, we obtain
(sin ao/sin a,4)= l. Thus, a,o=a.
4
, which
is what we started out to prove.
TEACHER: Absolutely correct. Now,
\ let us discuss the limits of applicability
of the laws of geometrical optics.
STUDENT B: These laws are not
applicable for distances of the order of
the wavelength of light or shorter. At
. such small distances the wave proper
FIg. 131 ties of light begin to appear.
TEACHER: You are right. This is something that examinees
usually seem to understand sufficiently weH. Can you tell me
about any restrictions on the applicability of the laws of
geometrical optics from the other sidefrom the side of large
distances?
STUDENT B: If the distances are longer than the wavelength
of light, then light can be considered within the scope of
geometrical optics. At least that is what we were told before.
I think there are no restrictions on the use of geometrical
optics for large distances.
TEACHER: You are mistaken. Just imagine the following
picture: you are sending a beam of light into space, completely
excluding the possibi.\ity of its scattering. Assume that in one
221
second you turn the apparatus sending the light beam through
an angle of 60°. The question is: during this turning motion
what will be the velocity of points of the beam at distances
of over 300,000 kilometres from the apparatus?
STUDENT B: I understand your question. Such points must
travel at velocities greater than that of light. However, accord
ing to the theory of relativity, velocities greater than the
velocity of light are impossible only if they are the velocities
of material bodies. Here we are dealing with a beam.
TEACHER: Well, and isn't a light bealJ). material? As you
can see, geometrical optics is inconsistent for excessively
great distances. Here we must take into consideration that a
light beam is a stream of particles of l i ~ h t called photons. The
photons which were emitted from the apparatus before we tur
ned it "have no idea" about the subsequent turning motion and
continue their travel in the direction they were emitted. New
photons are emitted in the new direction. Thus, we do not
observe any turning of the light beam as whole.
STUDENT B: How can we quantitatively evaluate the limit
of applicability of the laws of geometrical optics from the side
of large distances?
TEACHER: The distances should be such that the time re
quired for light to cover them must be much less than any
characteristk time in the given problem (for example, much
less than the time required for turning the apparatus emitting
the light beam). In this case, the beam as a whole is not dest
royed, and we can safely use the laws of geometrical optics.
PROBLEMS
73. We are looking vertically from above at an object covered with
a glassrlate whkh is under water. The plate is 5 cm thick; there is a lOcm
layer 0 water above it. The index of refraction of glass is 1.6. At what dis.
tance from the surface of the water do we see the image of the· object?
74. A diver 1.8 m high stands on the bottom of a lake, at a spot which
is 5 m deep. The bottom is a plane inclined at an angle of 15°. Compute
thl! minimum distance along the boltom from the point where the diver
stands to the points on the bottom that he sees reflected from the surface.
75. We have a glass plate 5 cm thick with an index of refraction equal
to 1.5. At what angle of incidence (from the air) will the rays reflected and
refracted by the plate be perpendicular to each other? For this angle 01
incidence compute the displacement of the ray due to its passage through
the plate.
76. We have a glass plate of thickness d with an index of refraction n.
The angle of incidence of the ray from the air onto the plate is equal to the
angle of total internal reflection [or the glass of which the plate is made.
Compute the displacement of the ray due to its passage through the plate.
§ 32.
TEACHER: Quite often we find
that examinees are incapable of
HOW DO YOU CONSTRUCT constructing images formed by
IMAGES FORMED
BY,\HRRORS
A:JD LENSES?
various optical systems, such as
lenses and plane and spherical
mirrors. Let us consider some
typical examples. Construct the
image of a man formed in the
plane mirr(Jr shown in Fig. I 32a.
STUDENT A: It seems to me
that no image will be formed by
the mirror in this case because
the mirror is located too high
above the man.
TEACHER: You are mistaken.
There will be an image in the
m i r r o r ~ Its construction is given
in Fig. 132b. It is quite evident that to construct the image
it is sufficient to prolong the line representing the surface of
the mirror and to draw an image symmetrical to the figure
of the man wi th respect to this line (surface of the mirror).
(a)
A STUDENT A: Yes, I un
B derstand, but will the man
I see his image?
Fig. 132
TEACHER: That is ano
ther question. As a matter of
fact, the man will not see
his image, because the mir
ror is located too high above
him and is inconveniently
inclined. The image of the
man will be visible in the
given mirror only to an
observer located within the
angle formed by rays AA I and BB 1. It is appropriate to
recall that the observer's eye receives a beam of diverging
rays from the object being observed. The eye will see
an image of the object at the point of intersection
of these rays or of their extensions (see Figs. 129 and
\ 32b).
Consider the construction of the image formed by a system
of two plane mirrors arranged perpendicular to each other
(Fig. 133a).
223
STUDENT A: We simply represent the reflection of the object
in the two planes of the mirrors. Thus we obtain two images as ...
shown in Fig. 133b.
TEACHER: You have lost the third image. Note that the rays
from the object that.are within the right angle AOE (Fig. 133c)
are reflected twice: first from one mirror and then from the
6 (C) other. The paths of these
(Q) ( ) two rays are illustrated in
L
' L ; Fig. 133c. The intersection
:. 0' _., 0 of the extensions of these
,I \' I rays determines the third
:" "JUO,' :, ":'" / ,,, i/7''' , , image of the object.
6 I!i.JJ NeJit, we shall consider
Fig. 133 a number of examples in
volving a converging lens.
Construct the image formed by such a lens in the case illust
rated in Fig. 134a. 
STUDENT A: That's very simple. My construction is shown
in Fig. 134b.
TEACHER: Good. Now, assume that one half of the lens is
closed by an opaque screen as sh,own in Fig. 134c. What will
happen to the image?
(a) (6) (C)
Fig. 134
STUDENT A: In this case, the image will disappear.
TEACHER: You are mistaken. You forget that the image of
any point of the arrow (for example, its head) is obtained as a
result of the intersection of an infinitely large number of
rays (fig. 134d). We usually restrict ourselves to two rays
because the paths of two rays are sufficient to find the poSi
tion and size of the image by construction. In the given case,
224
the screen shuts off part of the rays faUing on the lens. The
other part of the rays, however, pass through the lens and form
an image of the object (Fig. 134e). Since fewer rays participate
in forming the image, it will not be so bright as before.
STUDENT B: From your explanation it follows that when we
close part of the lens with an opaque screen, only the bright
ness of the image is changed and nothing else. However,
anybody who has anything to do with photography knows that
(Q)
Fig. 135
when you reduce the aperture ope
ning of the camera lens by irising.
i.e. you reduce the effective area of
the lens, another effect is observed
along with the reduction in the
brightness of the image: the image
becomes sharper, or more clearcut.
Why does this happen?
TEACHER.: This is a very approp
riate question. It enables me to
emphasize the following: all our
constructions are based on the as
sumption that we can neglect de
fects in the optical system (a lens
in our case). True, the word "defects"
is hardly suitable here since it does
not concern any accidental short
comings of the lens, but its basic
properties. It is known that if two
rays, paraUel to and differently
spaced from the principal optical
axis, pass through a lens, they will,
after refraction in the lens, intersect
the principal optical axis, strictly
speaking, at di fferent points (Fig. 135a). This means that the
focal point of the lens (the point of intersection of all rays
parallel to the principal optical axis), or its focus, will be
blurred; a sharply defined image of the object cannot be
formed. The greater the differences in the distances of the
various rays from the principal axis, the more blurred the image
will be. When the aperture opening is reduced by irising, the
lens passes a narrower bundle of rays. This improves sharpness
to some extent (Fig. 135b).
STUDENT B: Thus, by using the diaphragm we make the
image more sharply defined at the expense of brightness.
225
TEACHER: Exactly. Remember, however, that in construct
ing the image formed by lenses, examinees have every reason
to assume that parallel rays always intersect at a single point.
This point lies on the principal optical axis if the bundle of
parallel rays is directed along this axis; the point lies on
the focal plane if the bundle of parallel rays is directed at
some angle to the principal optical axis. It is important,
however, for the examinee to understand that this treatment is
only approximate and that a more accurate approach would
require corrections for the defects of optical systems.
STUDENT A: What is the focal plane of a lens?
TEACHER: It is a plane passing through the principal focus
of the lens perpendicular to the principfll optical axis. Now,
what is the difference between images formed by a plane mir
ror and by it converging lens in the example of Fig. l34?
STUDENT A: In the first case (with the mirror) the image is
virtual, and in the second it is real.
TEACHER: Correct. Please e x p l ~ i n the difference between
virtual and real images In more detail.
STUDENT B: A virtual image is formed by the intersection,
not of the rays themselves, but of their extensions. Real
images are formed by the intersections of the rays themselves.
No wonder then that a virtual image can be seen as being some
where behind a wall, where the rays cannot penetrate.
TEACHER: Quite right. Note also that a virtual image can be
observed only from definite positions. In the case of a real
image you can place a screen where the image is located and
observe the image from any position. Consider the example
illustrated in Fig. 136a. Determine, by construction, the direction
of ray AAl after it passes through a converging lens if the path
of another fay (BBIB. in Fig. 136a) through this lens is known.
STUDENT A: But we don't know the focal length of the lens.
TEACHER: Well, we do know the oath of the other ray be
fore and after the lens.
STUDENT A: We didn't study such constructions at school.
STUDENT B: I think that we should first find the focal
length of the lens. For this purpose we can draw a vertical
arrow somewhere to the left of the lens so that its head touches
ray BB I. We shall denote the pOint of the arrowhead by the
letter C (Fig. 136b). Then we pass a ray from point C through
the centre of the lens. This ray will go through the lens
without being refracted and, at a certain point E, will inter
sect ray B 18 z. Point E is evidently the image of the point of
226
the arrowhead. It remains to draw a third ray from the arrow
head C, parallel to the principal optical axis of the lens.
Upon being refracted, this last ray will pass through the image
of the arrowhead, i. e. through point E. The point of inter
section of this third ray with the principal axis is the required
(a)
A
focus of the lens. This con
struction is £!iven in Fi£!.
136b.
The focal length being
known, we can now const
ruct the path of ray AA t
after it is refracted bv the
lens. This is done by draw
ing another vertical arrow
with the point of its head
lying on ray AA 1 (Fig.
I 36c). Making use of the
determined focal length, we
can construct the image of
this second arrow. The re
q uired ray will pass through
point A 1 and the head of
the image of the arrow. This
8
z
construction is shown in
Fig. 136c.
TEACHER: Your argu
ments are quite correct.
8
1
They are based on finding
Fig. 136 the image of a certain auxi
liary object (the arrow).
Note that this method is convenient when you are asked to
determine the position of the image of a luminous point lying
on the principal axis of the lens. In this case it is convenient
to erect an arrow at the luminous point and construct the image
of the arrow. It is clear that the tail of the image of the arrow
is the required image of the luminous point.
This method, however, is too cumbersome for our example.
I shall demonstrate a simpler construction. To find the focal
length of the lens, we can draw ray EO through the centre of
the lens and paraIlel to ray BBI (Fig. 136d). Since these two
rays are parallel, they intersect in the focal plane behind the
lens (the crosssection of the focal plane is shown in Fig. 136d
by a dashed line). Then we draw ray CO through the centre
227
of the lens and parallel to ray AA l' Since these two parallel
rays should also intersect in the focal plane after passing
through the lens, we can determine the direction of ray AA 1
(a) after passing through the lens.
A As you can see, the construction
___ A ~ I is much simpler.
STUDENT B: Yes, your method
o is appreciably simpler.
TEACHER: Try to apply this
method to a similar problem in
which a diverging lens is used
(b) instead of a converging one (Fig.
l37a).
STUDENT B: First I will draw
a ray through the centre of the
lens parallel to ray BB l' In
contrast to the preceding prob
lem, the extensions of the rays,
and not the rays themselves, will
Fig. 137 intersect (we may note that for a
ray passing through the centre,
the extension will coincide with the ray itself). As a result,
the focal plane, containing the point of intersection, will
now be to the left of the lens instead of to the right (see the
dashed line in Fig. 137b).
TEACHER (intervening): Note that the image is always
virtual in diverging lenses.
STUDENT B (continuing): Next 1 shall pass a ray through the
centre of the lens and parallel to ray AA l' Proceeding from the
condition that the extensions of these rays intersect in the
focal plane, I can draw the required ray.
TEACHER: Good. Now tell me, where is the image of an
object a part of which is in front of the focus of a converging
lens, and the other part behind the focus (the object is of finite
width)?
STUDENT B: I shall construct the images of several points
of the object located at various distances from the lens. The
points located beyond the fucus will provide a real image (it
will be to the right of the lens), while the points in front of
the focus will yield a virtual image (it will be to the left of
the lens). As the chosen points approach the" focus, the images
will move away to infinity (either to the right or to the left
of the lens). "
228
TEACHER: Excellent. Thus, in our case the image of the
object is made up of two pieces (to the left and right of the
lens). Each piece begins at a certain finite distance from the
lens and extends to infinity. As you see, the question "Can
tQ)
I '
1
t "
HI I
,<In
~
(e)
Fig, 138
(a)
\
\
Fig. 139
\
\
\
\
an object have a real and a virtual image simultaneously?"
should be answered in the affirmative.
I see that you understand the procedure for constructing the
images formed by lenses. Therefore, we can go over to a more
complicated item, the construction of an image formed by a
system of two lenses. Consider the following problem: we have
two converging lenses with a common principal optical axis and
different focal lengths. Construct the image of a vertical arrow
formed by such an optical system (Fig. I 38a). The focuses
of olle lens are shown on the diagram by XIS and tlwse of the
other, by blackedin circles.
STUDENT B: To construct the image of the arrow formed by
two lenses, we must first construct the image formed by the
first lens. In doing this we can disregard the second lens.
Then we treat this image as if it were an object and, disregard
ing the first lens, construct its image formed by the second lens.
TEACHER: Here you are making a very typical error. I have
heard such an answer many times. It is quite wrong.
229
Let us consider two rays originating at the point of the
arrowhead, and follow out their paths through the given system
of lenses (Fig. 138b). The paths of the rays after they pass
through the first lens are easily traced. To find their paths
after the second lens, we shall draw auxiliary rays parallel to
our rays and passing through the centre of the second lens. In
this case, we make use of the principle discussed in the preced
ing problems (parallel rays passing through a lens should
intersect in the focal plane). The required image of the point
of the arrowhead will be at the point of intersection of the two
initial rays after they leave the second lens. This construction
is shown in detail in Fig. 138b. Now, let us see the result we
would have obtained if we had accepted your proposal. The
construction is carried out in Fig. 13&. Solid lines show the
construction of the image formed by the first lens; dashed Jines
show the subsequent construction of the image formed by the
second lens. You can see that the result would have been
entirely different (and quite incorrect!).
STUDENT B: But I am sure we once constructed an image
exactly as I indicated.
TEACHER: You may have done so. The fact is that in certain
cases your method of construction may turn out to be valid
because it leads to results which coincide with those obtained
by my method. This can be demonstrated on the preceding
example by moving the arrow closer to the first lens, i.e.
between the focus and the lens. Figure 139a shows the constru
ctiori according to my method, and Fig. 13gb, according to
yours. As you see, in the given case the results coincide.
STUDENT B: But how can I determine beforehand in what
cases my method of constructing the image can be used?
TEACHER: It would not be difficult to specify the conditions
for the applicability of your method for two lenses. These
conditions become much more complicated for a greater num
ber of lenses. There is no need to discuss them at all. Use my
method and you won't get into any trouble. But I wish to ask
one more question: can a doubleconcave lens be a conver
ging one?
STUDENT B: Under ordinary conditions a doubleconcave
lens is a diverging one. However, it will become a conver
ging lens if it is placed in a medium with a higher index
of refraction than that of the lens material. Under the
same conditions, a doubleconvex lens will be a
one.
§ 33.
HOW WELL DO YOU
SOL VE PROBLE.'tS
I:JVOLVING MIRRORS
A:\D LENSES?
TEACHER: I would like to
make some generalizing remarks
which may prove to be extremely
useful in solving problems in
volving lenses and spherical (con
cave and convex) m i r r o r s ~ The
formulas used for such problems
can be divided into two groups.
The first group includes formulas
interrelating the focal length F
of the lens (or mirror), the dis
tance d from the object to the
lens (or mirror) and the distance
f from the image to the lens (or
mirror):
( 195)
in which d, f and F are treated as algebraic quantities whose
signs may differ from one case to another. There are only
three possible cases, which are listed in the following table.
Converging lenses and concave mirrors
d>F d<F
I. d > 0, F > 0 find f > 0 2. d > 0, F > 0 and I < 0
Real image Virtual image
Diverging lenses and convex mirrors
3. d > 0, F < 0 and I < 0
Virtual image
Thus, d is always positive; the focal length F is positive for
converging lenses and concave mirrors and negative for diver
ging lenses and convex mirrors; and the distance f is positive
for real images and negative for virtual images.
STUDENT A: As I understand, this table enables us to obtain
three formulas from the general formula (195) which conta in
231
the arithmetical values of the abovementioned quantities:
Case 1: ~ + + = ; I
I 1 I
Case 2: {[T=F
I I 1
Case 3: dT= p J
(196)
TEACHER: Yes. Exactly so.
STUDENT A: Somehow, I have never paid any attention to
the analogy between lenses and the corresponding spherical
mirrors.
TEACHER: The second group includes formulas which relate
the focal length of the lens (or mirror) to its other characteris
tics. For mirrors we have the simple relationship
R
F = ±"2 (197)
where R is the radius of curvature of the mirror. The plus sign
refers to concave mirrors (the focus is positive) and the minus
sign to convex mirrors (the focus is negative). For lenses
1 (1 J )
=(nl) +
F R. R2
( 198)
where n is the index of refraction of the lens material and
R 1 and R 3 are the radii of curvature of the lens. If the ra
dius R refers to a convex side of the lens it is taken with
a plus sign; if it refers to a concave side, with a minus sign.
You can readily see that doubleconvex, planoconvex and con
vexoconcave (converging meniscus) lenses are all converging
because, according to formula (198), they have a positive
focus.
STUDENT A: What changes will have to be made in formula
(198) if the lens is placed in a medium with an index of ref
raction no?
TEACHER: Instead of formula (198) we will have
..!.=(.!!.l) (_1 +_1)
F no RJ R ~
(199)
When we pass over from an optically less dense medium
(no<n) to an optically more dense one (11 0>11), then, accor
ding to formula (199), the sign of the focus is reversed and
therefore a converging lens becomes a diverging one and, con
232
versely, a diyerging lens becomes a converging one. Let us
proceed to the solution of specific problems. The convex side of
a plan.oconvex lens with a radius of curvature R and index of
refraction n is silverplated to obtain a special type of concave
mirror. Find the focal length of
the mirror.
STUDENT A: Please allow me
to do this problem. We begin by
directing a ray parallel to the
principal optical axis of the lens.
After it is reflected from the
silverplated surface, the ray goes
out of the lens and is thereby
refracted (Fig. 140). If the ray
had not been refracted, it would
Fig. 140 have intersected the principal
axis at a distance of R/2 from the
mirror in accordance with formula (197). As a result of refra
ction, the ray intersects the principal axis somewhat closer
to the mirror. We shall denote the required focal length by F.
It is evident from the diagram that
R
'2 tan a
l
= F tan a
e
Owing to the smallness of angles a I and a h we can apply
formula (191). Then
R tan Ct
2
sin Ct
2
=o.:=n
2F tan Ct.  sin Ctl
from which
F =:n (200)
STUDENT B: I suggest that this problem be solved in a
different way. It is known that if we combine two systems with
focal lengths F 1 and F z, the new system will have a focal
length F which can be determined bv the rule for adding the
powers of lenses, i. e.
1 I 1
=+
F F. F2
(201 )
In the given case we have a lens with a focal length F 1=
=R/(n\). according to equation (198), where one of the ra
dii is infinite, and a concave mirror for which F 2=R/2
233
Substituting the expressions for F 1 and F 2 into formula (20))
we obtain
from which
R
F=
n+!
(202)
(203)
This shows that Student A did not do the problem right
Isee his answer in equation (200»).
TEACHER (to Student B:) No, it is you who is wrong. The
result (200) is correct.
STUDEl\T B: But is rule (201) incorrec.t in the given case?
TEACHER: This rule is correct and is applicable in the gi
ven case.
STUDENT B: But if rule (201) is correct, then equation
(202) must also be correct.
TEACHER: It is precisely here that you are mistaken. The
fact is that the ray travels through the lens twice (there and
back). Therefore, you must add the powers of the mirror and
of two lenses. Instead of equation (202) you should have written
1. 2(nl) +.1.
F  R R
from which we find that (l/F)= (2n2+2)/R and, conse
quently, F=R/ (2n) , which coincides with the result obtained
in equation (200).
Consider another problem. A converging lens magnifies the
image of an object fourfold. If the object is moved 5 cm, the
magnification is reduced by one half. Find the focal length of
the lens.
STUDENT A: I always get confused in doing such problems.
I think you have to draw the path of the rays in the first posi
tion and then in the second, and compare the paths.
TEACHER: I dare say it wiJl not be necessary at all to draw
the paths of the rays in this case. According to formula (195),
we can write for the given position that (I/F)= (1/d
1
)+ (llfl)'
Since (fl/d1)=k
1
is the magnification in the first case, we
obtain
Jr
d
F kl +l
J  kJ
234
By analogy we can write for the second position that
d =p
k2
+
1
2 k.,
Thus
(204)
According to the conditions of the problem, d
1
d
2
= 5 cm,
k1=4 and k2=2. Substituting these values into equation
(204), we find that P=20 cm.
PROBLEMS
77. A lens with a focal length of 30 cm forms a virtual image reduced
to 2/3 of the size of the object. What kind of a lens is It (converging or
diverging)? What is the distance to the object? What will be the size of
and distance to the image if the lens is moved 20 cm away from the object?
78. A luminous point is on the principal optical axis of a concave
mirror with a radius of curvature equal to 50 cm. The point is 15 cm from
(a) the mirror. Where is the image of the point?
What will happen to the image if the mirror
is moved another 15 cm away from the
point?
L ~ + +  t  ~
Fig. 141
79. An optical system consists of a
diverging and a converging lens [Fig. 141a;
the X's indicate the focuses (focal points)
of the lenses). The focal lengths of the lenses
equal 40 cm. The object is at a distance of
80 cm in front of the diverging lens. Con·
struct the image of the object formed by
the given system and compute its position.
80. An optical system consists of three
identical converging lenses with focal
lengths of 30 cm. The lenses are arranged
with respect to one another as shown in
Fig. 141h (the X's are the focal points of
the lenses). The object is at 8 distance of 60 em from the nearest lens.
Where is the image of the object formed by the given system?
81. The convex side of a planoconvex lens with a radius of curvature
of 60 mm is silverplated to obtain a concave mirror. An object is located
at a distance of 25 em in front of this mirror. Find the distance from the
mirror to the image of the object and the magnification if the index of
refraction of the lens material equals 1.5.
82. The concave side of a planoconcave lens with a radius of curvature
of 50 em is silverplated to obtain a convex mirror. An object is located
at a distance of 10 em in front of this mirror. Find the distance from the
mirror to the image of the object and the magnification of the image if
the index of refraction of the lens material equals 1.5.
ANSWERS
1. 20 m; 1 sec; vA = 10.2 m/sec;
fJB= 10.6 m/sec.
2. vo=11.3 m/secj x=4 m; g=0.8 lp;
t =0.5 sec; VA =9.4 m/secj VB= 15.2 m/scc.
V
2 2 
3. (I) t VI+V2+2vlV2 cos (a
L
+a
2
);
(2) tV + sin a
l
sin a
l
•
4. V 2 H g h + V H !g31z •
P4F
5. cot a = 4P
.
g cos
2
a. .
7. 13.8 m/sec.
8. 37.2 m/sec; 1280 J.
9. 2.6 m/sec
2
; 42 N; 8.5 N.
10. 3.3 m/sec
2
; 13 N.
II. 3.5 m/sec
2
; 33.6 N; 50.4 N.
12. 6.9 m/sec
2
; 8.8 N; 16.2 N; 1.5 N.
15. 0.45.
16. 7:4:1.
17. V 5gR •
81 it
18. SOT'}.'
19. h=R (1 w!R ) ; F=mw2R.
20. 1.5R.
21. 120 kg/m3.
22. 3900 J.
23. 0.27.
24. 0.5.
25. F=mg(Z +I)V
gp
w;
hi = 211 ( V  I)  H.
236
m+A1.
r

29. vrnln = r 5gl •
m
H Mm
30. M +nz
HM
31. 4M+3m'
3 .. i3
32. "4 V "2
33. 4.
34. 0.43 m/sec.
35. 27.4 m/sec
2
; the direction of the acceleration is vertically upward.
36. 1.28 N; 1.28 N; 0.62 N; 1.56 N.
37. At a distance of 2 ~ R io the right of the centre 01 the disk.
38. 0.05 ~
39. 11.3 cm; 13A mg.
4:>. Lowered by 3 em; 15.4 mg.
41. 59 g.
42. ( I) 138 J; (2) 171 J.
43. It becomes 1.5 em longer; 21.5 mg.
44. 733 g; it will not be formed; 0.58%
45. 3x 10
8
sec; 5x 10
8
m/see.
46. 147 Vim.
mg + Eq . .:....( m=g:e...+'..E...!q.:...) ;:1_si_n_rt_t_'l_n_Ct.
47.  ..
cos rt ' 2
(m, trl 2)g+E (qlQ'l) .
48. m
1
+,n:; ,
2m1m2g+(m2ql +m1q2) E
_ ............... .
m1+mZ
237
49.
Y 5 (mgtEq)
50. 1.83 q.
51.
r g q2
Y I cos 'J.  m[3 sin
3
0:
52.
V5gt  :'
53. 0.2 A.
54. I A.
55. 0.16 ohm.
56. 9.9 V; 1%.
57. 0.196 A; 1.96%.
58. 6X 10
6
C.
,flCR
1
R
2
59. R
1
r+2R
2
r+2R
1
R
2
tnn 0:
60. ,
61.
tan 0:
2 •
,flqldmt'o
62. arctan 3f
ql
•
t'omd
63. 3.75 V; 0.25 A.
2
 64. 3" R.
4
65. "5 R.
3
66. 4" R.
11
67. 20 R.
68. 60 ohms; 70 W.
69. It is reduced by 28.6%.
70. :; 89%; 83%.
71. BOO g.
.!!!L
cos Ct
72. 100 g of water will be converted into stel.1m; 21 min.
73. IO.B cm.
238
l 
··'1 •. 74 m.
75. 56°; 2.3 em.
d ( I
16. Ii 1 yn2 +1
) .
17. It is a diverging lens; d= 15 em; the image will move 6 em away
from the lens; k = 0.4.
78. f = 37.5 em; the image will become real;
11=150 cm.
79. At a distance of 100 em to the right of the converging lens.
80. It is located at the centre of the middle lens.
81 f= 100 cm; k=4.
82. 1=6.3 em; k=O.63.
\'
...
Mlfl PUBLISHERS. MOSCOW
U DC 530(075.3)
= 20
First published /97.J Revised from tile 1968 Russian edition
It:' English translation, Mir Publishers, 1973
Ha
UHZIlUUCKOM R3b1Xe
0232230
T 041(01)73
:ONTENTS
From the Editor of the Russian Edition . . . . . Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § I. C:m You Analyse Graphs Representing the Kinematics of StraightLine }\\otion? . . . . . . . . . . § 2. Can You Show the Forces Applied to a Body? . . . § 3. Can You Determine the Friction Force? . . . . . § 4. How Well Do You Know I\ewton's Laws of Motion? § 5. How Do You Go About Solving Problems in Kinematics? § 6. How Do You Go About Solving Problems in Dynamics? § 7. Are Problems in Dynamics Much More Difficult to Solve if Friction [s Taken into Account? . . . . . . . . . § 8. How Do You Deal With 1Il0tion in a Circle? . . . . . . . § 9. How Do You Explain the Weightlessness of Bodies? § 10. Can You Apply Ine Laws of Conservation of Energy and Linear Momenlum? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 11. Can You Deal with Harmonic Vibrations? . . . . . . . § 12. What Happens to a Pendulum in a State of Weightlessness? § 13. Can You Use the Force R,esolution Method Efficiently? § 14. What Do You Know about the Equilibrium of Bodies? § 15. How Do You Locate the Centre of Gravity? . . § 16. Do You Koo\\' Archimedes' Principle? . . . . . . § 17. I:; Archimedes' Principle Valid in a Spaceship? . . . § 18. What Do You Know about the Molecular·Kinetic Theory of Matter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 19. How Do You Account for the Peculiarity in the Thermal Expansion of Water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 20. How Well Do You Know the Gas Laws? . . . . . § 21. How Do You Go About Solving Problems on Gas Laws?
7
8
11 17
25 29
40
18
53 60
71
77 93
100 106
110 115
121 126
130
141
143
151
§ 22. Let Us Discuss Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 23. How Is an Elec trostatic Field Described? . . . . . . .• § 24. How Do Lines of Force Behave Near the Surface of a Conductor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 25. How Do You Deal With Motion in a Uniform Electrostatic Field? . . . . . . . . • . . . • § 26. Can You Apply Coulomb's Law? . . . . . . . . . . .. § 21. Do You Know Ohm's Law? . . . . . . . . . . . . .. § 28. Can a Capacitor Be Connected into a DirectCurrent Circuin § 29. Can You Compute the Resistance of a Branched Portion of a Circuit? . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . § 30. Why Did the Electric Bulb Burn Out? . . . . . . . . . § 31. Do You Know How Light Beams Are ReOected and Refracted? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . § 32. How Do You Construct Images Formed by Mirrors and Lenses? §33. How Well Do You Solve Problems Involving Mirrors and Lenses? Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •.
163 168
176 180
H39
196 203
206
211 218 223
231 236
and Math.) . G.Se. has made this a very useful study guide for students preparing for physics examinations. Students will find this to be an exceptionally clear and interesting textbook which treats of complicated problems from various viewpoints and contains a great many excellent illustrations promoting a deeper understanding of the ideas and concepts involved.FROM THE EDITOR OF THE RUSSIAN EDITION It can safely be asserted that no student preparing for an entrance examination in physics. D. Epifanov. The expert knowledge of the authors. for admission to an engineering institute has yet opened a book similar to this one. The authors are lecturers of the Moscow Institute of Electronics Engineering and are well acquainted with the general level of training of students seeking admission to engineering institute~ they have years of experience in conducting entrance examinations. the authors were able to comprehensively discuss almost all the subjects in the syllabus. especially questions usually considered difficult to understand. Employing the extremely lively form of dialogue. The book presents a detailed analysis of common mistakes made by students taking entrance examinations in physics. in conjunction with the lively and lucid presentation. Pro!. (Phys.
for reviewing different methods of solving the same problems and for discussing difficult questions of physical theory. certain fine points can be made.Moscow Institute of Electronics Engineering in the years 196466. Such an analysis. Besides. may prove to be very difficult. It has the form of a dialogue between the author (the TEACHER) and an inquisitive reader (the STUDENT). one can point out certain incorrect answers to definite questions that are heard continually. There are many questions that are almost ine\·itably answered incorrectly. Attention can be drawn to various aspects of the problem. This i5 exceptionally convenient for analysing common errors made by students in entrance examinations. problems are given (with answers) for home study. Most of the questions and problems figured in the entrance examinations of the . This book is based mainly on these types of questions and problems. 8 . It is practically impossible to foresee all the incorrect answers to any question. An analysis of mistakes made by students is always instructive. Though there is only one correct answer. many of them remain concealed forever behind the distressing silence of a student being oraUy examined. and a more thorough understanding of the fundamentals can be reached.FOREWORD This book was planned as an aid to students preparing for an entrance examination in physics for admission to an engineering institute. A great many questions and problems of school physics are dealt with. there can be a great many incorrect ones. however. Nevertheless.
If such an understanding is achieved. L. to some extent or other. G. for those who wish to inCr&8. He is in that "suspended" state in which he is no longer a seconc1ary school student and has not yet become a fullfledged student of an institute. He will find this text to be perhaps more like a freely told story or. instead. our book can help him. it will be of little use to those who wish to begin their study of physics or to systematize their khowledge of this science. to ponder over the material and not simply learn it by heart. We also gratefully acknowledge the many helpful suggestions and constructh·e criticism that were made on the manuscript by Prof. has completed the required course in school physics. can cite various laws and has a fair kno\vledge of the units employed. N.We wish to warn the reader that this is by no means a textbook embracing all the items of the syllabus. A. G. A. He is eager. as we conceive him. Primarily. If this reguires an extension of his knowledge in physics. Fabrikant. however. a freely conducted discussion. T arasova . has a good general idea of what it is all about. In conclusion. Our ideal reader.86 their knowledge of physics on the threshold of their exam inations. A student must learn to think. Epifanov without whose encouragement and invaluable aid this book could not have been written and prepared for P4blication. we hope our book will prove that memorizing a textbook (even a very good one) is not only a w@arisome business. He will not find here a systematic account of the sub1~ct matter that may be required by the study courie in physics. but indeed a fruitless one. we shall consider our efforts worthwhile. Chertov. AssociateProf. Senior Instructor of the Physics Department Clf the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. Tarasou A. Hence. remembers lhe principal relationships. Vtorov. rather. It was intended. and E. V. to become one. we wish to thank Prof.
Do not neglect kinematics! The question of how a body travels in space and time is of considerable interest both from the physical and practical points of view. I .
where a is the acceleration of the body. You have forgotten that the uniform motion began. On its basis. TEACHER: Good. STUDENT: In period 2 the body travels with uniform velocity v acquired at the end of period 1. Now consider periods 2 and 3. However. I wish to put the following quesOF STRAIGHTLINE tion. How does the body travel in period l? What is the formula for the distance travelled in this period? STUDENT: In period 1.~r:+T=~IPrt city graph. let us reason this out together. The formula for the distance travelled is s=vt TEACHER: Just a minute.2 and 3 (see Fig. TEACHER: Using the velor. I). TEACHER: There should be no difficulties. It equals the ratio of length AC to length OC. First we will divide the whole interval of time into three periods: 1.TEACHER: You have seen graphs showing the dependence of the velocity and distance travelled CAN YOU ANALYSE by a body on the time of travel GRAPHS REPRESENTING for straightline. not at the ini11 . can you find the acceleration? Fig. 1 STUDENT: Yes. Consider a velocity graph MOTION? of the kind shown in Fig. In this connection. 1. STUDENT: But I have never drawn such graphs. The acceleration is the change in velocity in unit time. uniformly vaTHE KINEMATICS riable motion. your answer is inaccurate. draw a graph showing the dependence of the distance travelled on time. The formula fOT tbe distance v travelled is of the form § I. the body has uniformly accelerated motion with no initial velocity.
. STUDENT: I understand. . Here is a correct drawing of the graph (Fig. TEACHER: Let us consider a portion of a distancetravelled V5 time graph (Fig.tz)2 (3) Now. it remains to summarize the results of equations (I). (2) and (3).Qd t .tz)2 where al is the acceleration in period 3. STUDENT: The motion of the body in period 3 is uniformly decelerated. 2 be a smooth curve.. TEACHER: Your equation can be simplified somewhat: s(t)= ~~ +V(ttl)..QtCt . The graph of the distance travelled has the form of a parabola for period I. a straight line for period 2 and another parabola (but turned over. I I TEACHER: There are two I I faults in your drawing: the I I graph of the distance travelled O~±Tt3 . with the conI vexity facing upward) for peI I riod 3.tial instant of time. the vertex of the upper (inverted) parabola should correspond to the instant of time t~. 3). 2). Moreover. the formula of the distance travelled in this period should be r s (t) = ~i + v (!atl) +v (tt2).e. STUDENT: Please explain it. the body had already travelled a distance equal to atU2. please write the formula for the distance travelled in period 3. 4)." i. Here is the graph I I have drawn (Fig. The dependence of the distance travelled on the elapsed time for period 2 is expressed by the equation at 2 s(t)"""f+V(ttl) (2) 1 j Wi th this in mind. It is only one half of the acce1eration a in period I. The average velocity of the body in tt 12 . the parabolas should be tangent to the straight line. It should Fig. but at the instant tl' Up to that time. If I understand it correctly.should have no kinks. because period 3 is twice as long as period 1.
the interval from t to t + III equals s (t +M)s (t) _ t M . Thus it is possible to find the velocity at any instant of time from the angle of inclination of the tangent to the distancetravelled vs time curve at the corresponding point. 13 . 1 is continuous). while i we approach it from the right the velocity equals tan eti.. According to your graph. It follows from your graph that at the instant of time tl (and at t~) the velocity of the body has two different values. 4 to the curve) makes with the horizontal is the value of the velocity at the instant t. passing through point A (see the dashed line in Fig. 0  In the limit. STUDENT: I understand now. The tangent of the angle this line (tangent s s O~r+~~'f Fig. 4). 2). the velocity of the body at the instant t 1 (and again at t 2) must have a discontinuity.. Thus v (t) = . To determine the velocity of the body at the instant t it is necessary to find the limit of such average velocities for ~t40.. the veloci ty equals tan et i.anet where a is the angle between chord AB and the horizontal. which actually it has not (the velocity vs time graph in Fig..1m s(t+M)s(t) . Continuity of the velocity graph leads to smoothness of the distancetravelled vs time graph. If we afproach t 1 from the left. the chord becomes a tangent to the distancetravelled vs time curve. At (4) AI . But let us return to your drawing (see Fig.. 3 Fig.
using the velocity graph in Fig. where the curved line is a parabola with its ver tex at point A. I.i l at' 1) • TEACHER: Exactly.Now. Take notice that the distance travelled by the l'()dy by the time ta is the 3ame as if it had "I 14 . Let us consider another problem to fix what we have learned. The distance travelled by the body during the time ta equals s(tJ=f+ v (t .TEACHER: Incidentally. D raw the velocity v~ time graph. Here is my graph (Fig. 6). . there should be discontinuities in the velocity graph at the corresponding instants of time (/1 and t 2). we should have no difficulty in' determining the length of BG. know the value of angle a l ' TEACHER: Nevertheless. 5. TEACHER: Good. This graph is shown in Fig. But there is a simpler way. however. 5). the vertices of the para bolas should correspond to the instants of time 0 and La because at these instants the velocity of the body equals zero and the tangent to the curve must be horizontal for these points . find the distance travelled by a body by the instant tao STUDENT: First we determine the acceleration a in period 1 from the velocity graph and then the velocity v in period 2. What is the length of Be? STUDENT: It is equal to tan (see Fig. 5 Fig. We don't. Next we make use of formula (2). The distance travelled by the body during the time t2 is numerically equal to the area of the figure OABD under the velocity vs time graph in the interval Ott. s 1I B I I I t tz Fig. 6 I t STUDENT: Since there are kinks in the distancetraveJ1ed graph. Assume that the distancetravelled vs time graph has kinks.
6 is equal to the area of triangle ABC. 5 is a continuation of the straight line in the interval from 0 to tl)· Since the distance travelled is measured by the area under the velocity graph. the velocity at instant t2 when approached from the left is twice the velocity of uniform motion in the intervals from 0 to tl and from t2 to ta· . Consequently. i.travelled at uniform velocity all the time (the straight line in the interval from t2 to is in Fig. it follows that the area of rectangle ADEC in Fig.e. BC=2EC.
Can you apply it with sufficient facility? Do you have a good understanding of the laws of dynamics? f .The concept of a force is one of the basic physical concepts.
P is the weight.STUDENT: Problems in mechanics seem to be the most difficult of all... plane and FIT is the friction force. '.. in the first case. 9a).. and (d) the body is a pendulum. (c) the body rotates on the end of a string in a vertical plane. .. In the ... say. Therefore. (b) the body slides down an inclined plane. you can TO A BODY? begin by considering the forces applied to a body.. How do you begin CAN YOU SHOW to solve them? THE FORCES APPLIED TEACHER: Frequently. One thing that you must understand II I\ clear ly is that a force is the result of \ J interaction between bodies. l'  . we can take the following cases (Fig. ..."" ." to show the forces· applied to a body (0) you must first establish what bodies interact with the given body.. Therefore. P is the weight..". STUDENT: Here is my drawing (Fig. 8).. 9). the weight p. Thus. In the fourth case. and explain what the arrows represent. . Draw arrows showing the forces applied to the body in each of these cases. Here I have the cor~ect drawing (Fig. 7 tion the resistance of the air or. F is the force which keeps the body sliding along the .. F is the restoring force and T is the tension in the string. In the third. In the first case. 7): (a) the body is thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal..r)/II. is applied to the 'body. Fe is the (a) centripetal force and T is the tension in the string. only one force. \ I . only the earth interacts with the body by attracting it (Fig. .. . P is the weight of the body and F is the throwing force. second. As an example.. If we wished to take into consideraFig. 17 . t!llIImJT//I/7/T77/T.. . P is the weight.. TEACHER: You have made mistakes in all four cases.
( (1) It. STUDENT: But to throw a body. ':. \. "".the action of the wind. m~. This.r. It is impossible to "accumulate" forces.. When you throw a body you exert a certain force on it.. No "throwing force".Tp ! Fig. we dealt with the motion of the body after it was thrown."".. actually exists. the force isn't there any more.'" . fully agrees with 18 . ' F ". .mmr»))n))))//.e. since there is no interaction creating such a force. that's true.. however. after the force which imparted a definite initial velocity of flight to the body had ceased to act. 9 Fig. In the case above. shown in your drawing. why doesn't it fall vertically downward instead of travelling alooga curved path? TEACHER: It surprises you that in the given case the direction of motion of the body does not coincide with the direction of the force acting on it.i' / '. i. P It' \ \ \ "'" . we would have to introduce additionall forces. (e) (e. however. 8 TEACHER: Yes. as soon as the interaction of the bodies ends.nmJn. I I p iF ~ 7' I I I f (d) ~. STUDENT: But if only the weight is acting on the body. 7'. surely some kind of force i must be exerted on it.
If. Your question shows that you haven't given sufficient thought to Newton's laws of dynamics. 9b). only one force. obtained when the weight is resolved into two forces. STUDENT: Just a moment! Then the inclined plane acts on the body with two forces and not one? TEACHER: There is. I showed a sliding force which keeps the body sliding down the plane. It is. What bodies act on it? STUDENT: Two bodies: the earth and the string. there is no such force. as you call it. 19 . The fact that these forces have a common origin. Now I want to continue our analysis of the four cases of motion of. of course. such a term actually exists. and that is why two forces are applied to the body: the weight and the tension of the string. i. What bodies are interacting with it? STUDENT: Evidently.Ne\\1ton's second law. more convenient to deal with it in the form of two component forces. is Simply one of the components of the body's weight. two bodies: the earth and the inclined plane. But I clearly remember hearing the term "sliding force" used frequently in the past. In. one along the plane and the other normal to it. 9c). in enumerating the forces applied to the body. Evidently. What can you say about this? TEACHER: Yes. one of its components. you have named the weight.e. TEACHER: Exactly. TEACHER: Good. however. there is no reason to add the sliding force. This enables us to find the forces applied to the body. You must bear i~ mind. We shall deal with this relationship in more detail later (§ 3). can be seen in the existence of a universal relation between FIt' and N: FIr = kN (5) where k is a constant called the coefficient of sliding friction. a body. however. ne. and the inclined plane causes the force of sliding friction FIt' and the force N ordinarily called the bearing reaction. one directed along the inclined plane (force of sliding friction) and the other perpendicular to it (bearing reaction). a body is sliding down an inclined pla. . the body rotates in a vertical plane. that the sliding force.the second case (Fig. The earth is responsible for the weight P. Note that you entirely omitted force N in your drawing. STUDENT: In my drawing. In the third case (Fig. I intend to discuss this later (see § 4). that they are components of the same force.
