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Crude petroleum as it is produced from the field is a relatively low-value material since, in its native state, it is rarely usable directly. However, it can be refined and further processed into any number of products whose value is many times that of the original oil, The first step in any petroleum refinery is the separation of the crude into various fractions by the process of distillation. These fractions may be products in their own right or may be feedstocks for other refining or processing units. In most refineries, this process is carried out in two stages. The oil is first heated to the maximum temperature allowable for the crude being processed and for the operation being practiced and then fed to a fractionating tower which operates at slightly above atmospheric pressure. This tower is usually called the atmospheric tower, It yields several distillate products and a bottoms product which is the residual liquid material which could not be vaporized under the conditions of temperature and pressure existing in the atmospheric tower. This bottoms liquid is then reheated to the maximum allowable temperature-usually higher than the maximum temperature allowed for the feed to the atmospheric tower-and fed to a fractionating tower which operates at subatmospheric pressure. This tower is usually called the vacuum tower. This chapter describes the atmospheric tower. The vacuum tower is discussed in Chapter 3_ Although the process of crude oil distillation has been practiced in the United States for more than 100 years, the design and operation of these units is still accomplished

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almost exclusively on an empirical and, in some cases, even a nearly emotional basis. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that crude oil is made up of an almost infinite number of discrete hydrocarbons, all the way from methane to materials having 70 or more carbon atoms.Thus, the process and/or its products are usually discussed in terminology which is unique to the petroleum industry. In this introductory material. the nomenclature usually employed in crude oil distillation will be discussed before proceeding into the design methods. Analysis of Crude Petroleum and Its Fractions A complete component-bx-component analysis of a crude oil sample is not practically realizable. For this reason, the composition of any given oil is approximated by a true boiling point distillation, commonly called TBP distillation. A thorough discussion of the equipment and procedures involved is given in Chapter 4 of Nelson (1), This method is basically a ba tch distillation using a large number of stages and a high reflux-to-distillate ratio so that the temperature at any point on the temperature-volumetric yield curve represents the actual (true) boiling point of the hydrocarbon material present at the volume percentage point. ' TBP distillations are normally run only on crude oils and not on petroleum fractions, Instead, a rapid distillation procedure is used for analysis of petroleum products and

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TBP CURVE • " V EFV CURVE @14.... -. _ .~ n ).- "'.~ I .. TBP and EFV Curves for a typical crude oil and product yield by volume. . whereas the TBP and ASTM distillations are run either at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum... The only reflux available is that generated by heat losses from the apparatus. -_-----'. . These procedures were developed by the American SOciety for Testing Materials and are called ASTM distillations. and. The procedure is also discussed in Chapter 4 of Nelson. "~ ~ . Ill: W II. ..' " V c .• 4 Petroleum Refinery Distillation 1500 " " . The EFY initial boiling point is the bubble point of the fraction under study._...14. This will allow a more accurate estimate of phase behavior that can be attained from calculations.- • . '=-:-. for this reason. These test methods are used in control laboratories throughout the world. w ..• .. --- . ". I·~ intermediate fractions.r The purpose for running these various distillations is to characterize the composition of the material under study.. a family of EFV curves can be run at a series of pressures encompassing the envisioned operating pressure.. •eI~ ..1. the former is the one used by both designers and operators in discussing distill a- ·l . While the latter is theoretically indicative of actual composition. kerosene will have an ASTM boiling range of approximately 325 to 525 degrees F which corresponds to a TBP boiling range on the order of 275 to 575 degrees F. This distillation can be run at pressures above atmospheric as well as under vacuum... -c " -V V V 'U' ~ . and the EFV final boiling point is its dew point. These methods are rapid batch distillations employing no trays or reflux between the stillpot and the condenser. fA . . EFV curves are seldom run because of the time and expense involved and are almost exclusively limited either to crude oil or to reduced crude samples (atmospher- ic tower bottoms liquid) which are being evaluated as vacuum tower charge stocks. For example. If desired. ~ f .. W ~ ~ . 'fJ u. '_.. e W Ill: :) I- '_'" ..- ~ " f " . the boiling range of petroleum liquids is of primary importance.7 psia '. The third type of laboratory distillation which is used in discussing petroleum fractionation is the equilibrium flash vaporization (distillation) commonly called the EFY.-tA tA -100~ A -~~-L 8__ +-II-C ~ ~ __ o VOLUME PERCENT VAPORIZED 100 .·· - ~.J' Figure 2. I '·t .~.

. -I. viscosity.2 shows the ASTM. TBP and EFV curves for 39. ASTM. 1++++ Lh +- • H .. 6.ll-fUEIJE H-t. pour point... Detailed studies of fractions for various properties.. usually called a crude asSay..7 degree API light distillate.l.... vapor pressure.. \I' I. etc. L+ S=. octane number versus yield for naphthas or viscosity versus yield for lubestocks. Light-ends analysis up through C8 or C9• Properties of fractions (naphthas.1 "Ii. EFV curve run at atmospheric pressure and/or phase diagram. A typical the Appendix. ++-..+ ~+f+H H-. tion problems. . ~1:. A complete crude assay will contain some or all of the following: l. 'H rq+ : :H ". I '. ~' • Figure 2.r..1 shows the TBP and atmospheric pressure EFV curves for a typical crude oil. ~~:ftf. fur. 4. Properties of asphalts (only if the residua have suitable characteristics for preparation of asphalts). +t+ :ji .. middle distillates. smoke point. Properties of lube distillates (only if the crude is suitable for the manufacture of lube basestocks). !~t'--'-if-h. :fi-'-i. pour point. .· H-I+i+~'. *. Itt .-. 7. gravity.. thus. flash and fire point. j- + . L ~rh-H. sul- Much of this information is of little use in design work but is of great importance to the refiner or to a crude oil purchaser. Also illustrated is the planned yield of three distillate products for a process under study... The EFV curve is used for determining phase behavior of liquids and.. 1 ! iT:t:: H:H- HT~:F 'r. TBP and atmospheric EFV distillation curves for a typical petroleum fraction. 3. TBP curve. \. + N-'-'· :tt. correlated by produced here assay of a commercial crude oil is included in This data was developed experimentally and Humble Oil & Refining Company and is rewith their permission. fj-.P . sulfur..1+" . viscosity.. mid-volume plot of gravity.. ~t:tH' • tT :+'-~ fLH- . e.. Whole crude gravity. The complete and definitive analysis of a crude oil. although this is rarely done. etc. diesel index. is usually of interest principally to designers. 2. ~.two.2.g. ±tftJTR± .~}471 . . Figure 2..Atmospheric Tower "f.L. Figure 2. freeze point.: I ¥' iT .. octane number. sulfur con ten t. etc. ·H+ r-t .. 8.~~+l. viscosity. is considerably more detailed than a TBP curve and a whole crude API gravity. ~-l. ~ ~ft ++ ltitl . gas oils and residua)-yield as volume percent.-- 5 I· .t....t:H:.. 5...

3. this may not appear to be so. Figure 2. disregarding the effect of side stream product and bottoms liquid stripping..2 3b-TYPE U (TOP TRAY REFLUX) v v • F __ ~:rw ~z .• 6 Petroleum Refinery Distillation F FIG. the separation will .2-3c-TYPE 01 02 A IPUMPAROUNO 03 REflUX) 05 V5 F FIG. on the surface. Further.. the separation of crude oil into its desired fractions will be considered separately. Processing schemes for atmospheric Basic Processes for Atmospheric Crude Distillation The distillation of crude petroleum into fractions having different properties is similar to many more familiar types of fractionation processes although.. In order to avoid details which are of only secondary importance at this point and to get down to the basics of the problem.N -0 01 02 LOI l02 l03 w fIG. either by steam or by reboiling in the case of the lighter sidestreams. 2-3d . 2·3a- SERIES OF flASH DRUMS v F FIG.TYPE R I PUMPBACK REflUX) distillation of crude oil.

