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where a human will interact with the system to validate its correctness. Software: it is a set of programs or instructions to perform a specific task It can be categorised into 2: 1. SYSTEM S/W: System s/w is an interface between the hardware components and the front end application (application s/w) It is a platform on which the application s/w can be used or executed Ex: windows, Linux, UNIX, Solaris, apple mackintosh 2. APPLICATION S/W: It is the s/w which is designed to perform the end user/customer needs. It is nothing but the user interface which interacts with the database in order to manipulate the data Ex: ms office, yahoo, gmail, qtp..... TESTING OBJECTIVES: Is to identify the defects in the work product before it is delivered to the customer/client TESTING PRICIPLES: 1. Every test should have a high probability of identifying the defects 2. Exhaustive testing is impossible 3. Testing is a pesticide paradox. 4. Testing should start at very initial stage of the development life cycle/process Why Do We Need Testing In An S/W Development Process? 1. To ensure the software is designed and developed as per the customer expectations. 2. In order to identify the defects in the work product 3. To ensure the customer satisfaction 4. To reduce the cost to customers in reinvesting on fixing the defects 5. To deliver a quality product to the customers 6. To build a healthy relationship with the customers.
IT MAINLY CONSISTS OF 6 STAGES: Feasibility analysis Requirement collection Design Coding Testing Release and maintenance Feasibility analysis: it is an estimation phase where a vendor will have to perform a detailed study by analysing the need of the customer to be fulfilled.Why Does A S/W Appln Has Defects: 1.. It is to ensure the system is developed as per the customer expectations 3. It is less expensive in the initial stages and very high expensive if the product is in customer's site. It is intent of identifying the defects in a work product 2. It is a process of verification and validation 4. . which is reliable and which is developed in time and within the specified budget. Improper planning 3.. COSTS OF DEFECT REPAIR/FIXING: The cost of defect fix will always increase when we move stage by stage in development process. Inadequate testing 5. It is a high level activity which is performed by a team of business analysts along with the project managers. Poor requirements 2. Poor design and coding 4. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC): Software engineering: it is the process of designing and developing a software application as per the customer expectations/needs. SDLC is the collection of various stages in the software engineering. It is a process of identifying the unidentified defects in the work product SOFTWARE QUALITY: Quality can be termed as developing a s/w which is relatively bug free. Miscommunication DEFINITIONS FOR TESTING: 1.
investments.netscape.. H/W: It is the system configurations along with the networks. networking. leads and team members.mozilla) 2.net. S/W: Operating system. It is a mixture of various resources with different exposures. there can be three: 1. database browser (ie.vb. enterprise applications.. . TECHNOLOGY: The technology which is required to implement the s/w should be analyzed. ram.net. insurance. 4. BUDGET: TOTAL COST OF THE PROJECT All the stages from requirement collection to release are considered as execute commit..java. Ex: banking.ejbs. mother board and the network connectivity 3.TIME: Total time required to implement the software. DOMAIN: It is the collection of common set of characteristics/ functionalities which can be performed. The hierarchy might be: Managers. RESOURCES: As part of resources.. marketing.j2ee.... Ex: c... Hard disk..asp. AS PART OF FEASIBILITY THE MANAGERS WILL HAVE TO LOOK INTO SEVERAL FACTORS LIKE: 1.. HUMAN RESOURCE: The human resources along with the technical skills to implement the project. finance. processor. 5.It is otherwise called as project estimation or a business commit phase where the customer and the vendor will commit a project implementation. REQUIREMENT COLLECTION: It is collection of the needs of the customer. 2. retail. telecom.c++. vb.
the components with in a screen or page is designed along with the databases. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Functional requirements can be otherwise called as system requirements or software requirements Collection of these can be called as: Frs: functional requirement specifications Srs: system requirement specifications Srs: software requirement specifications Fd: functional documents A functional requirement is a detailed document which consists of the functional and non functional aspects in order to implement/achieve the business transaction or a process mentioned in BRS document. System design is often carried out by the design architects IT IS DONE IN 2 PHASES: HIGH LEVEL DESIGN (HLD) It is also called as architectural design. flow chart and data flow diagrams. It can be a combination of managers. where the complete navigation of the system is designed (like pages. leads. analysts or any other senior persons in the team There can two different documents as part of requirements collection: 1. A functional spec document often consists of the positive and negative flow of events in order to implement a business process. DESIGN: Designing the software system. A functional spec can be a combination of use cases. BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS: The document which consists of all the business needs can be called as BRS (business requirement specifications) BRS is a high level document which has the overview of the entire business along with the business transactions/process in a business. screens or windows) LOW LEVEL DESIGN (LLD) As part of low level design. like the navigations to be implemented in performing the transactions.The needs can be: BUSINESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS: The team responsible for requirement collection. prototypes. 2. .
It is also called a transition phase. In this the business and functional requirements of the customers are converted into a software system by implementing the programs/source code/logic using a programming language This phase converts the static application into a dynamic application. CODING: It is also called as implementation phase. Waterfall model: 2. With every set of requirements there will be working software delivered to the customer for usage. It is a process of validating the system in order to identify the defects/deviations RELEASE AND MAINTENANCE: RELEASE: Once the system test and the acceptance test is completed on the work product. which is generally carried out by the programmers or developers. the product/software/system/application is delivered to the customer for further usage. there will be no overlapping between the stages in the development process In this model also the testing starts only after coding. and this process is called as release/production/go-live MAINTENANCE: Maintain the software by the development team (vendors) after production move for a specific period of time as per the initial agreement is called as maintenance. Incremental model: It is also similar to the water fall model. data types.Components of the user interfaces like the page elements in a given page and database components like tables.. which is ready for the human interactions. .. TESTING: The test engineers are responsible for validating the developed (dynamic) system to ensure its correctness or to ensure that the system meets the customer needs. fields. Vendor team will not be charging for the maintenance and would be addressing the issues if any problems at customer's site. DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS: Based on the requirements and the needs of the customer there can be a specific model adopted in order to implement a s/w application 1. constraints.
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