Find the bodies acting on the given object and you will reveal the forces applied to the object. Here I only wish to note that the centripetal force is not some kind of additional force applied to the body. Here we have an additional force Fe with which the fieldoi the capacitor acts on the charge of the pendulum (Fig. 9d) is also the resultant of the tension in the string and the weight? TEACHER: Quite true. It is the resultant force. It is 20 \ . the centripetal force is the difference between the tension of the string and the weight.STUDENT: But what about the centripetal force? TEACHER: Don't be in such a hurryl So many mistakes are made in problems concerning the motion of a body in a circle that I intend to dwell at length on this further on (see § 8). Can we consider them? TEACHER: There are many examples of morecomplicated interaction of bodies. 10. the restoring force in the fourth case (Fig. the tension of the string and the weight. + P p Fig. they cannot originate from any "accessory" considerations. STUDENT: No doubt there are more complicated cases than the ones you have iIll. a certain constant horizontal force F acts on a body a5 a result of which the body moves upward along an inclined surface. are applied to the body. Here. 11). two forces. For instance. 11 Another example is the oscillation of an electrically charged pendulum placed inside a parallelplate capacitor. the string and the earth interact with the body. The forces applied to the body in this case are shown in Fig. I wish to em'phasize again that forces arise only as a result of interaction of bodies. 7. Therefore. In our case (when the body is at the lowest point of its path). 10 FIg. as in thE! third case. STUDENT: If I understand it correctly.lstrated in Fig.
the direction of motion becomes definite only after the corre~pond ing numerical values are substituted.(bJ sion T' of string AB (Fig. J pH Fig. r" (GJ bearing reaction N' and the ten. Of course. TEACHER: To determine the direction of the friction force. STUDENT: What do you do when there are several bodies in the problem? Take. 12. for example. I shall obtain a negative value when I calculate the 21 . In the given problem. it is necessary to know the direction in which the body is travelling. If this has not been specified in the problem. the inclined plane and (a) string AB interact with this body. If my assumption IS wrong.obviously impossible to mention all the conceivable cases that may come up in solving problems. 13 STL:DENT: But why is the friction force directed to the left in your drawing? It would seem just as reasonable to have it act in the opposite direction. for instance. force FrT of sl id ing friction. I assume that body 1 (together with the whole system of bodies) is travelling to the right and the pulley is rotating clockwise. 12 Fig. 13a). STUDENT: Doesn't body 2 interact with body J? TEACHER: Only through string AB. TEACHER: You should clearly realize each time the motion of what bodies or combination of bodies you Intend to consi· der. I cannot know this beforehand. The ~ N' earth. the case illustrated in Fig. The forces applied p' to body I are the weight P'. we should assume either one or the other direction. the motion of Dody 1 in the example you proposed. Let us take.
TEACHER: No. i.acceleration. the tensions in the strings need not be taken into ccmsideration since they become. STUDENT: Body 3 interacts only with the earth and with string CD. the inclined plane. Would that be correct? 22  . Isn't it obvious that if the body is not moving to the right it must be moving to the left? . STUDENT: 1 can't understand that. string AB and string CD interact with body 2. you can write the equation of motion for each one and then solve the system of equations you obtain.e. The system of the three bodies as a whole interacts only with the earth and the inclined plane. TEACHER: Why yes. TEACHER: You forget that the body can also be at rest. TEACHER: Very well. it will evidently be positive forthesecond assumption. Then I will have to assume that the body moves to the left instead of to the right (with the puHey rotating counterclockwise) and to direct the force of sliding friction correspondingly. it can turn out to be negative in the second case as well. STUDENT: The earth. 13b and c. TEACHER: Now. After this I can derive an equation for calculating the acceleration and again check its sign by substituting the numerical values. When I depicted the forces in Fig. STUDENT: Why check the sign of the acceleration a second time? If it was negative when motion was assumed to be to the right. but as a whole. we shaH just assume that the pulley rotates clockwise and examine the motion of body 2. STUDENT: You mentioned that it was not necessary to deal with each body separately. We shaH return to this question later and analyse in detail the complications that arise when we take the friction force into consideration (see § 7). Then. forces of interaction between separate parts of the item being considered. internal forces. after establishing the forces applied to each body. 13b. The forces applied to body 2 are shown in Fig. STUDENT: I should like to clear up one point. Now let us go over to body 3. Figure 13c shows the forces applied to body 3. bodies I. not separately as we have just done. 2 and 3 can be examined. I assumed that the tension in string CD is the same on both sides of the pulley. ' For the present. but that we could also consider the set of bodies as a whole. in this case.
In your drawings you applied all the forces to a single point of the body. On the drawings. say. Therefore. F.. Let us consider an example. Since forces F. STUDENT: We were taught that any simplification leads to the loss of certain aspects of the problem.. but of material points. If the pulley is rotating clockwise. all B Fz the forces can be shown as applied to a single point of the body.TEACHER: Strictly speaking.. their addi r 23 . may result in rotation and overturning of the body. 14a. As a rule. force F. counterbalance each other. i. Now let us apply. equal and parallel to force F 2 • and also force F. that's incorrect. however. 14b).e. it is simply regarded as a means of changing the direction of the string connecting bodies 2 and 3. the mass of the pulley is disregarded unless otherwise stipulated. at point A. the tension in the part of string CD attached to body 3 should be greater than the tension in the part of the string attached to body 2. to the centre of gravity of the body? TEACHER: It should be remembered that we are studying the kinematics and dynamics. it can be assumed that the tension in string CD is the same on both sides of the pulley. not of extended bodies.. as shown in Fig. Have we cleared up everything? STUDENT: I still have a question concerning the point of application of the force. and F. and not a point.. It was assumed in the given example that the mass of the pulley can be disregarded. In other words. the pulley has no mass that is to be accelerated. 14 real conditions.. only for the sake of clarity. Is this correct? Can you apply the force of friction. This difference in tension is what causes accelerated rotation of the pUlley. Exactly Fi' what do we lose when we regard the 'I4!::. Assume that two forces are applied at two different points of a body: FI at point A and F2 at point E. under Fig. equal to f~rce F z but acting in the opposite direction (see Fig. we regard the body to be of point mass. Therefore. or particles. A material point has only a motion of translation. (a) we show a body.~Fz body as a material point? TEACHER: In such a simplified approach we do not take into account the rotational moments Which.
. Fig. But we have already dealt with rotational motionmotion in a circle. The motion of translation of a point can take place along various paths. also appli~d to the body is a force couple (forces Pi and FJ causing rotation. • TEACHER: Do not confuse entirely different things. about any axi~ passing through the point. In other words. force F2 can be transferr'!d to point A of the body if. When we regard the body as a material point. or particle. STUDENT: You say that a material point cannot rotate but has only motion of translation. for instance in a circle. When I ruled out the possibility of rotational motion of a point I meant rotation about itself.e. i. at the same time. there will evidently be no rotational moment.tion doe& not alter the physical aspect of the problem in any way. the corresponding rotational moment is added. However. 14b can be interpreted as follows: forces PI and f. applied at point A cause motion of translation of the bod).
the coefficient of friction is k. Remember equation (5) from § 2. they are entirely different forces. The forces applied to the body (the sled) are the weight P. where N is the bearing reaction. the weight and the bearing reaction may be equal to each other. TEACHER: Nevertheless. b. Consider the example illustrated in Fig. F N F p P Fig.earing reaction N. Ii Fsirltr . but. in genera!. The friction force equals kP.TEACHER: I should like to dwell in more detail on the calculation of the friction force in CAN YOU DETERMI~E va. such as a lubricant. force FIr of sliding friction and the tensIon F of the rope (see Fig. 15). How will you go about it? STUDENT: Why. The force of sliding friction is equal.rious problems. ~TUDENT: But here everything seems to be quite clear. many mistakes made in examinations are due to the inability to calculate the friction force. 15. We resolve force F into its vertical (F sin a) and horizontal (F cos a) components. A sled of weight P is being pulled with a force F applied to a rope which mdkes an angle a with the horizontal. I have in mind THE FRICTI01\' FORCE? dry slidIng friction (sliding friction is said to be dry when there is no layer of any substance. Consider the example I proposed. that seems to be very simple. Find the force of sliding friction. 16 Fig. 15 TEACHER: Entirely wrong. not to kP. § 3. All 25 . between the sliding surfaces). STUDENT: But isn't that the same thing? TEACHER: In a particular case. but to kN.
then inst~ad of equation (6) we would have N=P. The vertical forces P and N counterbalance each other. seems to "raise" the sled somewhat. but is less by the amount F sin a. Now let us consider static friction. bearing reaction N. A body is at rest on a horizontal surface and is acted on by a horizontal force F which tends to move the body. Continue. 16). This has certain specific features to which students do not always pay sufficient attention. STUDENT: I understand now.NT: If the body tests on a horizontal plane and force Facts horizontaHy. How great do you think the friction force will be in this case? STUDr. force F and the force of static friction FIr (Fig. this force is not equal to the weight of the sled. Take the following example. STUDENT: I shall follow the rule: to find the friction force. your answer would be correct. this is what should be expected.r=k(PFsina) (7) If the rope were horizontal (a =0) . F. TEACHER: You have made a typical mistake by confusing the forces of sliding and static friction. I never thought about this' before.forces acting in the vertical direction counterbalance one another. first determine the bearing reaction. This enables us to find the bearing reaction: N = PF sina (6) As you can See. If the body were sliding al<mg the plane. TEACHER: This is quite a common error of examinees who attempt to treat the force of sliding friction as the product of the coefficient of friction by the weight and not by the bearing reaction. So should the horizontal forces F and F fro Therefore (8) 26 . TEACHER: So far we have been dealing with the force of sliding friction. because the taut rope. Try to avoid such mistakes in the future. So. But here the body is at rest. being pulled at an angle upwards. in this case. then N=P. STUDENT: It follows that the friction force equals kP. Four forces act on the body: the weight P. This reduces the force with which the sled bears on the surface and thereby the bearing reaction as well. Physically. Is that correct? TEACHER: Quite correct. from which it follows that Flr=kP. Hence it is necessary that all forces applied to the body counterbalance one another.
Some say that the friction force equals kP. however. that is so. It should be found from the condition of equilibrium of forces acting along the inclined plane. The force of static friction reaches a maximum value: (9) Coefficient ko slightly exceeds coefficient k which characterizes. coefficient ko becomes equal to k. we have to deal with the force of static friction. so that the load will not slide along the body. In conclusion. Find the minimum force F applied to the body at which the load will begin to slide along it. and the body travels with gradually increasing acceleration. There are two such forces in our case: the friction force FIr and the sliding force m P sin a acting downward along the ~p plane. T~erefore. As soon as the external force F reaches the value koN. 17. The force of static friction increases with the force F. STUDENT: I understand. Fig. and others that' it equals kft'= =kP cos a. the correct answer IS M/ff/ . the friction force (now the force of sliding friction) ceases to increase further (until very high velocities are attained).m~ FI'=P SIn a. The inability of many examinees to determine the friction force is disclosed by the following rather simple question: what is the friction force when a body of weight P is at rest on an 'inclined plane with an angle of inclination a? One hears a variety of incorrect answers. At this value. the force of sliding friction. 17 TEACHER: Exactly. consider the problem illustrated in Fig. according to equation (5).STUDENT: It follows that the force of static friction depends on the external force tending to move the body.'. and so the friction force is reduced somewhat. It does not increase infinitely. Then the two bodies will acquire the acceleration ~ ~ t::" a=M+m F 27 . TEACHER: Yes. Since the body is at rest. the maximum force of static friction between the two is characterized by the coefficient ko and there is IW friction between the body and the earth. STUDENT: First I shall assume that force F is sufficiently small. Upon further increase of force F. the body begins to slide. A load of mass m lies on a body of mass M.
the maximum value of force F. is the minimum force at which the load begins to slide along the body. I am completely satisfied wLth your reasoning. Thus Fm FIT=ma= Mtm It follows that with an increase in force F. What force will this acceleration impart to the load? STUDENT: It will be subjected to the force of static friction FIT by the accelerati. at which the two bodies can still travel together as an integral unit is determined from the condition from which F= (kf + m) kog This. then. It cannot. Its maximum value is FIT I1IQX = koN = komg Consequently.on. the force of static friction FIT also increases. however. .TEACHER: Correct. TEACHER: Your solution of the proposed problem is correct. increase infinitely.
Now we can return to my question. We can observe the following: the body rests on the floor and. or frame of reference. Here we have an obvious violation of Newton's first law of motion. For instance. First we shall deal with the position of the body with respect to a frame of reference attached to the car. STUDENT: A body remains at HOW WELL DO YOU rest or in a state of uniform motion KNOW NEWTON'S LAWS in a straight line until the action OF MOTION? of other bodies compels it to change that state. TEACHER: I see that this question has t~ken you unawares. you mean that it is stationary with respect to some other body which. From this we can conclude that New§ 4. begins to slow down. Is Newton's first law valid for all frames of reference? STUDENT: Well. serves as the reference system. it begins to slide along the floor even though no action of ahy kind is evident. but is moving with respect to a frame of reference attached to the track. which had been travelling in a straight line and at uniform velocity. in the given case. The nature of the motion of a body depends upon the choice of the frame of reference. and the body. it probably is. all of a sudden. TEACHER: Is this law valid in all frames of reference? STUDENT: I don't understand your question. Consider the example with the body lying on the floor of the railway car.TEACHER: Please state Newtoo's first law of motion. continues to maintain its state of uniform straightline motion with respect to the raHway tracks. The conventional explanation of this effect is that the car. We shall neglect the friction between the body and the floor. a body lying on the floor of a travelling rai Iway car is at rest with respect to a frame of reference attached to the car. Experiments show that Newton's first law is not valid for aU reference systems. 29 . TEACHER: If you say that a body is at r~t. because the train is braked. due to the absence of friction. It is quite pointless to speak of a body being in a state of rest or definite motion without indicating the frame of reference.
This force. 30 . To do this. equals the product of the mass of the body by the acceleration of the reference system. if it is formally introduced. however. those in which it is not valid are noninertial. a noninertial system). Note that not only Newton's first law ofomotion is invalid for noniner'iial reference systems. I would advise you to choose an inertial frame of reference. And now please state Newton's second law of motion. it will be necessary to apply. to employ only inertial frames of reference in solving problems. however. or to any other bodies which are at rest with respect to the earth's surface or travel in a straight line at uniform velocity. for instance.ton's law holds true in a frame of reference attached to the railway tracks. all the forces that you have to deal with will be really existing forces. For most of th~ phenomena we deal with we can assume that any frame of reference is inertial if it is attached to the earth's surface. then how can we deal with mechanics in such frames? TEACHER: Newton's laws of motion can nevertheless be used fornoninertial frames of reference. TEACHER: Why can't we? The choice of the frame of reference is up to you. then the body is dealt with as one travelling in a circle. the socalled inertial force. If in such a problem you use a reference system attached to the disk (Le. then Newton's laws of motion will hold true in a noninertial frame of reference. etc. an additional force to the body. the body is consi dered to be at rest. But if your reference system is attached to the earth (i. but his second law as well (since the first law is a particular case of the second law). a problem about a body lying on a rotating disk. then we cannot analyse. Then. I should emphasize that no such force actually exists but. and its direction is opposite to the acceleration of the body. for instance rotating systems.e. STUDENT: But if we limit ourselves to inertial frames of reference. but not in one attached to a car being slowed down. purely formally. I want to advise you. Frames of reference for which Newton's first law is valid are said to be inertial. STUDENT: But if Newton's laws cannot be employed for frames of reference travelling with acceleration. Noninertial frames of reference are systems travelling with acceleration (or deceleration). accelerating or decelerating lifts. an inertial reference system).
but the more accurate term "resultant force". m is its ma~ and aacceleration. acceleration is characterized by 31 . TEACHER: Yes. a =m  BF + (11) (where the arrows over the letters denote vectors). Correctly stated it is: the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the resultant of all forces acting on the body.. Secondly. Newton's second law establishes a relationship between force and acceleration.. on the contrary.. This statement can be analytically expressed by the formula . not the term "force". I should make three critical remarks on your statement. Notice that your version had no mention of the proportionality factor B. characterized not only by their numerical value (magnitude) but by their direction as well. TEACHER: Your laconic answer is very typical. My third remark is the most important.ortionalHy factor depending upon the choice of units of measurement of the quantities in equation (10). the acceleration is the result of the applied force. It is therefore more logical to write the equation of the law as a= m BF (10) where B is th~ prop. STUDENT: When in § 2 we discussed the forces applied to a body thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal. it is not the force that results from the acceleration. You referred then to Newton's second law. but. . This is an essential shortcoming. Let us recall what acceleration is. a body is accelerated by all forces applied to it (though some may counterbalance one another). in stating the law you should use. As we know. Your statement leaves out a vital part of Newton's second law of motion. Your statement of the law fails to sp. In the first place.STUDENT: This law can bewriftenas F=ma. and I think it would be quite appropriate to return to this question. I remember. Therefore. you said you would show later that the direction of motion of a body does not necessarily coincide with the direction of the force applied to it. inversely proportional to the masS' of the body and takes place in the direction of the resultant force. whereF is the force acting on the body.ecify the directions. two are not very imJlortant and one is essential. But force and acceleration are vector quantities.
TEACHER: Your example is quite appropriate. 18 Fig. are the velocity vectors VI and V 2 of a body for two nearby instants of time t and t+M. Now let us return to relationship (11) and make it clear that it is precisely the acceleration and not the velocity that is oriented in the direction of the applied force.t is the vector /). now I understand. the acceleration and velocity vectors are also differently oriented.ected along vector /). the acceleration is (12) or. but its acceleration is directed along a radius toward the centre of rotation (I mean centripetal acceleration). Since the acCeleration and velocity are dilYerent vectors. (13) It follows that the acceleration vector is di. the nature of a body's motion at any given instant is determined by the direction and magnitude of its velocity at the given instant (the velocity vector is always tangent to the path of the body).. more rigorously.. 18 + .0=.. It is eVident from Fig. in the general case. 19 that the velocity vectors and the change in velocity vector can be oriented in entirely different directions. 18 Fig.the change in velocity in unit time. the velocity of the body is directed along a tangent to the circle. For example.2V>I' By definition. This means that.. The change in velocity during the time /). Is that clear? STUDENT: Yes. 32 . + a (t) = At __ Otlt lim Au . Illustrated in Fig. and that it is again the acc~leration and not the velocity that is related to the magnitude of this force. On the other hand.v. which represents the change in velocity during a sufficiently short interval of time. when a body travels in a circle.
i. this demonstrates the relation of the past to the present. however. 19 are the trajectories of bodies thrown with initial velocities of different directions. the weight and the tension of the 2118 . These forces no longer exist. STUDENT: This is true for the general case.the weight of the body. They are the result of forces that existed in the past. the velocity of a body at a given instant (i.. TEACHER: Certainly. the motion the body had no velocity in the first case and a definite horiwntal velocity in the second. I want to cite one more example illustrating the aforesaid. so that no initial velocity is imparted to it. STUDENT: Does that mean that the nature of the motion of a body at a given instant depends not only on the forces acting on the body at this instant. but also on the 'initial conditions? TEACHER: Exactly. the nature of its motion at a given instant) would be fully determined by the forces acting on the body precisely at this instant. of course.forces. Lift a body and release it carefully. the body will follow a parabolic path. you impart a horizpntal initial velocity to the body then its direction of motion will not coincide with the direction of the gravity force.e. From the philosophical point of view. this relationship of the past and present would not be revealed. But. 20: a ball hanging on a string is subject to the action of two. Here the direction of motion wil1 coincide with the direction of the force of gravity. the direction of the applied force and the velocity may coincide. but in all cases the same force. the past would have no effect whatsoever on the present. Though in both cases the body moves due to the action of the same'forceits weightthe nature of its motion differs.the direction of the applied force and the direction of motion of the body may not coincide in the general case. is acting on it. A physicist would say that this difference is due to the different initial conditions: at the beginning of. If.e. that is possible. It should be emphasized_ that the initial conditions reflect the prehistory of the body. the nature of the motion of a body at a given instant is not uniquely determined by the forces acting on the body at the given instant. Consequently. but the result of their action is manifested. Illustrated in Fig. It is shown in Fig. the principle of causality_ ' Note that if the formula of Newton's second law contained the velocity and not the acceleration. In this case.
in oscillation in a plane. ~. 2Oa)... the ball will begin tc travel in a circle at uniform velocity. Actually. the resultant force should be the res· toring force. 1"+. Only two force~ act on it in either case: its weight and II I I the tension of the string. i. Thus. in both cases two forces arE . This means thai there will be a different resultant applied force for each mo· tion... From this it follows that even though dat2 on the kind of motion of a body cannot serve as the basis fOi determining the applied forces. for instance. I I ra) I I STUDENT: I haven't considered New· I I I I I I ton's laws from this viewpoint..string. tion and then released.. There is no need. base theil reasoning on the nature of motior without first finding out what bodie! interact with the given body. 84 . the ball either oscillates in a plane (see Fig. of different nature and therefore data on the nature of the motion of a body cannot serve as a starting point in determining the forces applied to the body. 20b). in uniform motion of a body in Il circle... As you can see. That is exactly why.. when drawing I i Figs... Though different kinds of motion may be caused by the same set of forces (as in Fig.. however. the numerical relations between the acting forces differ for the different kinds of motion.. it seemed to you that I I· the sets of forces applied to the body I in those cases should be different. it will begin to oscillate. they are far from superfluous. Be and 8d. depen· ding upon the initial conditions. VOl may recall that you did the same. or travels at uniform velocity ina circle (see Fig. TEACHER: No wonder then that some d .. to go to the extremes. however. the resultant force should be the centripetal one. TEACHER: You have stated the matter very precisely.. . If it is deflected to one side of the equilibrium posi. p STUDENT: Now 1 understand tha1 Fig 20 the same set of forces can cause motiom ... applied to the body: its weight anc I the tension of the string. 20).. If. a definite velocity is imparted to the ball in a direetion per· pendicular to the plane of deviation. in trying to determine thE I forces applied to a body. I students.
let us retumto the example illustrated in Fig. you can predict the nature of the motion of the body (the magnitude and direction of its velocity at any instant).cosa.e. Then the forces perpendicular to the resultant force. knowing the interaction of bodies. Am I reasoning correctly? TEACHER: Quite so. Find the tension T in the string when (1) the oscillating body is in its extreme position. and the forces perpendicular to the resultant force.e. the vertical forces. But let us continue. are equated to each other (see Fig.In this connection. should be equated to each other (Fig. i. if you know the kind of motion of a body you can establish the relationships between the forces applied to it. 21a). with one component along the resuaant force and the other perpendicular to it (OJ (i. then. Assume that the angle ct between the vertical and the direction of the string is known and so is the weight P of the body. if you know these forces and the initial conditions. In the first case. 21 Tgcos cx= P or T. and (2) when the body is travelling uniformly in a circle. the weight P of the body is resolved into two components. the resultant force is the restoring force and it is perpendicular to the string. the resultant force is the centripetal one and is directed horizontally. 21b). I want to propose a comparatively simple problem relating to Newton's second 2* 35 . those acting in the direction along the string. directed along the string). T 1 = P COB a. STUDENT: If I understand all this correctly. Thus PCOStr p P. e. 2 p As you can see. On the other hand. the tension T I of the string should be resolved into a vertical and a horizontal force. Therefore. Then Fig. i. 20. In the second case. a knowledge of the nature of the body's motion proved useful in finding the tension of the string. you can find the forces applied to one of them. Hence.
there will be no motion. There are four such forces and their resultant is Ff. Now you see that this acceleration is not associated with the interaction between the horse and the waggon. or bootstraps either): This is an Important practical inference of Newton's third law of motion. This Is what causes the acceleration of the system. It should be stressed that no internal interaction can impart acceleration to a system as a whole. This can be done only by external action (you can't lift yourself by your hair. if you locate the horse and waggon on an ideal icy surface. not simply the place on which certain events occur. thereby excluding all horizontal interaction between this system and the earth. TEACHER: Your pictorial comment is quite true.ts caused by the resultant of all the forces applied to it. . whatsoever. but an active participant of these events. STUDENT: SO the earth's surface turns out to be. Incidentally..
. extend your knowledge of mechanics by solving as many problems as you can. you can easily solve problems. The converse Is just as true: if you solve problems readily. you evidently have a good knowledge of mechanics.If you know mechanics well. Therefore.
Since the vertical motions of the bodies are determined in both cases by the same data (saine height and the absence of a vertical component of the initial velocity). the time of fall is the same for the two bodies. When the body strikes the inclined plane it not only AI TEACHER: Assume that two bodies are falling from a. TBACHER~ Absolutely right. Assume that both bodies are falling [rom the 40 . It equals V2H/g.d plane. The time of flight is determined by the vertical component of the motion. As a result of this impact on the plane the direction of the velocity of the body becomes horizontal (Fig. Here and further on we shall disregard the resistance of the air. however. its time of fall. "" STUDENT: Both bodies take the same time to fall to the level of the inclined plane. consequently.TEACHER: Your answer is wrong. Therefore. As a result of the impact on the . This horiFig. STUDENT: The motion of a body thrown horizontally can be regarded as a combination of two motions: vertical and horizontal. but in its path one. plane one of the bodies acquires a horizontal component of velocity.certain height. Compare the times of fall of the two bodies. You were right in saying that the horizontal component of the velocity doesn't inOuence the vertical motion of the body and.§ 5. 23 zontal component cannot. The point of impact is at the height h. it follows that in this case as well the time of fall should be the same for the bodies. where H is the initial height. 23). height H with IW initial velocity. Compare the time it takes for the two bodies" to fall to the ground. Now let us consider a more complex case. One has no initial veloHOW DO YOU GO ABOUT city and the other has a certain SOLVING PROBLEMS initial velocity in a horizontal IN KINEMATICS? direction.of them meets a fixe. inclined at an angle of 45° to the horizontal. influence the vertical component of the body's motion.
It is evident from the last equation that i2 is a maximum when the function Y= (1. This leads us to the following question: at what h to H mUo will the time of fall reach its maximum value? In other words. TEACHER: Your qualitative remarks are quite true. Thus. that for the body striking the plane is V2 (Hh)/g+V2h/g. If the time is maximal. The impact against the plane delays the vertical motion of the body and thereby increases its time of fall. and this of course must affect the time of fall. the body falls from the height h with no initial vertical velocity. ifs square is also maximal. at what height should the inclined plane be located so that it delays the fall most effectively? STUDENT: I am at a loss to give you an exact answer. _ Our further discussion on typical procedure for solving problems in kinematics wilJ centre around the example of a body thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal (usually called the elevation angle). We can write the time of fall of the body as . Thus t2=g [I +2V(lx)x l . . the problem is reduced to finding the maximum of the quadratic trinomial Y= x2 +x= .acquires a horizontal velocity component. But you should find no difficulty in obtaining the exact answer. Thus.( x} r+ ~ This trinomial is maximal at x=I/2. After striking the inclined plane. First we square the time of fall. but also loses the vertical component of its velocity. height h should be one half of height H. because a ratio of 1 or 0 is equivalent to the absence of any plane whatsoever. t= y2H (VIx +Vx) g 2H where x=~  Now we find the value of x at which the function t(x) is a maxLmum. The inclined plane should be located somewhere in the middle between the ground and the initial point. The time of fall for the body which dropped straight to the ground is V 2H /g. It seems to me that the ratio h/H should not be near to 1 or to 0.x) x is a maximum.
the body travels at uniform velocity in the . _ TEACHE~: We shall begin with the usual formulation of the rizon witf!. where T 1 is the time of ascent (the body travels verticaHy with uniformly decelerated motion) and T B is the time of descent (the body travels vertically . to the ho· . The time of flight T=T i+T~. We are going to deal with the vertical and horizontal components of motion separately. 24 purpose we resolve the initial velocity vector into the verti· cal (vo sin a) and horizontal (vo cos a) components. '. Consequently. Find the time of {light T. maximum height reached H and the range L.horizontal direction and with uniform acceleration g in the vertical direction. gT~ v& sin 2 ex . As usual. ".STUDENT.2g (15) 42 . Let us examine the vertical component of the motion.: I'm not very good at such problems. The vertical velocity of the body at the highest point of its tmjectory (at the instant t=T 1) is obviously equal to zero. Thus we obtain 0= Vo sin agTl or T _ Vo sin ex ( 14) 1g When T 1 is known we can obtain H = voTl s1I1a2 = . The ho· ritonta" velocity component remains constant throughout the flight while the vertical component varies as shown in Fig. we first problem: a body is thrown upward at an angle of ex. On the other hand. an initial velocity of Vo.downward with uniformly accelerated motion). The only force is gravity. this velocity can be expressed by the formula showing the dependence of the velocity of uniformly decelerutect motion on time.rin'a11 Fig. body. 24. for which D. find the forces acting on the.
The time of descent T I can be calculated as the time a body falls from the known height H without any initial ~rtical velocity:
T
,i
= ' /w _ Vo sin a
V
b
g
Comparing this with equation (14) we see that the time of descent is equal to the time of ascent. The total time of flight is
T= 2vosina '
g
(16)
To find the range L, or horizontal distance travelled, we make use of the horizontal component of motion. As mentioned before, the body travels horizontally at uniform velocity. Thus
L = (vo cos cr.) T = =,g
~sin2a
(17)
It can be seen from equation (17) that if the sum of the angles at which two bodies are thrown is 90° and if the initial velocities are equal, the bodies will fall at the same point. Is everything clear to you so far? STUDENT: Why yes, everything seems to be clear. TEACHER: Fine. Then we shall add some complications. Assume that a Iwrizonial tail wind of constant force Facts
on the body. The weight of the body is P. Find, as in the preceding case, the time of flight T, maximum height reached H, and range L.
STUDENT: In contrast to the preceding problem, the horizontal motion of the body is not uniform; now it travels with a horizontal acceleration of a= (F /P)g. TEACHER: Have there been any changes in the vertical component of motion? STUDENT: Since the force of the wind acts horizontally. the wind cannot affect the vertical motion of the body. TEACHER: Good. Now tell me which of the soughtfor quantities should have the same values as in the preceding problem. STUDENT: These will evidently be the time of flight T and the height H. They are the ones determined on the basis of the vertical 1)10tion of the body. They will therefore be the same as in {he preceding pr{)blem. TEACHER: Excellent. How about the range?
43.
STUDENT: The horizontal acceleration and time of flight being known, the range Can be readily found. Thus
L  (Vo cosq. ) T 
+T_v: sIn 2a +1' v~ sin aT2 2F g g
2
a
TEACHER: Quite correct. Only the answer would best be wri tten in another form:
L= v:s;2a (I
+; tan a )
(18)
Next we shall consider a new problem: a body is thrown at an angle a to an inclined plane which makes the. angle ~ with the horizontal (Fig. 25). The body's initial velocity is Vo. Uo Find the distance L from the point where the body is thrown to the point where it falls on the plane. STUDENT: J once made an attempt to solve such a problem but failed. TEACHER: Can't you see any Fig. 25 similarity between this problem and the preceding one? STUDENT: No, I can't. TEACHER: Let us imagine that the figure for this problem is turned through the angle ~ so that the inclined plane becomes horizontal (Fig. 200). Then the force of gravity' is no (b) longer vertical. Now we resolve !/ it into a vertical (P cos~) and
(II)
Fig. 26
a horizontal (P sin ~) component. You can readily see now that we have the preceding problem again, in which the
44
force P sin
~
plays the role of the force of the wind, and
p cos ~ the role of the force of gravity. Therefore we can
find the answer by making use of equation (18) p.iovided that we make the following substitutions: PSinp for F, Pcos~ for P, and gcos~ for g. Then we obtain
L=
v~sin~a (1+tan~ tana.) gcos
(19)
At P=O, this coincides with equation (17). Of interest is another method of solving the same problem. We introduce the coordinate axes Ox and Oy with the origin at the point the body is thrown from (Fig. 26b). The inclined plane is represented in these coordinates by the linear function
Yl = xtan~ and the trajectory of the body is described by the parabola Y2= ax2 +bx in which the factors a and b can be expressed in terms of VOl a. and p. Next we find the coordinate XA of the point A of intersection of functions Yl and Y2 by equating the expressions for these functions. Thus x tan p= ax 2 + bx
From this it follows that. XA = (tan ~+b)/(a). Then we can easily find the required distance L=OA:
tan ~
+b
~
acos
~.
(20)
VO, a. and For this purpose, we examine two points of the parabolaB and C (see Fig. 26b). We write the equation of the parabola for each of these points:
It remains to express factors a and b in terms of
Y2c=ax~+bxc }
Y2B
=
ax~
+ bXB
The coordinates of points C and B are known to us. Conseq uently. the preceding system of equations enables us to determine factors a and b. I suggest that in your spare time you.complete
45
the solution of this problem and obtain the answer in the form of equation (19). STUDENT: I like the first solution better. TEACHER: That is a matter of taste. The two methods o[ solution differ essentially in their nature. The first could be called the "physical" method. It employs simulation which is so typical of the physical approach (we slightly altered the point of view and reduced oLir problem to the previously discussed problem with the tail wind); The second method could be called "mathematical". Here we employed two functions and found the coordinates of their points of intersection. In my opinion, the first method is the more elegant, but less general. The field of application of the second method is substantially wider. It can, for instance, be applied in principle when the profile of the hill from which the body is thrown is not a straight line. Here, instead of the linear function y 1, some other function will be used which conforms to the profile of the hill. The first method is inapplicable in principle in such cases. We may note that the more extensive field of application of mathematical methods is due to their more abstract nature.
PROBLEMS
J. Body A .is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 20 m per sec. At what height was body B which, when thrown at a horizontal velocity of 4 m per sec at the same time body A was thrown, collided with it in its flight? The horizOntal distance between the initial points of the flight equals 4 m. Find also the time of flight of each body before the collision and the velocity of each at the instant of collision. 2. From points A and B, at the respective heights of 2 and 6 m, two bodies are thrown Simultaneously towards each other: one is thrown horizontally with a velocity of 8 m per sec and the other, downward at an angle of 45° to the horizontal and at an initial velocity such that the bodies collide in fli.ght. The borizontal distance between points A and B equals 8 m. Calculate the initial velocity Vo of the body thrown at an angle of 45°, the coordinates x and y of the point of collision, the time of flight t of the bodies before colliding and the velocities VA and VB of the two bodies at the instant of collision. The trajectories of the bodies lie in a single plane. 3. Two bodies are thrown from a single point at the angles (Xl and (X2 to the horizontal and at the initial velocities VI and v2 ' respectively. At what distance from each other will the bodies be after the time t? Consider two cases: (I) the trajectories of the two bodies lie in a single plane and the bodies are_thrown in opposite directions, and (2) the trajectories lie in mutually perpendicular planes.
46
5. Find the time It takes the body to reach the ground. perpendicular to an inclined plane with an angle of inclination Ct.4. standing at a distance of 15 m from a fence 5 m high. A stone is thrown upward. If the initial velocity is VOl at what distance from the point from which it is thrown will the stone fall? 7. A boy 1. 6. A body falls from the height H with no initial velocity.5 m tall. With what minimum 'l7elocity should the stone be thrown to fly over the fence? . At the height h it elastically bounces off a plane inclined at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. At what angle to the horizontal (elevation angle) should a body of weight P be thrown so that the maximum height reached is equal to the range? Assume that a horizonial tail wind o[ constant force F acts on the body in its flight. throws a stone at an angle of 45° to the horizontal.
that in the case illustrated in Fig. no compromise. I wish to ask one question. In the first case you can sel~ct the directions of resolution arbitrarily. You will understand what I mean if you compare your drawing (Fig. and show them in the drawing. for instance. 10 the body slides with uniform velocity up the inclined plane. Here the directions of resolution may be (with equal advantage) either vertical and § 6. In the first place.CHER: In solving problems in dynamics it is especially important to be able to determine HOW DO YOU GO A. In trying to save space students usually represent forces in the form of almost microscopic arrows. 48 . which we shall call "directions of resolution". basing (or not basing) your choice on considerations of practical convenience.TEA. First you should find all forces ap~ plied to the body. Thirdly. Only then can you begin to resolve some of them. We can begin with some practical advice.BOUT correctly the forces applied to SOLVING PROBLEMS the body (see § 2). STUDENT: How do I choose the directions of resolution? TEACHER: In making your choice you should consider the nature of the motion of the body. the forces should be drawn in large scale to avoid confusion in resolving them. The force components should be dealt with separately for each of these directions. do not hurry to resolve the forces before it can be done properly. 9). you must remember that after you have resolved a force you should "forget" about its existence and use only its components. they should be resolved in two mutually perpendicular directions.Assuming that I have correctly found al1 the forces applied to the body. Either the force itself. Secondly. and this does not help. There are two alternatives: (1) the body is at rest or travels with uniform velocity in a straight line. what should I do next? TEACHER: If the forces are not directed along aO single straight line. or its components. Assume. and (2) the body travels with acceleration and the direction of acceleration is given (at least its sign). 8) with mine (Fig. I N DYNAMICS? STUDENT: Before we go any further.
P= 0 } F Fjrcosr:x.+sina)=O From the first equation of this system we get N= p . the algebraic sums of the component forces for each direction of resolution are equated to zero (remember that we are still dealing with the (a) (h) p p Fig. nevertheless. Suppose it is required to find the force F that will ensure the motion of the body at uniform velocity up along the inclined plane.F"sinr:x. . 27 motion of bodies without acceleration).Fsinr:x.horizontal (Fig. For the case illustrated in Fig. TEACHER: They do but. as can readi Iy be shown. 27a we can write the system of equations N cosr:x. Substituting eqL1ation (5) into equations (21) we obtain (22) STUDENT: But these systems 01 equations differ from each N(cosaksina)P=O } FN(kcosr:x. After the forces have been resolved. 27a) or along the inclined plane and perpendicular to it (Fig. 27b).=O } F/ r + P sin aF COSct= 0 other. 27b is NPcosr:x.N sinct= 0 (21) The system of equations for the case in Fig.cos rxk Sin IX 49 . lead to the same results.
but the acceleration vector as well. This 'method of solution will lead to addItional difficulties. Then. You can check this for yourself. In this case. we can write the following system N ~P cos aF sin a= 0 } a (23) F cos aFfrPsina= ma= Pg Making use of equation (5). TEACHER: Your question shows that I should clear up some points. while that of the force components in the direction along the acceleration is equal. this should not be done. however. in place of equations (22). According to my previous remarks. 27b. can the forces be resolved in directions other than along the acceleration and perpendicular to it? As far as I understand from your explanation. to the product of the mass of the body by its acceleration. Let us return to the body on the inclined plane in the last problem and assume that the body slides with a certain acceleration up the plane. Of course. the forces should be resolved as in the case shown in Fig. The algebraic sum of the force components in the direction perpendicular to the acceleration is equated to zero. STUDENT: What do we do if the body travels with acceleration? TEACHER: In this case the choice of the directions of resolution depends on the direction in which the body is being accelerated (direction of the resultant force). Forces should be resolved in a direction along the accelerationwand in one perpendicular to it. according to Newton's second law of motion. we find the acceleration of the body a= ~ [F cos a(P cos a+F sina) kPsin a] STUDENT: In problems of this kind dealing with acceleration.which is substituted into the second equation to determine the required force. To 50 . Thus F = pk cos a+s~n a cos akstn a Exactly the same answer is obtained from equations (22). even in problems on acceleration you have a right to resolve the forces in any two mutually perpendicular directions. you will have to resolve not only the forces.
twodimensional problems are given in examinations. the examinee may be asked to make a nottoocomplicated generalization for the threedimensional case. 29 the tension of the rope. A body with a mass of 5 kg is pulled along a horizontal plane by a force of 3 kgf applied to the body at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. Find the acceleration of the system and the tension 01 the string connecting weights 1 and 2. A man pulls two sleds tied together by applyIng a force of F= 12 kgf to the pulling rope at an a. STUDENT: We have only been speaking about resolution in two directions. and the force with which the man should pull the rope to impart uniform velocity to the sleds. The coefficient of sliding friction is 0. 28 Fig. of course. after the pulling force begins to act. it is best to proceed exactly as 1 advised. however. Though. TEACHER: You are absolutely right.02. In the general case. tying the sleds together. Find the acceleration of the sleds. The two directions in our discussions are explained by the fact that we are dealing with plane (twodimensional) problems. Three equal weights of a mass 01 2 kg each are hanging on a strin? passing over a fixed pulley as shown in Fig.= 15 kg. so you can proceed on the basis of this direction. Find the velocity 01 the body 10 seconds . The inability of examinees to choose the directions of force resolution rationally is one of the reasons for their helplessness in solving more or less ·complex problems in dynamics. The coefficient of friction between the runners and the snow is 0. and the work done by the friction force during this time.ngle of 45° to the horizontal (Fig. In the general case. 10. as a rule. forces should be resolved in three directions. it would probably be more reasonable to speak of resolution in three mutually perpendicular directions.. however. I should mention that. This is the simplest course. 9. The direction of the body's acceleration is always known (at least its sign). 51 .28). Fig.. The masses of the sleds are equal to ml=m. 29. Space is actually three" dimensional.2. All the remarks made above still hold true. PROBLEMS 8.avoid unnecessary complications.
and ct=30°. P3=5 kgf. Q P. P z=2 kg!. and P a=8 kg£. the tension of the strings and the force with which weight P4 presses downward on weight P a. 30 Fig. Calculate the acceferation of the weights and the tension In the strings for the case illustrated in Fig. 31.t t. 30. The coefficient of friction . Here P 1= I kgf. Find the acceleration of the set of weights. Consider the system of weights shown in Fig. P 4 =O.2. 31 between the weights and the planes equals 0. Neglect the friction between th~ weights a~d the inclined plane. Given: ct=30 P1 =4 kgf Pz= =2 kgf. 12.5 kgf. Fig.
you overlook one important fact. DYNAMICS MUCH MORE STUDENT: But we have already DIFFICULT TO SOLVE IF discussed the force of friction FRICTION IS TAKEN (§3). It is my firm opinion that the difficulties involved in . TEACHER: Now I want to discuss this question in more detail. Thus § 7. Otherwise. solving problems which take the friction force into account are obviously underestimated both by students and by certain authors who think up problems for physics textbooks. You assume that you already know the answers to the following questions: (I) Is the body moving or is it at rest? (2) In which direction is the body moving (if at all)? If these items are known beforehand. now I recall that we spoke of this matter in § 2 in connection with our discussion concerning the choice of the direction of the friction force. 10. Let us assume that the body slides upward along the inclined surface. 27b and make use of the result obtained for the acceleration in § 6. TEACHER: That is so. STUDENT: Yes.TEACHER: Problems may become much more difficult when the friction forces are taken into ARE PROBLEMS IN account. [F cos ctP stn a(P cos a+ F sin a) k] (24) 53 . then the problem is comparatively simple. it may be very complicated from the outset and may even require special investigation. We can resolve the forces as shown in Fig. The angle of inclination a of the plane. the friction force is determined from INTO ACCOUNT? the bearing reaction (F. Let us consider the exampLe illustrated in Fig. All this can readily be understood and remembered. It is required to determine the kind of motion of the body and to find the acceLeration. weight P of the body. If a body is in motion. For simplicity we shall assume that ko=k (where ko is the coefficient determiffing the maximum possible force of static friction). the friction force is equal to the force that tends to take it out of this state of rest. if the body is at rest. a = ~. However.r=kN). force F and the coefficient of friction k are given.