This process is repeated as D2. The vapor-liquid mixture from the furnace enters the first flash drum where the residual liquid. regardless of the method used for heat removaL Consider Figure 2. This is because that. 'Type R employs subcooling of true equilibrium reflux. the pumparound liquid is foreign to the zone in which it is employed. Each of these separations has occurred due to cooling and equilibrium condensationso that the liquid from each stage ccntainsappreciable amounts of components lighter than the desired distillate.e. thus. cooling it and returning it to the column. ~. This is illustrated by Figures 23c and 2. As will be seen later. This type of unit is obviously impractical since heat is removed only in the overhead condenser at a temperature level too low for recovery of heat. W. This can be done in one of two ways. which requires sizing the tower based on flows existing at the top tray. may be yielded as two distillate fractions. The noncondensibles form the distillate vapor. such a section generally uses two or three actual . called pumparound reflux.and then enters the second drum where this vapor-liquid separation occurs. all distillate products plus the overflash must be vaporized up from the flash zone. Secondarily. D3 and D4 are condensed and separated out. only a portion of the total heat removal can be accornplished by these techniques. a dual benefit is realized. The first drum effluent vapor is cooled just enough to condense the overflash. V5. this will result in a much larger tower diameter than for either Type A or Type R unit. drops out. called pumpback reflux.3 illustrates various processes for yielding distillates from the feed. Figure 23b illustrates a Type U system. The vapor is cooled again to some predetermined temperature and enters a third flash drum where Dl separates out. cooled and returned to a tray further up in the tower but below the upper draw tray.. The disadvantage of this method is that the three trays normally used for heat removal must be considered as only one actual tray for fractionation purposes. Another way of stating the same principle is that the total heat input required by the process must be contained in the feed as it leaves the crude furnace. for partial process heat removal. Because of the continuously increasing temperature of crude oil as more and more of the material is vaporized and because the charge is usually heated to its maximum allowable temperature prior to entering the tower. from an equilibrium viewpoint. the author. Thus. . Thus. Figure 2Aa illustrates the flows around a Type U section. Liquid .4b. Although not shown on the sketch. Inspection of the flow scheme reveals that this is merely a conventional rectifying column. A small amount of extra vaporization.trays including the pumparound draw tray and the tray on which the cooled liquid reenters the tower. Figure 2. this usually occurring at all sidestream product draw points. By way of explanation. All these fractions are portions of a continuum which indicates that it would be possible to use reflux to wash back the heavy components from the vapor and stripping vapors to remove light components from the sidestream products.3. called overflash. In both Type A and Type R. This process is analagous to removing heat from an absorber by withdrawing part of . The lightest distillate fraction is not always completely condensible at the conditions of temperature and pressure in the reflux drum and. one vapor and one liquid. The equilibrium vapor also contains some of the components which should be in the liquid so that the next fraction to be condensed will have some undesirable heavy ends. calls a Type A system. will be employed to provide adequate reflux in the section between the flash zone. Each one of the vessels in the flow line represents one separation section. The more common of the two processes is by the use of pumparound reflux which. the remaining portion of the removal must be satisfied by reflux from the condenser to the top tray. The overhead vapor from the sixth drum is cooled to as Iowa temperature as is possible consistent with the avail- able cooling medium in order to maximize distillate liquid recovery in D5. the first approach to genuine fractionation.Atmospheric Tower 7 . For the sake of simplicity in discussing Figure 2. it is stipulated that the volumetric yield of each product from the crude feed will be the same. and the first (lowest) sidestream product draw tray. This method has the advantage of stabilizing vapor and true reflux liquid flow throughout the section where it is used as well as significantly reducing vapor and liquid traffic throughout the column. at one or more side points on the tower for partial process heat removal. Type U employs only top tray reflux from an overhead condenser for total process heat removal. Type A employs an externally circulated and cooled stream. The nomenclature used in designating the three methods of refluxing the process is the author's own for the purposes of this discussion and has no significance in the petroleum industry. the point in the tower where the par· tially vaporized feed enters. ~ combines with W' to form the total residual liquid. This technique is generally employed at a low and at an intermediate point in the tower and makes heat available for exchange against crude oil charge at two different temperature levels.30 as the first method for yielding the desired product pattern. i. be defined as five distillate fractions and a residual (bottoms) liquid. it is not feasible to use a reboiler in crude distillation. W'. The cooling medium is usually the crude oil charge which is being preheated before entering the furnace. In normal practice. the vapor and liquid traffic throughout the column increases markedly from bottom to top. Heat removal at intermediate points on the tower can be attained by withdrawing an intemalliquid stream from the tower. iswithdrawn from a tray above the lower draw.

. thus.. and. all trays can be considered as being effective for fractionation purposes. ~ ".-=---. OJ less stabilized by the exter- Separation Criteria in Petroleum Fractionation • In the context that most chemical engineers apply to distillation of systems made up of discrete compounds identifiable by name.:... also obtains the benefit of feed preheat. .W ~ _1_ " II' ~ .. . ...5. There is the additional advantage that all liquids within the lower are true equilibrium reflux liquids.. especially when encountered for the first time.:. Petroleum fractionation is quite a different story since the methods of analysis are largely empirical or are based on empirical criteria.. ].~c..... Detailed flows around a section for Types U. It is the purpose of the following to demonstrate this similarity. . A fairly uniform vapor and liquid traffic exists in all sections of the tower. Figures 2.. '" V ·V ~ ON +1-1 LON+1 - 1 ..l.. the bottoms. . Over the years. many excellent methods have been published for calculating all types of distillation systems involving discrete compounds. heavy oil fractionation is a black art.... thus.....4.8 Petroleum Refinery Distillation (V-ON -ON + ~+ l{ON+l +-11 " • ~ . LON +1 ON +1 .. ~IJI +ll+lIo J +1 +11 ALTERNATE OF TRAY REPRESENTATION ON+l " '" .. +1-11 __ (V-ON-ON+1j+l(ON _L.. there is a Similarity between light hydrocarbon fractionation and crude oil distillation.W '.4c show a Type R system which is a rectifying section employing subcooled reflux.Ab-TYPE A FIG. . The typical vapor and liquid traffic which exists in the three types of refluxed columns is shown in Figure 2. .l. cooling it and returning it to an upper tray. The most economical Type R design uses crude oil charge as the cooling medium for the pumpback reflux streams and. H~ON+l+nl (V-ON)+loN+-ll : I " ~ .. . However.. r- ~ fIG. . f---i""'~ L(ON+I T RAY l (V-ONI+ lON+l ION+l __..+ lo N ON+loN II' :IG. __ IA.. Even the inexperienced engineer is familiar with many of the basic techniques. R and A atmospheric towers.Ac-TYPE R Figure 2.:~ ~ .~ ~~oN+l+l)l ION+I 1 . This is fine for heat removal purposes but penalizes mass tranfer. ON 1-1 1 ~ ON+l +lON V+LoN ON + LON "".4c-TYPE U (V-ON-ON _. This is employed at all draw trays.:.3d and 2. Note that the Type U tower has continuously increasing vapor and liquid rates while the rates in both the Type A and Type R towers are more nal heat removal.

• ~ ~: Ai' :::.:..~ "" iii __ lP " '" N . § ::ij!: rI - .. ::. ' ..:: ..:~ :.:..:c = ffij~=.

7 is Packie's curve for fractionation between sidestrearn products. ~' 1. two terms are used to discuss product composition and the degree of separation between adjacent fractions. Degree of separation can be defined in terms of product purities or in terms of component recoveries.e. reflux requirements are directly proportional to the degree of difficulty inherent in the system and. it may be considered as inversely proportional to the relative volatility between the two components. Note that each tray in pumparound heat-removal service counts as onethird of an actual tray. Figure 2. i. to the required degree of separation. LN' = gallons per hour re flux from the top tray measured as 60 degree F liquid. two terms which will be used later to clarify the language used in heavy oil work must be defined. The above terminology is the author's own. For example.. for a fixed number of trays. For a fixed separation. NT = number of actual trays in the section.e. at reflux conditions exceeding minimum requirements. The second term. LM = gallons per hour reflux from the upper draw tray measured as 60 degree F liquid. PN = gallons per hour total product vapors. Satisfying the trays-reflux requirements depends upon the specified separation requirements of the process and the inherent physical chemistry of the system involved. . regardless of the purity requirements set by the process specifications. 4. it is straightforward and.. the propane and n-butane separation is easier than propanepropylene but more difficult than propane and n-pentane. Note that these curves apply only for the case where steam stripping of sidestreams is practiced at rates of at least 0. measured as 60 degree F liquid.4 pounds steam per barrel product). i. Figure 2. Note that each tray in pumparound heat removal service counts as one-third of an actual tray.1) inclusive = N . the greater will be the recovery of the light component in the distillate and the heavy component in the bottoms. to the upper draw tray. The nomenclature for this correlation is as follows: I. nor does it apply to vacuum fractionation although it is often used for the latter purpose due to lack of anything better. tray and reflux requirements increase as the relative volatility decreases. Talking in terms of a binary system. From one's past experience. The nomenclature for this correlation is as follows: [. Figure 2. M through (N . will result in a rapid qualitative assessment of tray-reflux requirements.. DM) ~ (ASTM 50 percent temperature of the total products lighter than DM). This problem requires that the designer provide a sufficiency of trays and reflux to satisfy the composition specifications. but reflux requirements increase only a small amount once a relatively high purity level is reached. The greater the degree of separation. Degree of difficulty of separation is defined as the relative difficulty encountered in separating the two compounds in question. i. tray requirements are directly proportional to the required degree of separation and to the degree of difficulty of separation inherent in the physicalchemical system under consideration..e. NT = number of actual trays in the section. Reboiling of sidestreams will also satisfy this stipulation as long as the portion of the sidestream vaporized back is at least equal to that which would be produced by the above-mentioned steam rate. For a given system. to a somewhat lesser extent. In light ends terminology. stream DN plus all lighter products. 3. increase markedly as purity requirements become greater. Conversely. l\. 2. ASTM boiling range defines the general composition of the fraction and is usually one of the key specifications for most distillates from both the atmospheric tower and the vacuum tower. DN = gallons per hour total distillates (vapor and liquid) to top tray.2 pounds steam per gallon of product (8. i.7 does not apply 10 fractionation between the lowest sidestream and the bottoms stream.M. This will result in higher product purities. 2. 3.. when applied to any distillation system involving discrete components. degrees F Packie's (2) classic paper was the first to disclose criteria for defining fractionation between atmospheric tower distillate streams.e. the tray requirements 2.6 is Packie's curve for fractionation between the overhead fraction and the adjacent sidestream. trays M through N inclusive = N ~ (M ~ 1) = N ~ M + 1. In cases where this . defines the relative degree of separation between adjacent fractions. (5-95) Gap • • = (15 H ~ t9 5 L) A ST M. It is determined by subtracting the 95 volume percent ASTM temperature of a fraction from the 5 volume percent ASTM temperature of the adjacent heavy fraction. In the refinery. C: c Speaking qualitatively. the separation becomes more difficult.t(50%) = (ASTM 50 percent temperature of the lower sidestream product. (5-95) Gap. However. the following become obvious.10 Petroleum Refinery D istil lation A typical light hydrocarbon separation is that of fractionating between propane and n-butane. measured as 60 degree F liquids.