We again resolve all the forces as in Fig.::: 0 This condition can be written in the form F2 P k cos a+s~n a .'cos ak Sm a or F ~ P k+tan a ~ Iktana (25) We shall also assume that the angle of inclination of the plane is not too large. (28) and (29). As a reslIlt we obtain the fall owing expression for the acceleration of the body a= ~ [PsinaFcosa(Pcosa+Fsina)k] (27) From equation (27) it follows that for the body to slide downward along the inclined plane.?: 0 This condition we write in the form F ~ P "'""" sin ak cos a cos a+k sin a or F ~ P I +ktarl a tan ak (28) 1n this case.It follows from equation (24) that for the body to slide upward along the inclined plane. the following condition must be complied with: F cos aP sin a(P cos a + F sin a) k. (26). we shall assume that the angle of inclination of the plane is not too small. so that (tan ak»O. 27b but reverse the friction force. the following condition must be met: P sin aF cos a(P cos a + F sin a) k..::. or (29) tan a > k Combining conditions (25).. or tan a 1 < Ii (26) We shall next assume that the body slides downward along the inclined plane. we can come to the following conclusions: 54 . so that (lk tan a»O.
1 (b) ifF=P (tan ak)/ (I +k tan a). if P(tan ak)/{l+k tan a)<F<P(k+tan a)/(lk tan a). Note that upon increase in force F from P (tan ak)/ (1 + +k tan a) to P (k+tan all (lk tan a). (b) if F=P (k+tan a)/ (lk tan a). the body slides upward at uniform velocity or is at rest. (d) if F=P (tan ak)/ (l +k tan a). Now assume that the inclined plane satisfies the condition o < tana~k then: (a) if F>P (k+tan a)/ (lk tan a). 3. let us assume that the inclined plane meets the condi tion tan ex ~ Ii then: (a) if F<P (tan ak)/ (I +k tan a). (e). no downward motion of the body along the inclined plane is possible (even if force F vanishes). the body slides upward at uniform velocity or is at rest. the body is at rest. Assume that· the condition k < tana< Ii 1 holds good for an inclined plane. it increases to the value k(P cos a+F sin a). the force of static friction is gradually reduced from k (P cos a+F sin a) to zero. (b) if F=P(k+tana)/(lk tana).I. (c) if F<P(tanak)/(l+k tan a). then. after its direction is reversed. While this goes on the body remains at rest. the body slides downward with an acceleration that can be determined by equation (27). Then: (a) if F>P (k+1ana)/ (lk tan a). the body is at rest. the body slides downward with an acceleration that can be determined by equation (27). 2. (c) if F<P(k+tan a)/(lk tan a). the body slides upward with an acceleration that can be determined by equation (24). the body slides downward with unilorm velocity or is at rest. the body slides upward with an acceleration that can be determined by equation (24). Finally. the body slides downward with uniform velocity or is at rest. 55 .
Body P 1 is on an inclined plane with the angle of inclination ex and coefficient of friction k. the body slides downward with an acceleration a = ~ (P sin aF cos ex) (31) Note that the results of equations (30) and (31) coincide with an accuracy to the sign. the body slides with uniform veloCity (upward or downward) or is at rest. Let us consider one more problem. at F<P tan ex. in solving problems. the body travels in the direction you have assumed. 56 . thal. the body will travel in the opposite direction (the acceleration will· be equal to la/). even if one does not have to swim over deep spots. if a<O. TEACHER: That is exactly why I wanted to draw your attention to this matter. If a>O. However. or there will be fridion but the nature of the motion will be known beforehand (for instance. everything becomes much simpler at once. with an increase in force F. Find the acceleration of the system. the body is at rest. STUDENT: Nothing of the kind has ever been demonstrated to us in school. 32). Of course. no upward motion of the body along the inclined plane is possible. however. the results will be~ at F>P tan ~. Two bodies PI and P 2 are connected by a string running aver a pulley. STUDENT: What will happen if we assume that k=O? TEACHER: In the absence of friction. it is good to know where they are. find a and take notice of the sign of the acceleration.· the pressure of the body against the plane will increase at an even faster rale. whether the body is in motion or at rest). the body slides upward with the acceleration a= ~ (rcos~Psina) (30) at F=P tan ~. . body P 2 hangs on the string (Fig. On the face of it.(c) if F>P(tan ~k)l(l+k tan ~). in your entrance examinations you will evidently have to deal with much simpler cases: there will be no friction. Therefore. this seems incomprehensible because force F can be increased indefinitely I The inclination of the plane is so large. you can safely assume any direction of motion. For any angle of inclination of the plane.
::: sina+kcosa Pz Fig.Assume that the system is moving from left to right. 13 and 14). 57 .> P may be. Considering the motion of the system as a whole.. we can write the following equation for the acceleration: .e. Equation (33) implies that for motion from right to left the necessary condition is ~ 1 p~ sinakcosa Here an additional condition is required: the angle of inclination should not be too small. the body is at rest provided the following inequality holds true: . instead. If tan a~k. (32) Assuming now that the system moves from right to left. varying the ratio P=P2/Pl ' From equation (32) it follows that for motion from left to right. If tan a>k. then the body is at rest at P> sina+kcosa STUDENT: And what will happen if we change the angle a or the coefficient k? TEACHER: I leave investigation from this point of view to you as a home assignment (see Problems Nos. tan a~k. 32 should be met. i. we obtain . sina+kcosa < P < sinakcosa 1 I If. tan a>k.::: I' P. (33) We will carry out an investigation for the given a and k values. the condition ::. however large the rati<. then the system will not move from right to left.
32 assuming that the angle a of Inclinalion'o the plane and the ratio P=P2/P l are given.rious values to the coefficient k. assuming that the coefficient of friction k and the ratio P=P 2/Pl are given and assigning various values to the angle a of inclination of the plane.Fig. For the sake of simplicity. Investigate the froblem illustrated in Fig. and assigning va. use only two values of the ratio: p= I (the bodies are of equal weight) and p= 1/2 (the body on the inclined plane Is twice as heavy as the one suspended on the string). . Investigate the problem iHustrated in.PROBLEMS 13. 32. 14.
~ . . Let us consider uniform and nonuniform motion of a material point in a circle. You can see that the whole universe is made up of curvilinear motion. The more important it is to comprehend the specific features of such motion.I . I . " I . . Motion in a circle is the simplest form of curvilinear motion. and the motion of orbiting satellites.... This will lead us to a discussion of the physical causes of the weightlessness of b04ies...
It is applied to the tie (string or another bonding member). the satellite could not stay in orbit. TEACHER (turning to Student A): Remember what I told you before! This is a perfect example of an attempt to prove that a certain force exists. sun and other celestial bodies. if this centrifugal force really did exist.§ 8. in orbit around the earth? We will agree to neglect the resistance of the atmosphere and the attraction of the moon. the satellite must stay in orbit. but by a backdoor manoeuvrefrom the nature of the motion of bodies. but I don't understand where you got the centrifugal force from. As you see.B: The satellite is subject to two forces: the attraction of the earth and the centrifugal force. Will Student B please indicate the forces acting on a satellite. Their answers to such questions contain a great many typical errors. it would fall to the earth. not on the basis of the interaction of bodies. We shall conditionally call him "STUDENT B" (the first student will hereafter be called "STUDENT A"). Incidentally. STUDENT B: If there were no such force. 60 . or sputnik. To demonstrate this let us invite another student to take part in our discussion. then the satellite could not remain in orbit because the forces acting on the satellite would cancel out and it would fly at uniform velocity and in a straight line. STUDENT . so it is necessary to introduce a retaining force. TEACHER: And what would ·happen to it? STUDENT B: Why. It is the centripetal force that is applied to the rotating body. TEACHER: I have found from experience that questions and problems concerning motion of HOW DO YOU DEAL a body in a <.:ircle turn out to WITH MOTION be extremely difficult for many IN A CIRCLE? examinees. TEACHER: 1 have no objections to the attraction of the earth. STUDENT A: The centrifugal force is never applied to a rotating body. This student doesn't know what we have discussed previously. Please explain.
only its weight. You have not. 61 . r=radius of the orbit and G=gravitational constant). However.speaking of the attraction of the earth and the centrifugal force. and the righthand side is the centrifugal force (v=velocity of the satellite). mentioned such a force. STUDENT B: Then why introduce the concept of a centripetal force at all? TEACHER: I fully agree with you on this point. Actually. the satellite is falling. STUDENT B: And. however. TEACHER: In our case. instead. Do you mean to say that this formula is incorrect? TEACHER: No. if there is no centrifugal force. it doesn't fall to the earth? TEACHER: The motion of a body subject to the force of gravity is called falling. I want to underline the fact that this does not refer to two different forces.STUDENT B: Do you mean that only the weight is applied to the satellite? TEACHER: Yes. the formula is quite correct. the resultant of all the forces applied to a body travelling in a circle at uniform velocity.r=r GmM mv~ (34) where the lefthand side is the force of attraction (m=mass of the satellite. the centripetal force is the force of attraction between the satellite and the earth. By no means. nevertheless. We have already established that the direction of motion of a body and the forces acting on it do not necessarily coincide (see § 4). What is understood to be the centripetal force is not at all an independent force applied to a body along with other forces. What is incorrect is your interpretation of the formu lao You regard equation (34) as one of equilibrium between two forces. The term "centri petal force". STUDENT B: In . leads to nothing but confusion. STUDENT B: I agree that your interpretation enables us to get along without any centrifugal force. Hence. This is one an'd the same force. But. in my opinion. there must at least be a centripetal force. I based my statement on the formula . M=mass of the earth. it is an expression of Newton's second law of motion F=ma (34a) where F=GmM/r2 and a=v 2 /r is the centripetal acceleration. its "falling" is in the form of motion in a circle around the earth and therefore can continue indefinitely. It is.
Force T results 62 .I p t.. \ I  7'" ~ Fig. taken together. then Newton's third law of motion is not always valid. if only as a resultant force.body.... The reaction of this force is force P 1 which is applied to the earth.The quantity mv l / ( is not a force. . STUDENT A: I don't understand your last remark. STUDENT A: If we reject the concept of a cedtripetal force. These forces. The centripetal force actually exists. If it does not always exist. but a dynamic case. Thus. centrifllgat force I \ I¥ ~ I . This acceleration is.~ I tentripe/at force T P. STUDENT B: I must admit that this approach to the motion of a body in a circle is to my likin~. even in reference to ties.. the resultant of all forces. provide the centripetal acceleration of the ball. impart a centripetal acceleration to the. consequently. is directed toward the centre. It represents the product of the mass m of the body by the centripetal acceleration vl/r. 33 TEACHER: Newton's third law is valid only for real forces determined by the interaction of bodies. applied to a body travelling in a circle at uniform velocity.. The centrifugal force is introduced as a reaction to the centripetal force. \ . then we should probably drop the term "centrifugal force" as well. there is a centripetal acceleration and there are forces which. . TEACHER: The introduction of the term "centrifugal force" is even less justified.. Is that so? I i I I . added together. this motion is not a static case.. The centrifugal force does not even exist in many cases.... as you say. 34 Fig. and not for the resultants of these forces. Force P is due to the interaction of the baH with the earth. I can demonstrate this by the example of the conical pendulum that you are already familiar with (Fig. and their sum is called the centripetal force. for which an equilIbrium of forces is characteristic. The ball is subject to two forces: the weight P and the tension T of the string. Indeed. 33).t.. directed toward the centre and.
quite true. however. for instance. Obviously. it imparts centripetal acceleration to 63 . 33). But to what is this force applied? Are we justified in calling it a force when one of its components is applied to the earth and the other to an entirely different bodythe string? Evidently. If forces PI and T 1 are formally added together we obtain a force which is conventionally understood to be the centrifugal force (see the dashed line in Fig. The centripetal force Is the force with which the earth attracts the satellite. A ball lies on a floor and touches a wall which makes an obtuse angle with the floor (Fig. the resultant of all forces applied to the body must be di· rected to the centre. Then. STUDENT A: In what cases does the centrifugal force exist? TEACHER: In the case of a satellite in orbit. the concept of a centrifugal force has no physical meaning. Let us resolve the weight of the ball into two components: perpendicular to the wall and parallel to the floor. 34). How do you deal with a body moving nonuniformly in a circle? For instance. The reaction of this force is force T 1 which is applied to the string. be uniform motion because the velocity of the body increases. a body slides down from the top of a vertically held hoop. While it slides along the hoop it is moving in a circle.from interaction between the ball and the string. Is that true? TEACHER: Yes. TEACHER: If a body moves in a circle at uniform velocity. What do you do in such cases? . This cannot. In this connection I shall cite an example which has nothing in common with rotary motion. We shall deal with these two components instead of the weight of the ball. STUDENT A: SO far you have discussed uniform motion in a circle. The centrifugal force is the <force with which the satellite attracts the earth. I think that in this case it will be invalid also for the components of a real force. this is physically absurd. when only two bodies interactthe earth and the satellite. STUDENT B: You said that Newton's third law was not valid for the resultant of real forces. the component of the weight parallel to the floor would remain unbalanced and the ball would have to have a horizontal acceleration. If Newton's third law were applicable to separate components. we could expect a reaction of the wall counterbalancing the component of the weight perpendicular to it. in the given case.
e. First of all. While the centripetal acceleration is .the body. STUDENT A: Does that mean that for each instant of time the centripetal acceleration will be determined iJy the formula a=v 2 /r. where v is the instantaneous velocity? TEACHER: Exactly. the resultant force is not directed strictly toward the centre. it is necessary to find what forces act on the body. STUDENT A: Two forces act on the body: the weight P and the bearing reaction N. to the circle). it has a component along a radius toward the centre and another component tangent to the trajectory of the body (i. They are shown in Fig. and the second component. it varies in the process of motion in nonuniform motion in a circle. 35 Fig.constant in uniform motion in a circle. 35. In this case. STUDENT A: What does one do to find out just how the velocity v varies in nonuniform rotation? TEACHER: UsuallYl the Jaw of conservation of energy is resorted to for this purpose. Let us consider a specific example. It should be pointed out that since the velocity of the body changes. associated with the change in velocity. In the more general case of nonuniform motion in a circle. With what force will the body press on the hoop as it passes a point located at a height h cm below the top of H (a) }l c· Fig. for the socalled tangential acceleration. TEACHER: Correct. A ssume that a body slides without friction from the top of a vertically held hoop of radius R. the centripetal acceleration v2/r must also change. The first component is responsible for the centripetal acceleration of the body. 36 the hoop? The initial velocity of the body at the top of the hoop equals zero. What are you going to do next? 64 .
This point corresponds to the extreme case when the force with which the body presses against the hoop is reduced to zero. TEACHER: We can find the point at which the body leaves the surface of the hoop. Though it would evidently be simpler to start by resolving the two forces applied to the body in the two directions instead of finding the resultant.STUDENT A: I'm going to do as you said. we assume N=O and solve for h. surface of the hoop. 35. TEACHER: Quite right. in equation (37). i. i. according to Newton's third law. 35) can be found from the law of conservation of energy i Ph_ mv (36) . the vertical distance from the top of the hoop to the point at which the body flies off. TEACHER: Force P 2 is responsible for the tangential acc~le ration of the body.2 Combining (35) and (36) and taking into consideration that P1=P cos r:x.(Rh)N= R 2Ph R The soughtfor force with which the body presses on the hoop is equal. we obtain !. Thus . R ho = '3 (38) 3118 65 ..e.e. it does not interest us at present. . The resultant of forces P 1 and N causes the centripetal acceleration of the body. But it may fly off the hoop b.efore it gets to point A. (35) The velocity of the body at the point we are interested' in (point A in Fig. to the bearing reaction N = P R~3h (37) STUDENT B: You assume that at point A the body is still on the. I shall find the resultant of these two forces and resolve it into two components: one along the radius and the other tangent to the circle. STUDENT A: My resolution of the forces is shown in Fig.=P (Rh)/R. Consequently. the more so because it will be necessary to resolve only one forcethe weight.
In both cases the body must reach the same height H. for instance. then the result of equation (37) is correct. (35)] ~nd the law of conservation of energy '[see Eq. the body passes the upper point of its trajectory when it is in a state of rotational motion. VSgHj2. This. examinees do not always Clearly understand just which physical laws they employ in solving some problem or other. h~ho. because there is no friction and the same height is to be reached. This means that at the top point B (Fig. This velocity can be calculated from the law of conservation of energy mgH=T from which mv2 VII = V2gH TEACHER: Your answer is wrong. but in different ways. You overlooked the fact that in the first case. I think. Unfortunately. is an essential point. two laws are involved in the solution of this problem: Newton's second law of motion [see Eq. the body may pass the top point at ave 66 . Since the problem involves the finding of a minimum. Then only the weight will be acting on the body and imparting to it the centripetal acceleration. Friction can be neglected. equations (35) and (36). TEACHER: Very good that you point this out. (36)]. Two alternative paths leading from A to C are offered (see Fig. Take. if. were used to solve this problem. Thus 2mv 1 = __ (39) H Adding to the dynamics equation (39) the energy equation mg = 2 mv 2 _1 2 R 2 2=2 mvo mV1 + mgH (40) we find that the minimum initial velocity equals. STUDENT A: As far as I can make out. then N=O. 36a) it will have a velocity VI determined from a dynamics equation similar to equation (35). Find the minimum initial velocity Va for each case. An initial velocity Va is imparted to a body so that it can travel from point A to point C. two physical laws. STUDENT B: I think that the minimum initial velocity should be the same in both cases. Quite true. instead. [n the second case. the following example. we should consider the extreme case when the pressure of the body on its support at point B is reduced to zero. 36a and b).If in the problem as stated the value of h complies with the condition h<ho.
Therefore. STUDENT A: At the point the body drops off the track the bearing reaFig. it would never reach point B but would fall away from the track somewhat earlier. one a long the radius (mg cos a) and the other perpendicular to the radius (mg sin a) as shown in Fig. To find it we can make use of the energy equation 2 mV2+ 2' h mvo mg =2 2 (42) Combining the dynamics (41) and energy (42) equations. TEACHER: If in the first case the body had the initial velocity vo=V2gH as you suggested. STUDENT A: Please let me try to do this problem. taking into consideration that cos a= (hR)/R. only the weight acts on the body at this point. 37· ction is evidently equal to zero. 37 (point A is the point at which the body falls away from the track). If in the first case the body had no velocity at point B. J 'propose that you find the height h of the point at which the body would fall away from the track if its initial velocity was v o=V2gH. STUDENT B: Now I understand. we obtain mg(hR)= mv~2mgh from which h= 2t'~+gH (43) 6g After substituting v~=2gH the final result is 5 h=fjH 3· 67 .locity infinitely close to zero and so we can limit ourselveS to the energy equation. TEACHER: Certainly. Then your answer is correct. The component along the radius imparts a centripetal acceleration to the body. determined by the equation (41 ) where V2 is the velocity of'the body at point A. it would simply falloff its track. We can resolve the weight into two components.
This plane rotates at uniform angular velocity CI) about a vertical axis.H STUDENT A: Condition (43) was obtained for a body falling off its track. It's a good thing that you didn't add the centripetal force. STUDENT B: One could say that the body falls away as if only for a single instant. Tel I me. Find the minimum coefficient ko (I remind you that this coefficient characterizes the maximum possible value of the force of static friction) at which the body remains on the rotating inclined plane (Fig. I shall resolve the forces in the directions along the plane and perpendicular to it as shown in Fig. Then H 2u~+gH 6g From this we directly obtain the result previously determined vo= {5. It is centripetal acceleration. 38a) without sliding off. along the acceleration) and vertically {i. in what direction is the body accelerated? STUDENT A: The acceleration is directed horizontally. In conclusion I propose the following problem. and the force of friction FIr' TEACHER: Quite correct. TEACHER: Quite true. continuing its motion in a circle. For this we'take h=H in equation (43). 68 . A body lies at the bottom ()f an inclined plane with an angle of inclination a.ce from the body to the axis of rotation of the plane equals R. I don't like the way you have resolved the forces. 38b. Note that you can use equation (43) to find the initial velocity Vo for the body to loop the loop.. TEACHER: I'll take the liberty of interrupting you at this point.:ces are applied to the body: the weight P. The distan.e. bearing reaction N.TEACHER: Entirely correct. Let us begin as always with the question: what forces are applied to the body? STUDENT A: Three fOJ. TEACHER: Good.e. Now what are you going to do next? STUDENT A: Next. How can it be used for the cass in which the body loops the loop without falling away? TEACHER: Falling away at the very top point of the loop actually means that the body does not fall away 'but passes this point. That is why you should resolve the forces horizontally (i.
sin a.+kosina. TEACHER: That is no obstacle. We don't have to find all three unknowns. The vertical components of the forces counterbalance one another. Thus Ncosa+F/rsina=p} . = ro 2 R which we solve for the required coefficient k _ ro 2 R cos a.. only the coefficient k o• The unknowns P and N can be F" p 38 easily eliminated by dividing the Ig. 0 . STUDENT A: After dividing we obtain cosa.perpendicular to the acceleration). and the horizontal com(a) ponents impart. STUDENT A: Now I understand. P and N. mv2 F/rcosaNsma= R . Remember what we discussed in § 6.+g sin a . This condition can also be written in the form g (45) tan a < ro 2 R 69 . The resolution of the forces in the horizontal and vertical directions is shown in Fig.v2/R=w2R and m=P /g. first equation by the second. g ko cos a. acceleration to the body.gcos aro 2 R sin a (44) TEACHER: It is evident from equation (44) that the condi tion (gcos a(j)2R sin a) >0 should hold true. 38c. rbJ Taking into considera tion that F/r=koN. we can rewrite these equations in the form N(cosa+kosina)=P } N (ko cos asin a) = P(j)2Rg (e) STUDENT B: You have only two equations and three unknowns: ko.
If condition (45) is not complied with. A body slides without friction from the top of the hoop (Fig. Calculate the density of the substance of a spherical planet if a satell ite rotates about it with a period T in a circular orbit at a distance from the surface of the planet equal to one half of its radius R. 17. A hoop of radi us R is rlXed vertica Jly on the floor. A body of mass m can slide without friction along a trough bent in the form of a circular arc of radius. At whilt height h will the body be at rest if the trough rotates at a uniform anglilar velocity CJ) (Fig. What is the ratio of the forces with which an army tank bears down on the middle of a convex and of a concave bridge? The radius of curvature of the bridge is 40 m in both cases and the speed of the tank is 45 km per hr. 41 19. 16. 40 Fig. What Fig. no friction force is capable of retaining the body on the rotating inclined plane. Band C. The gravitational constant is denoted by G. A body can rotate in A a vertical plane at the end of a string of length R. Fig. 40) about a veri ical axis? What force F does the body exert' on the trough? 20. PROBLEMS 15. 41). 39). R. A body slides without friction from the height H=60 em and then loops the loop of radius R=20 em (Fig. Find the ratio of the ::t: B forces with which the body bears against the track at points A. 39 horizontal velocity should be imparted to the body in the top position so that the tension of the string in the bottom position is ten times as great as the weight of the body? lB. At what distance l from the point where the hoop is fixed will the body fall? .
the "weight of a body" is understood to be. i. the earth rotates about its axis as a result of which the force of attraction at the equator is weakened due to the centrifugal effect. 71 . the centrifugal force is not applied to a body travelling in a circle. the question of the ''weightness of bodies" is not as simple as it seems at first glance. this is quite logical. even if such a force existed it could not prevent the force of attraction from being exactly the same as if there was no rotation of the earth.such. does not change just because other forces may act on the body. then the reduction of weight at the equator should be associated only with the flattening at the poles (or bulging at the equator). STUDENT A: I don't agree with you. STUDENT A: Please make your last remark a little clearer. in everyday life. not the force with which it is attracted to the earth. As a matter of fact. as .e. a body weighs HOW DO YOU EXPLAIN less than at the poles"? THE WEIGHTLESSNESS STUDENT B: I understand it OF BODIES? as follows. The force of attraction equals GmM/r 2 and. How do you understand the expression: "At the equator of a planet. STUDENT B: You must subtract the centrifugal force from the force of attraction. But first I wish to point out that usually. the force GmM /r2. if we agree on the definition that the "weight of a body" is the force with which the body is attracted by the earth. We already discussed that in the preceding section (§ 8). The attraction of a body by the earth is less at the equator than at the poles for two reasons. Secondly.TEACHER:. That's why it is among the questions that examinees quite frequently fail to answer correctly. TEACHER: As you can see. In the second place. and. but the force measured § 9. STUDENT B: But you cannot disregard rotation of the earthl TEACHER: I fully agree with you. the earth is somewhat flattened at the poles and therefore the dislance from the centre of the earth is somewhat less to the poles than to the equator. Firstly. I n the fi rst place.
poles) and. i. STUDENT B: But then it follows that I can dispose of the "weightness" of a body quite freely. What can prevent me from digging a deep pit under the body and letting it fall into the pit together with its support? In this case. Thus PlN1 =0 P 2 N s =macp where acp is the centripetal acceleration. Does that mean that the body has completely "lost its weight"? That it is in a state of weightlessness? TEACHER: You have lndependently come to the correct conclusion. In other words. It follows that the expression "a body weighs less at the equator than at the poles" means that at the equ~tor . P 2 is less than PI (from the effect of the flattening at thf. firstly. and at the equator it travels in a circle. As a matter of fact. In this connection I wish to make nta 72 .tation of the earth).it bears against its support with' a lesser force than at the poles. the bearing reaction is measured (the force with which a body bears against a support is equal to the bearing reaction according to Newton's third law).by a spring balance. e. STUDENT B: SO.rewrite these equations in the form N2=P~maCp Nl =P 1 } (46) Here it is clear that N 2 is less than N f. the bearing reaction) has been reduced by one half. Let us denote the force of attraction at the poles by Pi and at the equator by P 2. At the poles the body is at rest. we subtract from PI the quantity cp (the effect of ro. the state of weightlessness is a state of fall of a body. there will be no force whatsoever bearing on the support. secondly. TEACHER: No. the expression "a' body has lost half of its weight" does not mean that the force with which it is attracted to the earth (or any other planet) has been reduced by one half? . We can . The force of attraction may not change at alL This expression means that the force with which the body bears against its support (in other words. the bearing reaction at the poles by N 1 and at the equator by N 2. it doesn't. since. the force with which the body bears against the earth.
TEACHER: That the motion of a satellite about the earth is falling can be shown very graphically in the following way. The statement was as follows: the force with which the satellite is attracted by the earth and the centrifugal force counterbalance each other and. In other words. for a body to become weightless. the farther it will fall. The greater the initial velocity of the stone. no counterbalar:. the cenfrifugal . The motion of a body subject to the force of attraction is the falling of the body. it is necessary to provide conditions in which no other force acts on it except attraction. it is necessary that the bearing reaction equal zero. of course. Incidentally. At a certain velocity VI the trajectory of the falling stone becomes a circle and the stone becomes a satellite of the earth. Figure 420 illustrates how the trajectory of the . On the contrary. the resultant force applied to the satellite equals zero. and this corresponds to weightlessness. Consquently. In the case of a satellite. Imagine that you are at the top of a high mountain and throw a stone horizontally. weightlessness is a state of falling. that such a treatment is incorrect if only because no centrifugal 'force acts on the satellite.period of time. STUDENT A: In the preceding section (§ 8) you mentioned that the orbiting of a satellite about the earth is none other than its falling to the earth for an indefinitely long . then it would be more logical to consider a body weightless when it simply rests on a horizontal plane. 73 .force was suggested as this counterbalancing force.stone gradually changes with an increase in the initial velocity. The velocity VI is called the circular orbital velocity. You now understand. if weightlessness is understood to be a state in which the force of attraction is counterbalanced by some other force. This is precisely one of the cases where the weight is cOllnterba lanced by the bearing reactionl Actually. as a result. We shall neglect the air resistance.several remarks.~ing of the force of attraction is required for weightlessnbs. for example the falling of a lift In a mine shaft or the orbiting of the earth by a satellite. I have come across the interpretation of weightlessness as a state in which the force of attraction of the earth is counterbalanced by some other force. It is found from equation (34) vl = 0: (47) V .
However. The velocity U 2 is called the escape veloci ty. the motion of a body subject only (I) to the force of gravity.e. How. This is about V2 times v l' STUDENT A: Yoo have defiv. According to calculations. you cannot say that it is falling to the earth. U 2 is approximately II km per sec. i. At a certain velocity V2 the tra jectory of the stone becomes a parabola and the stone ceases to be a satellite of the earth. but he has none of the sensations associated with weightlessness. it seems to me that the definition of weightlessness as a state of falling requires some refinement. 42b). can you interpret the weightlessness of the stone? (6) TEACHER: Very simply. A parachutist also falls. Fig. I have already mentioned that for a body to become weightless 02 sun.If the radius r of the satellite's orbit is taken approximately equal to the radius of the earth then u1~8 km per sec. In this case. STUDENT 74 . ned the state of weightlessness as a state of fall. the stone wi II leave the earth. Weightlessness is not just any kind of falling. if the initial velocity of the stone reaches the esc a pe veloci t y. then. 42 STUDENT B: Still. Weightlessness is the socalled free fall. TEACHER: You are right. Weightlessness in this case is the falling of the stone to the A: Then the weightlessness of a spaceship located somewhere in interstellar space is to be associated with the falling of the ship in the gravitational field of some celestial body? TEACHER: Exactly. STUDENT A: What will happen if in throwing a stone from the mountain top we continue to increase the initial velocity? TEACHER: The stone will orbit the earth in a more and more elongated ellipse (Fig.
Calculate the density of the substance of a spherical planet where the daily period of rotation equals 10 hours. . PROBLEM 21. there is ~n additional force.it is necessary to create conditions under which no other force. if it is known that bodies are weightless at the equator of the planet. In the case of the fall of a parachutist. the resistance of the air. acts on the body. except the force of attraction.
Skillful application of the laws of conservation enables many problems to be solved with comparative ease. They constitute the most general rules established by mankind on the basis of the experience of many generations. . Let us consi der examples concerning the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.The role of the physical laws of conservation can scarcely be overestimated.
one along the plane (P sin a l ) and the other perpendicular to it (P cos al)' We then write the equations for the forces perpendicular to the inclined plane P cos a l . for instance the one with the angle of inclination a l • Two forces are applied to the body: the force of gravity P and the bearing reaction N l' We resolve the force P into two components. STUDENT A: I shall solve the first problem in the following way. Find the velocities of the bodies at the end of their paths. Find its veloei ty when it reaches the ground. From the second equation we find that aI=g sin a l . we find that the velocity at the end of the path is 77 . using the formula mentioned in the second problem. What will this formula be if the body has an initial velocity vo? The third problem: A body is thrown from a height H with a horizontal velocity of Vo. The first problem: Bodies CAN YOU APPLY slide without friction down two THE LAWS inclined planes of equal height H OF CONSERVATION but with two different angles of OF ENERGY AND LINEAR inclination al and a 2· The initial velocity of the bodies equals MOMENTUM? zero.TEACHER: To begin with I wish to propose several simple problems. We first consider one of the inclined planes. The fourth problem: A body is thrown upward at an angle a to the horizontal with an initial velocity va. P .N 1 ~ 0 and for the forces along the plane . Pal sJOaI=g § 10. The second problem: We know that the formula expressing the final velocity of a body in terms of the acceleration and distance travelled v= V 2as refers to the case when there is no initial velocity. where al is the acceleration of the body. Find the maximum height reached in its {iight. The distance travelled by the body is H lsi n a l' Next.
the square of the hypotenuse. it is also applicable to the second plane inclined at the angle a 2' . Thus Vo sin agt 1 =0. Therefore. The time t1 being known. the final ans"Yer is v=Vv~+v~ =Vv~+2gH (49) The fourth problem has already been discussed in § 5. The final result is V= V2as+v: (48) To solve the third problem. first of all. we find the height H reached from the formula of the dependence of the distance travelled on time in uniformly decelerated motion. Substituting • this for t in the second equation we obtain s = Vo (VU'o) +'~ (V_VO)2 • a 2 a2 or 2sa = from which 2vov2v~+ v22ooo +v~ 2sa=v2v~. Then we consider the vertical motion of the body and. Since the body travels at uniform velocity in the horizontal direction. V1=VO' In the vertical direction the body travels with acceleration g but has no initial velocity. we find the time t I of ascent from the formula for the dependence of the velocity on time in uniformly decelerated motion (vv= =Vo sin ag£). taking into account that at t=t1 the vertical velocity of the body vanishes. It is necessary to resolve the initial velocity into the horizontal (va cos a) and vertical (vo sin a) components. Thus 78 . Since the sum of the squares of the sides of a right triangle equals . To solve the second problem I shall make use of the wellknown kinematic relationships v=vo+at s=vot+ T at 2 From the first equation we find that t= (vvo)Ja. we can use the formula v 2 =V 2gH. from which t 1 = (vo/g) sina.Since the final result does not depend upon the angle of inclination. I shall first find the horizontal VI and vertical Vs components of the final velocity.
In this case. Since the velocity VI at the top point equals Va cos a. using the law of conservation of energy we find that H=(vU2g) (1cos 2 a) or. TEACHER: Unfortunately. 79 . a. finally H=2g SIn2 v~ . examinees frequently forget about this law. thus increasing the probability of errors.TEACHER: In all four cases you obtained the correct answers. . I am not. STUDENT A: Yes. At the point the body is thrown its energy equals mv~/2. At the top point of its trajectory. the energy of the body is mgH+nwiJ2. the law of conservation of energy is of the form mv:J2+mas=mv 2 j2. You can see for yourself. where mas is the work done by the forces in imparting the acceleration a to the body. then. First problem. It didn't occur to me to use the law of conservation of energy. finally. From this equation we readily find the velocity of the body at the bottom v=V2gH Second problem. They could all have been solved much simpleF if you had used the law of conservation of energy. We write the law of ~onservation of energy as mgH +mv~/2=mv2/2. however. As a result they begin to solve such problems by more cumbersome methods. Then the result is v=V2gH+v~ Fourth problem. My adv ice is: make more resourceful and extensive use of the law of conservation of energy.' to v=V2as+v~ Third problem. The law of conservation of energy is of the form mgH=mv 2 j2 (the potential energy of the body at the top of the inclined plane is equal to its kinetic energy at the bottom). it's quite clear to me that these problems can be solved in a much simpler way. This leads immediately to v~+2as=v3 or. pleased with the way you solved these problems.
TEACHER: Energy imparted to a body can be distributed. see. Thus. STUDENT A: It keeps the body on the circle.mv2. (3) work performed by the given body on other bodies. Thus the first channel is closed. The body travels in a horizontal plane and. as physicists say. admIt that the 80 .This poses the question: how skillfully can you employ this law? STUDENT A: It seems to me that no 'special skill is required. Such is the general principle which not all examinees understand with sufficient clarity . The second channel is also closed. Finally. or is there? TEACHER: As you. TEACHER: The ability to apply a physical law correctly is not determined by its complexity or simplicity. What has become of the work you calculated? STUDENT A: It has been used to rotate the body. its potential energy is not changed. none. No work at all is required to keep the body on the circle. it eq uals (mv2/R)2rr. TEACHER: I don't understand. The body is subject to a centripetal force. State it more precisely. STUDENT A: But then there is simply no room for the work of the centripetal force. Consider an example.. The body travels at a constant velocity and therefore its kinetic energy is not increased. so that the third channel is' closed. Assume that a body travels at uniform velocity in a circle in a horizontal plane. (2) increasing its potential energy. Either you.R=2rr. STUDENT A: Then I don't know how to answer your question. What is the work done by this force in one revolution of the body? STUDENT A: Work is equal to the product of the force by the distance through which it acts. the law of conservation of energy as such is quite simple. TEACHER: According to the law of conservation of energy. all kinds of friction have been excluded. and (4) heat evolved due to friction. among the following "channels": (1) increasing the kinetic energy of the body. in our case. consequently. TEACHER: Your reasoning is wrong. where R is the radius of the circle and m and v are the mass and velocity of the body. Now consider the work of the centripetal force. It remains now for ~'ou to declare your position on the matter. work cannot completely disappear. The given body does not perform any work on other bodies. This closes the fourth and last channel. No friction forces operate.
but what do we do about the formula for the work done by a body? TEACHER: In addition to the force and the distance through which it acts. TEACHER: I want ·to propose anoth· er example. or you proceed from the validity of law and then . In the initial position the potential energy equalled PH/2.t. this formula should also contain the cosine of (a) the angle between the direction of the force and the velocity A =Fscos a In the given case cos a=O. Then we open the stopcock and the liquid flows from the left into the right vessel. 430)'. Thus in the final state. Where has one half of the energy disappeared to? STUDENT A: I shall attempt to reason as you advised. The fl ow ceases when there is an equal Ie vel of H /2 in each vessel (Fig. The potential energy PH /4 could be used up in performing work on J law your this your 81 .. Assume that at· first all the liquid is In the left vessel and its height is H (Fig.. STUDENT· A: Oh yes. 43b). and then all troubles are gone. However. the potential energy of the liquid turns out to be only one half of that in the initial state. STUDENT A: I think that it remains to conclude that the centripetal force performs no work whatsoever. Consider communicating (1. 43 is (P/2) (H/4) + (P/2) (H/4) =PH/.of conservation of energy is not valid. (C) Let us calculate the potential energy of the liquid in the initial and final positions. and in the final one it Fig.. I want to point out that' it is the direct consequence of the law of conservation of energy. try to find the way out of difficulties. For this we multiply the weight of the liquid in each vessel by one half of the column of liquid. STUDENT B: All this is very well. I entirely forgot about this cosine. TEACHER: That is quite a logical conclusion.) vessels connected by a narrow tub~ with a stopcock.
I don't have a very clear idea of what kind of friction it is. The liquid has no kinetic energy in the final state because it is in a state of rest. 43c. the state illustrated in Fig. The closer the layer to the walls of the tube. Hence. the liquid flowing from one vessel to the other does not perform any work on other bodies. STUDENT A: In our case. In other words. As a result. on heat evolved in friction and on the kinetio energy of the liquid itself. This picture allows us to speak of the existence of a peculiar internal friction between the layers. exactly so. and vice versa. The liquid will continue to flow from the left vessel to the right one until it reaches the state shown in Fig. Note that the velocity of the layers near the walls is influenced by the kind of interaction between the molecules of the liquid and those of the walls. conversely. There is an exchange of molecules between the layers. a 11 the layers will flow at the same velocity and there will be no internal friction. Is that right? TEACHER: Quite correct. Its effect is stronger with a greater difference in the velocities of the layers in the middle part of the tube and near the walls. If the liquid wets the tube then the layer directly adjacent to the wall is actually stationary. Continue. it remains to conclude that one ·half of the potential energy has been converted into heat evolved in friction. Assume that there is no interaction between the liquid and the tube walls. Then.other bodies. TEACHER: You reasoned correctly and came to the right conclusion. the "slower" layer has a decelerating effect on the "faster" layer. . 43b is not one of rest. as a result of which molecules with a higher velocity of ordered motion find themselves among molecules with a lower velocity of ordered motion. the lower its velocity. the "faster" layer has an accelerating effect on the "slower" layer and. True. One can imagine that the liquid is dividetl into layers.tion. I want to add a few words on the nature of fric. Now we shall change the conditions of the prQblem to some extent. How then will the liquid flow from one vessel to the other? STUDENT A: Here the potential energy will be reduced owing to the kinetic energy acquired by the liquid.each characterizing a definite rate of flow. In 82 . STUDENT A: Does this mean that in the final state the tern· perature of the liquid should be somewhat higher than in ·the initial state? TEACHER: Yes.
o = (m+ M) from which 2 ~l Z (50) (51) vl=VOVm~M v' + M) gH = (m + M)+ This velocity being known. suspended on a string. 44)? STUDENT A: We shall denote by Vi the velocity of the block with the bullet immediately after the bullet hits the block. from the right vessel to the left one. Of course these fluctuations will be damped in the course of time. TEACHER: What will happen to the liquid after this? STUDENT A: The liquid will begin to flow back in the reverse direction. due to deviation of the string from the equilibrium position (Fig. As a result. STUDENT A: I see that the law of conservation of energy can be applied quite actively. To find this velocity we make use of the law of conservation of energy. we find the soughtfor height H by again resorting to the law of conservation of energy (m (52) Equations (50) and (52) can be combined (m+M)gH=T 83 mv 2 . To what height H will the block rise. TEACHER: Such fluctuations can be observed. hits a wooden block of mass M. after the bullet hits it. and sticks in the block. for instance. TEACHER: Here is another problem for you. in communicating glass vessels containing mercury. A bullet of mass m. Th us m. We know that mercury does not wet glass. Fig. the levels of the liquid will fluctuate in the communicating vessels.this state the potential energy is again the same as in the initial state (Fig. since it is impossible to completely exclude the interaction between the molecules of the liquid and those of the tube walls. 44 travelling horizontally with a velocity vo. 43a).
the law of conservation of momentum.: We have two different opinions and two results. my solution is evidently correct.from which v~ m H = 2g m+M (53) TEACHER. Since in the given case these laws lead to differenhesults. A collision after which the colliding bodies travel sluck together (or one inside the other) IS said to be a "completely inelastic collision". however. it is indeed quite correct. Therefore.is ~pplied when the bullet strikes the block. TEACHER: Asa matter of fact. and in the other case. We were told previously that in such cases the law of conservation of momentum is to be used. From this it follows that (55) 1f we now use the law of conservation of energy (52) and substitute the result of equation (55) into (52) we obtain (56) TEACHER. TEACHER (to Student B): And what do you say? STUDENT B: I don't know how to substantiate my position. It is. (to Student B): What do you think of this solu tion? STUDENT B: I don't agree with it. the law of conservation of momentum is always valid.84 . instead of equation (50) I would have used a di fferent relationshi p mvo = (m + M) v 1 (54) {the momentum of the bullet before it hits the block is equal to the momentum of the bullet and block afterward). I remember that in dealing with collisions. The point is that in one case the law of conservation of kinetic energy . while the law of conservation of energy does not always hold good. necessary to get a better insight into the matter. Which is cQrrect? (to Student A): What can you say to justify your position? STUDENT A: It didn't occur to me to use the law of conservation of momentum. Typical of such impacts is the pre .
i. The system of equations (57) contains two unknowns: V 1 and Q. it is necessary to employ the law of conservation of momentum (54) to find the velocity of the box with the bullet after the impact. The kinetic energy is not conserved after such a collision. the impact of two steel balls can be regarded as perfectly elastic with a fair degree of approximation. TEACHER: There is no question but that the law of conservation of energy is valid for a completely inelastic collision as well.e. They are said to be "perfectly elastic". In our case. STUDENT A: Do you mean to say that the law of conservation of energy is not valid for a completely inelastic collision? But this law is universal. This is quite natural: assume that the bullet sticks in a wall. Denoting the heat evolved in collision by Q. Purely elastic deformation of the ba lis occurs and no heat is evolved. After the collision. referring only to the kinetic energy of bodies. we can write the following system of laws of conservation referring to the completely inelastic collision discussed above mvo = (m M) VI m"u~ = (m+M)v~ +Q 2 2 + } (57) Here the first equation is the law of conservation of momentum. Therefore. For instance. the balls return to their original shape. all the kinetic energy is converted into heat. the more energy is converted into heat. equation (50).sence of permanent set in the colliding bodies. I specifically mean the kinetic energy and not the whole energy. In the limit. as a result of which a certain amount of heat is evolved. is inapplicable. After determining Vi from the first equation. STUDENT A: Can there be an impact in which no heat is evolved? TEACHER: Yes. but heat as well). and the second is the law of conservation of energy (including not only mechanical energy. we can use the second equation to find the evolved heat Q Q = mv~ _ (m+M) m2v~ 2 2(m+M)2 = mv~ (l_". for an infinitely large mass. M. we obtain Q=mvU2. such collisions are possible._m_") 2 m+M (58) It is evident from this equation that the larger the mass M. 85 .