5 t " . . .__ -7----1I 1I't~~11~4_i!iG. .'.~ : ! /.!::H=f=t::i+-t__ :T_+ .~. ..~..-+-. r 'Z Ii • ~ ~ " -r-. 6 - i li'..' ... .... ~' .. 8 7.----t - -+- ~ 2 ..I ..___. ~ ~ ~ ~ I I 9 ~.__...i' 4 \i Figure 2. 5 . - . .:i:±:H --..:.• .~ ...:±"R&'-. Fractionation between total overhead and highest sidestream product. _ t-+-+ 5AP ~.:. 8 I ..__:.:.Atmospheric Tower 11 9 .6.:~.l---1--T.-'~ . II. ~.L-I-H..:_ '~-+-t-.~ -t- -...~ . I f _._:=. atmospheric crude towers (used with permission of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers).

.. 9 8 7 & ~ ~. sidestream products._= ·-F._.: ft- .- ...--_--.-- .~:::--l=::ft=±~_ --t~ .• I=l-- ".::! -'_ -+- I- . Fractionation between adjacent American Institute of Chemical Engineers)...- .7.' . atmospheric crude towers (used with permission of the _-- -_ .. S Figure 2.t.---+ 5 . ---_.12 -50 -40 Petroleum -30 Refinery -20 Distillation -10 c_ctC -.-- o +50 +70 +80 +90 '=~ ~ ".

.6. Internal liquids and products are measured as liquids at 60 degrees F. 6. 03 . i ~ For 02 . .8.D4 Separation-use For 03. this difference is between the ASTM 50 percent temperatures of the first (highest) sidestream product and the overhead fraction.".(point criterion is not met. Figure 2.05. (5 .8 which illustrates the internal and external product rates and the internal reflux rates as expressed on a common volume/time basis and on Figure 2. Figure 2.9). .Atmospheric PRODUCTS Tower 13 (OS +V 5) 100 REFLUX NO.10. W 490 Example T ~ • . Figure 2. 01 .7.9 which shows the volumetric product yield overlaid on the crude TBP curve. Product and reflux volumetric flow rates. !If t . Packie defined the degree of difficulty of separation as the difference petween the ASTM 50 volume percent temperatures of the fractions under study. Packie defines degree of separation attainable and the (5-95) Gap as functions of the separation capability of the system (F-Factor) with parameters of degree of diffl- A of Figure 2.13 8 8 6 6 3 10.D2 W -01 28 .. Thus.7. This product is designated as the Ffactor.=4} o F=RNT=32 REAL TRAYS=NT=8 04 f= 24 40 culty of separation.(DS + V5) 03 . D1 70 04 . this difference is between the ASTM 50 percent temperatures of the lower sidestream and the total remaining lighter distillates. pp. RAT10=R=l:.. In sections where pumparound heat removal systems are used. To illustrate. FEED ~ -.. (ts 0) TBP = 703 degrees F .02 Separation-use For 01. t 0.D4 D2-D3 Dl . 'I . . 515-516 . derived from Edmister's correlations (3). He then defined the separation capability of the system as the product of the reflux-to-feed ratio at the upper draw tray as calculated on a volumetric basis and the number of actual trays in the section. trays in this service are considered to be only one-third of an actual fractionating tray. is used to convert the 50 volume percent TBP temperatures to ASTM tempertures. 5.7. . For Figure 2..~ Figure 2. Vapor rates are products only measured as liquids at 60 degrees F.2 Therefore..__-.95) Gap::: i iii J +6 degrees F.35 20 . These examples are based on Figure 2. Separation Tray Numbers in Number of Trays Section (Inclusive) R~l NT=6 ! F=6 \ D3 175 R=] NT=6 I ~ 02 f=4. j • . Packie's curves for the case of insufficient steam stripping may be found in Nelson. -.. 5-7 . Sidestream product strippers are not shown.7. All flow rates are on a common volume/time basis. t5 0 ASTM = 684 - 410 = 274 degrees F F =4. . consider three examples. 6t50 ASTM. 2.27 14-19 8 ..8.. (t50) TEP = 410 degrees F . The following conditions apply to Figure 2.. 4. .(point B) Converting these 50 percent temperatures from TBP to ASTM by using Figure 2.~ (t50) TEP = 418 degrees F . For Figure 2. Example 2 from Figure 2. 1. i .(point C) • .2 125 3.

L~ T_ ++-' .-' . .. ~ ++ T ~' ':I:±t~ J..... :f-tI _j. ~.q+-. '-i +_J~..:._-t'l.: 4 . T .zn4::i±jP±f::j::j:m. 1.' ..!..i'-'-'~~'±±1:J:....:.-r-rt+e+ ·-:Vr -e+l-l i+r".9._:i:t' .j.... • I ~ '+++.. ~ .. t-r -t+ '---I~ ~ ~ t'l: -. . .L :_...._i1.i .. :-t : tr ~._.. • + "1'++ .~. '-... :.... ..- -t-' ' "+ ._ :L ._.L. Product yield overlay on whole crude TBP curve.r----7' ~-:- -r-' Figure 2.1 .L.' :c . • " !. .L! +- . ~~ fH+.. ~+ +. _+-.~'-+ . .+ ~-+ .!..0... --T+ tfti.. 1"" i- . -t-r .. .:d:~ .i.. +4 .J....j.J ..

-+~ .6 and 2.7. ~ .. By inspection of Figures 2. (5.~. ts 0 ASTM := 417 ~ 202 F =24 Therefore.. \ j . 1 k For D4 ~ D5. from Figure 2. r .: _'~r.. 215 degrees F [.' C -+ l-. I D4 ~ D5 Separation-use For D4.1 . 1. (tso)TBP Figure 2... Figure 2.' .:.. If ~ +' . F" 32 +37 degrees F.95) Gap := +22 degrees F.(point E) These computations will be encountered later in the example calculation but are introduced at this point to illustrate the principles of petroleum fractionation and its nomenclature. Relationship between ASTM and TBP 50 volume percent points. . . (5·95) Gap Example 3 = = for D5.Atmospheric Tower 15 F'_l· ~lT r - I-tH+H 1-+ +. . f ~ '--..=B -t-. . Therefore. (ts o}TBP = 159 degrees F . /:. 0) TBP:= 197 degrees F ~ (point D) Converting TBP to ASTM. ..: Jt1. from Figure 2. either by reducing the number of trays or the reflux ratio by altering the heat it . .(Point F) Converting TBP to ASTM.-- i-r-j+ + t.167 = 115 degrees F . II I. (t.10. ASTM = 282 .I ..6 .t50 j ill if j t .. Ii ).. . = 277 degrees F ..7. t- . . I . it is clear that lowering the F·Factor.6.

Using the proper correction factor. feasibility studies and/or order-or-magnitude work is often performed with little more than a whole crude gravity and TBP curve. Before the design material balances can be developed. the similarity between discrete-component distillation and crude petroleum fractionation should be less unclear. b.. Additional information which is highly desirable is an API gravity and molecular weight study of narrow cuts of the whole crude. Calculate the characterization factor. the author strongly recommends obtaining experimental data. Section 2.. The minimum information required is (a) whole-crude TBP curve. c. In the petroleum industry. In an operating tower. the required information can be derived by using the following procedures for crude oil characterization. Nelson and Edmister have all published procedures for converting a whole crude TBP curve to an atmospheric EFV curve and for estimating the EFV temperatures at pressures above atmospheric. Packie's work is now generally considered to be on the conservative side. it will first be necessary to derive some basic physical property data for the crude. Maxwell (4). If this data is not available experimentally. The author believes that the degree of conservatism inherent in Packie is not excessive and recommends its use for design work. (b) whole-crude API gravity and (c) whole-crude light ends analysis. 2. one can calculate Given: Whole-crude atmospheric TEP curve Whole-crude gravity Front end analysis for light ends Calculate: Volume percent versus weight percent Mid-volume precent versus molecular weight • 1. For the TEP range (initial boiling point to 200 degrees F). a. repeat Step 2a. for the whole crude using the techniques of Maxwell. • . For these reasons. will reduce the (5-95) Gap which is the separation. However. c. It is almost always true that crude distillation units are required to perform different operations than that for which they were designed. 50 and 80 volume percent TBP temperatures.16 Petroleum Refinery O'lstillation balance. that is. he should not undertake a definitive design without one. From this. The cost of obtaining accurate equilibrium data is trivial when compared to the possible penalties involved in incorrectly estimating yields or missizing equipment. convert V ABP to mean ABP_ d. one can then estimate the total distillate production and product distribution in the atmospheric tower. • Calculation Procedure for Characterizing Crude Oils The feed to the atmospheric tower is the crude oil to be processed into the _various products required. ll}deed. but this is not possible in a design situation. the first step is to characterize the crude in order to facilitate later calculations. at least at atmospheric pressure and preferably at one or two higher pressures covering the anticipated range of operations is also desirable. it can be calculated. For the TBP range (300 to 400 degrees F). calculate and tabulate: barrels vapor pounds vapor moles vapor molecular weight of vapor b. An experimental determination of the EFV curve. From this can be derived a plot of volume percent versus weight percent and mid-volume percent versus molecular weight. In either case. Atmospheric Tower Charge Data stripout by making a heat balance around the bottoms stripping section. • . repeat Step 2a. the engineer usually has access to a complete crude assay. For this reason. there is a good deal of argument about how to estimate EFV behavior of crudes since the total vaporization in the tower is the sum of the equilibrium flash vapor plus some stripout from the equilibrium flash Iiquid. In definitive process design work and/or in refinery operations analysis. K. K is found as a function of mean ABP and API gravity by use ofWinns' nomogram (5). calculate mean ABP. particularly when working with unfamiliar crudes. At this point. Assuming that K remains constant. API gravity and molecular weight Based on 100 barrels of whole crude. the design "fat" contained in Packie becomes quite useful to the owner in later years. On the other hand. if one is limited to the minimum data. As more operating data has become available. . and so on until the entire crude range has been covered. Calculate the 10 to 70 slope of the whole-crude TBP curve. his procedure usually predicts a smaller gap than is actually attained in practice. a. For the TBP range (200 to 300 degrees F). Calculate the volume average boiling point 01ABP) using the 20. Stripout versus stripping steam correlations are largely empirical. calculate the molecular weight and API gravity for various boiling-range cuts.

This may not always be true in an operating situation where the vacuum tower might have unused capacity when the atmospheric tower is operated for maximum distillate production. TABLE 2. j - J if j The total distillate yield is found by calculating the vaporization of the crude which will occur at the conditions . ~--. In practice. usually in the producing areas. The author . Total Distillate Yield . the distillate vapor is sent to the plant fuel gas system. . a higher pressure may be required.... In designing atmospheric towers where the bottoms liquid is sold directly as fuel oil. there will often be a vapor distillate which must be removed from the tower system and sent either to the plant fuel gas system or to further processing. 1. Plot this curve on the same chart as the whole-crude TBP curve. In refineries running heavy crudes. this was a rare operation. Admittedly.. the most economical approach in this special case is to vaporize only the required distillate products and to allow the remaining potential distillate to be yielded. Mid-volume percent versus molecular weight of vapor.j' -~ . the volume of recoverable light ends may be: too small to justify recovery facilities. design pressure drop across the condenser(s) and associated piping should be set at 5 to 7 psi.'. ~ . This is normally done by a compressor located as near as possible to the tower.Atmospheric From these calculations. this distillate vapor is fed to a gas plant for recovery of propane and heavier.~~---- ~.~~ Tower 17 d. j PI . the tower overhead product stream cannot be totally condensed at a reasonably low pressure. This required a considerably higher reflux drum pressure than if compressors were used to feed other systems. the question of optimizing the relative distillate yield between the atmospheric and vacuum towers will be settled on an economic basis and must be resolved prior to commencing definitive design work. the normal pressure drop will be on the .' if . Separation Number of Trays 6 6 4 4 3 to to to to to 4 8 8 6 6 4 Light naphtha to heavy naphtha Heavy naphtha to light distillate Light distillate to heavy distillate Heavy distillate to atmospheric gas oil Flash zone to first draw tray Steam and reboiled stripping sections • It.. Volume percent over versus weight percent over. unvaporized. . In most refineries. When the system is clean. Since. will minimize the operating temperature level. there is just no economic driving force for yielding anything heavier than diesel fuel as a distillate. in many cases..2 to 1.0 psig~ ThJ. one would balance atmospheric and vacuum distillate production in such a way as to maximize crude throughput. provided that suction lines to the compressor can be keptshort. Since most crude distillation units contain both atmospheric and vacuum towers..2 psig is practical. of temperature and hydrocarbon partial pressure existing in the flash zone. The nojrnal range of reflux drum pressures used is 0. In this portion of the discussion. II " . In this case. draw the following curves. 01 . Estimate of Material Balance As is the case in any process-design problem. This will maximize the crude vaporization or. This type of analysis will depend upon economic factors within the particular company and/or plant site under study and is outside the scope of this work. "". The principles of this analysis are discussed as follows. " • .. Thus. If the installation involves tying a new tower into an existing compressor which may be located a considerable 4Jstance away. The datum pressure in atmospheric tower design is the lowest permissible pressure in the towers' reflux accumulator. This situation arises often in foreign refineries. Flash Zone Pressure Flash zone pressure should be set at the minimum pos· sible level. economic considerations usually favor maximizing distillate yield from the atmospheric section in order to minimize the load on the vacuum section.-------- • it .. if 'less than maximum vaporization is desired. 2. In that case. . The design material balance is determined by the product characteristics required by the owner and by the amount of crude vaporization which will occur at the conditions of temperature and pressure existing in the flash zone .. . various methods for estimating product yields from the crude petroleum feed will be explored. which run crude primarily for local fuels requirements and for bunkering tankers. whole crude using Packie's procedure. Calculate the atmospheric pressure EFV curve for the .. . For a grassroots d~sign a reflux drum pressure as low as 0. with the bottoms. It.has observed one operation where the distillate vapor ~s flared.1 Tray Requirements in Atmospheric Crude Towers 3. the definition of the material balance is the first and most important step.

order of 3 psi. Using these numbers of trays and reasonable levels of heat recovery will provide adequate fractionation between products.. BTU/hr. Ute extra drop allowed will be available. BTU/hr.Iz o YHCFZ F QF1 PREHEA TED FEED FROM EXCHANGE TFO PfO VFO LFa T.2 psi per tray.. a pressure drop of 5 psi was taken between the flash zone and the tower top. PSIA Figure 2.1. The allowable pressure drop for trays will be in the range of 0.zl PFZI YFZ1 LfZ I V' W' LOFZ 4 Vs Sw STRIPPING STEAM Qsw '------------_.-02. In the design example. However. Ute flash zone pressure is set as the sum of the reflux drum pressure and the combined pressure drops across the condensers and trays above the flash zone.18 Petroleum Refinery Distillation EXTER NAL HEAT QUANTI TIES Q'j FZ= [QF +Qsw I. as the exchangers become fouled. Most atmospheric towers have 25 to 35 trays between the flash zone and the tower top.11. A pressure drop of 5 psi between the flash zone and the furnace outlet is recommended. PRESSURE IN flASH ZONE HYDROCARBON P'HC WHERE ALL PARTIAL QUANTITIES =={[ VHCFl =( V' + vso)] /(VHCFZ +SW)} ARE MOLES. LEAVI NG flASH ZONE • YOFZ= _.W BOTTOMS XD = TOTAL DISTillATE Lo= OVERFLASH Vso=STRIPOUT HEAT Q'O-Ql= (Tw=TFl- 30· FI Ow PRODUC TS EXCLUSIV E OF OVERFLASH INPUT TO PROCESS ~ OF Qfll=Q2-(Qv (QV+QL ho +QLlFII l -0.1 to 0. Q'OFZ=QW. At this point. Flash zone heat and material balance.__. Recommended ranges for the number of trays in various sections of the tower are given in Table 2. BTU/ hr. AQ'FZ= [Q'i-Q'oIFZ. . BTU/hr. PH.

Overt/ash Overflash is an extra amount of . Although oil temperatures as high as 735 degrees F for kerosene operation and 800 degrees F for general operations have been reported (6).2 volume percent. rejecting only that amount necessary to control color in the distillates'by refluxing the trays above the flash zone. This contributes to poor color and poor smoke properties in the light and heavy distillate fractions. It is general knowledge that. EFV curves for whole crude at 14. the author has observed a successful although very sensitive tower operation at overflash values as low as'O. • > u. most paraffinic and naphthenic base crudes begin to undergo thermal decomposition. flash lone inlet pressure (PFZII and furnace outlet pressure (PFOI. . ' The value of overflash to be used in design has been the sub j e c t 0 f much discussion through the petroleum industry _: An overflash of 2 volume percent of feed is recommended for competitive design although some refiners will specify values as high as 5 volume percent.Atmospheric Tower 19 ho u.yapcrization above that required by material balance considerations which is taken to ensure that adequate reflux will be available in the trays between the flash zone and the lowest sidestream product draw tray _Overflash is measured as volume percent of crude oil feed to the tower. Temperature Maximum allowable crude-oil temperature should be set by the owner. PERCENT VAPOIUZED Figure 2. the author recommends that temperatures of the oil should not exceed 650 degrees F for kerosene production and 700 degrees F for other designs. On the other end of the scale. Since the gross hydrocarbon vapor from the flash zone is potentially all product. w VFO VFZ1 VOL. an actual operation will allow as much of the specified overflash as possible to come up into the lowest sidestream.7 psia. at temperatures of 650 to 675 degrees F.12.