Is it impossible for the body m to continue travelling in the same direction but at a lower velocity after the collision? TEACHER: That is quite possible. maybe. Whereas after a completely inelastic impact the colliding bodies travel at the same velocity (since they stick together). It is due to our assumption that the incident body bounces back.travel after the impact. We obtain two entirely different equations for the velocity after impact. after an elastic impact each body travels at its own definite velocity. it will continue its travel in the same direction but at a low86 . If m<M. we shall obtain a negative velocity VI when solving the system of equations (59). body m will bounce back. the law of conservation of energy becomes the law of conservation of kinetic energy? TEACHER: Yes. TEACHER: Both conservation laws are valid for a perfectly elastic impact: for momentum and for kinetic energy. STUDENT B: I think that the direction of travel of body m after the collision is determined by the ratio of the masses m and M.after a perfectly elastic impact. and at m>M.STUDENT A: You mean that in a perfectly elastic collision. You have no reason to worry about the reconciliation of these laws because . at m=M. In such a case. STUDENT B: But you cannot always know beforehand in which direction a body will. We shall denote the velocity of body m after the collision by V1 and that of body M by Vs. Further assume that as a resul t of the impact the incident body bounces back. Two unknowns require two equations. it will be at rest after the collision. of course. Then the laws of conservation of momentum and energy can be written in the form mvo = Mvtmv i M tis s 22tmlo _ ~ + 2mVI 2 } (59) Note the minus· sign in the first e"quation. Assume that a body of mass m travelling at a velocity Vo elastically collides with a body of mass M at rest. STUDENT A: But in this case I cannot understand how you can reconcile the laws of conservation of momentum and of energy. TEACHER: Exactly. Or. Let us consider an example. th~ bodies fly apart at different velocities. the law of conservation of momentum is not valid for a perfectly elastic collision.
in any collision (elastic or inelastic). it is necessary to take into account the heat evolNed on impact.\low let us consider an example of an offcentre elastic collision. you need not worry about the direction ~f traveL It wil. TEACHER: You are right. The cases of collision we have considered are extreme ones. For the time being. A body in the form of an inclined plane with a 45° angle of inclination lies on a lwrizontal plane.· which has a mass of M. this must have been a special case. Evidently. STUDENT B: W~ kno\V thJlt upon collision the balls may fly apart at an angle to each other. real collisions are described quite well by means of simplified models: completely elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions. STUDENT A: I think I understand now. We assumed that motion takes place along a single straight line. . In the general case. We considered what is called a central collision in which the balls travel before and after the impact along a line passing through their centres.er velocity. however. The sIgn of the answer will indicate your mistake. STUDENT B: SO far as I understand it. A s a result of the impact. As I see it. the ball bounces vertically upward and the body M beg·ins to slide without friction along the horizontal plane. two laws of conservation are applicable: of momentum and of energy. A ball of mass m. In real collisions some amount of heat is always generated (no ideally elastic deformation exists) and the colliding bodies may fly apart with different velocities. The more general case of the offcentre collision will be dealt with later. Find the velocity with which the ball begins its vertical travel after the collision (Fig. Simply the different nature of the impacts leads to different equations for describing the conservation laws. completely elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions are the two extreme cases. 45). TEACHER: Your remarks are true and to the point. {lying lwrizontally with a velocity VOl collides with the body (inclined plane). if any. Which of you wishes to try your hand at this problem? 87 . In dealing with inelastic collisions. I'd like to know if everything is quite clear. however. Are they always suitable for describing real cases? TEACHER: You are right in bringing up this matter.1 be suffici~nt to assume some direction and begm the calculatIOns. In many cases.
just as you thought. however. True enough. since the momentum is a vector quantity having the 'same ~D direction as the velocity. I'm not so sure about this last equation because velocity v I is at right angles to veloci ty v 2' • TEACHER: Equation (60) is correct. That is precisely what happened Fig. .+2 (60) I need one more equation.STUDENT B: Allow me to. In the general case. for which I should evidently use the law of conservation of momentum. I have the right to assume that the kinetic energy is conserved. it would seem that the law of conservation of momentum is not valid for the vertical dire STUDENT B: What TEACHER: At first 88 . 45 when we discussed central collisions. Mm V 1 =VO VM do we do about the vertical direction? sight. m when all the velocities are directed along a single straight line. Thus mv~ mvi Mtli 2. the law of conservation of momentum is of the form (62) mvo= MV2 From equations (60) and (62) we find the velocity . the vector equation can be replaced by two scalar equations for the prOjections of the momentum in the two mutually perpendicular directions). Let us denote the soughtfor velocity of the ball by VI and that of body M by V 2 • Since the collision is elastic.= 2. the vector M equation can be replaced by a scalar one. it is necessary to resolve all velocities in mutually perpendicular directions and to write the law of conservation of momentum for each of these directions separately (if the probl~ is considered in a plane. I shall write it in the form mvo = Mv 2 +mvt (61) True. For the horizontal direction. You should remember that the law of conservation of momentum is a vector equation. Equation (61) is incorrect. For the given prob lem we can choose the horizontal and vertical directions.
body M would not travel horizontally after the collision. There is.ction. receives practically 89 . As a matter of fact. In other words. If this value is multiplied by zero (in the given case by ve) the product is also zero. after the impact. We can readily see that still another body participates in the problem: the earth. the velocity Ve of the earth after the impact is practically equal to zero. there is a momentum mVl directed vertically upwards. Thus. but leads to an equation which describes the law of conservation of momentum for the vertical direction (63) STUDENT B: Since the earth also participates in this problem it will evidently be necessary to correct the energy relation (60). The quantity Meve in this product has. From this we can conclude that the earth participates very peculiarly in this problem. it follows from equation (63) that the velocity of the earth is Since the mass Me is practically infinitely large. but at the same time. a finite value. TEACHER: Just what do you propose to do to equation (60)? I wish to add a term concerning the motion of the earth after the impact STUDENT B: 22 2 muo _ mOl z M M + 2. Now. If it was not for the earth. however. It acquires a certain momentum. the participation of the earth in our problem doesn't change the form of equation (62).+2eVe 02 ~ 2 (64) TEACHER: Your intention is quite logical. the velocity ve of the earth is directed vertically downwards. no need to change equation (60). Actually It is. let us rewrite the term Mev~/2 in equation (64) to obtain the form (Meve)ve/2. according to equation (63). Before the impact there were no vertical velocities. Let us denote the mass of the earth by Me and the velocity it acquires as a result of the impact by ve' The absence of friction enables us to treat the interaction between the body M and the earth as taking place only in the vertical direction.
and (2) if it is completely inelastic (the balls stick together as a result of the impact)? . In other words. 25. Find the velocity of joint travel of the railway car and flatcar r~'" directly after th~ automatic coupling device . • 23. Calculate the distance travelled by the two cars after being coupled if the force of resis· tance is 5 per cent of the weight. 29. A ball of mass M hangs on a string of length l. To what height does the cannon ascend the inclined plane as a result of recoil if the angle of inclination of the plane is a and the coefficient of friction between the cannon and the plane is k? . A railway car with a mass of 50 tons. travelling with a velocity of 12 km per hr. PROBLEMS 22.no energy. Two balls of masses M and 2M are hanging on threads of length 1 fixed at the same point. runs into a flatcar with a mass of 30'tons standing on the same track. Calculate the efficiency of an inclined plane for the case when a body slides off it at uniform velocity. A bullet of mass m. At what minimum velocity must the bullet travel so that the ball will make one complete revolution in a vertical plane? 90 . 46 through an angle of a and is released after imparting to it a tangential velocity of Vo in the direction of the equilibrium position. flying horizontally. operates. The ball of mass M is pulled to one side Fig. Determine the coefficient of friction ii it is known that the body slides along the horizontal surface the same d is' tance as along the inclined' plane. 28. To what height will the balls rise after collision if: (I) the impact is perfectly elastic. Neglect air resistance. Assume that the force of resistance is constant. located at the base of an inclined plane. mutually independent laws. Find the resistance of the water (assuming it to be constant) and the height hI to which the ball ascends after jumping out of the water. directed vertically downward. but does not participate in the law of conservation of energy. Find the work done to overcome the forces of resistance during to sec if it is known that the body acquired a velocity of 50 m per sec at the end of the 10·sec interval. A ball of mass' m and volume V drops into water from a height H. it participates in the law of conservation of momentum. 24. 27. The density of water is denoled by Pill' 26. plunges to a depth h and then jumps out of the water (the density of the ball is less than that of water). A body with a mass of 3 kg falls from a certain height with an initial velocity of 2 m per sec. A cannoll of mass M. hits the ball and sticks in it. Th is circumstance is especial\y striking evidence of the fact that the laws of conservation of energy and of momentum are essentially different. shoots a shell of mass m in tI:: a horizontal direction with an initial velocity Vo. A body slides first down an inclined plane at an angle of 30° and then along a horizontal surface.
A ball of mass m drops freely from the hei~ht H. Two wedges with angles of inclination equal to 45° and each of mass M lie on a horizontal plane (Fig. 3t. A ball of mass m (m~M) drops freely from the height H. To what height does the ball ascend? Neglect friction between the wedge and the horizontal plane. . strikes the wedge elastically an~ bounces away at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. It first strikes one wedge and then the other and bounces vertically upward. 46). Assume that both impacts are elastic and that there is no friction bdween the wedges and the plane. Find the height to which the ball bounces.30. A wedge with an angle of 30 0 and a mass M lies on a horizontal plane.
. We shall analyse the behaviour of the pendulum in noninertial frames of reference. Remember this when you study the branch of physical science devoted to these phenomena. as a special case.The world about us is full of vibrations and waves. Let us discuss harmonic vi brations and. the vibrations of a mathematical pendulum.
in the second case. i. In the first case. CAN YOU DEAL WITH HARMONIC VIBRATIONS? TEACHER: Some examinees do not have a sufficiently clear undersfanding of harmonic vi brations.e. where T is the period of vibration). (66) Such a force is said to be "elastic". vibrations occur due to action of the restoring force. on the basis of their cause. harmonic vibrations are defined on the basis of how they occur. the first definition uses the 93 . a force directed toward the position of equilibrium and increasing as the body Fig. The idea of harmonic vibrations is conveyed by the motion of the projection of a point which rotates at uniform angular velocity CJ) in a circle of radius A (Fig.§ II. As is known. In other words. STUDENT B: I prefer another definition of harmonic vibrations. Harmonic vibrations are those in which the restoring force F is proportional to the deviation x of the body from the equilibrium position. STUDENT A: Vibrations are said to be harmonic if they obey the sine law: the deviation x of a body from its equilibrium position varies with time as follows x= A'sin (rot +a) (65) where A is the amplitude of vibration (maximum deviation of the body from the position of equilibrium). TEACHER: I am fully satisfied with both proposed definitions. 47 recedes from the equilibrium position. Thus F=kx . 47). is the initial phase (it indicates the deviation of the body from the position of equilibrium at the instant of time t=O). <!nd a. First let us discuss their defini tion. ro is the circular frequency (ro=21t/T.
then from equation (65). If the beginning of vibration is taken as the zero instant. It is evident that vibrations can be effected in various ways. TEACHER: This is not quite so. at the same time. they are not equivalent. Apparently. they are equivalent? TEACHER: No. For instance. thereby setting different amplitudes of vibration. It is evidently possible to propose innumerable other. it will evidently determine the nature of the vibrations. a body can be deflected a certain distance from its equilibrium position and then smoothly releasee. The amplitude of these vibrations depends upon the initial velocity imparted to the body. Taking the beginning of vibration as the zero point. For example. a body is deflected from its position of equilibrium and. We discussed this in § 4. and the first (kinematic) is preferable. With . and the second. STUDENT B: But which of the two definitions is preferable? Or. but by the initial conditions as well. we obtain from equation (65) that a=O. 94 . i. we obtain a. then. Each of these methods will set definite values of the amplitude A and the initial phase ex of the vibration. Another method of starting vibrations is toif!lpart a certain initial velocity (by pushing) to a body in a state of equilibrium. The body can be deflected di fferent distances from the equilibrium position. maybe. STUDENT B: But whatever the nature of the restoring force. The nature of the restoring force does not fully determine the nature of the vibrations. etc. is pushed or plucked.e. It is more complete. It will begin to vibrate. now is the time to. but by the conditions under which these vibrations started./2.=rr. TEACHER: Absolutely correct. STUDENT A. why 'my definition is less complete. The body will begin to vibrate. the position and velocity of the body at the initial instant. the causal (dynamic) description. intermediate methods of exciting vibrations.recall that the nature of the motion of a body at a given instant is determined not only by the forces acting on the body at the given instant.reference to the case being considered this statement means that the nature of the vibrations is determined not only by the restoring force.spacetime (kinematic) description of the vibrations. 1 don't understand. and the distance the body is deflected is the amplitude of vibration.
49 elastic springs and accomplishes harmonic vibrations of amp Iitude A in the horizontal direction (Fig. It can be said that the period of vibration is an intrinsic characteristic of the vibrating body. the velocity' of the ball equals zero and therefore its total energy is its potential energy. STUDENT A: To find the energy of the ball. contains information on these quantities. on the contrary. while the amplitude A al'J. In this position. 48 Fig. Returning to the definitions of harmonic vibration~ we see that the dynamic definition CQntains no information on either the amplitude or initial phase. The restoring force is determined by the coefficient of elasticity k which characterizes the elastic properties of the springs. let us consider an example. maybe it is not so important a characteristic of a vibrating body? TEACHER: You are mistaken.STUDENT B: Do you mean that the quantities A and a. do not depend upon the nature of the restoring force? TEACHER: Exactly. e. Find the energy of the vibrating ball. The amplitude is a very important characteristic of a vibrating body. The restoring force.d the initial phase a depend upon the external conditions that excite the given vibration. 48). determines only the circular frequency ffi or. You manipulate these two quantities at your own discretion when you excite vibrations by one or another method. the period of vibration of the body. i. The latter can be determined as the work done against the restoring force F in displacing the 95 . To prove this. A ball of mass m is attached to two Fig. in other words. STUDENT B: aut if we have such a free hand in dealing with the amplitude. we can consider its position of extreme deflection (x=A). coefficient k in equation (66). The kinematic definition.
TEACHER: Strictly speaking. but commit· ted an error. according to equation (66). Equation (67) is applicable only on condition that the force is constant. However. as shown in Fig. My next question is: what is the period of vibration of the ball shown in Fig. This demonstrates what an important characteristic of a vibrating body the amplitude is. kx2 (69) Equation (69) enables the velocity v of the vibrating ball to be found at any distance x from the equilibruim position. then the total energy W is the sum of two componentsthe kinetic and potential energies W=2=2+2 kA2 mv2 . 49.ball the distance A from its equilibrium position. 48? STUDENT B: To establish the formula for the period of vibration it will be necessary to employ differential calculus. In the given case. 47. we can conclude that velocity VI can be found 96 . we obtain W=kAa TEACHER: You reasoned along the proper lines. that the velocity of the body at the instant it passes the equilibrium position is 2:rtA (70) v1 = roA=yUsing the result of equation (68). if we simultaneously use the kinematic and dynamic definitions of harmonic vibrations we can manage without differential calculus. The work done by this force over the distance x=A is equal to the hatched area under the force curve. which is a graphical expression of the kinematic definition. As a matter of fact. taking into account that F=kA. This is the area of a triangle and is equal to kA 2/2. Thus w= FA (67) Next. Thus • (68) Note that the total energy of a vibrating body is proportional to the square of the amplitude of vibration. If O<x<A. following from the dynamic definition. force F varies wi th the distance. you are right. we can' conclude from Fig.
50)? . plays the role of the coefficient of elasticity k. AB or AC. but to the force . we obtain 4:n 2A 2m/P=kA 2. STUDENT A: Which of the lengths. 50) with the vertical. it equals mg sin a. Can the obtained results be generalized to include the pendulum? TEACHER: For such generalization we must first find out what. Let us consider a ball mg (called a bob in a pendulum) Fig. in the case of the p. 50 suspended on a string of length I. As is evident from the figure.endulum. the period of vibration is determined fully by the properties of the vibrating system itself. We pull the bob to one side of the equilibrium position so that the string makes an anglea (Fig. (72) As mentioned previously. and is independent of the way the vibrations are set up. not with a ball attached to springs. should be considered the d~flection of the pendulum from the equilibrium position (see Fig.from the energy relation mv~ kAz 2=2 (71 ) (at the instant the ball passes the equilibrium position the entire energy of the ball is kinetic energy). It is evident that a pendulum vibrates not due to an elastic force. TEACHER: We are analysing the harmonic vibrations of a pendulum. Combining equations (70) and (71). Their r~sultant is the restoring force. STUDENT A: When speaking of vibrations we usually deal. For this it is necessary that the angle of maximum deviation of the string from the equilibrium position be very small a ~1 (73) 4118 97 .mflCIISIr of gravity. Two forces act on the bob: the force of gravity mg and the tension T of the string. but with a pendulum. from which T = 2:n V.
e. 98 . Thus W = mgh= mgl (Icos a) = 2mgl sin 2 "2 (76) Relationship (76) is evidently suitable for all values of angle a. in degrees.(note that here angle a. = kl sin a (66a) from which k1 mg (74) Substituting this equation into equation (72). 50). sin a. we obtain the formula for the period of harmonic vibrations of a pendulum T= 2:rt V. can be approximated by the angle a expressed in radians. inequality (73). we can assume that x=AB=l sin a. Its total energy is evidently equal to mgh. in any case. the difference between the lengths AB and AC can be neglected AB= lsina ~ AC= l tana Thus your question becomes insignificant. If condition (73) is complied with. in essence.. where h is the height to which the bob ascends at the extreme position (see Fig. a (75) We shall also take up the question of the energy of the pendulum.. STUDENT B: If I remember correctly. the same as equation (68). For definiteness. angle a. is expressed in radians. be less than 10°). Then equation (66) will take the following form for a pendulum mg sin a. Then. i. there was generally no requirement about the smallness of the angle of deviation. should. To convert this result to relationship (68). and equation (76) will change to W '" 2mgl (~ = r mgt ~ Taking equation (74) into consideration. in previously studying the vibrations of a pendulum. it is necessary to satisfy the condition of harmonicity of the pendulum's vibrations. . we finally obtain W = k (l~)2 ~ k '(A:)3 which is.
in problem No. However. In· the given case we are actually considering. 34. A pendulum In the form of a ball (bob) on a thin string is deflected through an angle 01 5°. 33. if the problem involves formula (75) for the period of vibrations. then the vibration of the pendulum must necessarily be harmonic and.1 • . 48. 33. . A bob suspended on a string is deflected from the equilibrium po· sition by an angle of 60° and is then released. A ball accomplishes harmonic vibrations as shown in Fig. For instance. Find the ratio 01 the velocities of the ball at points whose distances from the equilibrium position equal one hal[ and one third 01 the amplitude. the condition of the smallness of the angle of deviation of the pendulum is immaterial. not a pendulum.TEACHER: This requirement is unnecessary if we only deal with the energy of the bob or the tension of the string. consequently.the angle of deviation must be small. 34 it is of vital importance. while in problem No. Find the velocity 01 the bob at the instant it passes the equilibrium position il the circular frequency of vibration of the pendulum equals 2 sec. Find the ratio 01 the tensions of the string for the equilibrium position and lor the maximum deviation 01 the bob. but the motion of a ball in a circle in a vertical plane. PROBLEMS 32.
Recall that in considering the motion of a body of mass m in a non1nertial frame of reference having an acceleration a. Be that as it may. In the case of the lift. we must. Evidently. 100 . But to substantiate it we will have to adopt a point of view that is new to us. What is the period of vibration of the pendulum? STUDENT A: When we go up in a lift travelling with acceleration. and treat the motion as if it were in an inertial frame. we feel acertain increase in weight. we must apply an additional force ma to the bob. nail. in the given case. constant in magnitude and its direction does not change and coincides with that of the force of gravity mg. As a result. substantiate this formula rigorously enough. equal to ma and acting in the direction opposite to the acceleration. This is called the force of inertia. This force is . Then we set the bob into motion so that it accomplishes harmonic vibrations. TEACHER: Your formula is correct. I even warned yoa against employing noninertial h·ames of reference (see § 4). is attached to the accelerating lift. Assume that the lift ascends with an acceleration of a. WHAT HAPPENS TO A PENDULUM IN A STATE OF WElGHTLESSNESS? TEACHER: Suppose we drive a nail in the wall of a lift and suspend a bob on a string of length 1 tied to the . we obtain the formula (77) proposed by you. Thus it follows that in equation (75) the acceleration g should be replaced by the arithmetical sum of the accelerations (g+a). So far we have dealt with bodies located in inertial frames of reference only. on purely formal grounds. Moreover. I think that its period of vibration can be found by the formula T= 2n V g~a (77) I cannot. avoiding noninertial frames. After the force of inertia is applied to the body we can forget that the frame of reference is travelling with acceleration. the pendulum should "feel" the same increase. in the present section it is more convenient to use just this frame of reference which. apply an additional force to the body.§ l2. however.
Assume that we are inside a spaceship in a state of weightlessness. the period of vibration will be determined by the difference in the accelerations (ga) . We take the bob and string and attach the free end of the string 101 . TEACHER: Your picture is not quite complete. What will happen to the pendulum in this case? STU'DENT A: According to formula (78). the walls or ceiling of the spaceship do not interfere). of course) ·if at the instant the lift broke loose the bob happened to be in one of its extreme positions. if the lift descends with a downward <. If at that instant the bob was not at an extreme position it will continue to rotate at the end of the string in a vertical plane at a uniform velocity equal to its velocity at the instant the accident happened.)cceieration a. STUDENT A: In the spaceship. The pendulum will indeed be stationary (with respect to the lift. STUDENT A: I understand now. the pendulum stops. since here the force of inertia ma is opposite to the gravitational force. the greater the period of vibration of the pendulum. or will rotate in a circle whose radius is determined by the length of the string (if. All of a sudden. The closer the value of the acceleration a is to g. the bob at the end of the string will either be at rest (with respect to the spaceship). This must mean that the pendulum is stationary. / V ga l (78) This formula makes' sense on condition that a<g. TEACHER: Let us clear up some details of your answer. We started out with the pendulum vibrating in the lift. At a=g.STUDENT A: Consequently. of course. the period of vibration of the pendulum is T= 2n . In this case. TEACHER: Then make a drawing illustrating the behaviour of a pendulum (a bob aU ached to a string) inside a spaceship which is in a state of weightlessness. the state of weightlessness sets in. TEACHER: Your answer is not quite correct. What happens to' the pendulum? STUDENT A: As I said before. the lift breaks loose and begins falling freely downward (we neglect air resistance). TEACHER: Of course.. Is that correct? . the period becomes infinitely large.
Fig. and (2) the string is taut. Fig. Let us consider the following problem. 5Ib). the bob wiH remain stationary in the position it was released (position 1. Fig. the direction of travel of the bob will change abruptly and Fig. the bob will travel in a straight line at uniform velocity until the string becomes tau~ (position 2. Then we impart a certain veloci ty Vo to the bob in a direction perpendicular to the string. In this peculiar form of "reflection" the rule of the equality of the angles of incidence and reflection should be val i d. We impart a certain velocity Vo to the bob. As a result. A string of length I with a bob at one end is attached to a truck which slides with 102 . 5Ia). the reaction of the string will act on the bob in the same manner as the reaction of a wall ra) acts on a ball bouncing off it. As in the first case. 51a).so that neither walls nor ceiling interfere with the motion of the bob. 52 it will then again travel at uniform velocity in a straight line (position 3. Here we distinguish two cases: (I) the string is loose. The ball remains stationary. 51 Fig. At this instant. The plane of rotation is determined by the string and the vector of the velocity imparted to the bob. Now consider the second case: we first stretch the string taut and then carefully release the bob. Consider the first case (position 1 in Fig. As a result. After this we carefully release the bob. As a result the bob begins to rotate in a circle at uniform velocity. Sla).
This acceleration (we shall denote it by geff) is equal to the vector sum of the acceleration of gravity and that of the given system. the acceleration vector of the truck should appear with the reversed sign. We denote the angle the string makes with the vertical by ~. 52b. STUDENT B: Isn't it possible to obtain this last result in some other way" TEACHER: We can reach the same conclusion directly by considering the equilibrium of the bob with respect to the truck.out friction down an inclined plane having an angle of inclination CG (Fig. In other words. the acceleration of the system is at a certain angle to the acceleration of the earth's gravity. the acceleration of the truck being equal to g sin CG.n gefl = V g:" x + g~ff y = V (g sin a cosa)2+ (gg sin2 a)2 = = g cos CG (79) I from which T=2n V gcosa (80) STUDENT A: How can we determine the equilibrium direction of the string? TEACHER: It is the direction of the acceleration gel{On the basis of equation (79) it is easy to see that this direction makes an angle CG with the vertical. 52a). in the equilibrium position. in contrast to the preceding problems with the lift. since the force of inertia is in the direction opposite to the acceleration of the system. However. Another matter to be taken into acount is tha t in the abovementioned sum. the string of a pendulum on a truck sliding down an inclined plane will be perpendicular to the plane. 53). The forces applied to the bob are: its weight mg. Next we find gf. The acceleration vectors are shown in Fig. the tension T of the string and the force of inertia ma (Fig. We are to ~nd the period of vibration of this pendulum located in a frame of reference which travels with a certain acceleration. . TEACHER: The period of vibration of a pendulum in this case is found by formula (75) except that g is to be rep laced by a certain effective acceleration as in the case of the lift. 103 . This poses an additional question: what is the equilibrium di rection of the pendulum string? STUDENT A: I once tried to analyse such a problem but became confused and couldn't solve it.
. It is a problem of the equilibrium of muforces of which one is the centrifugal Fig. not in dynamics. 53 force of inertia. Thus. I indicated the force of gravity and the centrifugal force (see § 8).and come to the conclusion that I was not so wrong after all when. but in statics. Thus Tcos~+masina. Moreover. TEACHER: Such an approach to the satellite problem is permissible. Simply. turn out to be equal. Taking into consideration that a=g sin a.= mg } (81) macosa. in the case you mention. However. In a noninertial frame of reference attached to the satellite. we have a problem. STUDENT B: I have followed your explanations very closely . the equilibrium direction of the pendulum string is perpendi. there was no necessity for passing over to a frame of reference attached to the satellite: the physical essence of the problem was more clearly demonstrated without introducing a centrifugal force of inertia. you did not consider it to be a force of inertia. in referring to the centrifugal force in § 8. You were simply trying to think up something to keep the satellite from falling to the earth. angles ~ and a. my answer should be referred to the frame of reference attached to the satellHe. and the centrifugal force is to be understood as being the force of inertia. My previous advice is still valid: if there is no special need. cular to the inclined plane. Consequently. do not employ a noninertial frame of reference. cosrx After dividing one equation by the other we obtain cot ~ = cot a.Next we resolve all these forces in the vertical and horizontal directions and then write the conditions of equilibrium for the force components in each of these directions. we rewrite the sys Tsin ~= tem of equations (81) in the form T cos ~ = mg (1sin2 rx) } T sin ~ = mg sin a. in answer to your question about the forces applied to a satellite. '104 .
Do not forget that they are of immense practical importance. for locating the centre of gravity. which are used. Study these laws carefully.The laws of statics are laws of equilibrium. A builder without some knowledge of the basic laws of statics is inconceivable. in particular. . We shall consider examples illustrating the rules for the resolution of forces. The subsequent discussion concerns the conditions of equilibrium of bodies.
Which of the strings is subject to greater tension? STUDENT A: I can resolve the weight of each load on the same drawing in directions parallel to the branahes of the strings. This rule is illustrated in Fig.§ 13. Therefore. 55 from the middle of a string. I think it would be useful to discuss this question in 50METHOD EFFICIENTLY? mewhat more detai I.force F is resolved in two directions: AA 1 and BB l ' Let us consider several problems in which force resolution is the common approach. each pair of lines being parallel to the respective directions of resolution. 54 Fig. As a result weobtain a parallelogram whose sides are the components of the given force. 54 in which . CAN YOU USE THE FORCE RESOLUTION TEACHER: In solving mechanical problems it is frequently necessary to resolve forces. The first problem is illustrated in Fig. The strings sag due to the loads and make angles of ct 1 and ct 2 with the horizontal. First let us recall the main rule: to resolve a force into any two directions it is necessary to pass two straight lines through the head and two more through the ta iI of the force vector. 55: we have two identical loads P suspended each p Fig. From this resolution it follows that the tension in 106 .
Thus. To do this we make use of Hooke's law for elastic stretching of a string or wire (see problem No. Exceedingl y rigi d structures are unsuitable since the stresses developed in them at small deformations may prove to be excessively large and lead to fai lure. Make use of the result you just obtained. This can be demonstrated by applying the method of force resolution (Fig. STUDENT A: Oh yes. the strength analysis of various structures is closely associated with their capability to undergo elastic deformations (designers are wont to say that the structure must "breathe"). TEACHER: Quite correct. Next we resolve this force into 107 . If the string could not deform (elongate) no load could be hung from it. TEACHER: Let us begin by resolving force F into components in the horizontal direction and in a direction perpendicular to side AB of wedge 2. Consider another example. If we neglect the weight of the string in the preceding problem. This shows that in construction engineering. The string cannot be made so taut that there is no sag. 56a). applying the force F. Component Fa is counterbalanced by the reaction of the left wall of the slot. can we draw up the string so tightly that it doesn't sag at all when the load is applied? STUDENT A: And why not? TEACHER: Don't hurry to answer. Tell me. "a wedge is driven out by a wedge" (the English equivalent being "like cures like"). equal to F /tan IX. STUDENT A: I find it difficult to solve this problem. the string which sags less is sub jed to greater tension. component F 1. will act on wedge 1.the string is T=P / (2 sin ex). it will be broken by the tension when angle ex becomes sufficiently ~mall. There' is a Russian proverb. 35). The components obtained are denoted by F 1 and F 2 (Fig. Such structures may even fail under their own weight. Find the force that acts on wedge 1 and enables it to be driven out of the slol. Wedge 1 is driven out of a slol by driving wedge 2 into the same slot. we can readily find the relationship between the angle ex of sag of the string and the weight P of the load. 56b). TEACHER: Note that the sagging of a string due to the action of a suspended load results from the elastic properties of the string causing its elongation. However strong the string. I see. Angles IX and ~ are given. The tension in the string increases with a decrease in angle ex.
illustrated in Fig. Two weights. (Fig. 56 Fig. fa) (0) r. PI and P 2. Component F.components in the vertical direction and in a direction perpendicular to the side CD of wedge 1. are suspended from a string so that the portion of the string between them is horizontal. Next. It can readily be seen that it equals F tan A = F tan ~ 1 P tan a Let us now consider a third example. 57b).! shall resolve the weight P'I. 57 STUDENT A: First I shall resolve the weight PI into force components in the directfons AB and Be (Fig. This is the force we are seeking. Thus we have already found the tension in two portions of the string. is counterbalanced by the reaction of the right wall of the slot. 56c). This example resembles the preceding one with the wedges. T BC and T cD ). From this resolution we find that TAB=P dsin a and T BC=P dtan a. Find (Q) angle ~ (angle a: being known) and the tension in each portion of the string (TAB. (e) Pz Fig. The respective components are Fa and F. while component F 8 enables wedge 1 to be driven out of the slot. 57a. into components 108 .
e. From this resolution we can write the equations: T BC=P 2/tan ~ and TCD=P dsin ~. T CD( P2 sin arctan P tan :\ PI a. we obtain T CD = t~l a. The weight of the string is to be neglected. stretched from wall to wall in a lift. As a matter of fact S In I' . TEACHER: Is it really so difficult to complete the problem. 57c).\ 36. equals 30° when the lift is at rest and 45° when the. PI Substituting this value into the equation for TCD we can find the tension in portion CD of the string. Find the forces acting in members AB and Be when the bob is at the points of maximum deviation from the equiFig. An elastic string.::2 . A tan ~ = ~::.. i. sags due to tbe action of a weight suspended from its middle point as shown in Fig. 1\ ~~+ __1 . 58 librium position. \ city of 2 m per sec is imparted to the bob and it begins to vibrate as a pendulum. PROBLEMS 35.=:::::::::::::::. \ . we can write P dtan a=P 2/tan ~. A horizontal velo· . V 1+ tan ~ Since tan ~=tan a (P 2 /P 1 ). Equating the values for the tension in portion BC of the string obtained in the two force resolutions. The angle of sag a. to find the force T CD? STUDENT A: The answer will contain the sine of the arctan p.lift travels with acceleration.) TEACHER: Your answer is correct but it can be written in a simpler form if sin ~ is expressed in terms of tan ~. TEACHER: Your remark is quite true. from which ~ = arctan P?. tan a. i.e. 55. V 1+ ( .: rtan? a STUDENT B: I see that before taking an examination in physics. A bob of mass m= 100 g is suspended from a string of length l= I m tied to a bracket as shown in Fig.. 58 (a.::. Find the magnitude and direction of acceleration of the Ii ft. you must review your mathematics very thoroughly.=300).in the directions BC and CD (Fig.
§ 14.. Which of THE EQUILIBRIUM the two positions is the more stable? OF BODIES? STUDENT A: Evidently. lity. 60 The measure of the stability of a specific state of equi librium is the energy that must be expended to permanently disturb the given state of the body..7 tres of gravity of the bodies s".f. TEACHER: And this isn't all either. STUDENT B: The area of the bearing surface is greater than in the position shown in Fig. In this case.. and a right circular cylinder / f'. but their degABOUT ree of stability differs.." //' S are at the same height and. Both equilibrium poWHAT DO YOU KNOW sitions are stable. Their degrees of stab i.. To clear it up. 5gb.(0) .. 59a._.TEACHER: Two positions of equilibrium of a brick are shown in Fig. they have bearing surfaces of the same area. the position of the brick in Fig. 110 . Fig.. TEACHER: Why? STUDENT A: Here the centre of gravity of the brick is nearer to the earth's surface. are different.. Assume that the I parallelepiped and cylinder I I are of the same height H I I ~ and have bases of the same I I I area S.. TEACHER: This isn't all. 59 Fig. "V in addition. the cen). /1 I .. (Fig. 60a).. however.. let us consider the equilibrium of two bodies: a rectangular parallelepiped with a square base (a) .... 59.
its centre of gravity must be raised through the height (Fig. This amount of energy is equal to the product of the weight of the body by the height to which the centre of gravity must be raised so that the body cannot return to its initial position. its centre of gravity must be raised (Fig. ·In the example with the parallelepiped and cylinder. mghlo and to change its upright Fig. STUDENT B: But it is evident that the heights hI and hs depend upon the height of the centre of gravity above floor level and on the area of the base. 61 position. To disturb theequilibriumofthecylinder. the energy expended being mgh 2 • The greater degree of stability of the lying brick is due to the fact that mg~ > mgh2 (82) TEACHER: At last you've succeeded in substantiating the greater stability of the lying position of a body. Now I propose that we return to the example with the two positions of the brick.STUDENT B: What do you mean by the word "permanently"? TEACHER: It means that if the body is subsequently left to itself. it cannot return to the initial state again. The dashed line in Fig.m. of the two bodies considered. 61 shows the trajectory described by its centre of gravity in this process.7777}'7777. the radius of the cylinder is R=VS/n and the side of the parallelepiped's base is a=VS.r ~ Since (a/2)/R=V nS/2VS=Vn/2<1 it follows that hs<h 1 . 60b) h2= ~(~r+(. the cylinder is the more stable. 60b) hI = 1/ (~ ) + R2 2 ~ To disturb the equilibrium of the parallelepiped. the centre of gravity should be raised through hs. Thus. Doesn't that mean that in III . To change the position of a lying brick its centre of gravity should be raised through the height hlJ expending an energy equal to :W77777'1777?'7777)ilJ7. STUDENT A: If we turn over the brick it will pass consecutively frorn one equilibrium position to another.
a cork brick will be less stable in the lying position than a lead brick in the upright position. In addition. It is beUer. the inequality (82) could be satisfied by observing the geometric condition h J>h 2 • ~n the general case. This condition enables as many equations to be written as there are independent directions in the problem: one equation for a onedimensional problem. should mutually compensate one another. more general and more convenient for practical application. all the force moments tending to turn the body about the chosen point in one direction (say. the comparison of the heights of the centres of gravity and the areas of the bases is insufficient evidence for deciding which of the bodies is the more stable. do the following: (a) establish all forces applied to the body. In the example with the parallelepiped and cylinder. Up till now we have tacitly assumed that the oodies were made of the same material. (b) choose a point 112 . Distinction should be made between two conditions of equilibrium. STUDENT A: The sum of all the forces applied to a body should equal zero. the algebraic sum of the projections of all the forces onto any direction should equal zero. Second condition (moment condition): The algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about any point should equal zero. Here. however. it is. To specify the moment condition. TEACHER: Good.discussing the degree of stability of bodies it Is correct to compare the heights of the centres of gravity and the areas of the bases? TEACHER: Why yes. Besides. however. two for a twodimensional problem and three for the general case (mutually perpendicular directions are chosen). clockwise) are taken with a plus sign and all those tending to turn the body in the opposite direction (counterclockwise) are taken with a minus sign. and the inequality (82) may be met even when hl<hz owing to the different densities of the bodies. Let us now see what conditions for the equilibrium of bodies you know. For example. but only to the extent that these quantities influence the difference between the heights hi and hi' Thus. In this case. to speCify the conditions of equilibrium in a different form. I wish to draw your attention to the foIlowing. First condition: The projections of all forces applied to the body onto any directio~. In other words. the weight vector of the body should fall within the limits of its base. bodies may be made'of different materials.
Next I can specify the first condition of equilibrium by writing the 113 . and c . STUDENT A: But I don't know whether the reactions are directed upward or downward. we shall consider a (C) speci fic problem. TEACHER: Indicate these forces on the drawing. Four forces are applied to it: weights P l and P 2 and reactions N n and N c . STUDENT A: Well. A beam of Ac::::=B~=. first indicate the forces applied to the body. 62 BC=2a and CD=a.::====C==tJ) weight P 1 is fixed at points B and C (Fig. a load wi th a we ight Pz of P 2 is suspended f rom the beam. the algebraic sum of the moments equals zero in any Pz case. 62b). STUDENT A: The body in the given problem is the beam.with respect to whi~h the force moments are to be considered. the choice of the point'(with res pect to which t he force A==B~=. plane (the problem is not threedimensional). The distances AB=a. Fig. the following should be kept in mind: (I) the abovestated condition refers to the case when all the forces in the problem and their arms are in a single. (c) find the moments of all the forces with respect to the chosen point. here is my drawing (Fig. (d) write the equation for the algebraic sum of the moments. A ssume that the reactions of the supports ar~ directed vertically. To better understand the conditions of equilibrium. At point D.D (2) the algebraic sum of the moments should be equated to zero wilh respect to any (l point. It should be emphasized that though the values of the s~parate force moments do depend upon (h. Find the reactions N Band Neat the two supports. In applying the moment condition.==::!C~===JJ) moments are considered). TEACHER: Assume that both reactions are directed upward. 62a). equating it to zero. either within or outside the body. As usual.
I'll do just that. 62c). STUDENT A: All right. in Oll. e.r problem it is simpler to use the second condition of equilibrium (the moment condition). i. Equation (84) gives a positive result when P l>P 2. employing it first with respect to point B and then to point C. that when P l<P 2. . However. TEACHER: Equation (85) always has a positive result. 62b). negative when P1<P z and becomes zero when P 1 =P2. and at PI =P 3 there is no reaction N n.equation NB+N c = PI +P g have no objection to this equation as such. reaction N B is in the direction "We assumed. It can readily be found. This means that reaction N c is always directed upward (as we as· sumed). upward (see Fig. As a result I can write the equations with respect to point B } aP I 2aN c + 3aP g = 0 83 with respect to point C ( ) TEACHER: 2aNBaPl+aP~=O • TEACHER: Now you see: each of your equations contains only one of the unknowns. STUDENT A: From equations (83) we find (84) (85) . reaction N B is downward (see Fig. This means that when P l>P 2.
to 6 units (here the weight is conditionally measured in square centimetres).TEACHER: In many cases. as is evident from the figure. Then we consider the "bars" AlB 1 115 . the weight of this rectangle is proportional to its area and is equal. Next we project the points A and B on th~ coordinate axes Ox and Oy. § 15. I don't quite understand how you find the centre of gravity in the two cases shown in Figs. these projections are denoted by A 1 and B 1 on the xaxis and by A 2 and B 2 on the yaxis. I can't say it is. Is everyth ing THE CENTRE quite clear to you on this matter? OF GRAVITY? STUDENT A: No. The centre of gravity of rectangle 2 is at point B. 64 "HZ the weight of this rectangle is equal to (0 units. 63 Fig. The centre of gravity of rectangle 1 is at point A. examinees find it difficult to locate the centre of gravity of a body or HOW DO YOU LOCATE system of bod ies. 63b. I t Fig.· In the first case it is convenient to divide the plate into two rectangles as shown by the dashed line in Fig. 63a and 64a. TEACHER: All right.
But let us complete the problem. 64b. There is another possible approach./4) (R/2x) = =(nR2/2)x. shown in Fig. The centres of gravity of these bodies are located at their geometric centres.. STUDENT A: Now I understand. this arrangement corresponds to the initial circle with the circular hole. e. Thus. TEACHER: Let us consider the second case. and that of the small circle is proportional to its area nR 2/4. i. we can deal wi tho a system of two bodies: a circle. the problem is again reduced to finding the point 116 . In a SImilar way we find the centre . In this case.64a. I was not sure that coordinate Y could be found in the same way. We denote by x the distance from the soughtfor centre of gravity to the geometric centre of the large circle. (nR 22nR2/4)=nR 2/2. That is precisely how I would go about finding coordinate X of the centre of gravity of the plate. As a result.a circle inserted into one of the holes (Fig. assuming that the masses are concentrated at the ends of the "bars". instead of the given circle wi th one circular hole.with twa symmetrical circular holes and . from which x=R/6. Then x=5/4 cm. the mass of each end being equal to that of the corresponding rectangle (see Fig. Then. For instance. 64b. one acting upward) (Fig. we reduce the problem to finding the point of application of the resultant of the two parallel forces shown below in Fig. 63b). the problem of locating the centre of gravity of our plate is reduced to finding the centres of gravity of "bars" A 1B 1 and A 282' The positions of these centres of gravity will be the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the plate. according to Fig. 63b): 6x=1O(2x). As a whole.and A 282.of gravity of "bar" A 2B 2: 6y= 10 (Iy) from which it follows that y=5/8 cm. 64c) which will compensate for the positive weight or the corresponding portion of the solid circle. The given circle with the hole can be replaced by a solid circle (with no hole) plus a circle located at the same place where the hole was and having a negative weight (i. 64b). Thus the Vcoordinate of the centre of gravity of the plate is Y= (1. Two approaches are available. Knowing that the weight of the circle with two holes is proportional to its area.5+y) cm=17/8 cm. e. First we determine the location of the centre of gravity of "bar" A IB 1 using the wellknown rule of force moments (see Fig. we can write (nR'I. the Xcoordinate of the centre of gravity of the plate in the chosen system of coordinates is X= (l+x) cm=9/4 cm.
P 1 and P 2. only five would Fig.. TEACHER: In addition.a from on. c Then I would indicate this resulA r". as in the preceding case. I want to propose a problem involving locating the centre at gravity of the system of loads shown in Fig. We begin by assuming that we are supporting the system at its centre of gravity (at point B in Fig. I shall not take advantage of the fact that in Fig. P6). loads of different weights (P 11 P 2.G>G>l. STUDENT A: I like the first approach better because it does not require the introduction of a negative weight. How do you know that it is between the points of application of forces P a and p(? TEACHER: It makes no difference to me where exactly the centre of gravity is.. TEACHER: Though your method of solution is absolutely correct. 65 remain. According to the diagram we can write: nR 2x=(nR 2/4)(R/2+x) . arranged along a bar at equal distances. Thus. I· would find the point of application of the resultant of another pair of forces. How would you go about solving this problem? STUDENT A: First I would conN sider two loads. etc. instead ~ of the six forces. from which. The weight of the bar is neglected.<i>Cj><tJ taot (equal to the sum PI P 2) on the drawing and would cross p& out forces PI and P 2. .e Ps aMther. Now.of application of the resultant of the two forces shown at the bottom of Fig. 64c. I can show you a much more elegant solution.. by consecutive operations I would ultimately find the required resultant whose point of application is the centre of gravity of the whole system. and find the poi nt of application of their resultant. Next. 65b the centre of gravity turned Qut to be between the points of application of forces P a and P4 • So we + 117 . 65a. . from further consideration. We are given six (0) . STUDENT B (interrupting): But you don't yet know the IDeation of the centre of gravity. x=R/6. it is by far too cumbersome. 65b). for instance.
i. the equation will be N (5aAB) 118 = aP + 2aP + 3aP a+ 4aP + 5aP t b 4 2 (89) . the left end of the bar). only one term is added to the numerator and one to the denominator in equation (88). With each new load. In addition to the six forces. and the bearing reaction tends to turn it counterclockwise. one more forcethe bearing reaction Nwill act on the bar. all the forces tend to turn the bar clockwise. We begin with the first condition of equilibrium for the projection of all the forces in the vertical direction N=Pt+P. we can. As a result. We will consider the condi ion for the force moments with respect to points A and C (see Fig. I must admit that your method is much simpler. STUDENT B: Can we find the location of the centre of gravity of the bar if only the moment condition is used? TEACHER: Yes. Here. the required position of the centre of gravity measured from the left end of the bar AB= aP2+2aP3+3aP4+4aP~+5aPa PI +P 2 +P 3 +P 4 +P.+p&+p s (86) Then we apply the second condition (moment condition). 65b (i.+Pa STUDENT A: (88) Yes. We can write N (AB)=aP2+2aPa+3aP4+4aPIi+5aP6 (87) Combining conditions (86) and (87). This is done by writing the condition of the equilibrium of force moments with respect to two different fOints.assume we are supporting the system at its centre of gravity. we can apply the conditions of equilibrium (see § 14).+Ps+p. TEACHER: Also note that your method of solving the problem is very sensitive to the number of loads on the bar (the addition of each load makes the solution more and more tedious). My solution. Since the bar is in a stat~ of equilibrium. e. for point C. e. we can find the length AS. For point A the moment condition is expressed by equation (87). the bar is in a state of equilibrium. Let us do precisely that. 6Sb). on the contrary. does not become more complicated wilen loads are added. considering the force moments with respect to point A in Fig.
. 66.+4aP s + 5aP s = 5a (aP 2 +2aP J +3aP 4 + 4aP 5 + 5aPs) or A B x 5a (PI + P2 + P3 + P4 + P D + Po) = 5a (aP 2 + 2aP3 + + 3aP 4 + 4aP ii + 5aP 6) Thus we obtain the same result as in equation (88). Locate the centre of gravity of a circular disk having two circular holes as shown in Fig.Dividing equation (87) by (89) we obtain AB From which _ aP2+2aPa+3aP4+4aP5+5aPo aP 5 +2aP 4 +3aP 3 +4aP2+5aP. 66 radius of the disk. 5aAB  AB (aPft + 2aP 4 +3aP a+ 4aP 2 + 5aP l + aP~+ 2aP a + +3aP. The radii of the holes are equal to one half and one fourth of the fig. PROBLEM 37.
We shall discuss the problem of the applicability of Archimedes' principle to bodies in a state of weightlessness. This is a common mistake of students preparing for physics exams.Archimedes' principle does not usually draw special attention. Highly interesting questions and problems can be devised on the basis of this principle. .
force F=PogV ads on the body making It easier to raise. medes' principle? . 67). This force is called the buoyant force. compared with a Fig. in a liquid an additional .that you raise a body of volume V and density p to a height H.§ 16. The DO YOU KNOW buoyant force exerted by a liARCHJ. it is exactly equal to the weight of the hqUld in the volume V of the body immersed in the liquid. first in a vacuum and then in a liquid with a density Po. TEACHER. The energy required in the second case is less because the raising of a body of volume V by a height H is accompanied by the lowering of a volume V of p the liquid by the same height H. TrY II 'I Regarding the subtrahend pof!VH as P+'poffh the work done by a certain force. (~ot~ that we neglect the energy losses associated with f[(ctlOn upon real displacements of the body in the liquid. be derived from simple energy considerations. STUDENT A: But Archimedes' principle was discovered directly as the result of experiment. 67 vacuum. Assume that the pressure on the upper base is p. TEACHER: Do you know Archimedes' principle? STUDENT'A: Yes. we can conclude that. TEACHER: Correct.) Archimedes' principle can be deduced in a somewhat different way. Imagine . Only it should be. 9ui~e obviously. It can.extended to include gases: a buoyant force is also exerted by a gas on a body "immersed" in it. Yes. Assume that the body immersed in the liquid has !he form of a cylinder of height h and that the area of its base IS S (Fig. 121 .'\'\EDES' quid ona body immersed in it is PRINCIPLE? exactly equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. The energy required in the first case equals pgVH. however. And now can you "give a theoretical proof of your statement? STUDENT A: A proof of Archi_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . of course. There__ LL:L~ fore'dthe energy I exP(enVdHed in VH)the secon case eq ua s pg p of! . TEACHER: Quite true.
the density of the water by Po. Here is an example for you. If we multiply this difference by the area S of the base. TEACHER: Exactly. the ice turns into water whose volume V 2 is found from the equation . When the ice melts it converts into water whose volume is equal to that of the water that was displaced previously. prove this. we obtain the force F=PoghS which tends to push the body upward. STUDENT A: Yes. but I think the water level should reduce slightly. Since hS=V. Will the water level change when the ice melts? STUDENT A: The level will remain uhchanged because the weight of the ice is counterbalanced by the buoyant force and is therefore equal to the weight of the water· d isp laced .Then the pressure on the lower base will equal p+Pogh. What will happen to the water level after the ice melts in this case? STUDENT A: I'm not quite sure. the volume of the cylinder. the density of the ice by P 1 and the density of the lead by p 2' The piece of ice together with the lead has a weight equal to PIg (V . a piece of lead inside the ice. let us recall the condition for the floating of a body. now I see that Archimedes' principle can be arrived at by purely logical reasoning. Thus.by the ice. Pig (V v) = PogV 2 122 . TEACHER: Before proceeding any further. TEACHER: Let us denote the volume of the piece of ice together with the lead by V.v) + P2gv This weight is counterbalanced by the buo'yant force PogV 1 • Thus (90) After melting. And now let us assume that there is. the volume of the water displaced by the submerged part of the ice by V 1. The weight of the body should be counterbalanced by the lmoyant force acting on the body in accordance with Archimedes' principle. A piece of ice floats in a vessel with water. for instance. STUDENT A: I remember that condition. the difference in pressure on the upper and lower bases equals Pogh. however. I cannot. TEACHER: Quite correct. it can readily be seen that this is the buoyant force which appears in Archimedes' principle. the volume of the piece of lead by v.
From equation (91) we get V2 +v= V1v PzPo Po (92) Since P2>PO (lead is heavier than water).nd float.(V 2+V) by the crosssectional area S of the vessel (assuming. I'm quite sure I do. instead of the piece of lead. we can find the difference between 123 . for the sake of simplicity. that it is of cylindrical shape) we can find the height h by which the level drops after the ice melts. Consequently. Therefore. the volume of water displaced was V l' Then the lead and the water from the melted ice began to occupy the volume (V 2+V). Thus h= v PzPo Pos (93) Do you understand the solution of this problem? STUDENT A: Yes. in the case of cork we should expect the opposite etTect: the water level should rise. TEACHER: You are mistaken. Since the cork is lighter than water it will surely rise to the surface a. TE. before the ice mel ted. it can be seen from equation (92) that (V z+v)<V i· Consequently.Substituting this equation into (90) we obtain PogV2 + p~v = PogV1 From which we find that the volume of water obtained as a result of the melting of the ice is (91 ) Thus. the example with cork (or any other body lIghter than water) requires special consideration. and cork is lighter than water.\CHER: Why? STUDEl':T A: In the example with lead the level fell. To answer the question concerning the water level in the vessel. What will happen to the water level when the ice melts? STUDENT A: I think it will rise slightly. Using the result of equation (91). Lead is heavier than water. let us put a piece of cork of volume v and density Pa inside the ice. these volumes shou ld be compared. Dividing the difference in the volumes V 1 . the water level will reduce as a result of the melting of the ice. TEACHER: Then. Your answer would be correct if the cork remained submerged after the ice melted.
some examinees don't give enough attention to this principle when preparing for their physics examinations. Then the stand is turned so that the suspended weight is comp letely submerged in the water. a weight P should be placed on the pan with the stand. TEACHER: Unfortunately. 124 . the state of equilibrium is disturbed since the pan with the stand becomes lighter (Fig. and that of the water obtained by the melting of the· ice. 68b). One pan of a balance carries a vessel with water and the other. Obviously. STUDENT A: And if the piece of ice contained simply a bubble of air instead of the piece of cork? ~ TEACHER: After the ice melts. to restore equilibrium. The pans are balanced (Fig. Consequently. a stand with a weight suspended from it. Substituting this equation into (94). the example with the bubble of air iFl the ice is similar to that with the piece of cork. and the volume displaced by the submerged portion of the floating piece of cork. we obtain V1=VIl+V I Thus the volume of water displaced by the piece of ice is exactly equal to the sum of the volume of water obtained from the melted ice. It can read ily be seen that the water level in the vessel wi 11 be exactly the same as it was before the ice melted. So in this case the water level remains unchanged. 68a). this bubble will be released. Let us consider the following example. STUDENT A: I see that quite interesting questions and problems can be devised on the basis of" Archimedes' principle. Thus VIVa= v12 (94) Po Next we apply the condition for the floating of the piece of cork: Pav = POVI (95) where v 1 is the volume of the part of the cork submerged in water.the volume of the water displaced by the piece of ice together with the cork. In short. What additional weight must be put on the pan with the stand to restore equilibrium? STUDENT A: The submerged weight is subject to a buoyant force equal to the weight of the water of the volume displaced by the submerged weight (we denote this weight of water by P).
the weight of the left pan must be increased by the same amount (P). STUDENT A: I can't quite understand your reasoning. 38. the force with which the water in th. the weight of the pap. The volume of the ice together with the lead ball is V and 1/20 of this volume is above the water level. ice and lead are assumed to be known. TEACHER: The field of application of Newton's third law is not limited to mechanics. if as the result of interaction the weight of the right pan is decreased by P. ConsequentIy. one to which you will surely have no ob jections.===the submerged weight and the water in no way resembles the interaction of two (bJ bodies in mechanics. A vessel of cylindrical shape with a crosssectional area S is filled With water in which a piece of ice. According to this law. with the vessel increases. 8 PROBLEM .e vessel acts on the submerged weight is exactly equal to the force with which the submerged weight acts on the water in the opposite direction. equal and opposite reaction" refers to a great many kinds of interaction. To what mark wi II the water level in the vessel reduce after the ice melts? The densities of water. however. a weight equal to 2P (0) should be added to the pan with the stand. to restore equi libr. ( \. After all. Hence. after the weight is submerged in the vessel with water.ium. apply a different line of reasoning in our case.TEACHER: You are mistaken. The total weight of the system should not change due to interaction of its parts with one another. Let us deal with the stand with the weight and the vessel with 'the water as part of a single system whose total weight is obviously the sum of the weight of the left pan and that of the right pan.. . The expression "to every action there is an Fig. the difference between the weights of the left and right pans should be 2P. Therefore. You would do well to recall Newton's third law of motion. fioats. as the weight of the pan with the stand reduces. 68 . We can. Therefore. containing a lead ball. the interaction of .
· in a state of weightlessness. PRINCIPLE VALID The ess~nce of Archimedes' prinIN A SPACESHIP? ciple is that due to the different densities of. In a state of weight· lessness. no buoyant force acts on a body submerged in a liquid. this difference in pressure vanishes and. the buoyant force is still equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. but begin with a lift travelling with a certain acceleration a which is in the same direction as the acceleration g of gravity. In a state of weightlessness. with it. We shell not pass over directly to a state of weightlessness. We can reach the same conclusion if we consider the pressure of the liquid on a body submerged in it because the buoyant force is due to the difference in the pressures exert~d on the bottom and top bases on the body. Assume that a<g. It is easy to see that in the given case a body submerged in a liquid will be subject to the buoyant force . (96) F= Po (ga) V § 17. the body and the liquid (of equal volumes. STUDENT B: I don't agree with the final conclusion of Student A. Thus.TEACHER: Is Archimedes' principle valid in a spaceship when it is in a state of weightlessness? IS ARCHIMEDES' STUDENT A: I think it is not. Thus. 126 . I am sure that Archimedes' principle is valid for a state of weightlessness. the buoyant force. of course). and the weight of the liquid of a volume displaced by the body is also equal to po(ga)V. Let us reason more carefully. I may add that in a state of weightlessness there is no difference between "up" and "down" and so it is impossible to indicate which base of the body is the upper and which the lower one. This means that Archimedes' principle is not valid for such a state. different amounts of work are required to raise them to the same height. there is no di fference in these amounts ·of work since the work required to lift a body and that required to lift an equal volume of the liquid is equal to zero.
the position of the piece of cork with respect to the water level. Let us suppose that a piece of cork floats in a vessel with water. TEACHER: That's just what I'll try to do. In other words. the position of the piece of cork with reference to the \vater level remains the same as in the absence of acceleration. Consequently. STUDENT B: But then you must refute my proofs. In other words. Since this does not change the densities of cork and water. Archimedes' principle will continue to be valid. determined by Archimedes' principle. At this the buoyant force becomes zero. nothing prevents us from stating that Archimedes' principle is valid for a state of weightlessness as well. The first is that at an accelerabon a<g a body is buoyed up in the liquid in a manner fully complying with Archimedes' principle. In this case no distinction can be made between the presence and absence of weigh t lessness. Archimedes' principle is valid. this condition wiH not change in the limiting case when a=g and we reach a state of weightlessness. According to equation (95) the ratio of the volume of the piece of cork submerged in the water to the total volume of the piece is. The second is that this statement must hold for the limiting case as well. In this way. approaching the value of g. According to equation (96). but simultaneously and in exactly the same way. I must agree with Student A: Archimedes' principle is not valid for a state of weightlessness. In the limit a=g a state of weightlessness sets. the weight of a volume of liquid equal to the volume of the body will also be reduced. we suppose that this vessel IS In a lift and the lift begins to descend with a certain acceleration a. equal to the ratio of the density of cork to the density of water. turns out to be independent of the acceleration of the lift. the buoyant force will be gradually reduced. Thus (97) Next. Obviously. in the motion of the lift with acceleration.re based on two main points. e. TEACHER: I should say that both of your arguments are well substantiated. but so does the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. However.i. equation (97) holds. Next we will gradually increase the acceleration a. Your arguments a. I wish to illustrate my argument by the foHowing example. 127 . as acceleration a approaches acceleration g. in.
that alters the whole situation qualitatively. On the other hand. TEACHER: This jump is related to the fact that at a=g. this direction disappears. was very aptly pointed out by Student A. there is a basic di fference between weightlessness and the presence of even an insignificant weightness. if there is even the smallest difference (ga). STUDENT B: But you can't deny that the piece of cork remains in the same position in a state of weightlessness as weIll And its position directly follows from Archimedes' principle. I have no objection to the first point. Push it deep into the water with your finger and it wi II remain suspended at the depth you left it. In other words. . which. That's what I mean by a jump. the problem contains a physically defined direction "upward". incidentally. but I don't agree with the second. . a certain symmetry appears: the difference between "up" and "down': disappears. that's true. but still not "equal to zero.when a=g. a state of weightlessness is reached. e. Thus. or jump. the piece of cork will come up to the surface and float in the position determined by Archimedes' principle. acceleration a smoothly approached acceleration g. at the "very last instant" there occurs an abrupt change. TEACHER: Yes. i. at a=g. However. in this state its position with respect to the surface of the liquid is no longer a result of Archimedes' principle. STUDENT B: But what is this jump due to? Where did it come from? In my reasoning. The piece of cork actually does remain in the same position in a state of weightlessness as well. However. in passing over to a state of weightlessness. If the difference (ga) is infinitely smail. The destruction or the appearance of symmetry always occurs with a jump. and all directions become physically equivalent. It is precisely in this direction that the buoyant force acts.
modern physics is molecular physics.Basically. Hence it is especially important to obtain some knowledge. if only by using the simplest example of the ideal gas. of the fundamentals of the molecularkinetic theory of matter. The question of the peculiarity in the thermal expansion of water is disc~ssed separately. The gas laws will be analysed in detail and will be applied in the solution ofspecific engineering problems. .
3.kT where k= 1. this being characterized by the absolute temperature T. 2. that the molecules are in a state of chaotic thermal motion. TEACHER: 'Your answer is very typical: laconic and quite incomplete. I feel that the molecularkinetic theory of matter should be discussed in more detaiL I shall begin by ment ioning the principles of this theory that can be regarded as the basic ones. The theory proves that the mean energy e of a separate molecule is proportional to the temperature T. One grammolecule of a subst. for instance. The first is that all bodies consist of . The intensity of the thermal motion of the molecules depends upon the degree to which the body is heated. 111' this connection. Thus.TEACHER: One of the common examination questions is: what are the basic principles of the WHAT DO YOU KNOW molecularkinetic theory of matABOUT THE ter? How would you answer this MOLECULARKINETIC question? STUDENT A: I would mention THEORY OF MATTER? the two basic principles.38 X 10. molecules. and the second. As a rule. and explain it away with just a few general remarks. I have noticed that students usually take a formal attitude with respect to thi~ question. . The molecules of a substance are in a state of incessant thermal motion. they do not know what should be said about the basic principles of the molecularkinetic theory. 4. for monoatomic (singleatom) molecules (98) e= § IS'.16 erg/deg is a physical constant called Boltzmann's constant. The nature of the thermal motion of the molecu les depends upon the nature of their interaction and changes when the substance goes over from one physical state to another. Matter has a "granular" structure: it consists of molecules '(or atoms).ance contaim NA =6 X 10 23 molecules regardless of the physical state of the substance (the number NA is called Avogadro's number). 1. . 130 .
and. as a rule. you can express such a microcharacteristic of a substance as the mean distance between its molecules (or atoms) in terms of the density and molecular (or atomic) weight. using Avogadro's number. From the standpoint of the molecularkinetic theory. Remember: a grammolecule is the number of grams of a substance which is numerically equal to its molecular weight (and by no means the weight of the molecule expressed in grams. then in I g of iron there must be N AlA atoms./A atoms. Thus. . as some students say). For instance. that is why students taking a physics examination do not frequently know what a grammolecule is. the gramatom is the number of grams of a substance numerically equal to its atomic weight.B g/cm 3 and atomic weigh t A =56. STUDENT B: We are used to thinking that the grammolecule and Avogadro's number refer to chemistry. are always sure that Avogadro's number refers only to gases. Ep is the potential energy of the body as a whole in a certain external field. Energy U is called the internal energy of the body. It follows that in I cm 3 there are pNA. the total energy E of a body is the sum of the following terms: E=~+~+U \~ where E k \s the kinetic energy of the body as a whole. I want to point out that Avogadro's number is a kind of a bridge between the macro.and microcharacteristics of a substance. We are to find the mean distance between the atoms in iron. let us consider solid iron. We shall proceed as follows: in A g of iron there are NA. Thus each atom of iron is associated with a volume of A / (pN A) cm 3.5. atoms. Inclusion of the internal energy in dealing with various energy balances is a characteristic feature of the molecularkinetic theory. TEACHER: Evidently. and Avogadro's number is the number of molecules in a grammolecule (or atoms in a gramatom) of any substance. and U is the energy associated with the thermal motion of the molecules of the body. The required mean distance between the atoms is approximately equal to the cube root of this volume x~ V ApNA = V 56 7. regardless of its physical state .8x6x10 2s cm~2xIO8 cm STUDENT B: Just before this you said that the nature of the thermal motion of the molecules depends upon the intermolecu131 . Its density is p=7. . for example.
. the zero point corresponds to the energy of interaction between molecules separated from each other at an infinitely large distance. with relatively rare collisions. To "free" this molecule.Or· be measured from any value. Each molecule partiCipates in three types of motion: translatory. we can measure the potential energy of a stone from ground level Fig. Each molecule travels freely. TEACHER: Qualitatively. At a sufficiently large distance between the molecules the curve Ep (r) asymptotically approaches zero. please. it is necessary to add some energy to it to increase the energy of the molecule to the zero level. the molecule will vibrate between points A and B in the field of the neighbouring molecule (more precisely. Then. 69). This curve shows the dependence of the potential energy Epol interaction of the molecules on the distance r between tlieir centres. In the given case. 69 of the given locality. it makes no difference. As can be seen. For in· e7 stance. In other words. Assume that the molecule has a negative energy el (see Fig. continues to rise (this repulsion P means that the molecules cannot freely penetrate into each other).. I t is ev ident from the curve that in this case the molecule cannot get farther away from its neighbour than point B or get closer than point A. As the molecules come closer together.. or we can measure it from sea level. energy can oHi. the curve E p (r) turns downward.lar interaction and is changed in passing over fwm one physical state to another. Explain this in more detail. rotary (the molecule rotates about its 132 . e. STUDENT B: What is negative energy? TEACHER: As we know. i. the molecules practically cease to interact. the negative energy of the molecule means that it is in a bound state (bound with another molecule). when they are sufficiently close to one another. Therefore. 69. the molecules begin to repulse one another and curve Ep (r) turns upward' and E . the interaction of two molecules can be described by means of the curve illustrated in Fig. there will be refative vibration of twc molecules forming a bound system). the Ep (r) curve has a characteristic minimum.=:::::. In a gas molecules are at such great distances from one another on an average that they can be regarded as practically noninteracting.
This. Typical of a crystal as a common bound system of molecules is the existence of an ordered threedimensional structurethe crystal lattice. The lattice points are the equilibrium positions of the separate molecules. thus trying to cover up the lack of more detailed knowledge of thermal motion. In a crystal the molecules are so close together that they form a single bound system. there are both kinds of 133 . It should be noted that in some cases when molecules forip a crystal. when speaking about the nature of thermal motions in matter. The molecules accomplish their complex vibratory motions about these positions. but of separate atoms. In most cases. A liquid occupying an intermediate position between gases and crystals exhibits. STUDENT B: But you haven't said anything about the nature of the thermal motions of molecules in a liquid. along with strong particle interaction. they continue to retain their individuality to some extent. each molecule vibrates in some kind of general force field set up by the interaction of the whole collective of molecules. 'the molecules do not retain their individuality upon forming a crystal so that the crystal turns out to be made up. Usually. In these cases. is the minimum amount of information that examinees should possess about atomic and molecular thermal motions in. there is no intramolecular vibration. examinees get no farther than saying it is a "chaotic motion". owing to the strong interaction of the particles. but only the vibration of the atoms in the field of the crystal. If a molecule is monoatomic. however. evidently. however. not of separate molecules. In this case. then. matter. TEACHER: Thermal motions in a liquid are more involved than in other substances. This phenomenon occurs when the binding energy of the atoms in the molecules is substantially higher than the binding energy of the molec!lles themselves in the crystal lattice. The difficulty of dealing with gases owing to the disordered position of the separate particles is compensated for by a practically complete absence of particle interaction. In the case of liquids. Here. is largely compensated for by the existence of an ordered structurethe crystal lattice. a considerab Ie degree of disorder in its structure. it will have only translatory motion. distinction is to be made between the vibration of the molecule in the field of the crystal and the vibration of the atoms in the separate molecules.own axis) and vibratory (the atoms in the molecule vibrate with respect to one another). The difficulty of dealing with crystals.
then it takes a jump.. as a rule. This is indicated by the similarity of their densities. There exists another model according to which a molecule in a liquid behaves as follows: it vibrates surrounded by its neighbours and the whole environment smoothly travels ("floats") in space and is gradually deformed. A great diversity of motions exists in liquids: displacement of the molecules. TEACHER: In actuality. • TEACHER: Various models have been devised in which attempts were made to combine these motions. it was assumed that the molecule behaves as follows: it vibrates for a certain length of time in the field set up by its neighbours. be treated separately (or. completely retain their individuality. speci fic heats and coefficients of volume expansion. Which of them is it closer to? TEACHER: What do you think? STUDENT B: It seems to me that a liquid is closer to a gas. All these facts are evidence of the appreciable similarity between the forces of interparticle bonding in crystals and in liquids. TEACHER: You are right. STUDENT B: I can't understand how translational motion of the molecule can be combined with its vibration in the fields of neighbouring molecules. as they say. a liquid is most likely closer to a crystal. takes another jump. STUDENT B: It seems that is precisely the way in whiCh atoms diffuse in crystals. for instance. The worst thing is that all of these types of motion cannot. This is called the "continuousdiffusion model". their rotation. This phenome134 . etc. It is also known that the heat of fusion is considerably less than the heat of vaporization. Such a model is called the "jumpdiffusion model". strictly speaking. In one model. Another consequence of this similarity is the existence of elements of ordered arrangement in the atoms of a liquid. however. passing over into new surroundings. Only remember that in crystals th is process is slower: jumps into a new environment occur considerably more rarely. vibrates in these surroundings.difficulties mentioned above with no corresponding compensating factors. It can be said that in a liquid the molecules. STUDENT B: You said that a liquid occupies an intermediate position between crystals and gases. vibration of the atoms in the molecules and vibration of the molecules in the fields of neighbouring mo~ lecules. in the pure form) because there is a strong mutual influence of the motions.
Consequently.non. and does not lead to the formation of a crystal lattice. eElS S • S El S ® The similarity between liquids and crystals has led to the term "quasicrystallinity" (6) of liquids. 70 dealt with by analogy with crystals. was established in Xray scattering experiments. known as "shortrange order". For example. you must keep in mind that the liquid state corresponds to a wide range of temperatures. Secondly. It can be compared with the shortrange order (a) shown in Fig. STUDE~T B: What do you mean by shortrange order? TEACHER: Shortrange order is the ordered arrangement of a certain number of the nearest neighbours about any arbitrarily chosen atom (or molecule). a liquid should evidently lose all similarity to a solid and gradually transform to the gaseous phase. however. Only the extreme cases are comparatively simple. liquids can evidently be Fig. if at all. water is found to bea more quasicrystalline liquid than molten metals. Shown in Fig. it is quite similar to the arrangement of the atoms of the given substance in the solid phase. the nature of the intermolecular interaction differs from one liquid to another. the concept of quasicrystallinity of liquids may only be justified somewhere near the melting point. TEACHER: You are absolutely right. STUDENT B: I see now that there is no simple picture of the thermal motions of molecules in a liquid. At short distances. and the structuraldynamic properties of liquids cannot be expected to be the same (or even approximately the same) throughout this range. Near the critical state. this ordered arrangement with respect to the chosen atom is disturbed as we move away· from it. Thus. TEACHER: I should warn you against misuse of the concept of quasicrystallinity of liquids and attributing too much importance to it. and this explains many of its special properties (see § 19). the concept of quasicrystallinity is not equally applicable to all liquids. 135 . Firstly. 70b. 70a is the longrange order for a chain of atoms. In contrast to a crystal. Intermediate cases are always complex. ~ ~ ~ 9 • 9 Q Q 0 STUDENT B: But in such a case.
This means that surface effects predominate at small values of R and volume effects at large values. I plotted two curves in Fig. You can readily see that the quadratic relationship predominateS at small values of R and the cubic. the Brownian particle must be very small since its collisions with molecules are uncompensated. Brownian motion can be observed with ordinary microscopes! It is motion of separate particles of matter bombarded by molecules of the medium in their thermal motion. Therefore. Thus. the mass of the particle is proportional to its volume. as the particles increase in size it becomes more and more difficult for the molecules to push them about. while the mass of the particle which is to be displaced by the collision increases in proportion to RS. 136 . But. From the molecular point of view these particles are macroscopic bodies. with an increase in the size R of a particle. the number of collisions of molecules with the surface of a particle is proportional to the area of the ~urface.STUDENT A: The physics entrance examination requirements include the question about the basis for the molecularkinetic theory of matter. Brownian motion is striking experimental evidence substantiating the basic princi pies of the molecularkinetic theory. Evidently. one should talk about Brownian motion. do you know what Brownian motion . TEACHER: Yes. In the second place. As a result of their random uncompensated collisions with molecules. relationship at large values. actua Ily is? STUDENT A: It is thermal motion of molecules. In the first place. To make this clear. STUDENT B: But why must the Brownian particles be so small? Why don't we observe Brownian motion with appre9 ciable particles of matter such as tea leaves in a glass of tea? TEACHER: There are two reasons for this. Nevertheless. TEACHER: You are mistaken. 71: y=R 2 and y=R8. by ordinary standards they are extremely small. which is usually some kind of liquid. 71 proportionally to R2. the Brownian particles move continuously in a haphazard fashion and thus move about in the medium. the number of coll isions of U R molecules with its surface increases Fig.
Assume that a molecule of mass m is travelling perpendicular to a wall with a velocity v. Next. the number of collisions from the left and from the right in unit time should differ substantially. The pressure p is the normal component of the force F acting on unit area of the walls. Since a unit volume of the gas contains N IV molecules. According to equation (100). the molecule reverses its direction of travel and fl ies away from the wall with a velocity of v. But the ratio of this difference in the number of collisions to the whole number of collisions will be the greater. we can give the explanation of the pressure of a gas on the walls of a vessel containing it. this is the required pressure p. in unit time i(N jV)v molecules strike a unit area of the wall surface.m i\t ~_ i\ (mv) i\t (100) to find the pressure we must determine the momentum transmitted to a unit area of the wall surface per unit time due to the blows with which the molecules of the gas strike the walls. e. Since each of these molecules transmits a momentum of 2mv. As a result of an elastic collision with the wall. we can replace the energy of the molecule mv 2 /2 by the quantity kT [in reference to the i 137 . Since F. STUDENT A: What other facts substantiating the molecularkinetic theory are we expected to know? TEACHER: The very best substantiation of the molecularkinetic theory is its successful application in explaining a great number of physical phenomena. Thus 2 N ·mv2 p=3 V 2 (101) According to equation (98). we shall take into account that in unit time only those molecules will reach the wall which are at a distance within v from it and whose velocity is directed toward the wall. (mu)=mflu=2mv. as a result of these blows a unit area of the wall surface receives a momentum equal to 2muir (N /V)v. For the sake of simplicity we shall assume that all the molecules of the gas have the same velocity v and six directions of motion in both directions along three coordinate axes (assume that the wall is perpendicular to one of these axes). the less the surface of the particle. For example. This momentum is transmitted to the wall.i. The change in the momentum of the molecule equals /).
translational motion of molecules, equation (98) is valid for molecules with any number of atoms). After this, equation (10 I) can be rewri tten as pV=NkT (102) Note that this result was obtained by appreciable simplification of the problem (it was assumed, for instance, that the molecules of the gas travel with the same velocity). However, theory shows that this result completely coincides with that obtained in a rigorous treatment. Equation (102) is beautifully confirmed by direct measurements. It' is good proof of the correctness of the concepts of the molecularkinetic theory which were usad for deriving equation (102). Now let us discuss the phenomena of the evaporation and boiling of liquids on the basis of molecularkinetic conceptions. How do you explain the phenomenon of evaporation? STUDENT A: The fastest molecules of liquid overcome the attraction 9f the other molecules and fly out of the liquid. TEACHER: What will intensify evaporation? STUDENT A: Firstly, an increase in the free surface of the liquid, and secondly, heating of the liquid. TEACHER: It should be remembered that evaporation is a twoway process: while part of the molecules leave the liquid, another part returns to it. Evaporation will be the more effective the greater the ratio of the outgoing molecules to the incoming ones. The heating of the liquid and an increase of its free surface intensify the escape of molecules from the liquid. At the same time, measures can be taken to reduce the return of molecules to the liqutd. For example, if a wind blows across the surface of the liquid, the newly escaped molecules are carried away, thereby reducing the probabi lity of their return. That is why wet clothes dry more rapidly in the wind. If the escape of molecules from a liquid and their return. compensate each other, a state of dynamic equilibrium sets in, and the vapour above the liquid becomes saturated. In some cases it is useful to retard the evaporation process. For instance, rapid evaporation of the moisture in bread is undesirable. To prevent fast drying of bread it is kept in a closed container (bread box, plastic bag). This impedes the escape of the evaporated molecules, and a layer of saturated vapour is formed above the surface of the bread, preventing further evaporation of water from the bread.
138
Now, please explain the boiling process. STUDENT A: The boiling process is the same as evaporation, but proceeds more intensively. TEACHER: J don't like your definition of the boiling process at all. I should mention that many examinees do not understand the essence of this process. When a liquid is heated, the solubility of the gases it contains reduces. As a result, bubbles of gas are formed in the liquid (on the bottom and walls of the vessel). Evaporation occurs in these bubbles, they become filled with saturated vapour, whose pressure increases with the temperature of the liquid. At a certain temperature, the pressure of the saturated vapour inside the bubbles becomes equal to the pressure exerted on the bubbles from the outside (this pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure plus the pressure of the layer of w~ter above the bubble). Beginning with this instant, the bubbles rise rapidly to the surface and the liquid boils. As you can see, the boiling of a liquid differs essentially from evaporation. Note that evaporation takes place at any temperature, while boiling occurs at a definite temperature called the boiling point. Let me remind you that if the boiling process has begun, the temperature of the liquid cannot be raised, no matter how long we continue to heat it. The temperature remains at the boiling point until all of the liquid has boiled away. It is evident from the above discussion that the boiling point of a liquid is depressed when the outside pressure reduces. In this. connection, let us consider the following problem. A flask contains a small amount of water at room temperature. We begin to pump out the air above the water from the flask with a vacuum pump. What will happen to the water? STUDENT A: As the air is depleted, the pressure in the flask will reduce and the boiling point will be depressed. When it comes down to room temperature, the water will begin to boil. TEACHER: Could the water freeze instead of boiling? STUDENT A: I don't know. I think it couldn't. TEACHER: It all depends upon the rate at which the air is pumped out of the flask. If this process is sufficiently slow, the water should begin to boil sooner or later. But if the air is exhausted very rapidly, the water should, on the contrary, freeze. As a result of the depletion of the air (and, with it, of the water vapour), the evaporation process is intensified. Since in evaporation the molecules with the higher energi·es escape from the water, the remaining water will be cooled. If
139
the air is exhausted slowly, the cooling effect is compensated for by the transfer of heat from the outside. As a result the temperature of. the water remains constant. If the air is exhausted very rapidly. the cooling of the water cannot be compensated by an influx of heat from the outside, and the temperature of the water begins to drop. As soon as this happens, the possibility of boiling is also reduced. Continued rapid exhaustion of the air from the flask will lower the temperature of the water to the freezing point, and the unevaporated remainder of the water will be transformed into ice.
§ 19.
TEACHER: What are the peculiarities of the thermal expansion of water? HOW DO YOU ACCOUNT STUDENT A: When water is FOR THE PECULIARITY heated from 0 to 4 °C its density IN THE THERMAL increases. It begins to expand only when its temperature is EXPANSION OF WATER? raised above 4 0c. TEACHER: How do you explain this? STUDENT A: I don't know. TEACHER: This distinctive feature of water is associated with its atomic structure. Molecules of water can interact only in one way: each molecule of water can add on only four neighbouring molecules whose centres then form a tetrahedron (Fig. 72). This results in a friable, lacelike structure indicative of the quasicrystallinity of water. Of course, we can speak of the structure of water, as of any other liquid, only on a shortrange level (see § 18). With an increase in the distance from a selected molecule this order will o undergo gradual distortion due to the bending and rupture of intermolecular "If \ bonds. As the temperature is raised, ',\e;., ,\ " the bonds between the molecules are I, V , O·T __ ~ ' ..  0 ruptured more frequently, there are o more and more molecules with unoccupied bonds filling the vacancies of the tetrahedral structure and, consequently, the degree of quasicrystalliFig. 72 nity is reduced. The abovementioned lacelike structure of water as a quasicrystalline substance convincingly explains the anomaly of the physical properties of water, in particular, the peculiarity of its thermal expansion. On one hand, an increase in temperature leads to an increase in the mean distances between the atoms in a molecule due to the intensification of intramolecular vibrations, i. e. the molecules seem to "swell" slightly. On the other hand, an increase in temperature breaks up the lacelike structure of water which, naturally, leads to a more dense packing of the molecules themselves. The first (vibrational)
/'
141
that of structure breakup. . This is the common effect causing the thermal expansion of solids. increase the density of water as it is heated. The second effect. In heating water to 4 DC. should. Upon further heating.effect should lead to a reduction in the density of water. on the contrary. the structural effect predominates and the density 6f water consequently increases. the vibrational effect begins to predominate and therefore the density of water is reduced.
which coincides with equation (102) obtained previously on the basis of molecular143 . TEACHER: Both versions of the combined gas law are correct. since a grammolecule of any gas at stalldard conditions occupies a definite volume equal to 22. (104) where m is the mass of the gas.4 litres. The temperature is. and po. (To Student B) You have used the universal gas constant. TEACHER: I purposely asked you to do these calculations in order to demonstrate the equivalence of expressions (103) and (104).4 Iitres 273 OK J. fA. V and T are the pressure.1 Comparing this with expression (104) we find that R=6. I can use equation (103). how would you compute its value? I don't think one can memorize it. This means that po= =76 em Hg (em . The ratio tn//t is evidently the number of grammolecules contained in the given mass of the gas.l is the mass of one grammolecule and R is the universal gas constant.4 I itres.. HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW THE GAS LAWS? TEACHER: Please write the equation for the combined gas law. STUDENT B: I prefer to use an equation of a different form pV = ~ RT. Substituting these values in equation (103) we obtain P V= ~ T 76 em Hgx22. Va and T a refer to a given mass of gas but taken at standard conditions. Unfortunately. expressed in the absolute scale. f. STUDENT A: This equation is of the form r=Y. Tell me. examinees usually know only equation (103) and are unfamiliar with (104).of mercury column).2 (cm Hg) litres/deg.§ 20. pV PoVo (103) where p. STUDENT B: To compute R. Va and T a are the same for the initial state. T 0=273 OK and V 0= = (m//t) x 22. in which the parameters po. volume and temperature of a certain mass of gas in a certain state.
isothermal (T=const) and isochoric (V=const) processes in diagrams with coordinate axes p and V. (103). Where is the error in my reasoning? TEACHER: Equations (102). TEACHER: Good. using coordinate axes V and T. At the same time they usually find it difficult to depict these processes with other sets of coordinate axes. we shall see whether you can use the equation of the combined gas law. STUDENT A: From equation (104) we get V = !!!. in no case can the volume of a gas become less than the total volume of all its molecules. Then the product (mIll) (RIp) in equation (106) is a constant factor. the volume of the gas also approaches zero. Then (105) J. On its basis. express the volume of the gas as a function of its temperature. a process in which the gas pressure remains constant. Examinees can usually depict isobaric (p=const). for instance V and Tor T and p. Thus the universal gas constant turns out to be the product of Avogadro's number by Boltzmann's constant. 73 we see ·that as the temperature app~oaches zero. . Next. STUDENT 8: I have a question concerning isobars in a diagram with coordinate axes V and T. The ideal gas is a simpii fled model 144 . From a comparison of equations (102) and (104) it follows that (mIIL)R=Nk. (l06) TEACHER: Does the pressure here depend upon the tempe rature? STUDENT A: In the given case it doesn't because we are dealing with an isobaric process. Please draw a curve showing an isobaric process. 73 in different sets of coordinate axes. STUDENT A: I seem to recall that this process is described by a straight line. These three processes are shown in Fig. e. TEACHER: Why recall? Make use of equation (104).kinetic considerations. We thus obtain a linear dependence of the volume of the gas on its temperature.I. i. (104) and (106) refer to the socalled ideal gas. From equation (106) and from the corresponding curve in Fig. However.!i T I' P .
Note also that for the gases contained in the air (for instance. Moreover. Two isobars are shown in Fig. 73 TEACHER: Note that such experiments are never conduded at extremely low temperatures. All the curves in Fig. has no physical meaning. or zero point. 73 apply to such a simplified model. STUDENT 8: But the gas laws agree well with experimental data. i. You are just drawing the curves for the model of a gas. Now I want to propose the following. the curve will coincide with the corresponding straight line in Fig.of a real gas in which neither the size of the molecules nor their mutual attraction is taken into consideration. it can be described quite accurately by the ideal gas model. 74 in coordinate axes V and T: one corresponds to the 145 . Fig. remember that on a sufficiently large drop in temperature a gas will be condensed into a liquid. STUDENT B: I see. STUDENT B: Do you mean that if we plot the dependence of the volume on the temperature in an isobaric process for a real gas. 73 passes through the origin. If a real gas has not been excessively cooled or compressed. But then maybe we should terminate the curve before it reaches this point? TEACHER: That is not necessary. the ideal gas. The fact that the curve of equation (l06) in Fig. and in experiments we deal with real gases whose mqlecules have sizes of their own. these conditions are met at room temperatures and ordinary pressures. e. Where this model can be applied is another question. 73 at sufficiently high temperatures but will not coincide in the low temperature zone? TEACHER: Exactly. nitrogen and oxygen).