7. From crude assay data. Total distillate yield is the total hydrocarbon vapor leaving the flash zone minus the overflash.. The vapor pressure charts and nomographs in Section 4 of Maxwell are useful for these conversions. • " . . Figure 2.. Set the value for over flash. calculate the weight of the bottoms product. 6. • 4. For competitive de· sign work. 9.. 10.8-will apply for flash zone calculations. deterrnin- determine General Properties of Petroleum Fractions those from atin terms of an flash zone entrance Most petroleum distillates.. .- . .. find the voJume percentage of the feed to the stripping section which will be vaporized... y The temperature drop between the furnace outlet and the flash zone inlet will usually be on the order of 4 to 6 degrees F. The totaJ vapor leaving the flash zone is the sum of the feed flash vapor and the stripout. Occasionally.. Figure 2. ~. the vaporization which exists at the as Point 2 on Figure 2. Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure in the total vapor leaving the flash zone as PHC' Find the 14. ..12..12.~t~~~I~~ge va~izat!£n and com:~! this to the pressure-TeVef"of .:\ j .. 11. I. The amount of heat which the feed introduces into the process has now been defined as " ..7 psia EFV curves to the pressures which have been set for the furnace outlet and the entrance to the flash zone. This is a trial-and-error procedure which requires assuming a new temperature at the flash zone entrance. At the furnace outlet conditions of temperature and pressure.net bottoms liquid.... On the other hand.11 illustrates the flow rates around the flash zone and gives the equations used in defining the appropriate heat quantities.. I f&' . The sum of these two liquids is the feed to the top tray of the bottoms stripping section. Tabulate the quantities and properties of the hydrocarbon flows around the flash zone. especially mospheric distillation. Calculate the heat input to the system from the stripping steam. are usually defined ee. 8. W. calculate the heat content of the mixture leaving the furnace as . Accordingly.7 ps~ E~V tem~rature f~.13.. calculate the weight of the vaporized crude... Convert the 14..12 shows how the basic heat input to the process is calculated by using the EFV curves. weight and molal quantities around the flash zone. From this is calculated the volume._ J JII. Calculate the heat quantity leaving the system in this stream. the procedure described in the chapter covering the vacuum tower-specifically Figure 3. . fit" . is 30 degrees F lower than the flash zone ternperature. This latter value is... Using the weight of the vapor and liquid phases. "_ ~jl j I ~: ti\ ~ . ! e. From Figure 2. 2. Set a stripping steam rate-l0 pounds per barrel of net bottoms is recommended. 12.. The sequential calculation procedure is as follows.• 20 Petroleum Refinery Distillation ing the new percentage vaporization and then calcuiating the heat content until satisfying the criterion A conservative approach to design and one providing maximum operating flexibility would be to design the atmospheric section on the basis of maximum oil temperature and zero overflash. c ~ . for all practical purposes. This means that the lowest sidestream product could contain all the overflash.- . . find the volume percent vaporized as Point 1 on Figure 2. If this is the basis. From this difference. yield is given in e_-.. equal to the flash zone pressure. one may define the thermal basis as the flash zone temperature. Because of the significantly higher cost. I . this approach would lead to financial disaster.. A typical calculation of total distillate the appended example calculations. the vacuum section would be designed on the basis that the atmospheric tower would return the design value of overflash to the reduced crude... This liq uid returns to the flash zone from the tray immediately above it and mixes with the feed flash liquid. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities at the flash zone. Calculation of the Total Distillate Yield The calculations outlined in this subsection are based on having predetermined the maximum temperature of the oil leaving the furnace. Assume that the' temp!rarure~or the. S. From crude assay data.. calculate the volume of net bottoms._ PHC . \... Next. This would require additional vacuum furnace capacity and sizing the heat exchangers in the lightest vacuum gas oil circuit for the highest potential rate.~ 3. this would require that the heat exchangers in the lowest sidestream circuit be sized to accommodate this high potential rate. 1]lis.is~ flash-zone temperature.~nd_i. this approach to crude unit design would seem indicated only where a high degree of operating flexibility is required and where the penalties for failure to meet product quality standards are severe.. i e~....

. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPGJ-ethane. An important distillate is JP4 jet fuel which has an ASTM boiling range of approximately 150 to 475 degrees F. Naphtha (Gasoline)-pentane through 400 degrees F ASTM end point. i ill . There is sorne demand for naphtha boiling range liquids as petrochemical feedstocks.Atmospheric Tower 21 ~8 HEAVY DISTILLATES KE ROSENE o > o ~ w Or: w NAPHTHA • . There are many grades and boiling ranges of naphthas.. • j j i . butanes (mixed and separated) and isopentane... the properties of which are influenced by their planned end use. If the product pattern can be defined well enough it is more economical to produce a light naphtha as the overhead distillate and a heavy naphtha as the lightest side- stream frQ111 crude tower. is a loose specification for composition of matter. ~ ~ . I- Z w. Most naphthas are used in the motor gasoline. .~blended from suitable stocks of naphtha and light distillate. as was pointed out earlier. principally for thermal cracking to oleflns ~r for reforming and extraction of aromatics. Diesel fuel is a blend of light distillate and :1 - Ii a . " Figure 2.. under proper operating conditions. STRIPPING STEAM/BBl. Light EUstillate-ASTM end points in the range of 525 to 575 de~ees F. 60· F 15 PRODUCT 20 .. These products cannot be produced directly from crude distillation and require further high pressure distillation.four actual trays (with permission of Oil and Gas Joornst). " . this material could be yielded directly from the atmospherI ic tower a~ a light distillate.4 u Or: w ~ w -' " . ~ 10 LB. The following general classes of distillate products are obtained from petroleum. This product is.- ASTM boiling range which. . . Steam stripping of petroleum fractions in. However. either directly or as catalytic refonnate. Many refineries produce a 400 degree F end point naphtha as an overhead distillate from the atmospheric tower and then fractionate it as required in separate facilities. propane. -. A full range light distillate is kerosene having an ASTM boiling range of325 to 550 degrees F. Heavy fJistillate-ASTM end points in the range of 650 to 700 degrees F.13. o > RESIDUA ~ .

~ . Marine diesel is a little heavier. Product Distillate Yields In this part will be discussed methods for estimating the yields and properties of the various products which can be produced off the atmospheric tower... For example. I- w POINT fRACTION HEAVY I . This subject is covered in detail in Chapter 3. vacuum gas oils can have various boiling ranges. . Vacuum gas oils will have ASTM end points as high as 1. having an ASTM end point in the range of 775 degrees F. TBP INITIAL l"Of t tOH . heavy distillate and has an ASTM boiling range of approximately (350 to 675 degrees F).100 degrees F. '-" 1. : QC TBP CUT POINT=h(t1OOL + 'OH) If " . Gas oil yielded from the atmospheric tower will have ASTM end points of approximately 800 degrees F... but most of these are based on specifying certain ASTM distillation tern- ... r: . -" " .. l00L " " y t lOOL " .. . Note that the boiling ranges of these materials often overlap by quite a bit.. Temperature TBP CUT PERCENT relationships VAPORIZED around the cut point between fractions. Gas Oil-aU distillates heavier than heavy distillate. Volumetric yields are then used to obtain product gravities. consider maximizing the production of 325 to 525 degrees F kerosene...". I "~ • . molecular weights and other properties from the crude assay.14... 22 Petroleum Refinery Distillation 'f WHOLE TBP CRUDE CURVE • ~ TBP END Of LIGHT . There are many ways to define a product slate.. The general method of attack will be to determine distillation properties of the desired products and apply these to the whole crude TBP curve in order to estimate volumetric yields. This indicates that one can maximize the yield of only oneproduct on any given operation.._ u.- IQC « w ~ .1 VOLUME VOLUME Figure 2. Depending upon the operation being practiced. The importance of this principle will be seen in the following material where methods for cutting the crude into products are presented.... It is obvious that the naphtha end point cannot be 400 degrees F-corresponding to a maximum naphtha operation-nor can the heavy distillate initial point be much lower than 500 degrees F which precludes a maximum heavy distillate operation.'1/ ~ Il- 1'".