Remember: the closer an isotherm is to the origin of the coordinates P and V. the lower the temperature is. the corresponding pressure is higher. the smaller its volume. Consequently. It follows that the higher the pressure. 75). P2 is higher than Pt.pressure PI and the other to the pressure P2' Which of these pressures is higher? STUDENT A: Most likely. PZ<Pl' We can reach the same conclusion by different reasoning. Which is the higher temperature? STUDENT A: First I shall draw an isobar (seethe dashed line in Fig. the higher the temperature of a gas. T 1 and T z. Let us draw an isotherm in Fig. Therefore. At a constant pressure. TEACHER: Correct. the pressure of the gas will be the higher. The tangent of the angle of inclination of an isobar equals (mifL) (Rip) y Fig. in our case. Evidently. you decided that since that isobar is steeper. 75 which shows two isotherms (the coordinate axes are p and V) plotted for the same mass of gas at di fferent temperatures. the outermost isotherm T z corresponds to the higher temperature. TEACHER: You answer without thinking. the larger its volume. It intersects isobar P2 at a higher value of the gas volume than isobar PI' We know that at the same temperature. P2<Pl' STUDENT A: Now. . I'm sure I understand. 74 (see the dashed line). 75 according to equation (106). however. Thus. is entirely wrong. 74 Fig. TEACHER: Then look at Fig. This. This follows directly from the combined gas law [see equation (103) or (104)]. the less the angle of inclination of the isobar.
each of these laws is a corollary of the combined gas law [see equation (l04)J which establishes a relationship between all three parameters regardless of any special conditions. Each of these laws establishes a relationship between some pair of parameters of a gas under the assumption that the third parameter is constant.] I will make the following remarks concerning the abovementioned gas laws: l. but in terms of the same pair of parameters taken for a different state of the same mass of the gas. The combined gas law was just barely mentioned. The equation of this law is p=const T ( 108) where the const= (mIll) (R(V). GayLussac's and Charles' laws. The equation for this law is of the form P=v const (107) where the const= (m/Il)RT. not in terms of the mass of the gasand the constant third parameter. Our study was restricted to Boyle and Mariotte's. The law of Charles describes the dependence of V on T. All these laws refer to the ideal. 4.STUDENT B: In secondary school our study of the gas laws was of much narrower scope than our present discussion. the 147 . I wish to make some remarks that will enable the laws of Boyle and Mariotte. gas and are applicable to a real gas only to the extent that the latter is described by the model of the idea:! gas. In other words. I ts equation is V =const T (109) where the const=(m/Il) (RIp)· [Equation (109) evidently repeats equation (106). 2.in an isobaric process. GayLussac's law describes the dependence of p on T in an isochoric process. TEACHER: In this connection. As can readily be seen. 3. Boyle and Mariotte's law (more commonly known as Boyle's law) describes the dependence of p on V in an isothermal process. GayLussac and Charles to be included in the general scheme. The constants in each of these laws can be expressed.
gas laws can be rewritten in the following form Povo P=Vp= (107a) (108a) . the gas will gradually pass over to isotherms that are closer and closer to the origin.UDENT A: Why must the temperature 6f the gas cha'nge? TEACHER: If the temperature remained constant. TEACHER: That's a good idea. 76 Fig. isotherms corresponding to ever148 . STUDENT . while in our case the dependence of p on V is of a different nature: po:: (I/V2). on the contrary. i. Consider the following example. (109a) ~: T' V=~: T STUDENT A: It seems I have finally understood the essence of the gas laws. TEACHER: In that case. What do the curves suggest? STUDENT A: I seem to understand now.A: Maybe I can try to plot these relationships? The curves will be of the shape shown in Fig. We can see that in tracing the curve pcc(ljV2) toward greater volumes.e. that would mean that the gas expands according to the law of Boyle and p Fig. let us go on. 76. ST. 77 Mariotte [equation (107)1· For an isothermal process prx:(1/V). cooled in such an expansion. A gas expands insuch a manller that its pressure and volume comply with the condition pya = canst (110) We are to tindout whether the gas is heated or.
This means that in this expansion process the gas is cooled. After cancelling the common factors we find that TtV I = TaV! (111) From this equation it is evident that if the gas volume is. The combined gas law establishes a relationship between the gas parameters regardless of any conditions whatsoever. Assume that the gas is expanding. Now let us consider the nature of the energy exchange between a gas and its environment in various processes. Va. Assume that the gas expands isobarically and pushes back a piston of cross~ectional area S over a distance Ai (Fig. This work is not difficult to calculate for isobaric expansion of the gas. its temperature (in the absolute scale) should be reduced by one half. a piston in a cylinder). It is better to say that such a gas expansion process is possible only provided the gas is cooled. Let us . doubled. V1. we obtain m RTI V1 = . STUDENT A: Does tbis mean that whatever the process.. Only I would reword your answer. the gas parameters (p. TEACHER: Quite correct. 77). Ta· Next we shall write the combined gas law [see equation (104)1 for each of these states' PIV 1 =.decreasing temperatures. the gas performs workon these bodies. P2V2= : RTI We can write the given gas expansion process.RT I /l. 149 . /l. STUDENT 8: Can we reach the same conclusion analytically? TEACHER: Of course. Consequently. . in the form PIV~ = P2V~ Substi tuting the two preceding equations of the gas law in the last equation.m RT2V2 /l. V and T) will be related to one another in each instant by the combined gas law) TEACHER: Exactly. for example. according to the condition. It will move back all bodies restricting its volume (for instance.'T I and P2.consider two states of the gas: PI.!!!.
The question is: what kind of energy is used to perform the work in the given case? STUDENT B: Evidently. loses an amount of energy equal to A. Fig. a gas does work on the surrounding bodies at the expense of part of its internal energy. For example. then r. ~ v work is done on the gas and. In this' manner. 78 The performance of work. however. The amount of work done by the gas in nonisobaric expansion is more difficult to calculate because the pressure varies in the course of gas expansion. 150 .The pressure exerted by the gas on the piston is p. and by heat transfer. The initial state of the p gas is the same in both cases. 78 by the whole hatched area and the crosshatched area. In the general case. is not the only method of energy exchange between a gas and the medium. Find the amount of work done by the gas in moving the piston: where V 1 and V 2 are the initial and final volumes of the gas. TEACHER: Correct. consequently. in expanding. its internal energy increases. Thus. however. therefore. Note oL also that if a gas is compressed. in isothermal expansion a gas does a certain amount of work A and. On the other hand. the work dpne by the gas when its volume increases from V 1 to V 2 is equa I to the area under the p (V) curve between the ordinates V 1 and V 2' The amounts of work done by a gas in isobaric and in isothermal expansion from volume VIto volume V 2 are shown in Fig. we reach the conclusion that a gas exchanges energy with the medium through at least two channels: by doing work associated with a change in the volume of the gas. respectively. as follows from the principles enumerated in § 18 [see equation (98)]. a constant temperature of the gas in an isothermal process should mean that its internal energy U remains unchanged (let me remind you thatU is determined by the thermal motion of the molecules and that the mean energy of the molecules is proportional to the temperature T). The work done by the gas dep~nds upon the mim~l_ nature of the expansion process. the heat transmitted to the gas from the outside.
as can be seen from equation (106). Thus .s: a part of this heat is used to in· crease the internal energy of the gas and the rest is converted into the work done by the gas. Do we have to expend the same amount of heat to heat the gas in both cases? STUDENT A: I think so. STUDENT B: I wOllld say that different amounts are required. in this case. we may conclude that in isothermal expansion. and al1 the heat is ex· pended to increase the internal energy of the gas. TEACHER: Quite true. its internal energy is increased. TEACHER: Very good. but to any other bodies as well. Q is the heat transferred to the gas from the surrounding medium. (115) 151 . At constant volume. so that the amount of work done is A=P(VVl)' The supplied heat Q2 is used partly to in· crease the internal energy of the gas (to raise its temperature) and partly to do this work.T I (114) At constant pressure. Ql<Q!. then isothermal processes cannot take place in a thermally insulated system. to raise its temperature. the heating of the gas is inevitably associated with its expansion. not only to gases. That means that it performs work. STUDENT B: The gas expands. e. Here. STUDENT B: To sum up. no work is done. e. i. and A is the work done by the gas on the surrounding bodies. a relatively large amount of heat must be transferred to the ga. i. Consider one more example. the tempera· ture of the gas is raised. Now consider isobaric expansion of gas from the energy point of view. Note that it is universal and is applicable. Equa· tion (113) is called the first law of thermodynamics. Consequently. all the heat transferred to the gas is immediately converted into work done by the gas.The energy balance can be expressed in the following form LiV=QA (113) where Li U is the increment of internal energy of the gas chao racterized by an increase in its temperature. This is done twice: once at constant volume of the gas and then at constant pressure. In this case Ql=C/':. A gas is heated so that its temperature is increased by liT. If so. Q2=C 1 LiT+p(VV 1 ) Obviously.
l) . the heat capacity at constant volume? STUDENT B: 1'\1 try. Substituting the value of Q2 from equation (115) we obtain C ' I =C + p (VI'1T V\)  ( 116) TEACHER: You stopped too soon. TEACHER: What conclusion can be drawn from the last example as regards the heat capacity of a gas? STUDENT B: A gas has two different heat capacities: at constant volume and at constant pressure.= C1 + R (118) In conclusion. Now please analyse the nature of energy exchange between the gar. Let tis denote the heat capacity at constant pressure by C 2. TEACHER: Can you express the heat capacity at constant pressure in terms of C 1> that is. TEACHER: Quite correct. and the medium in the separate elements of the cycle. 152 . 79a in which axes p and V are used as the coordinate axes). In accordance with the definition of heat capacity. let us consider a certain cycle consisting of an isotherm. after substituting into equation (116). we obtain Ct=C\ +~R fA. If we apply the equation of the combined gas law. STUDENT B: In a diagram with coordinate axes V and T. 79b. we can write C 2= Q2it::. this relationship is even more simple: C. (l17) In reference to one grammolecule of the gas (m=f. What do you call the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body by one degree? STUDENT B: The heat capacity of the body. The heat capacity at constant volume (which is factor C I in the last two equations) is less than the heat capacity at constant pressure. Il.TEACHER: I agree with Student B. isochore and isobar (see Fig. the cycle will be of the form illustrated in Fig. . Please draw this same cycle (qualitatively) in a diagram with coordinate axes V and T. and analyse the nature of energy exchange between the gas and the medium in each element of the cycle. we can write p(VV\)=~R(TTI)=~ RI1T Il. T.
no work is done. The internal energy of the gas remains unchanged. STUDENT A: Our discussion shows v me that I knew very little about J the gas laws.. but its internal energy is reduced. 7gb. you will see that it only covered questions directly concerned with the combined gas law in its general form or as applied in certain special cases. over our discussion. In element 31 the gas is compressed isobarically (at constant pressure) and its temperature drops as can be seen in Fig. It receives a certain amount of heat from the outside and spends all this heat in doing work. Unfortunately. Since its volume does not change. but simply to the fact that yott have not thought over and understood the gas laws thorough ly enough.. to know all this for the entrance examinations? In my opinion.//r students taking entrance ex'aminations. the gas is heated isochorically (at constant volume). Do we have. 79 TEACHER: If you carefully think . examinees frequently don't care to go beyond a very superficial idea of the gas laws. Your confusion should be attributed not to the imaginary stretching of the syllabus. . In element 23 of the cycle.STUDENT B: In element 12. v o TEACHER: Your reasoning is absolutely correct. The internal energy of the gas is increased only due to the heat transferred to the (a) gas from the outside. some of the questions we' discussed are beyond the scope of the physics syllabus for ol<. This means that the gas intensively gives up heat to the medium. Fig. Work is done on the gas. the gas undergoes isothermal expansion. 2!V .
§ 21. heating and other processes. in practice it is more convenient to resort to the following method: we assume that the gas is brought to standard conditions. al· PROBLEMS ON GAS most all the problems involving gas laws that are assigned tc LAWS? examinees are quite simple. nobody remembers it. V 2 and T 2' The parameters of the initial and final states are related to one another by the equation of the combined gas law (119) The problem consists in finding one of these six parameters. For this reason. Most of them belong to one of the fol· lowing two groups. As a rule. however. the value of the mass is not used. denoting the gas parameters at these conditions by PS' Vs and Ts· Then we can write the equation (120) 154 . you must know the numerical value of the universal gas constant R. ABOUT SOLVING TEACHER: In my opinion. first group: Problems devised on the basis of a change in the state in a certain mass of gas. Second group: Problems in which the state of the gas does not change but the value of the mass of the gas appears in the problem. or one of the parameters when the mass and the other parameters are known. STUDENT A: I would like tc look into the application of ga5 laws in solving various types 01 HOW DO YOU GO problems. As a result of expansion. TEACHER: Of course you can use this equation. To do this. In such problems the molecular weight of the gas must be known. V 1 and T 1 to a state with parameters P 2. the gas goes over from a certain state with parameters PI. STUDENT B: I think the most convenient way of solving problems of the second group is to use equation (104) of the combined gas law. It is required to find either this mass when all the parameters are known.
however.where Vs = ~ X 22.5 litres STUDENT B: I see you have assumed that p. Assume that we are to find the volume of 58 g of air at a pressure of 8 a tm and a temperature of 91 OC. STUDENT A: But what mistakes do examinees usually make? TEACHER: Apart from carelessness. In the first position (Fig.= 1. The conditions of the problem. At standard conditions they occupy a volume of 44.I. we have 2 grammolecules. We shall denote the atmospheric pressure by PA. Since the mass of the grammolecule of air equals 29 g. Ts=273 oK and Vs /(m/fl)=22. this method of solution is by no means simpler than the use of equation (104). 80a) . STUDENT B: In my opinion. Let us solve this problem by the method I proposed. 80b).034 atm. l2' Find the length L3 of the column of air ill the . The tube can be turned in a vertical plane. I simply neglected this d iff erence. most likely referred to technical atmospheres. TEACHER: You are right. The tube contains a column of mercury isolating a certain volume of air from the medium. in terms of length of mercury column.4 litres J. the column of air in the tube has the length 11 and in the second position (Fig. From equation (120) we obtain V=Vs~~ =44. There is a difference between the physical atmosphere (corresponding to standard pressure) and the technical atmosphere. Consider a problem involving a glass tube sealed at one end.third position when the tube is inclined at an angle of a to the vertical (Fig.8 (litres) X ~~~! =7. my method is simpler because nobody has any difficulty in remembering the three values you indicated (pressure. STUDENT A. Then it should be p.4 litres. TEACHER: Nevertheless.8Iitres.=l atm. Here we have to remember three values: Ps=76 em Hg. the universal gas constant. and the 155 . 80c). It is obviously simpler to memorize one value. Could you point out typical difficulties in solving problems of the first and second groups? TEACHER: I have already mentioned that in my opinion these problems are quite simple. temperature and the volume of the grammolecule of a gas under standard conditions). the main cause of errors is the inability to compute the pressure of the gas in some state 'or other..
PA laII (122) Equating the righthand sides of equations (121) and (122) we obtain 12 12 11 = 18 cos a laII from which we find the required length 13 /2 11/2 (12 II) cos a (123) You can readily see that if cos a=l. (PA81 cos a) from which the atmospheric pressure equals _ 6. which corresponds to the first position of the tube.1 (121 ) In the third position. the pressure of the air Fig. As a result. then 13 =/ 1 . and if cos a=O. it is equal to the difference (PA~l). the pressure of the air in the tube is evidently equal to the atmospheric pressure. Using the law of Boyle and Mariotte for the first and third states of the gas. 80 inside the tube turns out to be equal to (PA~l cos a). because the atmospheric pressure is.~ lIfJA =/ 2 (PA81) from which we find that the atmospheric.counterbalanced by the combined pressures of the mercury column and the air in(Q) side the tube. But. In the first position. a part of the weight of the mercury column will be counterbalanced by the reaction of the tube walls. e. is it likely that the 156 . pressure is fe) PA=~/1121 2. we can write IJPA =1. we have the second position of the tube. In the second position. Applying the law of Boyle and Mariotte we write . then Is=12' i. STUDENT A: The first and second groups of problems in your classification are clear to me.113 cos ex.length of the mercury column in the tube by 81.
There are no readymade rules for solving such problems.5 grammolecule. the second half of the problem was dealt with as a typical one from the first group. 16 g of oxygen occupies a volume of 5 litres. In the problems of these groups. = TI Pt V2 = 244 52 x 45= 488°K p\V\ x Comparing this result with equation (124). This can be illustrated by two examples. Find the pressure 157 . since we know the temperature T 1 of the gas \n the initial state. in which the mass of the gas is changed (gas is pumped out of or into the container). we can find the temperatureT 2 in the fi nal state. Problems can be devised. However. Ix 11. they require an individual approach in each case. STUDENT B: At the very beginning of our discussion. which has a volume of 11. you said m·osl problems belong to these groups. Next.find its temperature. problems of the third group can be reduced to problems of the first two groups or to their combination. At a pressure of 2 atm. Haw will the temperature of the gas change if it is known that upon increase in pressure to 5 atm the volume reduces by 1 litre? STUDENT A: The mass. there are.2 2x 5 =244°K (124) TEACHER: Quite right. Thus T. we find that the temperature has been raised by 244 deg.2 litres at standard conditions. 16 g of oxygen is 0. such a possibility cannot be ruled out. The gas in a vessel is subject to a pressure of 20 atm at a temperature of 27 OC.examination will include combinations of problems from the first and second groups? TEACHER: Why yes. As you could see. We will arbitrarily classify such problems in the third group. Thus. in each speci fic case. however. Here is the first one. it was assumed that the mass of the gas remained unchanged. Are there problems that differ in principle from those of the first and second groups? TEACHER: Yes. At the given stage you've handled the problem as a typical one from the second group. in speaking of the ·possible. we find that TI =T/1V\ =273 Psv'r . we can readily . TEACHER: Your "01 uti on is absolutely correct. groups of problems. STUDENT A: Then. pressure and volume of the oxygen being known. Let us consider the following problem.
and its pressure is the same as that of the whole mass of gas: Pl=20 atm. i. lead to the sar. the mass of the gas also changes. TEACHER: Since the pressure and volume appear in the equation in the form of their product. V /2. (2) the wh i te and b lack molecules are thoroughly mixed together so 158 . For this reason. though they differ.of the gas in the vessel after one half of the mass of the gas is released from the vessel and the temperature of the remainder is raised by 50 deg.1e result. STUDENT B: I would deal with the initial parameters of the abovementioned mass of gas somewhat differently: T 1= =300 OK. We denote its final parameters by Pz. we have agreed that the white molecules remain in the vessel and the black molecules are released from it. The initial state of the gas can be treated in two ways: (I) the black and white molecules are separated so that macroscopic volumes can be separated out in the vessel containing only white or only black molecules (Fig. Thus. e. but (0) the pressure is equal to one half of the pressure of the whole mass of gas. We shall arbitrarily Fig. Pl= 10 atm. We shall choose the mass of the gas that is finally left in the vessel. With the change in state. and Ps is the required pressure. however. 81 call the molecules of the portion of the gas that finally remains in the vessel "white" molecules. and those of the portion to be released from the vessel. we must study the change in state of the same mass of the gas. since it involves a change in the state of the gas. where V is the volume of the vessel. "black" molecules. i. Vs and Ts. ' This problem resembles those of the first group. Then T s=(273+27+50)= =350 oK. we could have. its volume will be one half of the volume of the vessel. both of your proposa:s. 8Ia). the volume is the same as for the whole mass of gas (V 1=V). How can we express the initial para• meters of this mass of gas? STUDENT A: It will have the same temperature as the whole mass of gas: T 1= (273+27)=300 OK. e. refrained from discussing these differences if they didn't happen to be of interest from the physical point of view. In order to make use of the combined gas law. V z=V.
n. STUDENT B: I think the second approach is more correct bequse the molecules of both kinds are really mixed together. In connection with this last remark. Find the ~ number. of strokes required to Lower ihe . TEACHER: To what mass of gas does your equation refer? STUDENT A: To the mass that was initially in the vessel. 82 STUDENT A: This problem seems to be quite simple: n strokes of the piston lead to an nfold increase in the volume of the gas by the volume v. molecules of each kind form their own gaseous "body" with a volume of Vj2 which exerts a pressure of 20 atm on the walls and on the imaginary boundary with the other body. In this case. consider thefollowing problem. In the second case. both approaches are equally justified. V l=V and Pl=IO atm. let us recall the law of partial pressures: the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of the component gases. Therefore. It is being pumped out of the vessel by means of a piston pump with a ~ stroke volume of v (Fig. I wish to emphasize that here we are dealing with a mixture of gases.! We write the equation of the combined gas law for the mass of the gas remaining in the vessel: 10 V 300 P2V 350 from which we find that P2=11.that any macroscopic volume contains a practically equal number of each kind of molecules (Fig. 82). TEACHER: In the problem being considered. molecules of both kinds are distributed uniformly throughout the whole volume V of the vessel. Bib). In the first case. where molecules of all kinds are intimately mixed together. pressure of the gas in the vessel to Pn' Fig. and the molecules of each kind exert only one half of the pressure on the walls (at any place on the walls. Don't forget that our a priori division of the molecules into two kinds was entirely arbitrary. we can write the law of Boyle and Mariotte in the form PoV = Pn (V + ltv) from which we can find the number of strokes n. 159 . But let us return to the solution of· the problem.7 atm. Now. A gas is in a vessel of volume V at a pressure of po. one half of the blows come from white molecules and the other half from black ones).
For this mass of gas we can write the equation PI V = PI (V + 0) where pa is the pressure of the gas at the end of the second stroke.TEACHER: But even after the first stroke a part of this mass leaves the system entirely: when the piston moves to the left it closes valve A and opens valve B through which the gas leaves the system (see Fig. Dealing consecutively with the third. We shall begin with the first stroke. fourth and subsequent strokes of the piston. valve A is closed. as I previously mentioned. Consequently. Let us consider each stroke of the piston separately. In other words. 82). At this. the nfold increase of the volume of the gas by the amount 0 does not refer to the same mass of gas. Its pressure is PI. Solving the system of equations (125) we obtain PII = Po ( V :0) n Taking the logarithm of this result. For the mass of gas that was initially in the vessel we can write PoV = PI (V +0) where· PI is the pressure of the gas after the piston has completed the first working stroke and is in the extreme righthand position. log 160 (Pn) (126) (v+J . and the mass of the gas in the vessel is less than the initial mass. we finally obtafn log n= ':. . we obtain a system of equations of the law of Boyle and Mariotte: PoV = PI (V + 0) PIV = P2 (V +v) pzV = Pa (V + 0) ~ ( 125) P~_:V~~n'(V+o) J Each of these equations refers to a definite mass of gas. your equation is incorrect. Then the piston returns to its initial lefthand position.
85 Fig.PROBLEMS 39. The column of air inside the tube has a length of 10 cm.e standard atmospheric pressure. The temperature is '1:l How will the length of the air corumn change if the tube is inclined 60° from the vertical and the temperature is simultaneously raised by 30 deg? Assum.5 em' and arranged vertically with the sealed end upward. one end of which is sealed. 84). How will the level of the mercury in the tube change if the temperature is raised from 27° to 77 °C? Neglect the thermal expansion of the tube. A glass tube with a sealed end is completely submerged in a vessel with mercury (Fig. . at a temperature of 15 the relative humidity Is 55%? Will dew be formed if the air temperature drops to 10 °0 What part of the tolal mass of the air in the room is the mass of the water vapour if the air pressure equals 75 em Hg? cc. To what height must the upper end of the tube be raised above the lev~l of the mercury in the vessel so that the level of the mercury inside the lube is at the level of the mercury in the vessel? Assume standard atmospheric pressure. The initial volume of the gas is 5 litres. ' m Fm. 43. is submerged with the open end downward into a vessel with mercury (Fig. What is the mass of the water vapour in a room of a size 6 mX X 5 mX 3. Find the mass of the air inside the tube If its crosssectional area is 0.W {IJ Fig. 83 fig. 44. L {a. Consider two cases: (I) the vessel is arranged horizontally (Fig. 83). Compute the amount of work done by a gas which is being isobarlcally heated [rom 20° to 100°C if it Is in a vessel closed by a movable piston with a crosssectional area of 20 em 2 and weighing 5 kg!. cc. 85a). Assume standard atmospheric pressure. Find the mass of the air enclosed In the tUbe. and (2) the vessel is arranged vertically (Fig. A glass tube. 85b).5 em 2 • cc.5 m If. A column of air 40 em long in a glass tube with a crosssectional area of 0. The air in a vessel with a volume of 5 litres has a temperature of 27°C and is subject to a pressure of 20 atm. Calculate the mass of the air inside the tube if its crosssectional area equals I cm 2 • The temperature is '1:l 40. 84 41. 6 118 . What mass of air must be released from the vessel so that Its pressure drops to 10 atm? 42. Assume standard atmospheric pressure. is isolated by a column of mercury 8 em long.
We shall discuss the motion of charged bodies in a uniform electrostatic field. . A number of problems illustrating Coulomb's law will be solved.What is a field? How is afield described? How does motion take place in a field? These fundamental problems of physiC!! can be most conveniently considered using an electrostatic field as an example.
This would contradict the basic principles of the theory of relativity. A field set up by one charge influences another charge and.. For instance. I give up. matter is "spread" throughout space. STUDENT B: To me. LET US DISCUSS ness. I do not object to the field being defined as a material entity. In a field. it is said to be present throughout space. The fact that we cannot see a field with the naked eye doesn't prove anything. At the same time. Coulomb (electrostatic) interaction of charges is accomplished. . the concept of the field is quite tangible. conversely. we have to conclude that the second charge must also "budge" at the very same instant. Thus. one of the basic physical concepts. however. "budges") for some reason.TEACHER: Let us discuss the field. an electrostatic field transmits interactions between fixed electric charges. Assume that at some instant one of the charges is displaced (i. on the contrary. as it were. If we proceed from the supposition of. What is your idea of a field? What do you think it is? STUDENT A: I must confess that I have a very vague idea of what a field really is. I understand what we are talking about. STUDENT A: But couldn't we get along without any "gobetweens"? What prevents IUS from supposing that one charge acts directly on another charge? STUDENT B: Your supposition may raise serious objections.e. If. Each charge can be said to set up a field around itself. A field can be "seen" excellently by means of relatively simple instruments. 6* 163 . we have § 22. A field is something elusive. But when we ~peak of a field. we shaH deal with electFIELD THEORY rostatic fields. the field set· up by the second charge influences the first charge. so to speak. When we speak of matter. "direct interaction". A field acts as a transmitter of interactions between bodies. Matter in any substance is in concentrated form. invisible. This would mean that a signal from the first charge reaches the second charge instantaneously. For the sake of definite. But this means nothing to me. a kind of spectre.
His remarks on the field as a transmitter of interactions are quite correct. However. it can also be "touched". evidently. confined himself to a formal reading of the textbook. fundamental concepts for which we can scarcely hope to find a clearcut blanket definition. However large the velocity of propagation. find some plausible definition? TEACHER: Yes. "working" concept. nevertheless. As a result. But do you really know the precise definition of matter? STUDENT A: The concept of matter requires no such definition. logically faultless definition means to express the concept in terms of some more "primary" concepts. I would like to hear a precise definition of the field. without any intention to offend him or anyone else. but only to point Gut that many examinees feel quite helpless in like situations. TEACHER: In that case. a comparatively large number of students almost never read any popularscience literature. the concept of the field also "requires no such definition". To give a precise. you said that you understand what matter is. Matter can be "touched" with your hand. To him the concept of the field is quite a real. I feel that Student B has displayed a keen interest in problems of modern physics and has read various popular books on physics. (To Student A) You demanded a precise definition of the field. Therefore. Approximately the same situation exists with respect to the concepts of matter and the field.a transmitter of interactions. I say this. of course. Student A. it is always finite. of course. i. TEACHER: I listened to your dialogue with great interest. his thinking is inefficient to a considerable extent. These are primary. STUDENT A: Can we. However. a certain interval of time exists during which the first charge has stopped "budging" and the second has not yet started. a field. only the field contains the signal for "budging". During this interval. But what can be done if the give11 concept happens to be one of the "primary" concepts? Just try to define a straight line in geometry. As a result. the situation with the definition is much more serious. Strange as it may be. the signal is propagated from one charge to the other through the field. Only we must bear in mind that 164 . However. Without such a definition the concept of the field eludes you. he has developed \vhat could be called initiative thinking. let us return to the essence of the problem.e. though not with your hand. STUDENT A: All the same.
An electrically charged body. TEACHER: I completely agree with you. as well as any other concept emerging in the course of our study of the material world. Gradually. and the second state with the concept of the "field". exactly. Each kind of field transmits a definite kind of interaction. it can be "localized"). We know much. Now we label something as a "field". both states have common physical characteristics. Matter can eXrist in various forms. for instance. In our progress we have to "stick on labels" from time to time which are a sort of landmarks along the road to knowledge. is inexhaustible.no such definition can be exhaustive. We understand that this "something" is actually the primeval abyss. the process of seeking knowledge is eternal. step by step. We know much about this abySswe have called a "field". but far from all. STUDENT A: I am quite satisfied with your remarks about SUbstance and the field as two states of matterlocalized and 165 . STUDENT B: I think that the concept of the field. it can also be "delocalized". This. The properties of matter are inexhaustible. it is necessary to bring another charged body to this point and to measure the force acting on it. It can be concentrated within a restricted region of space with more or less definite boundaries (or. To reveal this field and measure its intensity at some point in space. as they say. but. The first of these states of matter can be associated with the concept of matter in the sense of a "substance". is the reason why it is impossible to give an exhaustive. An attempt to give it a clearcut definition is the same as an attempt to measure the depth of a bottomless chasm. It is assumed that the second charged body is sufficiently. clearcut definition of a field. we advance along the road of learning and the practical application of the properties of matter" that surrounds us. sets up an electrostatic field around itself in space. there is the energy of a unit volume of matter (as a substance) and the energy of a unit volume of a field. We can speak of the momentum of a unit volume of a substance and the momentum of a unit volume of a field. . and therefore we can employ this newly introduced concept more or less satisfactorily. It is precisely from this interaction that we can determine the characteristics of the field at any required point. conversely. small so that the distortion it causes in the field can be neglected. For example. Along with their distinctive characteristics.
far ahead. It is studied by students of institutes and universities. 166 . Thereby you will train your thinking apparatus. the field and substance are mutually transformable: a substance may become a field and a field may become a substance. in contrast to the classical version. You are willing to conscientiously memorize this definition and hand it out upon request. However. modern physics. But physical concepts should be investigated in a state of their development. But why did you begin this discussion about the inexhaustibility of physical concepts and the eternity of learning? As soon as I heard that. STUDENT A: But that is a very difficult book. If this ability has not yet been cultivated. for instance. It certainly was not intended for light reading.unlocalized. 1. Lenin's book Materialism and Empiriocriticism. Depending on your background. is something rigid and final. TEACHER: That is quite natural because any discussion of physical conceptions necessarily presupposes that the participants possess a sufficiently developed ability for dialectical thinking. I advise you to read it. this book will exert a greater or lesser influence on your mode of thinking. in itself. namic. Simply try to read it through carefully. In any case. I would say that everything becomes dynamic in the sense that it tends toward change. You don't wish to recognize that the situation is not at all static but. In this connection. does not draw a distinct boundary between the field and substance. make it more flexible and dy. You shouldn't believe that everything becomes blurred and vague. clarity vanished again and everything became sort of blurred and vague. it will be beneficial. That which we understood to be the concept of the field yesterday appreciably differs from what we understand by this concept today. on the contrary. STUDENT B: Our discussion on physics has taken an obviously philosophical turn. TEACHER: I understand your state of mind. to discuss this subject in more detail now would mean getting too. You are seeking for some placid definition of a field. In modern physics. even if it is not absolutely precIse. to resort to digressions of a philosophical nature. Thus. even against our will. invaluable aid can be rendered to any young person by V. This is exactly why I persist in advising you to read more and more books of various kinds. we have. Any precise definition. a dynamic one. TEACHER: I don't insist on your studying this book.
And now. even precision.In conclusion. I will pose the following question: "How is a field described?" I know that many people. Try to imagine a completely precise world about which we have exhaustive information. let us attempt to approach the problem from another angle. He forgets that there is a reasonable limit to everything. for the present. he demands maximum precision. I wish to mention the following: Student A is obviously afraid of vagueness or indefiniteness. a . after getting the answer. Just conjure up such a world and then tell me: wouldn't you be amazed at its primitiveness and inability to develop any further? Think about all this and don't hurry with your eon elusions. will say: "Now we know what the fieM is".
the characteristic of the fieldwas introduced. Equation (127) could be written thus because a "gobetween"the quantity E. we continue the discussion that we began in the preceding section by asking: HOW IS AN "How is an electrostatic field ELECT ROST ATIC FIELD described?" DESCRIBED? STUDENT B: An electrostatic field is described by means of a vectorial force characteristic called the intensity of the electric field.  (128) (129) F. STUDENT B: Equation (27) is applicable for two point charges. TEACHER: Good. whose intensity at a distance of r from the charge equals qt/r a. They were obtained from equation (127). Lines of force are very convenient for graphically representing a field.§ 23. At each point in the field. TEACHER: Thus.=E (r)qt Equation (128) signifies that charge q1 sets up a field around itself. 168 . the intensity E has a definite direction and numerical value. Now let us reason more concretely. If we move from one point in a field to another in such a manner that the directions of the intensity vectors are always tangent to the direction of motion. located at a distance of r from charge qll with a force E (r)qz. The Coulomb force of interaction between two charges ql and qa spaced a distance of r apart can be written in the form ( 127) This can be rewritten as E (r) = q~ . (128) and (129). That means that the range of application of equations (128) and (129) is the same. Try to determine the range of application of equations (127). Equation (129) signifies that this field acts on charge q2. the paths obtained by such motion are called the lines of force of the field.
you must first calculate the intensity of the field at the point where the charge is located.. To find the force acting on a charge.. Here we can sense the independence of the concept of >the field. The magnitude and direction of the intensity of the field set up by each of these charges can readily be found for any point in space that may interest us. Fe = E (r) qo (130) where the arrows. .. qt and qz. (To Student A) Do you understand? STUDENT A: Yes. No matter what sets up the field E (a point charge.. it is important to be able to find the intensity of the field set up by a system of charges. The more general version of equ ation (129) has the following vectorial form . in all cases the force exerted by this field on charge qo is equal to the product of this charge by field intensity at the point where charge qo is located. It is evident from equation (130) that the direction of the force acting on charge qo at the given point of the field coincides with the direction of the field intensity at this point if charge qo is positive. as usual. serve to denote the vectors. specified by the vector r.TEACHER: That is correct only with respect to equations (127) and (128).. To find the resultant intensity at point . .. Then we can check how well you can use this knowledge in practice. +ql) is several times greater than the other. Equation (129) has a much wider range of application. Assume that at a cer. but each of these fields acts on a charge situated in it according to the same law (130). If charge qo is negative.. a set of point charges or of charged bodies of arbitrary shape). Please draw the lines of force of the field of two equal and opposite charges (+ql and q2) assuming that one of the charges (for instance. 169 . the direction of the force is op posi te to the intensity. these intensities are des+ cribed by the vectors E 1 (r) and E 2 (r). you must add vectorially the intensities due to the separate charges ~ ~ ~ E(r)=El (r)+E~(r) +4 ++~i> (131) I repeat that the intensities must be added vectorially.. I know that intensities are added vectorialIy. Therefore. Assume that there are two charges. tain point. TEACHER: Good.. Different charged bodies set up different electrostatio fields..
. . Assume now that charge +ql is dou. . three points A... 86. We select. Band C and construct a pair of intensi ty vectors for each 7 4 + 4point: Eland E 2 (E 1 for the field of charge +ql and E 2 for . As you see..... TEACHER: Your drawing is somewhat inaccurate though qualitatively it does represent the force lines of a field set up by two charges of the same magnitude but of opposite sign.. 87b). the influence of charge +ql becomes greater with an increase· in its relative magnitude. . 87c). 86 TEACHER: In that case. and charge q2 is halved (Fig.STUDENT A: I'm afraid I can't. 87a). Can't you vizuaJize how this picture will change as one of the charges increases? STUDENT A:" We never did anything like that.. ... 88a. . First we construct the intensity vectors for and E~.. we assume that ql is doubled again and that q2 is halved again (Fig. EE and Ee for points A.... EB and Ee. let us use the rule for the vectorial addition of intensities. is shown in Fig. TEACHER: What kind of fields did you study? STUDENT A: I know what the picture of the lines of force looks like for a field set up by two point charges of equal magnitude. The picture of the lines of force corresponding to these vectors . We select three points A. Compare this drawing with Fig. These vectors must be tangent to the lines of force of the field at the corresponding points.... Next we construct . the field of charge·ql)' Then we add the vectors Eland E I for each of these points to obtain the resultant vectors A .. 88b. Band C. the field of charge +ql begins to repress the field of charge qa· E E EE 170 . The corresponding picture of the lines of force is shown in Fig. as before. these points and then find their resultants: A . shown in Fig.. We shall begin with the familiar case when the charges are equal (Fig.. ctors E A . These three vectors indicate the behaviour of the lines of force which are.the resultant ve. 88c. Finally. Note your inaccuracies in the behaviour of the lines of force to the left of charge q and to the right of charge +q. 86 proposed by you.. Band C. I have drawn such a picture in Fig. Fig.bled in magnitude. We Rever discussed such fields before.
TEACHER: Let us continue our discussion of an electrostatic field. 87 Fig. I can't think of any. namely: the work done by the forces of the field along any closed path equals zero. Interesting consequences follow from this property of an electrostatic field. Can you name them? STUDENT B: No. TEACHER: I'll help you. the work done by the forces of E~E. They begin and end in charges (beginning in po" 171 .<! the field during this motion is c equal to zero. Over certain II £. if the charge travelling in the field returns to (0) its initial point of departure.STUDENT A: Now I understand how to construct a picture of the lines of force for a field set up by a system of several charges. B8 others negative. but the sum of the work done will equal zero. This field has one important property which puts it in the same class with gravitational fields. You probably have noted that the lines of force of an electrostatic field are never closed on themselves. In other words. lJ E portions of the path this work ~:__________ Cc will be positive and over f~  _~ Fig.
On the other hand. Hence. then by following it we could return to the initial point. lines of force of a an electrostatic field~annot be closed on themselves. consequently. 1 and 2 (Fig. 89 charge from one point of the field to another does not depend upon the path followed. the work done will be A 2' The total work done in a complete circuit is A 1+ (A 2)=A lA 2' Since the work done along any path closed on itself equals zero. of a field has no physical meaning. If a line of force in an electrostatic field was closed on Itself. TEACHER: You are quite right. Only the difference in the potentials of any two points of the field has a physical meaning. TEACHER: Quite correct. the work done along any closed path must be equal to zero. then A l=A 2' The fact that the work done in moving a charge is independent of the chosen path but depends only on the initial and final points. We can move a charge from point a to point b. STUDENT B: We were told in secondary school that the concept of the potential. for instance. the sign of the work done by the field evidently does not change and. is introduced. As a charge moves along a line of force. the potential difference between the 172 . along different paths. In contrast to the intensity. During the return a'long path 2. There is one more consequence following from the b abovementioned property of the electrostatic field: the work done in moving a Fig. Thus another characteristic of an elec~ trostatic field. Can you associate this circumstance with the abovementioned property of the electrostatic field? STUDENT B: Now I seem to understand. Let us denote by A 1 the amount of work done by the forces of the field to move the charge along path 1 and that a~ong path 2 by A 2' Let us accomplish a complete circuit: from point a to point b along path 1 and from point b back to point a along path 2. 89). this is a scalar quantity since it is expressed in terms of the work done. Strictly speaking. cannot be equal to zero. the preceding discussion enables us to introduce precisely the difference in the potentials. enables this value to be used as a characteristic of the field (since it depends only upon the chosen points of the field!). its potential.sitlve charges and terminating in negative ones) or they end at infinity (or arrive from infinity).
. Thus ~ . set up by several point charges. £Pdr). the potential of the field at the given point can be determined in terms of the work done by the forces of the field in moving a positive unit charge from the given point to infinity. > + . evidently. whilethe potential itself at some point has not. The value of the potential at infinity is commonly taken as this constant. The total potential £P(~ is equal.2) takes the form CPa = Aa . then the potential at a given point is the work that must be done in moving a positive unit charge from infinity to the given point. but against the forces of the field.. etc. cP (r) = CPl (r) + CPt (r) .. to charge qa. If the work is regarded as being done not by the field.. at some point ~ STUDENT B: We shall denote the value of the potential at > + point r due to each of the charges separately as cpd r).e.. Precisely for this reason it is said that the difference of the potentials of two points in the field has a physical meaning. the potential of a field. Within the scope of these assumptions. CP . Naturally. for convenience. '" qo (133) In this manner. to the algebraic sum of the potentials from the separate charges. set up by a point charge qlt measured at a point a distance r from the charge. because we cannot recede to infinity in experiment.. if we assume that the field is absent at infinity equation (13.. then However.. equals cP (r) = q: (134) You should have no difficulty in determining the potential of a field. It is assumed. that the potential at Infinity equals zero. =0)...two points a and b of the field (denoted by CPaq>II) is defined as the fatio of the work done by the forces of the field in moving charge qa from point a to point b.. We can say that the potential at a given point is determined with an accuracy to an arbitrary constant. this definition rules out experimental measurement of the potential at the given point of the field. (135 ) 173 . i.. e. (132) (i. The potential is measured from this value.
. (136) where ex is the angle between vector and the direction of the movement. Assume that the line of force aa 1 and the equipotential surface S (Fig. I probably can't.In this summation. then it follows that lPa=<Pb' This means that according to equation (137).. This same amount of work can be expressed as the difference in the field potentials at points a and b. One line of force and one equipotential surface pass through each point in a field. we obtain Eaqodl cos ex = 0 (138) 174 . 90) pass Fig. TEACHER: Quite correct. How are they oriented with respect to each other? STUDENT B: I know that at each point the line of force and the equipotential surface are mutually perpendicular. 91 through a certain point a. the work A should be equal to zero. .. The work done in this movement is expressed by the equation A = F edl cos ex = E(Jq odL cos a. 90 Fig. TEACHER: This proof is not difficult. Thus we can write another relationship: Ea A=qo(<Pa<Pb) (137) Since both points a and b lie on the same equipotential surface. The locus of the points in a field having the same potential is called an equipotential surface (or surface of constant potential). The field intensity at point a is .. the potential from a positive charge is taken with a plus sign and that from a negative charge with a minus sign. Substituting this result into equation (136). described by vector E(J' Next we shall move charge qo fr6m point a to a certain point b which lies on the equipotential surface S at a short distance ~l from point a. Now let us consider the concept of equipotential surfaces. TEACHER: Can you prove that? STUDENT B: No.
or vice versa. Along with the use of lines of force. The curvature of the surface does not impair our argument because the movement fll is very small. Taking advantage of the fact that these lines and surfaces are mutually perpendicular. 91). that this result is obtained for various directions of movement ab. I think. draw the crosssections of the surfaces with dashed lines. . STUDENT A: I' shall draw the dashed lines so that they always intersect the lines of force at right angles. Thus. provided these movements are within the limits of the equipotential surface S. a family of crosssections of equipotential surfaces can be drawn from a known family of lines of force. Here is my drawing (Fig. 88a? To avoid confusing them with the lines of force. (To Student A) Will you try to draw the crosssections of equipotential surfaces for the case shown in Fig. only cos a can be equal to zero. It is clear to you.Of all the factors in the lefthand side of equation (138). we conclude that a= =90". crosssections of equipotential surfaces are employed to depict an electrostatic field graphically. TEACHER: Your drawing is correct.
The fact is that all points of a conductor placed in an electrostatic field have the same potential. it varied from point to point. But did you ever ask yourself why we speak of OF A CONDUCTOR? the capacitance of a condudor. The potential is a function of the coordinates of the con. This is obviously impossible. Therefore. You know well that a conductor in a field is BEHAVE NEAR characterized by a quantity called THE SURFACE the capacitance. but never of a dielectric? STUDENT A: It never occurred to me. the free charges in the conductor are redistributed in such a manner that the field intensity within the conductor becomes equal to zero. TEACHER: On what do you base your statement? STUDENT B. This actually signifies that all the points of the conductor (both inside and on its surface) have the same potential. A conductor is an equipotential body. But up till now the potential was regarded as a characteristic of the field and. then why? STUDI. Can we speal\ of it as being a characteristic of a body? If we can.. The uniformity of the potential at all points of a conductor' enable us to speak of the potential of the conductor as a body.esponding point of a field. if a difference in potential existed between any two points of the conductor.:NT B: This is possible if the body is a conductor. there would be an electric current between these points. I wish to point out that there are no free charges in a dielectric and 176 . as such. TEACHER: How do Y0t! define the capacitoance of an isolated conductor? STUDENT A: It is the quantity of electricity that must be imparted to the conductor to increase its potential by one unit.' A conductor has free charges. It can be said that when a conductor is brought into an electrostatic field. TEACHER: Mind you that you speak here of the potential as being a characteristic of a body. TEACHER: Quite correct.§ 24: TEACHER: Let us introduce some conducting body into an HOW DO LINES OF FORCE electrostatic field.
Thus. at right angles. Now it is clear that a conductor in an electrostatic field is an equipotential body. Now let us consider the following problem. the picture of the lines of force will resemble that shown in Fig. just how are the free charges redistributed in a conductor? STUDENT B: They are concentrated on its surface. 92 STUDENT B: Since the lines of force are always perpendicular to equipotential surfaces. It should induce a charge of opposite sign in the earth. The greater the curvature of any projecting element of the conductor. 171 .therefore no redistribution of charges can occur. The maximum charge density will be at a sharp point. As a result. Incidentally. It follows that the surface of the conductor is an equipotential surface. You should have no difficulty in drawing a pidure of the lines of force in the field of a parallelplate capacitor with a metal ball between the plates. a force of electric attraction is developed between the charge and the earth. I can't understand why some examinees think that the lines of force must bypass the ball. they must "run" into the surface of the condudor. 92. As a rule. Find this force. On the basis of this conclusion tell me how the lines of force of an electrostatic field behave near the surface of a condudor? Fig. TEACHER: Exactly. TEACHER: Everything is correct. I suggest that both of you think about this problem. the denser the charges. STUDENT 8: The lines of force should approach the plates of the capacitor and the surface of the ball at right angles. TEACHER: Unfortunately examinees frequently don't know this. examinees are greatly puzzled by this question. A point charge +q is located at a distance r from the earth's surface.
STUDENT A: The charge induced in the earth should be equal
to the charge
q2/r2.
+q.
It follows that the required force equals
STUDENT 8: I don't agree with this. Student A assumed that the charge induced in the earth is concentrated at one point (point A in Fig. 93a). Actually, however, the induced charge is not concentrated at one point but is distributed over the surface of the earth. For this reason, we know beforehand ihat the required force must be less than q2jr2.
(a)
+q
A
Fig. 93
TEACHER: I fully agree with you. How then shall we go :.about finding the force of attraction between the charge and the earth? STUDENT B: It seems to me that we must examine the field between the charge and the earth's surface. The surface of the earth is evidently an equipotential one. Consequently, near the earth's surface the equipotential surfaces of the field must be close in shape to planes. At the same time, the equipotential surfaces in the vicinity of the charge must be spherical. This enables us to draw a qualitative picture of the equipotential surfaces (or, more exactly, of the crosssections of these surfaces). When this is done, we can draw the lines of force according to the familiar rule. This has been done in Fig. 93b, where the Jines of force are solid and the crosssections of the surfaces are dashed lines.
.178
TEACHER: Continue your Hne of reasoning, please. Doesn't your picture of the lines of force in Fig. 93b remind you of something? STUDENT B: Yes, of course. This picture certainly resembles the one with the. lines of force of two point charges that are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. I shall draw this picture at the right (see Fig. 93c). Now everything is quite clear. In both cases (see Fig. g3b and c), the appearance of the field near charge +q is the same. According to equation (\30) this means the same force acts on charge +q in both cases. Thus, the required force is q2/ (4r2). TEACHER: Your reasoning is faultless. This problem clearly shows that the concept of the field may be exceptionally frui tfu!.
TEACHER: Assume. that a charged body moves In a uniform electrostatic field, i.e. in a field HOW DO YOU DEAL where each point has the same WITH MOTION intensity E both in magnitude IN A UNIFORM and direction. An example is the field between the plates of a ELECTROSTATIC FIELD? parallelplate capacitor. Can you see any resemblance between the problem on the motion of a charged body in a uniform electrostatic field and any problems considered preViously? STUDENT B: It seems to me that it closely resembles the problem of the motion of a body in a gravitational field. Over relatively short distances, the gravitational field of the' .earth can be regarded as uniform. TEACHER: Exactly. And what is the difference between motion in an electrostatic field and in a gravitational field? ' STUDENT B: Different forces act on the bodies. In an electrostatic field, the force acting on the body is Fe=Eq (it imparts an acceleration of ae=Eq/m to the body). The force in a gravitational field is P=mg (imparting the acceleration g to the body). Here m is the mass of the body and q is its electric charge. TEACHER: I wish that all examinees could understand the simple truth that the motion of a body in any uniform field is kinematically the same. What differs is only the value of the force acting on the body in different fields. The motion of a charged body in a uniform electrostatic field is of the same nature as the motion of an ordinary stone in the earth's field of gravitation. Let us consider a problem in which the motion of a body takes place simultaneously in two fields: gravitational and electrostatic. A body of mass m with a charge +q is
§ 25.
thrown upward at an angle of a. to the horizontal with an initial velocity Va. The body travels simultaneously in the field of gravitation and in a uniform electrostatic field with an intensity E. The lines of force of both fields are directed vertically downward (Fig. 94a). Find the time of {light Tl,' range Ll and maximum height reached H~.
180
STl..JDENT B: Two forces act on the body: the weight P=mg and the electric force Fe=Eq. In the given case, both forces are parallel. As in § 5, I can resolve the initial v~locity vector fa) into component5 iR two directions .... !J TEA<ijlER (interrupting): Just a minute! Do you want to repeat the solution demonstrated in a similar problem in § 5? STUDENT B: Yes, at least briefly. TEACHER: There is no need to do that. You can refer directly to the results in equations (15), o~~~~~ (16) and (17). Just imagine that the body trap vels in a "stronger" field Fig. 94 of gravitation characterized by a total acceleration equal to g+Eq/m. Make the following substitution in equations (15), (16) and (17)
IjlL
(g + !q) for g
and you will obtain the required results at once:
(139)
(140) (141) (142)
STUDENT A: There is one point here that I don't understand. In comparison with the corresponding problem in § 5, an additional force Fe acts on the body in the given problem. This force is directed vertically downward and therefore should not influence the horizontal motion of the body. Why then, in the given case, does it influence the range of flight Ll?
18J
94b). STUDENT A: First I shall resolve force· Fe into two components: vertical (Fe cos I~) and horiwntal (Fe sin ~). STUDENT A: We did not study such problems before. Only remember that in contrast to the problem with the tail wind you mentioned. Conseq uently. (16) and (18). examinees are often incapable of drawing an analogy between motion in a field of gravitation and motion in a uniform electrostatic field. Here the component Fe sin ~ plays the part of the "force of the wind". in which I'll make the following substitutions g + Eqcos ~. such problems prove to be excessively difficult for them. range L 2 and maximum height reached H 2. here we have a di fferent vertical force. find the time of [light T 2. namely: mg+ Fe cos ~. This problem reminds me of the problem with the tail wind in § 5. but we neglected the influence of the gravitational 182 . for m ~ g } (143) Eq sin ~ mg+Eqcos for F p After this I obtain the required results at once T = 2 L = [lao sin 2 g +Eqcos~ 2a (1 + Eq sin ~ tan a) mg+Eqcos~ 2v o sina g+ Eq cos ~ m (144) (145) m TEACHER: Absolutely correct. Now let us make a slight change in the conditions of the problem: assume that the lines of force of the electrostatic field are directed at an angle ~ to the vertical (Fig. Unfortunately. TEACHER: Quite right. The only problem bf this kind I have ever encountered concerns the motion of an electron between the plates of a parallelplate capacitor. As before. and this time is determined from a consideration of the vertical motion of the body. STUDENT A: I shall make use of equations (15).TEACHeR: The range depends upon the time of flight.
The mass m and charge q of the electron are known.1 and leaves the capacitor at an angle of 0. . we obtain E L q VI cos a 1 tan a 2 = VI sin a 1 m Vlcos~From this equation we determine the intensity of the capacitor field (147) The kinetic energy of the electron as it flies out of the capacitor is (148) Is everything quite clear in this solution? 183 . Find the intensity E of the capacitor field and the kinetic energy of the electron as it leaves the capacitor. 1 .   Eq m L VI cosa1 from which. 95. 94a. taking into account that the velocity component along the plates remains unchanged (VI cos a 1=V 2 cos 0.  EqT m =v1 sma l . TEACHER: All these problems are special cases of the problem illustrated in Fig. 2 to the plates as shown in Fig. + I denote by V 2 the velocity of the electron as it flies out of Fig. 95 the capacitor. Along the plates the electron flies at uniform velocity. Let us consider one such problem. I remember that such problems seemed to be exceedingly difficult. Having an initial velocity V1> an electron flies into a parallelplate capacitor at an angle of 0. This enables us to determine the time of flight T inside the capacitor T=_L_ Vl cos al The initial antI final components of the electron velocity perpendicular to the plates are related by the familiar kinematic relationship for uniformly decelerated motion v2 sma 2 =V1 sm 0. The length of the capacitor plates is L. since in the motion of an electron inside a capacitor the influence of the gravitational field can be neglected.field on the electron. 2).
TEACHER: Also of interest are problems concerning the vib ration of a pendulum with a charged bob located within a pa+ I ' rallelplate capacitor.'l . Thus the required period of vibration :c will be ~~" el . The intensity of'. eff of the gravitational field are in the same direction.) dulum. A bob of mass m I with a charge q is suspended : +'1 from a thin string of length 1 inside a parallelplate capacitor with its plates oriented horizontally.. of vibration of such a pen\ . 96 analogy between motion in a uniform electrostatic field and in a gravitational field.n g (a) I t problem. 96a).:r (Fig. Find the period + . and the lines of force are directed downward ~. Now I know how to solve such problems. STUDENT B: Since in tlie £ \ given case the lines of force u u: of the electrostatic field and .STUDENT A: Yes. 184 . STUDENT A: Equation (149) resembles equation (77) in its structure. We shall consider the fOIlOWi. TEACHER: Quite correct. _______ I . the posed problem is very simple if you !J are capable of using the Fig.the capacitor field is E. I can use the result of equation (75) for an ordinary pendulum after substituting the sum of the accelerations (C) (g+ Eq/m) for the acceleration of gravity g. As you see.
As before. V 1 lEq gm ( 150) TEACHER: Good. the angLe ex that the string makes with the vertical when the pendulum is in the equilibrium position. We will consider the vibration of a pendulum with a charged bob inside a capacitor whose plates are oriented. TEACHER: What form will the equation for the period take in this case? STUDENT A: This equation will be of the form T=2n .g (151) TEACHER: Good. Now let us complicate the problem to some extent.. STUDENT B: Taking into consideration the line of reasoning given in the present section and in § 12. in addition. not horizontally. How will equation (149) change if the sign of the charges on the capacitor plates is reversed? STUDENT A: In this case the period of vibration will be T=21[ . 1 E/ V m.. and (2) the equilibrium direction of the string coincides with the vector of the abovementioned effective acceleration (this direction is shown in Fig. I can conclude at once that: (I) the period of vibration is expressed in terms of the effective acceleration g eft' which is the vector sum of the accelerations of the earth's gravity and of the electrostatic field. 96b). What will happen to the pendulum if we gradually increase the intensity of the capacitor field? STUDENT A: The period of vibration will increase. but vertically (Fig. 96b by a dashed 185 . find the period of vibration of the pendulum and. while in equation (149) the addend is associated with the presence of a supplementary interaction. If E continues to increase further. the accelerations g and (Eq/m) are directed at right angles to each other..TEACHER: This is quite true. then we will have to fasten the string to the lower and not the upper plate of the capacitor. Only in equation (77) the addend to the acceleration g was due to the acceleration of the frame of reference (in which the vibration of the pendulum was investigated). In this case. approaching infinity at E=mg/q.
ff x Eq m .ff= g2+(~)2 +2g ~ cos~ I Then T = 21'(. at ~=O. (~ r+2g~ cos~ J! g2+ (154) The value of tan a.= E:. can be found as follows tan a = . Thus TEACHER: Absolutely correct. In this case. I think that now it will be easy to investigate the general case in which the capacitor plates make an angle of ~ with the horiiOntal (Fig. equilibrium direction of the pendulum string..g eff Y g. the effective acceleration is the vector sum of the acceleration of the earth's gravity and that of the electrostatic field. The direction of this effective acceleration is the. then cos ~=O and sin ~= 1.!Leos ~ m (165) TEACHER: Your answers are correct.line).. Obviously.. STUDENT B: As in the preceding case. R SIn f' g+ . equation (154) be 186 . they should lead to the results for the case of horizontal plat~. Please check whether this is so. The effective acceleration g sff can be found by using the law of cosines from trigonometry. r V . If ~=90a. and at ~=90a to those for vertical plates. 96c). In this case. equation (154) reduces to equation (149) and tan a=O (the equilibrium position of the string is yertical). then cos ~=l and sin ~=O. Thus ( 152) and Eq tana=~ g ( 153) same problem is posed: find the period of vibration of the pendulum and the angle a between the equilibriuin direction of the pendulum string and the vertical. STUDENT B: If ~=O. The g.
There are no capacitors whatsoever. consequently. __ ~ This force should impart an acceleration of I q2/ (12m) to the bob. in any case. the electric force is at a1\ times directed along the string and is therefore always counterbalanced by the reaction of the string. the field of electric forces is in no way uniform and no analogy can be drawn with a gravitational field. I don't think that I can give the right answer. In conclusion. : the bob will be repulsed from the point of I suspension of the string with a force of q2/12. and equation (155) reduces to equation (153). The acceleration must Fig. it is so directed only when the pendulum passes the equilibrium position. In the case we are considering. It follows that the electric force does not lead to the development of a restoring force and. STUDENT 8: Does that mean that in the given case the' period of vibration of the pendulum will be found by equation (75) for a pendulum with an uncharged bob? TEACHER: Exactly. Thus it is clear that equation (156) is wrong. In the given case. STUDENT B: 187 . As a result we obtain the following expression I : T = 2n.. TEACHER: I think that we have completely cleared up the problem of the vibration of a pendulum with a charged bob inside a parallelplate capacitor. it is necessary for the acceleration q"/(l2m) to be directed vertically downward at all times. 97 be taken into account in the equation for finding the period of vibration. I want you to calculate the period of vibra tion of a pendulum with a charged bob given that at the point I . TEACHER: That you understand the error in equation (156) is a good sign in itself. I don't. For equation (156) to be valid. However. where the string of the pendulum is attached ~ there is another charge of exactly the same +q magnitude and sign (Fig. Actually.comes equation (152). STUDENT A: According to Coulomb's law. cannot influence the period of vibration of the pendulum. 97).. V .'7"[ q2 (156) g+ 12m TEACHER (to Student B): Do you agree with this result? No.
...10 esu (elect_ + rastatic units). Neglect any interaction between the' charged balls ... What horizontal velocity must be imparted to the ball in its upper position so that the tension of the string in the lower position of the ball Is 10 times the weight of the ball? 1 T 1 ax .. 98). An electron flies into a parallelplate capacitor in a direction parallel to the plates and at a distance of 4 cm from the positively charged pLate which is 15 cm long.. suspended from a string of length 1. . . The plates are 20 cm . A ball of mass m with a charge of +q can rotate in a vertical plane at the end of a string of length l in a uniform electrostatic field whose lines of force are directed vertically upward.PROBLEMS 45..~ 46_ An electron flies into a parallelplate capacitor parallel to its plates at a velocity of 10 8 m/sec.8X 10. 49. rotates with uniform motion in a circle (Fig. 48. Calculate the acceleration of the balls and the tension in the string if the whole system is located in a uniform electrostatic field of intensity E whose lines of force are directed vertically downward. known (see problem No~ 45). its charge is 4. The mass and charge of the electron are '~+. a bob with a mass m and charge +q.T' +~ long. Find the tension of the string and the kinetic energy of the bob... How much time will elapse before the electron falls on this plate if the intensity of the capacitor field equals 500 Vim (volts per metre)? At what minimum velocity can the electron fly into the capacitor so that it does not fall on the plate? The mass of the electron is 9X 10~8 g.... Fig.. 47 _ Inside a parallelplate capacitor with a field intensity E.. 98 The angle of inclination of the string isa. Two balls of masses m1 and ~ and with charges +ql and +q2 are connected by a string which passes over a fixed pulley.. Find the intensity of the field in I l the capacUor If the electron flies out of it at an I angle of 30° to the plates.
STUDENT B: Perhaps I should add that the force of interaction is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant Ke of the medium. First of all. as 'well as problems that are assoCAN YOU APPLY ciated with the application of COULOMB'S LAW? this law. don't forget to mention Its direction (in this connection. you will obtain a complete statement of Coulomb's law. please state Coulomb's law. if you collect all these additions. It would do no harm to emphasize that this law refers to interaction between point charges. STUDENT A: Now I understand. Now. remember our discussion of Newton's second law in § 4). You have forgotten again that a force is a vector quantity.TEACHER: Let us discuss Coulomb's law in more detail. There are two directions along a line. in speaking of the magnitude of a force. But that is not the main omission. 189 . STUDENT 8: Can the equation of Coulomb's law be written so that it contains full information concerning the law? The ordinary form § 26. STUDENT A: The force of interaction between two charges is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. of course. You mean we must add that the force with which the charges interact is directed along the line connecting the charges? TEACHER: That is insufficient. STUDENT A: Then we must say that the charges repulse each other if they are of the same sign and attract each other if they are of opposite signs. Consequently. (157) yields no information on the direction of the force. TEACHER: Good. you have left out some points. TEACHER: Your statement of this law is incomplete. Is that it? TEACHER: It wouldn't be bad to mention it.
r r: 190 . STUDENT A: And what if I wri·te equation (157) instead of (158)? TEACHER: Then you will have to indicate verbally the direction of the Coulomb force.' Vector F is the force applied to charge q2. if you use the International System of Units . 99 square. TEACHER: This factor depends upon the choice of a system of units. We introduce coordinate axes with the origin at charge ql' Then we draw vector + r from the origin to the point where charge q" is located (Fig. STUDf:NT A: But in this equation the. In this case vector F is parallel to vector. charge q2 is repulsed by charge ql' If the charges are of opposite sign. but to the cube of the distance between the chargesl TEACHER: Not at aH. Vector is numerically equal to unity (dimensionless unity!). In this case.. Assume that we mean the force with which charge ql acts on charge q2 (and not the other way round). then B=I. not to the Fig.TEACHER: Coulomb's law can be written in this way. STUDENT A: Do you mean that I can just write equation (158) if I am asked about Coulomb's law? Nothing else? TEACHER: You win only have to explain the notation in the equation. It is called a unit vector. the complete formula of Couz lomb's law will be F=B KerB qlq2 . the product qlq2 is negative and then vector F will be antiparallel to vector i. STUDENT A: How does equation (158) show that the charges attract or repulse each other? TEACHER: If the charges are of the same sign. a: force is inversely proportional. This vector is called the' radius vector of charge q". It serves only to indicate direction. (\58) where factor B denends upon the sele· ction of the system of units. 99). e. chargeq2 will be attracted by charge ql' STUDENT A: Please explain what we should know about factor B. If you use the absolute electrostatic (cgse) system of units. For this we first have to find out what force we are referring to. then the product qlq2 is positive.
(SI), then B=1/(4:rt8o), where the constant Bo=8.85xlOlz couI 2/Nm B (coulombs per newtonm!). Let us solve a few problems on Coulomb's law. Problem 1. Four identical charges q are located at the corners of a square. What charge Q of opposite sign must be placed at the centre of the square so that the whole system of charges is in equilibrium? STUDENT A: Of the system of five charges. four are known and one is unknown. Since the system is in equilibrium, the sum of the forces applied to each of the five charges equals zero. In . other words. we must deal with the c____ equilibrium of each of tILe five charges. q1 1'1 TEACHER: That will be superfluous. : You can readily see that charge Q is in : I I equilibrium, regardless of its magniI ~ I I I tu de, due to its geometric position. q .. _______ I Fz Therefore. the condition of equilibrium J) 'I with respect to this charge contributes ,., nothing to the solution. Owing to the symmetry of the square, the remaining Fig. 100 four charges q are completely equivalent. Consequently, it is sufficient to consider the equilibrium of only one of these charges, no matter which. We can sel~t, for example. the charge at point A (Fig. 1(0). What forces act on this charge? STUDENT A: Force F 1 from the charge' at point B, force F 2 from the charge at point D and, finally, the force from the soughtfor charge at the centre of the square. TEACHER: I beg your pardon. but whydidn't you take the charge at point C into account? STUDENT A: But it is obstructed by the charge at the centre of the square. TEACHER: This is a naive error. Remember: in a system of charges each charge is subject to forces exerted by all the other charges of the system without exception. Thus, you will have to add force F 8 acting on the charge at point A from the charge at point C. The final diagram of forces is shown in Fig. 100. STUDENT A: Now, everything is clear. I choose the direction AB and project all the forces applied to the charge at point A on this direction. The algebraic sum of all the force projections should equal zero, i. e. . F4 = 2F 1 cos 45° F8
i
+
191
Denoting the side of the square by equation in the form
2=
a, we can rewrite this
2a2
Qq a
V q2 + q2 2a3
"2
from which
(159)
TEACHER: Quite correct. Will the equilibrium of this system of charges be stable? STUDENT B: No, it won't. This is unstable equilibrium. Should anyone of the charges shift slightly, all the charges will begin moving and the (0) system will break up. TEACHER: You are right. H is quite impossible to devise a stable equilibrium 1 configuration of stationary I charges . .1 Problem 2. Two spherical r I bobs of the some mass and
1
I I I I I I
Pfii,
r
I I p
Fig. 101
radius, having equal charges and suspended from strings of the some length attached to the same point, are submerged in a lUjuid dielect· ric of permittivity Ke and density Po. What should the density p of the bob material be for the angle at divergence of the strings to be the some in the air and in the dielectric?
STUDENT B: The divergence of the strings is due to Coulomb repulsion of the bobs. Let F el denote Coulomb repulsion in the air and FeD' in the liquid dielectric. TEACHER: In what way do these forces differ? STUDENT B: Since, according to the conditions of the problem, the angle of divergence of the strings is the same in both cases, the distances between the bobs are also the same. Therefore, the difference in the forces Fel and Fe'4 is due only to the dielectric permittivity. Thus (160)
192
Let us consider the case where the bobs are in the air. From the equilibrium of the bobs we condude that the vector sum of the forces F el and the weight should be directed along the string because otherwise it cannot be counterbalanced by the reaction of the string (Fig. lOla). It follows that
F
~I
= tana
where a is the angle between the string and the vertical. When the bobs are submerged in the dielectric, force F e1 should be replaced by force F eS' and the weight P by the difference (PF b)' where F b is the buoyant force. However, the ratio of these new forces should, as before, be equal to tan a (Fig. 10Ib). Thus
~=tana PFb .
Using the last two equations, we obtain
p=
Fel
Fe2
PFb
After substituting. equation (160) and taking into consideration that P=Vgp and Fb=Vgpo, we obtain
Fig. 102
~=_I_
P
PPo
and the required density of the bob material is
p= PoKe
Ke l
(161)
TEACHER: Your answer is correct.
Problem 3. Two identically charged spherical bobs of mass m are suspended on strings of length l each and attached to the same point. A t the point of suspension there is a third ball of the same charge (Fig. 102). Calculate the charge q of the bobs and baLL if the angle between the strings in the equilibrium posi lion is equal to a. STUDENT B: We shall consider bob A. Four forces (Fig. 102) are applied to it. Since the bob'is in equilibrium, I shall resolve these forces into components in two directions .... TEACHER (interrupting): In the given case, there is a simpler solution. The force due to the charge at the point of suspension has no influence whatsoever on the equilibrium position of the string: force F e2 acts along the string and is
7 118
193
counterbalanced in any position by the reaction of the string. Therefore, the given problem can be dealt with as if there were no charge at all at the point of suspension of the string. As a rule, examinees don't understand this. STUDENT B: Then we shall disregard force F e~' Since the vectQr sum of the forces F el and P must be directed along the string, we obtain tan ~ (162)
;L=
TEACHER: Note that this result does not depend upon the presence or absence of a charge at the point of suspension. STUDENT B: Since
Fel=.
4[2
q2
sin 2 
a. 2 a. 2
we obtain from equation (162): ....:....=tan4[2
q2
mg sin2 .::.
. 2
Solving for the required charge, we obtain
q= 21 sin
~
Vmgtan ~
(163)
TEACHER: Your answer is correct. STUDENT A: When will the presence of a charge at the point
of su·spension be of significance? TEACHER: For instance, when it is required to find the tension· of the string.
PROBLEMS 50. Identical charges +q are located at the vertices of a regular hexagon. What charge must be placed at the centre of the hexagon to set the whole system of charges at equilibrium? 51. A spherical bob of mass m and charge q suspended from a string of length I rotates about a fixed charge identical to that of the bob (Fig. 103). The angle between the string and the vertical is a.. Find the angular velocity of uniform rotation of the bob and the tension of the string. 52. A spherical bob of mass m with the charge q can rotate in a vertical plane at the end of a string of length t. At the centre of rotation there is a second ball with a charge identical in sign and magnitude to that of the rotating bob. What minimum horizontal velocity must be imparted to the bob in its lower pOSition to enable it to make a full revolution?
Fig. 103
and the JouleLenz laws.Electric currents have become an integral part of our everyday life. and so there is no need to point out the importance of the Ohm . But how well do you know these Jaws? .
For this element you can write Ohm's law in the form (165) 196 . we only dealt with closed electric circuits.§ 27. The current flows from left to right. I04a. Ohm's law can be written in the form 1= Fig. directed to the right. the current in an element of a circuit is equal to the ratio of the voltage to the resistance. STUDENT A: Previously. r is the internal resistance of the seat of electromotive force. STUDENT A. You also considered elements of circuits. of course. Nor do you need to. 104b. You know nothing about the rest of the circuit. STUDENT A: But is this a circuit element? TEACHER: Certainly. But you have an open circuit! TEACHER: I proposed that you consider a portion of some large circuit. TEACHER: Do you know Ohm's law? STUDENT A: DO YOU KNOW OHM'S LAW? Yes. since (a) the potentials at the ends of this portion are given. Find the value I of this current. TEACHER: We shall see. One such element is illustrated in Fig. I think everybody knows Ohm's law~ That is probably the simplest question in the whole physics course. Here C is the electromotive force (emf) and it is. R 1 and R 2 are resistors. and QlA and q> B are the potentia Is a t the ends of the given portion of the circuit.L r I (164) TEACHER: You are mistaken.. According to Ohm's law. For 'them. A portion of an electric circuit is shown in Fig. 104 ~ R.
know Ohm's law for the general case. Thus From this we obtain the expression for the current. I04a. A The drop in potential across the resistor R 1 is equal to 1R l' Further. (a) TEACHER: Thus. STUDENT A: In any case.Instead of the potential difference (CPACPB) behcveen the ends of the elen'lent. we did not deal with an element of a circuit of the form shown in Fig. i. the sum of the jumps is the emf equal to G. the drop equals [r. we assume that the plates of a galvanic cell are located at C and D. The currerit flows from left to right and therefore the potential drops from A to C. Let us look into this together. Figure I05a shows the change in potential along a given portion of a circuit. we find that . 105 tial jump is . you previously employed the simpler term "voltage". however. Ohm's law for the given portion of the circuit 1= t6'+(lPA'PR) R 1 +R 2 +r ( 166) \Q7 . the drop in potential across the resistor R a equals [R 2' The sum of the drops across all the resistances of the A CD B portion minus the upward potenFig. you know Ohm's law for the . e. Between C and D the potential drops across the internal resistance of the cell. denoting it by the letter V. Finally. . You do not. special cases of a closed circuit and for the simplest kind of element which includes no emf.equal to V. At these points upward potential jumps occur. It is the potential difference between the ends of the portion being considered.
In the given case. This is especially valuable in cases when you deal with a more or less complicated circuit. of course. you knew it for special cases only.Yes. Note that equation ([67) lies at the basis of a wellknown rule: if the circuit is broken and no current flows (/=0). we know nothing about the external circuit.Note that from this last equation we can readily obtain the special cases familiar to you. If the voltmeter is connected to points C and D. For the simplest element contain· ing no emf we substitute G=O and r=O into eauation {l66). it will indicate the difference in potential between these points. Here the voltmeter reading coincides with the value of the emf. we must connect the ends A and B of our portion. then V=C. we obtain the formula (167) I \. however. Then 1= IpAIpB Rl+R? which corresponds to equation (165). You understand this. 198 . the distortions due to its introduction into the circuit.'ould advise you to use this very formula since it requires no knowledge of any external resistances. To obtain a closed circuit. Assume also that the voltmeter has a sufficiently high resistance so that we can disregard. don't you? STUDENT A: . TEACHER: To he more exact. DenotinR the voltmeter reading by V. 105a. TEACHER: Now look at Fig. This means that QlA =QlB' Then This corresponds to equation (164). Assume that a voltmeter is connected to the terminals of the cell in the portion of the Circuit shown in Fig. STUDENT A: I see now that I really didn't know Ohm's law. It is evident that the difference in potential between points C and D equals (<81 r). l04a.. What will the voltmeter indicate? STUDENT A: I know that a voltmeter connected to the terminals of a· cell should indicate the voltage drop across the external circuit. TEACHER: A knowledge of the external circuit is not necessary for our purpose.
Since the emf is now in the opposite direction. Each element has an emf t8 and internal resistance r. TEACHER: And what form will Ohm's law take in this case? STUDENT A: It will be of the form (168) circuit consists of n cells connected in series. TEACHER: Absolutely correct. and from point D to point B. Only please remember that this case was idealized. Prom point C to point D the potential should drop by the amount / r. TEACHER: As a check I shall ask you a question which examinees quite frequently find difficult to answer. we assumed the resistance of the voltmeter to be infinitely large. Now let us consider a case when the current in a portion of a circuit flows in one direction and the emf acts in the opposite direction. The resistance of the connecting wires is assumed to be zero. And what wiIJ the voltmeter indicate . What will be the reading of a voltmeter connected to the . under· whose effect the current in this portion may flow against the given emf. and on the other. there is a potential drop equal to / Rl from A to C. STUDENT A: Is it possible for the current to flow against the emf? TEACHER: You forget that we have here only a portion of a circuit. 105b. This is iIlustrated in Fig.({t/r)r=O. now? 199 TEACHER: Correct. From Ohm's law for the given circuit we can find the current /=(ncl})! (nr)={j!r. STUDENT A: I see. Draw a diagram showing the change in potential along this portion. by / R I' As a result we obtain the diagram of Fig. in this case. through the voltmeter. Substituting this in the first equation we obtain V=tB. we neglected the resistance of the connecting wires. A closed STUDENT A: I shall reason as in the preceding explanation. On the one hand. W4c. The voltmeter reading will be V=t8/ r.terminals of one of the cellS? As usual. now it is clear to me. the voltmeter will read zero. The circuit may contain other emf's outside the portion being considered. Since the current flows from left to right. it is assumed that no current flows. Thus.Do you understand all this? STUDENT A: Yes. the potential jumps at points C and D should now reduce the potential instead of increasing it. so don't try to check this result by experiment.
R= = 10 ohms and the resistance of the voltmeter Rv=200 ohms. In the electrical circuit illustrated in Fig.STUDENT A: It can be seen from Fig. 106.v = I_V v"" v'" (170) Further. we can make use of an approximation formula which is always useful to bear in mind (173) This formula holds true at ~1 for any value of ex.Exactly. Therefore. (whole or fractional. We shall denote the reading of the real voltmeter by V and that. we shall take into consideration that V 00 = R~r R (171) ( 172) and 1= ell R Rv r+. r= I ohm.RRv R+Rv R+Rv After substituting equations (171) and (172) into (170) we obtain j=]_ Rv(R+r) =1Rv(R+r) (R+R v) r+RRv (r+R) Rv+rR I = 1 rR 1+ (r+R)Rv Since RvpR and R>r. positive or negative). Now consider the following problem. the fraction in the denominator of the last equation is much less than unity. of the voltmeter with infinite resistance by VCD' Then the relaFig. Employing approximation 200 . Compute the relative error of the voltmeter reading obtained assuming that the voltmeter has an infinitely high resistance R and consequently causes no distortion in the r~' circuit. 105b that in this case V= C+ ir (169) TEACHER: . 106 tive error will be f= V".
not a necessary condition for the smallness of the error f. 107 Try to solve the following problem: In the electrical circuit shown in Fig. that's so. Fig. we can make use of the rule: if in a circuit any two points have the same potential. Compute the voltmeter reading.I. it follows that CPA 1 = CPA 2 and qJBl=qJB2' Next.e.d R=2 ohms. 8. The external Af:{ resistance in this case may be infinitely high.I/220=O. STUDENT A: Does this mean that the higher the resistance of the voltmeter in comparison with tbe external resistance. r=2/3 ohm an. the fa) lower the relative error. lect the distortion of the circuit when the voltmeter is connected into it? TEACHER: Yes. we find that the error is f". and the more so because this resistance is not speci fied in the problem. but. I would advise you to simplify the diagram somewhat. It is evident from equa· tion (174) that error f is small E l' when the condition r~R v is . i. Only )~B2 keep in mind that R~R v is a sufficient. . we obtain (174) Substituting the given numerical values into equation (174).0045. the resistance of the voltmeter is much higher than the internal resistance of }~B the current source. Smce elements A IA 2 and BIB 2 have no resistance. and that the more reason we have to neg· A/~It::iIt. STUDENT A: But then. will the current flow through the resistors in the middle of the circuit? It will probably flow directly along the elements A IA 2 and BIB B' TEACHER: You are mistaken..11'. Before dealing with the cur· r~nts. complied with.formula (173) with a=l and A.fi=6 V. 107a.::. STUDENT A: Can we assume that the resistance of the voltmeter is infinitely high? TEACHER: Yes.=rR (r+R)iR. 201 .
108. and point B 1 with B 2' We then obtain the diagram shown in Fig. Determine the readin of the ammeter and compute the relative error of its reading assuming that it has no resistance. j 57. R. Let us apply this rule to our case by making point A i coincide with point A 2. An ammeter with a resistance of I ohm is connected into a cirCUi with an external resistance of 49 ohms and with a current source having an emf of IO V and an internal resistance of I ohm. r= I ohm and· • 55. RZ Fig. has a reading of 0. 109 54. I shall leave the necessary calculations to you as a home assignment. A voltmeter WIth a resIstance of 100 ohms IS connected to the ter· I minals of a cell with an emf of 10 V and internal resistance of I ohm. Therefore. of its reading assuming that its resistance is infinitely high. R:a=4 ohms. connected into a branch of the circuit shown in Fig. This one is quite easy to handle. 109. Find the reading of the ammeter.=2 ohms • and R5= I ohm.l to that of the galv. An ammeter.05 ohm. PROBLEMS 53. a . What resistance should be connected in series with this combination to make the total resista~ce equa. 107b. Find the current through resistor R4 if the resistances are: Rl=2 ohms.5 A. Ra=1 ohm.2 ohm. In the electric circuit shown In Fig. Connected in parallel to the galvanometer is a shunt with a resistance of 0.we can bring them together without changing the currents through the resistors. The resistance of a galvanometer equals 0.anometer? 1 56. I' II give you the final answer directly: the voltmeter reading will be 4 V. 108 Fig."l Determine the reading of the voltmeter and compute the relative error. ~=4 V. R=2 ohms.
A ttl. i. no. no current will flow through it. To find the charge on the capacitor plates. STUDENT A: I think I understand now... STUDENT A: But can we use a capacitor in a directcurrent circuit? Anyway. That means that CPP=CPB' From this.. 110. current will flow only through resistor R 2' We can find the current from the relationship I =IlJ (R s+ r) and then the potential difference between points A and B will equal the drop in voltage across resistor R 2. Find BE CONNECTED INTO the charge Q on the capacitor A DIRECT·CURRENT plates if the emf of the current source equals <C and its internal CIRCUIT? resistance is r.e. I must first find the potential difference between points A and F. Since current doesn't flow through the capacitor in the circuit of Fig.. all points o~ the resistor should have the same potential (remember the dlscussion in § 24).:. it will not flow through resistor R 1 either. C is the CAN A CAPACITOR capacitance of the capacitor..TEACHER: Let us consider the following problem. CPBCPA = I R2=cCR2_ R.. 110 Fig. In the circuit shown in Fig. In the external part of the circuit. however._' ~ l' Fig. III TEACHER: You were correct in concluding that no current flows through resistor R l' In such a case. 203 ._..~: c B ±_.+r (175) I don't knpw what to do next. TEACHER: What if it doesn't? But it will flow in the parallel branches. § 28.
When capacitors are connected in parallel.==6 microF. R z =2 ohms. we find the required charge Q= CI1R z Rz+' (176) Now consider the following probl~m.. Thus C = C1 I I I + C.C 2=8 microF.. then 3V (jJBCPA = (jJDCPF= 2. the combined capacitance is given by the reciprocal of the sum of th~ reciprocals of the individual capacitances. STUDENT A: I remember those rules. Now. /1=4 V.. (178) TEACHER: Exactly. Since CAB=C FD .5 V Finally. In this connection. Find the charge on the plates of each capacitor.= 1. C 1=2 microF (microfarads}. C 3=4 microF and C.= C. r= 1 ohm. (QlDQlp)= 9 microC 204 . resistor R 2 plays no part in the circuit and can be ignored.~ C2 (QlBQlA) = 12 microC QS=Ca(QlDQlF)= 6 microC Q.e: C=C1 +C 2 +CS + . Ill. making use of rule (177). their combined capacitance is simply the sum of the individual capacitances. i. In the electric circuit shown in Fig. Thus CPDCPA= lR 1 = 1\1 llR1 = 3 V +r Obviously. (177) and when they are connected in series. R 1= 3 ohms. .making use of equation (175).microF + 8 microF = 10 microF and between points F and D as well: CFD = 4 microF + 6 microF= 10 microF The difference in potential between points A and D is equal to the voltage drop across resistor R {. recall the rules for adding the capacitances of capacitors connected in series and in parallel. + cIa + . we find the capacitance between points A and B: CAB = 2 . we can obtain the required charges: Ql = C1(CPBQlA) = 3 microC (microcoloumbs) Q.
its internal resistance r and the distance d between the plates. 114. An electron Hies into the capacilor at a velOCity Vo parallel to the plates. Fig. 112 dicular parallelplate capacitors.' Hies into the second capacitor and then Hies out parallel to its plates. 1i==5 V. r= 1 ohm.PROBLEMS 58.rcuit as shown in Fig.. parallel to the plates. find the charge on the plates of each capacitor. 115 62. 113 Fig. RI=4 ohms. All the quantities indicated on the diagram of the circuit shown in Fig. Find the charge on the plates of each capacitor. 116 (the emf tR and the resistances Rand r are known). A parallelplate capacitor with plates of length I and a distance d between them is included in the circuit shown in Fig. Find the resista.~. The mass m and charge q of the electron are known.I. R1=3 ohms and C=3 microF. 113 being known. .. 59. 114 city of Vo into one of the capacitors. 116 2R Fig. The emf if and the resistance r of the current source are known. What resistance R should be lC=Jconnected in parallel with the capacitor so {. In the circuit (Fig.' C that the electron flies out of the capacitor at Ian angle Ct to the plates? Assume the mass m ~ r and the charge q of the electron to be known. An electron with RJ a velocity Vo Hies into the capacitor. 60. of length I and a distance d between the plates are included in the circuit shown in Fig. Two identical and mutually perpenFIg.. .rice R at which an electron Hying at a velo Fig. 61. Given are the emf cC Qf the current source. R . . 115. At what angle to the plates will the electron fly out of the capacitor if m and q are known. parallel to its plates. with plates . 112). A parallelplate capacitor witb plates of length I is included in a ci.
To neglect the resistance of the wire and to neglect the leads are entirely different things (though many examinees suppose them to be the same). Here. on the contrary. of course. To throw a lead out of a circuit means to replace it with an Infinitely high resistance. But now I shall reason in the following manner. the resistance of the leads equals zero. points A and A 1 have the 206 . TEACHER: Compute the resis CAN YOU COMPUTE THE RESISTANCE OF A BRANCHED PORTION OF A CIRCUIT? tance of the portion of a circuit shown in Fig. STUDENT A: Yes. 117 diagram may be substantially simplified. TEACHER: Wrong again! I advise you to use the following rule: find points in the circuit with the same potential and then change the diagram so that these points coindde with 'one another. The required resistance equals 3R.§ 29. You can neglect the resistance of the wires (leads). but the Fig. 117a. thought. Since in the given problem the resistances of the leads equal zero. TEACHER: You answered without thinkiJIg. At point A the current will be divided into two currents whose directions I have shown hi. 117b by arrows. Fig. The currents in the various branches of the circuit will remain unchanged. STUDENT A: If the resistance of the wire can be neglected then the leads can be completely disregarded. I have already spoken about this in § 21. ~~ 1 simply didn't give it any ~ . Here the middle resistor can be completely disregarded and the total resistance is R/2.