Figure 2·r~ illustrates the physical significance of these terms. All equipment sizing will be based on heat and material balance data calculated for the various light crude cases. the hydrocarbon vapor leaving the flash zone and the overflash have been calculated. if this is not planned. the overall material balance are to be considered. In discussing the various ways for estimating yields. 1. the following terminology will be used. either a vacuum unit or. The light crude will define the design basis for the atmospheric section of the crude unit since its volume of distillates will exceed that which can be produced from the heavy crude.15. the heavy crude will define the facilities for processing the atmospheric tower bottoms. It should be remembered that. he should obtain specific definition of all the operations which are to be practiced. These studies will define the variations in the heat and material balance required to satisfy the varying yields pattern and are necessary for the optimum design of the heat exchange train. TBP cut volume-the volumetric two fractions.Atmospheric Tower 23 Figure 2. the total distillate yield is known. Now. Relationships between ASTM and TBP initial (0 percent) and final (100 percent) boiling points. the designer should base his yield studies on the heaviest (lowest API gravity) and the lightest (highest API gravity) crude which is to be run on a normal basis. the ways in which one can define yields and. the reduced crude heat exchange equipment. As would be expected. This will usually entail the alternate maximization of naphtha. light distillate and heavy distillate. To further complicate the matter. peratures for the products from which the remaining data will be derived. Thus. yield point between . These two points are very important and are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. the various production operations must be calculated-heat and material balance-for both crudes. Since the planned production rates will depend upon the crudes which are available to the refinery. Further. towers and furnaces. to this point. hence.

- . Key Stream Specification The owner desires that the design be based on production of one particular stream and that the other products be defined in terms relative to but subordinate to the key stream.. The ASTM end point of the overhead is converted to a TBP end point by the correlation of Figure 2..600 . note that TBP cut point = ~(t100L has + tOH)' This latter principle has been established by analysis of operating data which has shown that. ---~ . 2.600 575·.. 10.-.. I - Product Light naphtha Heavy naphtha Light distillate Heavy distillate Atmospheric gas oil Max. -----. The designer will determine the yield of atmospheric gas oil.~- .. He may also specify the ASTM initial point of the atmospheric gas oil. . this specification will give detailed ASTM temperatures for the key stream. 5.675 . 3. Usually." _ I ~ .675 Determined by allowable oil temperature Tower . o o . Also.550 525 . TBP cut point-the whole crude TBP temperature corresponding to the TEP cut volume.675 .. convert it to a TBP initial point using Fig.- • ...95) Gap. The 0. ure 2. If this ASTM temperature not been given. If the ASTM initial point of the atmospheric gas oil has been given.. convert the ASTM to TBP distillations by Edmister's techniques. :. 95 and 100 volume percent ASTM temperatures are the ones most often used along with (5·95) Gap specifications between the key stream and adjacent streams.2 Recommended ASTM Boiling Ranges for Products Atmospheric Operation Max Light Dist... t Calculate the TBP cut points between fractions and i determine the volumetric yields of products.- . this shall be determined by the designer.. the following procedure is recommended..I I • II .15. This type of specification will almost always include the anticipated ASTM distillations and other key physical properties of the streams. General Specifications In the unlikely event that work is to be undertaken without having specific instructions from the owner. . assume a TBP overlap of 80 to 100 degrees F between heavy distillate and atmospheric gas oil. 2.- . 50. for well stripped side. rived by author). 3. the volume interchanges between two streams around the TBP cut point are equal. TBP overlap = (TBP end point of light fraction)-(TBP initial point of heavy fraction). ~.. This data should be checked for accuracy and any discrepancies resolved before proceeding with the design. Naphtha 250 400 375 575 . ~ TABLE 2..275 EP EP . - + 20 to + 30 + 25 to + 50 to + 10 to + 10 ~ j. The designer must also determine the TBP cut point between the overhead and the lightest sidestream. Crude Oll lnspection Oata The owner defines the material balance himself by spe· cifying the volumetric yields on crude for all products down through heavy distillate. These specifications are used to estimate yields by the following procedure.15 (de. 4. Same 325 EP 300 -. Same 325 EP 300 . I. but. Max Heavy D ist. if not. streams.it 24 Petroleum Refinery Distillation TABLE 2.3 Separation Criteria for Atmospheric Separation Light naphtha to heavy naphtha Heavy naphtha to light distillate Light distillate to heavy distillate Heavy distillate to atmospheric gas oil Tower Products (5 . 90. For the sidestrearns. of ASTM Distilfations of Products The owner specifies the ASTM distillations for the sidestreams down through heavy distillate and the ASTM end point of the overhead product.

-------~-------_"_-1------------_ .575-700 AGO -700 -775 • • ~ ~ ~ . Figure 2. ·'i" " d a -------." 1 t ! t .Y._~~_~~.300 -400 RANGE LN-HN to -400-575 HO .' TBP CUT "it VOLUME.'.--.' .Atmospheric SEPARAT ION Tower 25 ·HN-lO BASIS -TBP CUT IN .-. .j o ~20~--~----O~--~----~~--J_----~--_J~L-_L~--~--~ _ ASTM (t5H-19~H .'.1 .16. filelationships between TBP 1100-) overlap and ASTM (5·951 gap-typical atmospheric tower streams. i . " j ~ ~ - ~'. '.·F "d WHOLE C~UOE TBP CURVE . .~ ._~.lBP -300 HN ..

This plot is used only in the calculation of Type A systems. Heat lind Material Balance Calculations for Type U Towers 3. the volumetric yields of all products and the TBP and ASTM distillations for all distillates have been estimated. In order to comple te the estimate of the material balance. Calculate the 14. thereby defining the vapor-liquid separation. one light and one heavy. are given in Table 2. 2. Plot these curves and extrapolate to minus 20 volume percent vaporized in order to approximate the effect of the equilibrium solubility of the lighter crude oil cornponents in the liquid leaving the draw tray.17 will be the basis for discussing the heat and material balance calculations in this section. Petroleum Refinery Distillation molal quantities.26 I. the vapor phase will be water saturated at the condenser exit temperature. Assume a linear change in properties across the remaining trays in each section.7 psia bubble points of the unstripped sidestrearn products and will be used later to calculate draw tray temperatures. on the product EFV curves. The detailed calculation procedure is as follows. At conditions TR: and P make a flash calculation on the gross overhead stream. Since the other sidestreams are to be reboiled. Plot the gravity and molecular weights of the liquids leaving trays by assuming that the properties of liquids one tray above and one tray below draw trays are the Same as the draw tray liquid. weight and g. The following steps will accomplish this. These are the 14. In the introductory remarks to this chapter. This step is omitted in the example calculation. Thus. Process Design Basis The material balance and composition information which has been developed should now be tabulated into a process design basis for ready reference in later calculations. Suggested ASTM boiling ranges for these cases are given in Table 2. b. This drawing illustrates the basic process and its essential auxiliaries as well as the external heat and material balance quantities.7 psia EFY curves for the distillates. Plot the ASTM curves of the distillates and calculate the (5-95) Gaps. minus vaporization. From this. A complete Type U tower is shown in Figure 2. a. it was stated that a Type U system is not practical from an industrial viewpoint because of the obvious lack of thermal efficiency. as will be . it is the easiest system to calculate and to understand.. Synthesize a TBP curve for the distillate liquid and convert it to an ASTM distillation. The use of n-alkane physical properties is acceptable. the fundamentals of heat and material balance calculations will be illustrated in terms of a Type U system. 3.1. SInce free water will exist in the reflux drum.. Product Properties To this point. As discussed earlier. Calculate the vapor-liquid separation of the gross overhead product at the conditions of temperature and hydrocarbon partial pressure existing in the reflux drum. The light ends analysis and the partial TBP curve of the gross overhead is combined into a total TBP curve. Plant test work has indicated that this is true. The TBP curve is broken up into pseudocomponents which are tabulated as volume. calculate the gravities and molecular weights of all products. A secondary reason for calculating a Type U system is that. From the crude assay data.13. f. Plot these stripout points. the methods for obtaining and calculating heat removals from the tower will be given. Later. These calculations are detailed in the design example. 5. HC' HC' Figure 2. light distillate and heavy distilla te production. e. it is necessary to define various other properties of the materials.e. Set stripping steam to the atmospheric gas oil stripper at 10 pounds per barrel stripped product and estimate the strip out from Figure 2. However. Figure 2. Total distillate yield is based on a maximum oil temperature leaving the furnace of 700 degrees F. 4. Assume the number of trays for the various separation sections in the tower and define the total number of trays and draw tray locations. i.16 may be used to estimate TBP overlap for a given ASTM (5·95) Gap between the indicated fractions. T K Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure of the distillate vapor stream as P d. define the composition of the vapor and the liquid. Calculate and tabulate the distribution of the steam to the process as vapor leaving with the distillate vapor and liquid leaving as free water.17. Note that the product d~aw trays are all shown as partial draws so that the reflux flows internally from the draw tray to the tray below it. The material balances will then be based on alternately maximizing naphtha. set their vaporizations equivalent to the amount which would be stripped out by steam at a rate of 10 pounds per barrel stripped product.3. Recommended separation criteria. 2. Le. 1. the material balance should be based on two representative crudes. ASTM (5-95) Gap.

. - ~ -4 . . if j ... it i It II T ENV.~. . 1 j .17.1 N r0 '\ ) 0C U .fQ'i -0'0102 02+1 02 L 6 O'iOI-O'i FZ+051 O'OO. ...0'02. . . ..O'04=(O'i-0'o) +OR4 +004 04 ENV.In 5 1 A ~ : O'j FZ=0 F+Osw O'OFl-OW .6Q'Fl=IO'i-O'o) FZ F Of Sw °SW - Lo f\1 i ! I 51 Os. O'OFZ +001 60'01(O'i -0'01 01 01 + 1 01 1D'Q" 1 . .. - . • . Heat and material balance summary_:i!tmospheric tower. .. IT -- L Q'i 030=0' i02 +QRJ Q'003.0'0 02 +0 03 LSO'03=(0'i -0'0)03 03+1 03 lD'Q" ~Q" ~ L -. it . ~ Atmospheric Tower 27 ! EXTERNAL HEAT OUANTITIES O'iN= 0'003 Q'004=0'003 t!. • Q'i02=0'iol +012 0'002=0'001+002 6. Type U.. . iii Figure 2.ill 04 + 1 - 1 04 17 D ENV.t 5 ~ -'R- .

~~·t ~. This section outlines procedures for calculating product draw tray temperatures at all points in the tower and for making an overall heat balance around the system. • • au . ~:.7 psia dew point of the gross overhead product.. die /7 . . seen later. The top tray temperature is calculated by the same procedure. ~c :J: ~ L . The method is based upon assuming a draw tray temperature and then calculating the internal reflux required by the system's heat balance.18. Draw tray temperatures-Type U tower."~ ~'.7 psia bubble point of the unstripped liquid to this partial pressure gives a temperature which must check the assumed value. it simplifies the calculations for the Type A system to a very great degree. ' Figure 2. Converting the 14.. except that the reference temperature is the 14."c 28 Petroleum Refi nery Distillation • \' +c ".. This internal reflux to the draw tray defines the hydrocarbon product partial pressure in the vapor above the tray.

Thus. '". plot a temperature and pressure profile for the tower by assuming linear change bet-. Preliminary Steps 3. J~ f .17. External heat output quantities at a given tray are defined as the heat contained in liquid products leaving the system from points lower in the tower. Use of stripping steam in all product s!iiP. I. i~ ~ - . For sidestream products.een draw trays. heat outflow in the bottoms liquid and external heat quantities at the flash lone. This bottoms-section heat balance is shown as Envelope Ion Figure 2. Hydrocarbon material balances around product strip. Atmospheric EFV temperatures for prod ucts corresponding to the estimated stripout for each product.. if if 'i1 = 24.y .~.. External heat input quantities are defined as the heat contained in the feed plus all heat to the system at product strippers either directly as steam or indirectly through reboilers..~f 6.0 volume percent of feed. Complete 2. The heat and material balance relationships at this sec' tion of the tower are determined by making a balance around Envelope n as shown on Figure 2. particular.Qdegree F tern. number of trays in each section and total number of trays in the tower.. any error inherent in the assumption is on the safe side. 5. Flash-zone pressure 2. An expanded view of this is illustrated by Figure 2.. r . Iy in the lower sections of the tower.. • . 1. use the estimated bubble point of the unstripped liquid from draw tray..'Some~investlgators have statedthat"1... Draw tray locations. . the assumption of Iineaitemperaiu~e"dropsbetween draw trays is recommended since' it results :ingreater reflux requirements and ~ower size. S. it is assumed that all the calculations outlined in the previous sections of this chapter have been performed and that the following have been fully defined.. Heat input to the base section of the tower from feed and bottoms-stripping steam. Reduced crude and lowest sidestrearn lire steam stripped at !_Q_ polillds stearn per barrel of product measured as 60 degree F liquid._t '~ ~~ . <~: '~'fd: '~: . First Sidestream Product Draw Tray t All these items must be completed further with calculations. .. Reflux heat is defined as the apparent heat imbalance between ex. !- . An increase .. These equations are to be used in the following sequence.19 which shows the equations used in making the calculations. ]_ Calculate the reflux heat.p_(!_~s_ratb_er tha_n in only the first sidest ream stripper will decrease draw tray temperatures of the second sidestream and all others above..7 psia. These external heat quantities are denoted as Q with appropriate subscripts to signify their location. perature rises are experienced between the draw tray and the first and second trays below the draw and that a 15 degree F drop occurs between the d raw tray and the one above. ill Note carefully the restrictions which apply and the indicated temperature variations which wiII occur as the process conditions differ from the stipulated bases .. •• . All other sidestreams are reboiled equivalent to the steam stripping at 10 pounds per barrel.Jill. . 4. Atmospheric Tower 29 At this point. uct hquid flowing to the side stream stripper. formation to the contrary is available. Having estimated draw tray temperatures and having set the operating pressures at key points in previous work. Overflash = 2.. ternal heat quantities at the point in question in the tower. this latter quantity does not enter into the heat balance. hydrocarbon material balance for feed and products. An increase in overflash will slightly decrease draw tray temperatures of the second sidestream product and all others above. use calculated dew point.. j ~ 4. before proceeding An increased stripping stearn rate will decrease product draw tray temperatures due to the reduced hydrocarbon partial pressures. For the total overhead product.18_ The following form the basis for this chart. It seems particularly suspicious in the light of stating that heat removal is more effective on one of two adjacent trays when both trays are handling markedly similar tluids~ ~nless specific process in. the heat contained in the internal vapors of products plus steam and the heat contained by a prod. QR at Tray DJ. This does not seem logical in many cases.. Estimate of Tower Operating Conditions 'i"~ "~~ Draw tray temperatures are estimated from the correlation of Figure 2. pers. 1. Steam rates to stripping sections and steam distribution between overhead distillate vapor and liquid. 3. 3.. "..1 .17.f _: I": 4. If the tray is ript a sidestream draw tray.. " II iii 'iii in flash-zone pressure will increase draw tray temperatures.

-OlVS11/q'.n HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS +QvODll QR . The reasoning behind this is that the product vapors which are to be withdrawn from draw trays above the next draw tray are .l1Q'fz-IQlOI l v 5 1 . In passing across the d raw tray.R-(HtOl-hto. 4. i Calculate the mole fraction of hydrocarbon product vapor in the total vapor leaving the draw tray. Heat and material balance quantities at first sidestream product draw tray-type U tower.-Dl----""'" QL 01 lyS' . Figure 2. l:O+lo+Sw l1Q'FZ 4 _/ ) La rL ENv. The hydrocarbon which is to be revaporized in the product stripper falls to the draw tray as part of the internal reflux from Tray (Dl + I) rather than rising to the tray as part of the product vapors..t 0 1+ 1 J L01+l-IO. fF . Calculate the heat?removal capability of the reflux available to the tray as qR_' Calculate the internal reflux required to absorb the eX'1 cess heat at Tray Dl as LD1+1 and convert it to moles 1 per hour... this liquid absorbs a small amount of the reflux heal.. 5.19.. 4 fL I I t'--.__ (t201= - S. It is included here for the sake of total definition of tower flows and heat quantities.. 3. 2. neglecting the presence of the product to be removed on the next draw tray up in the tower.. This heat absorption is calculated as QLSVI' Note from the example calculations that this heat quantity is quite small when compared to the reo flux heat and could be neglected with no discernible loss of accuracy. QSl tDI-30· F - 6 L6 Vos -VoFz-lo 5 VOFz .I l vs 111 q..~lI o c II f 01 .30 Petroleum Refinery Distillation EXTERNAL HEAT QUANTITIES Q'i ol-Q'i FZ +Q51 Q'OOI=Q'OFZ+QOl LlQ'oi {Q'i-Q'olol Vorol +l)=VODI +SI + 01 +1@Iol+1 lO1+4 __ VOOl=V05-01 QVODI 01@ 10' lo J \ _ VS1+S.

repeat the procedure for a new assumed temperature. For reboiled strippers. it is assumed to have no effect on the partial pressure. The temperature of the stripout returning to the atmospheric tower is assumed to be 10 de- . For steam strippers in atmospheric towers.20. If this temperature does not check the value which was originally assumed.4 Product Vapor to be Neglected In Partial-Pressure Calculations Oraw Tray D2 Product Vapor D3 6. they behave as noncondensibles and lower the boiling point of the product in accordance with Dalton's Law of partial pressures. Since the product vapor which is to be removed at the next higher draw tray will be near its critical temperature as it leaves this lower draw tray. The vapor pressure data in Maxwell. D3 D4 *To be considered D4 D5 . Table 2. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to the base of Tray (D I + 1)_ This will include the heat input to the system by the steam to the product stripper and the heat output from the system in the product liquid D I. a temperature drop of 30 degrees F for the liquid from the draw tray to the stripper outlet is assumed arbitrarily. Calculate the hydrocarbon product partial pressure in the total vapor leaving the draw tray and convert the atmospheric bubble point of the unstripped liquid product on the tray to this partial pressure. like the steam. above their critical temperatures when they are at the temperature of the tray under studyv Thus. is recommended for this conversion.Atmospheric ON +1 YSN@ OY5N Tower 31 I( tON t- 10· F) _j_ 4 3 2 1 QRN ON@loN O'N=(ON + lYSN)aloN L QO'N I DN@12oN At =( lON+300F) V 0 ON Figure 2. a liquid temperature rise of 30 degrees F is assumed from the draw tray to the stripper outlet. 7. Section 4. and for this reason.V5* as an inert gas. Heat and material balance quantities around a reboiled stripper. its presence is neglected.