In accordance with the rule I mentioned. and so are edges BC. As a result we find that the given connection corresponds to an arrangement with three resistors connected in parallel. fore. we shall gradually shorten the lengths of the leads. il7c. indeed. each having a resistance R (Fig: 118a). 118 STUDENT A: Yes. TEACHER: Yes. It is quite evident from Fig. let us tear apart our wire cube at the indicated points and. A 1 and A 2 \vill have the same potential (see Fig. points C. af 207 . we shall change the diagram so that points with the same potential will finally coincide with one another. Similarly. ~8. the total resistance of the portion is R/3. The cube is connected into a circuit as shown in the diagram. Compute the total resistance of the cube. DA 1 and DA 2) are equivalent in all respects. TEACHER: Let us consider the following example. points Band B1 have the same potential. Indi:ate the points having the same potential. C 1 and C 2 will have the same potentia\.same potential. Next. II8a) since the three edges :>f the cube (DA. 117c that the resistors are connected in parallel. :j R/2 Fig. Hence. For this purpose. We have a cube made up of leads. (aJ (a) (h~ D~ . We can start by applying the rule I mentioned above. /19 o Ii' Ii' R ++6 J Fig. The consecutive stages of this operation are illustrated in Fig. BC I and BC 2 • There. STUDENT A: I think that the three points A.
in the square has the same resistance R. 120 readily see that the diagram has an axis of symmetry which I shall indicate in Fig. It is clear that all points lying on the axis of symmetry should have the same potential which is equal to one half the sum of the potentials of points A and D. 119a? TEACHER: Again we must search for points with the same B potential. 11Bb is equivalent to the initial diagram (with the cube) but is apprera) ciably simpler. TEACHER: Exactly.ter bending the edge wires. In conclusion. According to the rule. or leads. then the total resistance of the portion is (4/15)R. It is not difficult to compute the resistance of this 'portion. 11gb. we can make these three points coincide with one another. STUDENT A: Do you mean to say that the main rule is to find points on the diagram with the same potential and to simplify the diagram by making these points coincide? TEACHER: Exactly. What will the diagram look like now? STUDENT A: We shall obtain the diagram shown in Fig. 118b. In the given case we Fig. Thus the required total resistance of the square equals (8/15)R. Find the total resistance'between pOints A and B. connected into a circuit as shown in Fig. One of these is shown in Fig. A STUDENT A: It equals (1/3) R + (l/6)R + (1/3)R = = (5j6)R. connect them together" again so that points with the same potential coincide with one another. 1I. The diagram obtained in Fig. 0 1 and O2 are equal to one another. B A STU~ENT B: Haw would you find the total resistance of a wire figure in the form of a square with diagonals. the combination of resistances is broken down into two identical portions connected in series. 120a). Thus the potentials of points 0. 208 . I wish to propose an example with an infinite portion. We are given a circuit made up of an infinite number of repeated sections with the resistors R 1 and R 2 (Fig. If each of the wires. As a result. Now you should have no difficulty in computing the required total resistance.9a as a dashed line.
:. and so on.= 0 Solving this equation we obtain R= ~1 (1 8 118 + VI+4. Finally we shall try to extend the result to n sections for the case when n+oo. We shall cut the first section away from the diagram (along R the dashed line shown in Fig. ra) We can begin with the fact that infinity will not change if we remove one element from it.~': ) ( 179) 209 . 12Ob. l2:. 121 Fig. Thus we obtain I RR2 R = R1 1 R+R2 · (e) Fig. Since this portion is equivalent to the initial portion of the circuit. we don't need the method of mathematical induction here. then two sections. then three.STUDENT A: Maybe we should make use of the method of mathematical induction? First \ve will consider one section. TEACHER: No'. 120b has a total resistance of Rl+RRz/(R+Ra). a quadratic equation with respect to R: R2_RR1 R1 R. an infinite number of sections wiII still remain and so the resistance between points C and D should be equal to the required total resistance R. its resistance should equal the required resistance R. Thus the initial diagram can be changed to the one shown in Fig. Evidently. The portion of t~e circuiU b.e.! i. shown in Fig. 120a).
The hexagon is connected into the circuit as shown in Fig. r= I ohm and R=45 ohms. 121. PROBLEMS 63. I22c. 64. 119a assuming that it is connected into the circuit at points A and C. In the electrical circuit shown in Fig. A regular hexagon with diagonals is made of wire. ~=4 V. 67. 65. The resistance of each lead is equal to R. 66. I22a. Determine the readings of the voltmeter and ammeter. . Find the total resistance of the hexagon of Problem 65 assuming that it is connected into the circuit as shown in Fig. 122b. Find the tolal resistance of the square shown in Fig. that certainly is an interesting method of solving the problem. Find the total resistance of the hexagon.STUDENT A: Well. Compute the total resistance of the hexagon given in Problem 65 assuming that it is connected into the circuit as shown in Fig.
from a sharp increase in the heating effect of the current. STUDENT A: Why does an el~ct ric bulb burn out? From excessive WHY DID THE ELECTRIC voltage or from excessive current? BULB BURN OUT? TEACHER: How would you answer this question? STUDENT A: I think it is due to the high current. let us recall all the formulas you know for finding the power developed or expended when an electric current passes through a certain resistance R. In this connection. (cp 1<P2) is the potential difference across the resistance R and I is the current flowing through the resistance R. first.§ 30. An electric bulb burns out as a result of the evolution of an excessively large amount of heat in unit time. should be classified in the category of provocative or tricky questions. in turn. i. that the question. the current through the bulb and the resistance of the bulb. STUDENT A: We usually used only formula (181). which expresses the power in terms of the square of the current and the resistance. as you put it. . Let me note.)/ P=/'tR P_ (180) (181)  ('Pl'PS)2 R (182) where P is the power developed in the resistance R. It is precisely the equivalence of the for· mulas that indicates that in solving our problem we should not deal with the current or voltage separately. may be due to a change in any of various factors: the voltage applied to the bulb. e. STUDENT B: I know the following formulas: p= (CP1CP. We should take all three quantitiesthe current. TEACHER: I don't much like your answer. This. voltage and resistan8* 211 . TEACHER: It is quite evident that the three formulas are equivalent since one can be transformed into the others by applying Ohm's law.
Let us denote by to. water in a teakettle begins to boil in 6 minutes. The burner of an electric table stove is made up of three sections of equal (Q) c:::rc::::r(b~ (C~ Fig. we obtain = U2ta = U2tb = U21c (184) Ro Ra Rb Rc Substituting equations (183) into (184) and cancelling the common factors (U2 and I/R). Using formula (182) to determine the power. Therefore.. In the initial case (connection in parallel). In each case. denoting the resistance of one section by R. the total resistance R o=Rl3. 123) we obtain Ra=3R R 3 Rb =R+"2="2 R Rc= 2R2 3R =a R 2 } (183) Next. 123? STUDENT A: First of all we find the. When will the same mass of water in the teakettle begin to boil if the sections are connected as shown in Fig. if we denote the voltage applied to the electric table stove by U. using Ohm'slawwecan find the total currenf flowing through the burner in each case.!L_2tb _ 3te U2tD _ 0 3  3  2 212 . total resistance of the burner for each kind of connection. TEACHER (interrupting): You don't need to find the current.ceinto account together.teakettle to the boi ling point in each case. band c (see Fig. For cases a. why do you prefer formula (lSI)? STUDENT A: As a rule. the dependence of the power on the voltage is of no particular interest. If the three sections are connected in parallel. the same amount of heat is generated. TEACHER: You are wrong in assigning a privileged position to formula (181). the voltage supplied to a bulb is constant. Formula (181) is the most useful of the three. Consider the following problem. (To Student A): By the way. The evolved heat is equal to the power multiplied by the heating time. we obtain 3t _. then.. tal tb and ie the times required to heat the water in the .. 123 resistance.
to the total power.from which we readily find the required values: ta=9to=54 min. e. If x~l. R=r). Two hundred identical electric bulbs with a resistance of 300 ohms each are connected in parallel to a current source with an emf of 100 V and internal 213 .=2to=12 min. What is the efficiency of the source? STUDENT B: The efficiency of a current source is the ratio of the useful power. when P. 1']=0.. The useful power may even be reduced. to the sum of the powers expended on the internal and external resistances: 1']= /2R /2 (R+. the efficiency approaches unity. e. the useful power is Pa = (R+. ~ (x+ IP x (186) where x=R/r.ff2/(4r).. .=. A curve of the function y= =x/ (x+ I) 2 is given in Fig. At R=r. In short. If x~1. An increase in the efficiency of the current source means that there is an increase in the ratio ofthe useful power to the total power of the source. the higher the useful power will be. y]=O. TEACHER: You are wrong. Given: a current source with an emf tC and internal resistance r: the source is connected to a certain external resistance R. The useful power P" reaches its maximum value at x= I (i. Assume that the internal resistance of the current source remains unchanged and only the external resistance varies. In fact.) = R R+r (185) TEACHER: Correct. Consider the following problem. exactly because the voltage applied to the electric table stove is a constant value. then Puct:: l/x. then Pu C12X. i. 124. it follows that the useful power will also increase.)2 R =: tC2 . the power expended on the external resistance. the larger the R. e. And how in this case will the useful power vary (the power expended on the external resistance)? STUDENT B: Since the efficiency of the source increases with R. TEACHER: Absolutely correct. t&=9to/2=27 min and t. Note that in the given problem it was more convenient to apply formula (182) to find the power. i. How will the efficiency of the current source vary in this [:ase? STUDENT B: At R=O (in the case of a short circuit). It illustrates the variation in the useful power with an increase in the external resistance.5. As R increases infinitely. But consider the following question.
. we obtain f=( PI P 214 1)= n. 125).resistance of 0. Neglect the resistancE of the leads (Fig. Next we can find the power expendec on each bulb: P=I2R=37. 124 Fig.=rC/ (r+R/n) =50 A.+R nr+R 1= 1'n. STUDENT B: The total current in the external circuit equal! 1.5 W. The current passing through eact bulb is 1=It/n=0.+R 1 . and then compute the ratio f P1 . Compute the power expended on each bulb and the relative change in the power expended on each bult if one of the two hundred bulbs burns out. It should be expressed in the general form in terms of the resistances Rand r.25 A.x)Z !!L Fig. and the number of bulbs n. To determine the relativE (/+. I shall first find the power PI per bulb for 11= 199. _.5 ohm. TEACHER: I do not approve of this method for finding thE required ratio f.P P (187. Thus R cC! P="fit ( R)2 r+n ~ PI = R (nI)2' (.R )11 +nf Substituting these equations into (187). 125 change In the power per bulb if one of the two hundred burn~ out.
t and then finding f by substituting the numerical values into equation (187)? TEACHER: You see that f=0.we can apply the approximation formula (173): f = (1. we would have to compute the value of PI with an accuracy to the fourth decimal place. you would come to the conclusion that power PI coincides with power P.n'~R r 9 k:::: nr~R (188) After substituting the numerical values into equation (188) we find that f=0. R R R Fig. Compute the resistance R and the . <8= 100 V. 127 69. Therefore. STUDENT B: But why do you object to computing PI fir:. 126.The fraction in the denominator of the last equation is much less than unity (because there are many bulbs in the circuit and the resistance of each one is much higher than the internal resistance of the current source).useful power.0025.If in our case you computed PI to an accuracy of two decimal places. . In the electric circuit shown in Fig.. In one case. PROBLEMS 68. 127. How will the efficiency of the source change (in per cent) if an additionalresimor with a resistance twice the internal resistance is connected in parallel to the external resistance? 10. Several identical resistances R are connected together in an arrangement shown in Fig.0025. r=36 ohms and the efficiency of the current source equals 50% . this arrangement is connected to 215 . This means that if your (numerical) method was used to obtain this result. A current source is connected to a resistor whose resistance is four times the internal resistance of the current sourCe. You cannot even know beforehand to what accuracy you should compute P I.
How much water can be heated to the boiling point in the same time interval when the arrangement of resistances is connected to the supply mains at points i and 3? The initial temperature of the water is the same in both cases.the current source at points J and 2. and in another. 71. Find lhe \'al ues of these efliciencies. This arrangement is connected to the supply IT!ains at points J and 2. 500 grams of water are heated to the boiling point. How much time will be required to heat this amount of water to the boiling point if only one section is switched on? . the water begins to boil and 100 grams of it is converted into sleam. 127. 72. The resistances in a burner of an electric table stove are connected together in an arrangement shown in Fig. and. When the sections are connected in parallel. Neglect all heat losses. after a certain time. Compute the internal resistance of the current source il the ratio 01' the efficiencies of the source in the first ilnd second cases equals :~. at points}' and /J. One and a half litres of water at a temperature of 20° C is he81ted for 15 minutes on an electric table stove burner having two sections with the same resistance. What will happen to the water if the sections are connected in series and the water is heated for 60 minutes? The latent heat of vaporization is 539 cal per gram.
.
We will look at it from above along a vertical. ( 189) This leads to your statement provided that for air n 1 = 1. we could assume that reflection takes place as illustrated in Fig. The eye will see an image of the coin at the Fifl. Ray OA is not refracted (because it is vertical) and ray OB 18 is. The law of refraction: the ratio AND REFRACTED? of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is equal to the refraction index for the medium. 129). A coin lies in water at a depth H. TEACH~R: Your statements are very inaccurate. DO YOU KNOW HOW STUDENT A: The law of refleLIGHT BEAMS ction is: the angle of incidence ARE REFLECTED is equal to the angle of reflection. If this is not specified. the law of refraction can be written as § 31. In the first p lace. TEACHER: Let us draw two rays from the centre of the coin: OA and OB IB (Fig. Assume that these two diverging rays ellter the eye. At what depth do we see the coin'? STUDENT A: I know that the coin will seem to be raised somewhat. Secondly. I don't think I can give a more definite answer. 128. your statement of the law of refraction refers to the special case of the incidence of a ray from the air on the boundary of a certain medium. 128 218 . Assume that in the general case the ray falls from a medium with an index of refraction n 1 on the boundary of a medium with an index of refraction n2' We denote the angle of incidence bya 1 and the angle of refraction by a z• In this case. Consider the following problem. vou made no mention of the fact' that the incident and reflected (or refracted) rays lie in the same plane with a normal to the boundary of reflection (or refraction) erected at the point of incidence.TEACHER: Please state the laws of reflection and refraction of light.
. by L. for instance.. not only raised. a ray from a closer point B is refracted at the surface and does not return to the diver (see the dashed line in Fi~. 130. the coin will seem.'\ ..point of intersection of the diverging rays OA and BIB. 129) . not vertically. A diver of height h stands ..~ . It is evident from the diagram that the required distance h is related to the depth H by the relation from which ( 190) Owing to the smanness of angles al and a 2 we can apply the approximation formula tan a~sin a~a ( 191) (in which the angle is expressed in radians.~ \~ \\\~  :t: I   _\~\\\ \ ~ .. Obviously. An~le a. \ \ trl Consider the following prob~ \ lem.\~\.: . Thus. Using formula (191). \ \ . is the critical \\ . Let us denote the required distance .from the surface of the lake. but moved away (see the dashed lines in Fig.H.. h= (3/4)H. Point A is the closest point to the diver that he can see reflected. i.t'e reflected from the surface of the water. STUDENT A: I know how to solve such problems. __ A on the bottom of a lake of depth ~..__\. at point 0 1. _ . 219 . but from one side? TEACHER: In this case. ~'::'~\f~. The path of the ray from Fill. 129 point A to the diver's eye is shown in Fig.' Fi'l iL. the computations will be much ~\ AB more complicated in this case.diver stands to the points of the bottom that he can !. Compute the minimum dis  ~ \. _ . e. we can rewrite equation (190) in the form (192) Since for water n=4/3. not degrees). STUDENT B: What will happen if we look at the coin. . tance from the point where the . 130).
You can readily see that this distance will be minimal when the diver is looking upward along the inclined surface. Beyond the limits of this circle he will see images of objects lying on the bottom of the lake. 130 which the diver is looking. It is found from the formula · 1 SlOa= n ( 193) It is evident from the diagram that L = h tan a + 2 (H h) tan a = (2H h) tan a Since tan a=sina/V Isin 2a. TEACHER: Absolutely correct. 130). And what kind of a picture will the diver see overhead? STUDENT A: Directly overhead he will see a luminous circle of a radius l= (Hh)/V n 21 = (3/V7j (Hh)(see Fig. STUDENT A: Can we change the direction of a beam by in· serting a system ·of· planeparallel transparent plates in its path? TEACHER: What do you think? 220 . but inclined? TEACHER: In this case. then using equation (193). we obtain (194) After substituting n=4/3. The result obtained in the preceding problem will now be applicable only when the diver looks in a direction along which the depth of the lake doesn't change (parallel to the shore). A problem with an inclined lake bottom will be given as homework (see Problem 74). the distanceL will evidently depend on the direction in Fig. and maximal when he looks in the opposite direction.angle for total internal reflection. STUDENT B: What will happen if the part of the lake bottom where the diver is standing is not horizontal. we find thlft L= (3/V 7) (2Hh).
2 and n. we can write sin ttl) .ui.=.4)= l. TEACHER: You are mistaken. 131 ties of light begin to appear. This is something that examinees usually seem to understand sufficiently weH... ~3 TEACHER: Absolutely correct. nz . For refraction of the beam at each of the boundaries. completely excluding the possibi.l~~"" of the laws of geometrical optics. Can you tell me about any restrictions on the applicability of the laws of geometrical optics from the other sidefrom the side of large distances? STUDENT B: If the distances are longer than the wavelength of light.o=a.. TEACHER: You are right. At .t. STUDENT B: I don't agree. respectively. \ let us discuss the limits of applicability . Multiplying together the lefthand sides and righthand sides of these equations.nl'• sint'tt sin tt2 na. After emerging from the plate the beam wi 11 sti 11 be parallel to its initial direction. 510 sin ttl . Assume that in one 221 . At least that is what we were told before.3' The path of the beam through the system is shown in Fig. STUDENT B: These laws are not applicable for distances of the order of the wavelength of light or shorter. Just imagine the following picture: you are sending a beam of light into space. TEACHER: Just prove this. I think we can.. using a system of several plates having different indices of refraction.STUDENT A: In principle. upon being refracted. sin at = nl ' as n2 sin a3 sina 4 = n. such small distances the wave properFIg.<..\ity of its scattering. which is what we started out to prove. travels in a different direction inside a plate... then light can be considered within the scope of geometrical optics. . We know that the beam.:. a. 131.. we obtain (sin ao/sin a.~:. STUDENT B: I shaH take three plates with indices of refraction nll n.4 . Now. please. Thus. I think there are no restrictions on the use of geometrical optics for large distances. .
A diver 1. TEACHER: Well. and isn't a light bealJ). Here we are dealing with a beam. much less than the time required for turning the apparatus emitting the light beam). In this case. The index of refraction of glass is 1. we do not observe any turning of the light beam as whole.6. 75. material? As you can see.second you turn the apparatus sending the light beam through an angle of 60°. Compute thl! minimum distance along the boltom from the point where the diver stands to the points on the bottom that he sees reflected from the surface. at a spot which is 5 m deep. New photons are emitted in the new direction. Compute the displacement of the ray due to its passage through the plate. Here we must take into consideration that a light beam is a stream of particles of li~ht called photons. However. 76. STUDENT B: How can we quantitatively evaluate the limit of applicability of the laws of geometrical optics from the side of large distances? TEACHER: The distances should be such that the time required for light to cover them must be much less than any characteristk time in the given problem (for example. The question is: during this turning motion what will be the velocity of points of the beam at distances of over 300. and we can safely use the laws of geometrical optics. there is a lOcm layer 0 water above it. tance from the surface of the water do we see the image of the· object? 74. We have a glass plate 5 cm thick with an index of refraction equal to 1.000 kilometres from the apparatus? STUDENT B: I understand your question. geometrical optics is inconsistent for excessively great distances. The plate is 5 cm thick. velocities greater than the velocity of light are impossible only if they are the velocities of material bodies.5. The angle of incidence of the ray from the air onto the plate is equal to the angle of total internal reflection [or the glass of which the plate is made. At what dis. Thus. PROBLEMS 73.8 m high stands on the bottom of a lake. the beam as a whole is not destroyed. Such points must travel at velocities greater than that of light. The photons which were emitted from the apparatus before we turned it "have no idea" about the subsequent turning motion and continue their travel in the direction they were emitted. The bottom is a plane inclined at an angle of 15°. according to the theory of relativity. . We are looking vertically from above at an object covered with a glassrlate whkh is under water. We have a glass plate of thickness d with an index of refraction n. At what angle of incidence (from the air) will the rays reflected and refracted by the plate be perpendicular to each other? For this angle 01 incidence compute the displacement of the ray due to its passage through the plate.
HOW DO YOU CONSTRUCT IMAGES FORMED BY. the man will not see his image.\HRRORS A:JD LENSES? TEACHER: Quite often we find that examinees are incapable of constructing images formed by various optical systems. A STUDENT A: Yes. 133a). I 32a. STUDENT A: It seems to me that no image will be formed by the mirror in this case because the mirror is located too high above the man. There will be an image in the mirror~ Its construction is given in Fig. Construct the image of a man formed in the plane mirr(Jr shown in Fig. Consider the construction of the image formed by a system of two plane mirrors arranged perpendicular to each other (Fig. because the mirror is located too high above him and is inconveniently inclined. 223 . 132 given mirror only to an observer located within the angle formed by rays AA I and BB 1. 129 and \ 32b). The eye will see an image of the object at the point of intersection of these rays or of their extensions (see Figs. Let us consider some typical examples. 132b. The image of the man will be visible in the Fig. It is quite evident that to construct the image it is sufficient to prolong the line representing the surface of the mirror and to draw an image symmetrical to the figure of the man wi th respect to this line (surface of the mirror). TEACHER: You are mistaken. such as lenses and plane and spherical mirrors. I unB derstand. As a matter of fact. It is appropriate to recall that the observer's eye receives a beam of diverging rays from the object being observed.§ 32. but will the man I see his image? TEACHER: That is ano(a) ther question.
shown in Fig. (a) (6) (C) ~~~ (d)~ Ie~ Fig. L :" "JUO. we shall consider Fig. 133c. TEACHER: Good. The paths of these (Q) ( ) ~ two rays are illustrated in Fig. ~': 0 of the extensions of these ~ . TEACHER: You have lost the third image. Now. Thus we obtain two images as . Note that the rays from the object that.' :. The intersection :.own in Fig.I \' I rays determines the third i/7''' . My construction is shown in Fig. the image will disappear. 134a. . 0' _. 133b.. its head) is obtained as a result of the intersection of an infinitely large number of rays (fig.. In the given case. STUDENT A: That's very simple. 133c) are reflected twice: first from one mirror and then from the 6 (C) other.STUDENT A: We simply represent the reflection of the object in the two planes of the mirrors. 134c. What will happen to the image? ' L. 134d). 133 a number of examples involving a converging lens.JJ NeJit.. Construct the image formed by such a lens in the case illustrated in Fig. assume that one half of the lens is closed by an opaque screen as sh. " : ' " / . 134b. 6 I!i. image of the object. TEACHER: You are mistaken.. You forget that the image of any point of the arrow (for example.are within the right angle AOE (Fig.. 224 . We usually restrict ourselves to two rays because the paths of two rays are sufficient to find the poSition and size of the image by construction. 134 STUDENT A: In this case.
When the aperture opening is reduced by irising. The other part of the rays. strictly speaking. the word "defects" is hardly suitable here since it does not concern any accidental shortcomings of the lens. it will not be so bright as before.: This is a very appropriate question. will be blurred. they will. STUDENT B: From your explanation it follows that when we close part of the lens with an opaque screen. but its basic properties. pass through the lens and form an image of the object (Fig. you reduce the effective area of the lens. 135b). The greater the differences in the distances of the various rays from the principal axis. i. However. the lens passes a narrower bundle of rays. 134e). a sharply defined image of the object cannot be formed. by using the diaphragm we make the image more sharply defined at the expense of brightness. or more clearcut. pass through a lens.the screen shuts off part of the rays faUing on the lens. another effect is observed along with the reduction in the brightness of the image: the image becomes sharper. 135a). the more blurred the image will be. however. True. This improves sharpness to some extent (Fig. It enables me to emphasize the following: all our constructions are based on the assumption that we can neglect defects in the optical system (a lens in our case). Since fewer rays participate in forming the image. 135 after refraction in the lens. It is known that if two rays. Why does this happen? TEACHER. 225 . only the brightness of the image is changed and nothing else. paraUel to and differently spaced from the principal optical axis. Fig. or its focus. This means that the focal point of the lens (the point of intersection of all rays parallel to the principal optical axis). at di fferent points (Fig. STUDENT B: Thus. anybody who has anything to do with photography knows that when you reduce the aperture ope(Q) ning of the camera lens by irising. intersect the principal optical axis.e.
Determine. we do know the oath of the other ray before and after the lens.TEACHER: Exactly. 136b). l34? STUDENT A: In the first case (with the mirror) the image is virtual. Then we pass a ray from point C through the centre of the lens. for the examinee to understand that this treatment is only approximate and that a more accurate approach would require corrections for the defects of optical systems. examinees have every reason to assume that parallel rays always intersect at a single point. It is important. This point lies on the principal optical axis if the bundle of parallel rays is directed along this axis. at a certain point E. not of the rays themselves. STUDENT A: What is the focal plane of a lens? TEACHER: It is a plane passing through the principal focus of the lens perpendicular to the principfll optical axis. TEACHER: Quite right. what is the difference between images formed by a plane mirror and by it converging lens in the example of Fig. Real images are formed by the intersections of the rays themselves. where the rays cannot penetrate. TEACHER: Well. Now. that in constructing the image formed by lenses. 136a. the direction of ray AAl after it passes through a converging lens if the path of another fay (BBIB. STUDENT B: I think that we should first find the focal length of the lens. STUDENT A: But we don't know the focal length of the lens. In the case of a real image you can place a screen where the image is located and observe the image from any position. however. Note also that a virtual image can be observed only from definite positions. Remember. Please expl~in the difference between virtual and real images In more detail. This ray will go through the lens without being refracted and. We shall denote the pOint of the arrowhead by the letter C (Fig. STUDENT B: A virtual image is formed by the intersection. Point E is evidently the image of the point of 226 . the point lies on the focal plane if the bundle of parallel rays is directed at some angle to the principal optical axis. in Fig. Consider the example illustrated in Fig. STUDENT A: We didn't study such constructions at school. by construction. For this purpose we can draw a vertical arrow somewhere to the left of the lens so that its head touches ray BB I. but of their extensions. TEACHER: Correct. 136a) through this lens is known. however. will intersect ray B 18 z. and in the second it is real. No wonder then that a virtual image can be seen as being somewhere behind a wall.
136d by a dashed line). is too cumbersome for our example. 136 the image of a certain auxiliary object (the arrow). Making use of the determined focal length. The point of intersection of this third ray with the principal axis is the required focus of the lens. e. This 8z construction is shown in ="':::::. Note that this method is convenient when you are asked to determine the position of the image of a luminous point lying on the principal axis of the lens. It remains to draw a third ray from the arrowhead C. however. we can draw ray EO through the centre of the lens and paraIlel to ray BBI (Fig. This is done by drawing another vertical arrow with the point of its head lying on ray AA 1 (Fig. This method. The req uired ray will pass through point A 1 and the head of the image of the arrow. i. we can construct the image of this second arrow. It is clear that the tail of the image of the arrow is the required image of the luminous point. 136c. Upon being refracted. This con(a) struction is £!iven in Fi£!. 81 They are based on finding Fig. I shall demonstrate a simpler construction. through point E. I 36c). 136b. In this case it is convenient to erect an arrow at the luminous point and construct the image of the arrow. Since these two rays are parallel. they intersect in the focal plane behind the lens (the crosssection of the focal plane is shown in Fig. TEACHER: Your arguments are quite correct.the arrowhead. To find the focal length of the lens. this last ray will pass through the image of the arrowhead. A The focal length being known.'~=~E' Fig. Then we draw ray CO through the centre 227 . we can now construct the path of ray AA t after it is refracted bv the lens. parallel to the principal optical axis of the lens. 136d).
Now tell me. STUDENT B: Yes. the extension will coincide with the ray itself). STUDENT B: First I will draw a ray through the centre of the lens parallel to ray BB l' In contrast to the preceding problem. containing the point of intersection. I can draw the required ray. the extensions of the rays. A As you can see. 137b). As a result. will Fig. your method o is appreciably simpler. the construction ___ A~I is much simpler. TEACHER: Good. l37a). 137 intersect (we may note that for a ray passing through the centre. and not the rays themselves. and the other part behind the focus (the object is of finite width)? STUDENT B: I shall construct the images of several points of the object located at various distances from the lens. will now be to the left of the lens instead of to the right (see the dashed line in Fig.of the lens and parallel to ray AA l ' Since these two parallel rays should also intersect in the focal plane after passing through the lens. while the points in front of the focus will yield a virtual image (it will be to the left of the lens). we can determine the direction of ray AA 1 (a) after passing through the lens. the images will move away to infinity (either to the right or to the left of the lens). The points located beyond the fucus will provide a real image (it will be to the right of the lens). TEACHER (intervening): Note that the image is always virtual in diverging lenses. the focal plane. " 228 . STUDENT B (continuing): Next 1 shall pass a ray through the centre of the lens and parallel to ray AA l' Proceeding from the condition that the extensions of these rays intersect in the focal plane. where is the image of an object a part of which is in front of the focus of a converging lens. TEACHER: Try to apply this method to a similar problem in which a diverging lens is used (b) instead of a converging one (Fig. As the chosen points approach the" focus.
Therefore.TEACHER: Excellent. I have heard such an answer many times.<In (e) ~ Fig. Then we treat this image as if it were an object and. the question "Can tQ) t" . 138 Fig. Thus. Each piece begins at a certain finite distance from the lens and extends to infinity. by blackedin circles. disregarding the first lens. I38a). As you see. 229 . Consider the following problem: we have two converging lenses with a common principal optical axis and different focal lengths. The focuses of olle lens are shown on the diagram by XIS and tlwse of the other. we can go over to a more complicated item. we must first construct the image formed by the first lens. 139 I' HI I (a) 1 \ \ \ \ \ \ an object have a real and a virtual image simultaneously?" should be answered in the affirmative. in our case the image of the object is made up of two pieces (to the left and right of the lens). Construct the image of a vertical arrow formed by such an optical system (Fig. the construction of an image formed by a system of two lenses. TEACHER: Here you are making a very typical error. STUDENT B: To construct the image of the arrow formed by two lenses. I see that you understand the procedure for constructing the images formed by lenses. It is quite wrong. construct its image formed by the second lens. In doing this we can disregard the second lens.
Solid lines show the construction of the image formed by the first lens. 138b). and Fig. The construction is carried out in Fig. The required image of the point of the arrowhead will be at the point of intersection of the two initial rays after they leave the second lens. . and follow out their paths through the given system of lenses (Fig.e. The fact is that in certain cases your method of construction may turn out to be valid because it leads to results which coincide with those obtained by my method. This can be demonstrated on the preceding example by moving the arrow closer to the first lens. according to yours. Use my method and you won't get into any trouble. As you see. we make use of the principle discussed in the preceding problems (parallel rays passing through a lens should intersect in the focal plane). But I wish to ask one more question: can a doubleconcave lens be a converging one? STUDENT B: Under ordinary conditions a doubleconcave lens is a diverging one. To find their paths after the second lens. However. You can see that the result would have been entirely different (and quite incorrect!). between the focus and the lens. 138b. i. let us see the result we would have obtained if we had accepted your proposal. The paths of the rays after they pass through the first lens are easily traced. dashed Jines show the subsequent construction of the image formed by the second lens. Now. STUDENT B: But I am sure we once constructed an image exactly as I indicated. 13gb. we shall draw auxiliary rays parallel to our rays and passing through the centre of the second lens. These conditions become much more complicated for a greater number of lenses.Let us consider two rays originating at the point of the arrowhead. a doubleconvex lens will be a diver~ing one. There is no need to discuss them at all. 13&. Under the same conditions. In this case. in the given case the results coincide. STUDENT B: But how can I determine beforehand in what cases my method of constructing the image can be used? TEACHER: It would not be difficult to specify the conditions for the applicability of your method for two lenses. Figure 139a shows the constructiori according to my method. TEACHER: You may have done so. This construction is shown in detail in Fig. it will become a converging lens if it is placed in a medium with a higher index of refraction than that of the lens material.
§ 33.'tS I:JVOLVING MIRRORS A:\D LENSES? TEACHER: I would like to make some generalizing remarks which may prove to be extremely useful in solving problems involving lenses and spherical (concave and convex) mirrors~ The formulas used for such problems can be divided into two groups. this table enables us to obtain three formulas from the general formula (195) which conta in 231 . d is always positive. F < 0 and I Virtual image <0 Thus. F > 0 find f Real image >0 2. d > 0. d d<F > 0. The first group includes formulas interrelating the focal length F of the lens (or mirror). which are listed in the following table. STUDENT A: As I understand. Converging lenses and concave mirrors d>F I. HOW WELL DO YOU SOL VE PROBLE. There are only three possible cases. the distance d from the object to the lens (or mirror) and the distance f from the image to the lens (or mirror): ( 195) in which d. f and F are treated as algebraic quantities whose signs may differ from one case to another. the focal length F is positive for converging lenses and concave mirrors and negative for diverging lenses and convex mirrors. and the distance f is positive for real images and negative for virtual images. F > 0 and I Virtual image <0 Diverging lenses and convex mirrors 3. d > 0.
planoconvex and convexoconcave (converging meniscus) lenses are all converging because. the sign of the focus is reversed and therefore a converging lens becomes a diverging one and. For mirrors we have the simple relationship R F = ±"2 (197) where R is the radius of curvature of the mirror.=(. if it refers to a concave side. I have never paid any attention to the analogy between lenses and the corresponding spherical mirrors.!.the arithmetical values of the abovementioned quantities: Case 1: ~++= I 1 . con(no<n) to an optically more dense one (11 0>11). F 1 (1 R2 ) J + ( 198) where n is the index of refraction of the lens material and R 1 and R 3 are the radii of curvature of the lens. For lenses =(nl) R. Exactly so. STUDENT A: Somehow. then. The plus sign refers to concave mirrors (the focus is positive) and the minus sign to convex mirrors (the focus is negative).. according to formula (198).l) (_1 +_1) F no RJ R~ (199) When we pass over from an optically less dense medium ding to formula (199). TEACHER: The second group includes formulas which relate the focal length of the lens (or mirror) to its other characteristics. they have a positive focus. with a minus sign.!!. If the radius R refers to a convex side of the lens it is taken with a plus sign. You can readily see that doubleconvex. accor 232 . STUDENT A: What changes will have to be made in formula (198) if the lens is placed in a medium with an index of refraction no? TEACHER: Instead of formula (198) we will have . I Case 2: {[T=F I I 1 I (196) Case 3: dT= p J TEACHER: Yes.
the ray intersects the principal axis somewhat closer to the mirror.:=n 2F tan Ct. It is known that if we combine two systems with focal lengths F 1 and F z.versely. If the ray had not been refracted. STUDENT A: Please allow me to do this problem. it would Fig. Then R tan Ct 2 sin Ct 2 =o. Find the focal length of the mirror. the ray goes out of the lens and is thereby refracted (Fig. i. where one of the radii is infinite. a diyerging lens becomes a converging one.oconvex lens with a radius of curvature R and index of refraction n is silverplated to obtain a special type of concave mirror. . e. 140 have intersected the principal axis at a distance of R/2 from the mirror in accordance with formula (197). We shall denote the required focal length by F.sin Ctl from which F =:n (200) STUDENT B: I suggest that this problem be solved in a different way. Let us proceed to the solution of specific problems. It is evident from the diagram that R '2 tan a l = F tan a e Owing to the smallness of angles a I and a h we can apply formula (191). The convex side of a plan. After it is reflected from the silverplated surface. and a concave mirror for which F 2=R/2 233 . As a result of refraction. according to equation (198). 1 I 1 =+F F. F2 (201 ) In the given case we have a lens with a focal length F 1= =R/(n\). the new system will have a focal length F which can be determined bv the rule for adding the powers of lenses. 140). We begin by directing a ray parallel to the principal optical axis of the lens.
1. TEACHER: I dare say it wiJl not be necessary at all to draw the paths of the rays in this case. R from which we find that (l/F)= (2n2+2)/R and.t in the given case? TEACHER: This rule is correct and is applicable in the given case. Consider another problem. The result (200) is correct. A converging lens magnifies the image of an object fourfold. I think you have to draw the path of the rays in the first position and then in the second. If the object is moved 5 cm. Therefore. we can write for the given position that (I/F)= (1/d1)+ (llfl)' Since (fl/d1)=k 1 is the magnification in the first case. you must add the powers of the mirror and of two lenses. The fact is that the ray travels through the lens twice (there and back). Find the focal length of the lens. TEACHER: It is precisely here that you are mistaken.F 2(nl) R +. Instead of equation (202) you should have written 1. the magnification is reduced by one half. it is you who is wrong. TEACHER (to Student B:) No. we obtain Jr +l dJ F kl kJ 234 . which coincides with the result obtained in equation (200). STUDEl\T B: But is rule (201) incorrec. and compare the paths. STUDENT A: I always get confused in doing such problems. then equation (202) must also be correct. According to formula (195).Substituting the expressions for F 1 and F 2 into formula (20)) we obtain (202) from which R F=n+! (203) This shows that Student A did not do the problem right Isee his answer in equation (200»). STUDENT B: But if rule (201) is correct. F=R/ (2n) . consequently.
The point is 15 cm from (a) the mirror. the X's indicate the focuses (focal points) of the lenses). The object is at a distance of 80 cm in front of the diverging lens. Where is the image of the object formed by the given system? 81. L~++t~ . Con· struct the image of the object formed by the given system and compute its position. A luminous point is on the principal optical axis of a concave mirror with a radius of curvature equal to 50 cm. The lenses are arranged Fig. 82. k1=4 and k2=2.5. Where is the image of the point? What will happen to the image if the mirror is moved another 15 cm away from the point? 79. we find that P=20 cm.. 1 + Thus (204) According to the conditions of the problem. An optical system consists of three identical converging lenses with focal lengths of 30 cm.By analogy we can write for the second position that d2 =p k2k. The focal lengths of the lenses equal 40 cm. 141h (the X's are the focal points of the lenses). An object is located at a distance of 25 em in front of this mirror. Find the distance from the mirror to the image of the object and the magnification if the index of refraction of the lens material equals 1. 80. Find the distance from the mirror to the image of the object and the magnification of the image if the index of refraction of the lens material equals 1.5. An object is located at a distance of 10 em in front of this mirror. 141 with respect to one another as shown in Fig. Substituting these values into equation (204). PROBLEMS 77. What kind of a lens is It (converging or diverging)? What is the distance to the object? What will be the size of and distance to the image if the lens is moved 20 cm away from the object? 78. A lens with a focal length of 30 cm forms a virtual image reduced to 2/3 of the size of the object. The convex side of a planoconvex lens with a radius of curvature of 60 mm is silverplated to obtain a concave mirror. The object is at 8 distance of 60 em from the nearest lens. 141a. d 1d 2 = 5 cm. An optical system consists of a diverging and a converging lens [Fig. The concave side of a planoconcave lens with a radius of curvature of 50 em is silverplated to obtain a convex mirror.
vo=11.5R. VA =9. . 21.5 N. 1 sec. 0. 20 m.6 m/sec. 1280 J. (1. cot a = ~ 4P 6. (2) tV fJ~ + fJ~2VIV2 sin a sin a 2 2  l l • 4.8 N. 7. .ANSWERS 1.6 m/sec2 . 0. 236 F=mg(Z +I)Vgp w . 25. 0. 2. 8. SOT'}.5 m/sec 2 . 8. 3.4 N.H. 23. 22. 37. fJB= 10.I) .' 19.2~~ g cos 2 a.3 m/secj x=4 m. 13 N.4 m/secj VB= 15.9 m/sec 2 . 3. 33.45. F=mw2R.2 N.3 m/sec2 . V 5gR h=R • 81 it 18. . 3900 J.2 m/sec.27. 50. 24. vA = 10.2 m/scc. 20. hi = 211 ( V ~w . ~ V 2 Hg h P4F + V H !g31z • 5. 6. 7:4:1. II. 16. 17. t =0. 42 N.8 lp.w!R ) .2 m/sec.8 m/sec. 1. 13. 2. 16.5 sec. 8. 120 kg/m3. g=0. 1. 9. 12. (I) t V VI+V2+2vlV2 cos (a L+a 2).6 N.5.5 N. 3. 15. 10.
35.. 733 g.43 m/sec.58% 45. 147 Vim.. .. 0.rr 5gl m • 30. 11.29. m1 +. . 59 g.. . 48... 38.. 46. i3 V "2 34.. (2) 171 J.n:. 43. "4 33.28 N.:.:.. = . 1. 37..28 N.. 237 .5 em longer. 41.:1_si_n_rt_t_'l_n_Ct.) 47. H Mm M +nz HM 31. 36. it will not be formed.. 27.05 ~ 39. m1+mZ _ .!q... ( .... m=g:e. cos rt ' 2 (m. 2m1m2g+(m2ql +m1q2) E .trl 2)g+E (qlQ'l) .56 N. mg + Eq .8 sec.+'. 21. ( I) 138 J. 4M+3m' 32. vrnln m+A1.. 3 . 15. the direction of the acceleration is vertically upward. 0. It becomes 1. 1.E.. 44.4 mg..4 m/sec 2 ... 4.62 N.. Lowered by 3 em..5 mg.. 42. 5x 10 8 m/see. 13A mg... 0. 4:>. 1.3 cm. At a distance of 2~ R io the right of the centre 01 the disk. 3x 10.. 0.
70 W. 0.96%. 1. 6X 10. 238 . 58.196 A.83 q.6 C. 1.flqtdmv~ tan 0: rdmv~ tnn . 51. 0. 73. 89%.1m. g I cos 5gt  . arctan ql • t'omd 63.16 ohm. 21 min. 0. 100 g of water will be converted into stel. 54. : . 61. R 1r+2R 2 r+2R 1 R 2 .!!!L cos Ct 'J.49. Y Y r 5 (mgtEq) ~ q2 m[3 sin 3 0: 50. 56. 3f . 52.64.  V ~21 :' 53. 3 4 2 20 R. 0. I A. 4" R.25 A. 65. BOO g. 57.9 V. 9. 67. 11 68.6%. 71. 3. "5 R.flqldmt'o 2 • 62. 69.75 V. 0: rdmv~ . 60. 55. 60 ohms. 66. IO. 3" R.flCR 1 R 2 59. It is reduced by 28. 72. 70.B cm.2 A. 1%. . 83%.
63. . At a distance of 100 em to the right of the converging lens. 2. It is a diverging lens.3 em.4. 82. 16. 17. 80. k=4. 81. d= 15 em.f= 100 cm. f = 37. 78.5 em. 79. Ii 1 yn2I+1 ).3 em. k=O. the image will move 6 em away from the lens. k = 0. 11=150 cm. d ( 75. 1=6.··'1•. l  74 m. the image will become real. 56°. It is located at the centre of the middle lens.
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