ENv. This is an economical approach since steam increases the size of the tower and the overhead condenser and. . grees F hotter than the temperature of the draw tray...s +Sw+S. ENV.c 32 Petroleum Refinery Distillation Ii> (VON +VtR) =(VS+D.~.20.JY It " 1 r . H ARSON PARTIAL PRESSURE ABOVE P'HC -{PIN) ILII +051/ III + 05+Sw +5..1 REFLUX ON (htN-h'II/(H FOR HEAT TRAY N tN-1 .s+5w +5. A (2) U ""QR/q·. also. (2) OVERALL 01 -60'04 BALAN CE +OOS+Ol') SYSTEM HEAT BALANCE -( OV5+0H20 +Oos) VLRI-lOvs+QH20 Figure 2. since steam requires greater capacities in facilities for boiler feedwater preparation and for treating the sour water effluent from the condenser. QVS V:.) QIVON +VlRI +LR r-----t- . • ~" ~'. '" VON = VOO" = V:... = ~Q'O"-QVN (q'R)LI . • ~ !. (HIN -1111) m . .. 1 . . The procedure for calculating the heat duty of the reboiler is illustrated by Figure 2.. .. ~. Heat and material balance quantities at top tray and condenser. " ....h'N I] ENVELOPE 1Y TRAY N (3) INO E {Ri IN -ILII EQUATIONS (1) CONDENSER QR =QlvON+ ~A· .m EQUATIONS FOR ENVElOPE (1) HEAT BALANC E O. . .. The trend in recent years has been to specify reboiled strippers wherever thermally possible.21.+D. .

.1 ". Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities at Tray N. in making partial pressure calculations. it must now be determined whether or not the fractionation specifications can be met with the resulting configuration of trays and reflux. read the ASTM (5-95) Gap for the various separations and compare them with the reo quired values. calculate the reflux from all draw trays and from the top tray by making a heat balance around the system at all trays below these just mentioned. Calculate these reflux flows as both moles and volumes. Calculate the amount of reflux from the condenser which is required to absorb the excess heat at Tray N as LR and convert it to moles per hour. Top Tray Calculations The heat and material balance relationships at the top tray are determined by making a balance around Envelope III as shown on Figure 2. the presence of the next higher product vapor in the total vapor leaving the draw tray must be neglected. assume a new temperature and repeat the procedure. 7. Figure 2. If this calculated temperature does not check the value originally assumed. Qc is also calculated by an overall system heat balance. Other Sidestream The remaining sidestream draw trays are calculated by the same procedure as that outlined in the previous step. An expanded view of this calculation is given in Figure 2. a serious error has been made somewhere in the calculations. This principle is summarized in Table 2A. certainly by less than 10 percent. 3.21. Induced reflux is the amount of vapor from Tray (N . uct 5. The separation factor. the effect on reflux will be slight. unless the change in configuration is drastic. reflux in a Type U system may be defined as constant for a given material balance. Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure of the overhead distillate liquid plus reflux in the total vapor leaving Tray N. Remember that. F. 3. a slight variation in calculated temperatures will result by altering draw tray locations. Because of tray pressure drop. This leads into the study of the two types of towers employing heat removal systems. From Packie's curves. These equations are to be used in the following sequence. . 2. Calculate the difference between the ASTM 50 volume percent temperatures of the product and that of the total remaining lighter products. Convert the atmospheric dew point of the distillate liquid product to this partial pressure. there will always be an excess of "trays X reflux".21 shows an expanded view of this section of the tower and gives the equations to be used in making the calculations. Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities to the base of Tray CDI + 1). Calculate the reflux induced on the top tray.21. but. 6. 4. Condenser The condenser duty is calculated by making a heat balance around Envelope IV in Figure 2.6 and 2. 1. in Figure 2. Referring back to figures 2. Calculate the reflux heat above the top tray. This leads to the conclusion that. The reflux which exists in the tower is determined principally by the definition of the material balance and is influenced relatively little by draw tray locations. Calculate the reflux ratio as the volume of reflux from the draw tray per volume of total product vapors entering the d raw tray. and the work must be repeated until a satisfactory check is obtained. 1) which enters and is condensed on Tray N for the purpose of raising the reflux liquid from its temperature leaving the reflux drum to that of the top tray. Calculate the heat removal capability of the available reflux. neglecting the hydrocarbon portion of the distillate vapor prod- Having completed the heat and material balance calculations around the atmospheric tower and its auxiliaries. one can reduce reflux and thus reduce tower size while still being able to meet fractionation specifications. Product Draw Trays Fractionation Capability of the System Tower 33 of the absolute value of Qc Ifnot. Since Packie's reflux ratio is defined in terms of liquid falling from a draw tray. Calculations and Overall Heat Balance 2.Atmospheric 8. 1. the technique for analyzing fractionation capability is outlined by the following procedure. These temperatures on the trays below draw trays are arrived at by the assumption of linear temperature variation between draw trays. Note that. Thus. is the product of this reflux ratio and the number of actual trays in the section. say by four trays or more. 4. The two values should check to within 2 percent For a Type U system using conventional numbers of trays between draw trays and requiring normal separations. for all practical purposes.17.7. by removing heat from the system at points relatively low in the tower. Calculate the mole fraction of hydrocarbon product vapor in the total vapor leaving the top tray.17.

22. ('\. L------L----------~----------~--005 05 Y " (1...Fl +QSl Q'OOI=O'ofZ +001+0CI 01+1 =( Q'i-Q'O) 02 012 02 OD2 01 SI OSI 01 001 Q'iFZ=QF +Qsw O'OFZ-OW EN¥.. 0'i03=0'i02 +OR3 0'003=0'0024-003 +0C3 03 +1 03 OR3 004 04 ('. Type R.01 +OR2 0'002 .I Figure 2.. o ('. OJ °OJ D3-1 0'i02 =0'. w .n 60 'FI =( O'i -0'0) ~----~--------------------------------~~Ow ENV..0'001 +002 4-0c 2 t\0'02 D2+ 1 02 02-1 Q'lol=.Q'.-_+-- -- " Y5 QV5 (l (\ . m Fl ENV..~ 04 + 1 04 04-1 OR4 QH20 ~ <1 (l ~---------------... Heat and material balance summary-atmospheric tower. ~.0(0) 04 L-_~------------H20 ENV. (1 EXTERNAL HEAT OUAN TIT! E S 0'i04=0'i03 +OR4 0'004= 0'003 +004 +OC4 LlO'04=( O'i .I E NY.r) 1'\ 34 Petroleum Refinery Distillation .

this would necessitate a significantly greater atmospheric tower diameter as well as larger facilities for boiler feedwater treating and for handling of foul condensate from the tower overhead. All other sidestreams are reboiled equivalent to steam stripping at 10 pounds per barrel. The following form the basis for this chart. use the estimated bubble point of unstripped liquid from the draw trays. 4.22_ before proceeding All these items must be completed further with calculations. 6_ . The top tray temperature is calculated by the same procedure. SUmmilry of Vapor-Liquid Traffic Preliminary Tabulate the flows of vapor and liquid at all key trays in the tower as moles per hour. Draw tray locations.e. The method is based upon assuming a draw tray temperature 3. This implies an incorrect choice of draw tray location. The method of splitting the draw tray exit liquid upstream of the product stripper is the preferred arrangement from the viewpoint of operating economy. For overhead product.7 psia. measured as 60 degree F liquid. In view of this. This internal reflux to the draw tray defines the hydrocarbon product partial pressure in the vapor above the tray. Steps it is assumed Tower 35 and then calculating the in ternal reflux required by the system's heat balance. While the former arrangement requires two sets of pumps and heat exchangers as opposed to only one set required by the latter. Flash zone pressure= 24. The reflux is pumped back to the tower after cooling rather than overflowing internally from the draw tray to the tray below as in the case of Type U and Type A systems. the conditions in the heavy naphtha-light distillate section has considerably less excess "trays x reflux" than do all the other sections.While there is more than enough "trays x reflux" for the required separations. Converting the 14_7 psia bubble point of the unstripped liquid to this partial pressure gives a temperature which must check the assumed value. 1_ 2_ 3. stripping of reflux in addition to the product will require total heat inputs to the strippers considerably greater than that required for stripping only products. unstripped pumpback reflux is used at each sidestrearn draw tray. heat outflow in the bottoms liquid and external heat quantities at the flash zone.. Figure 2_22 will be the basis for discussing the heat and material balance calculations in this section. This section outlines procedures for calculating product draw tray temperatures at all points in the system and for making an overall heat balance around the tower. At this point. Hydrocarbon material balances around product strippers. In this type of installation. 4_ 5. i. Heat input to the base section of the tower from feed and bottoms stripping steam. For sidestream products. that the following have Complete hydrocarbon material balance for feed and products. the pumpback reflux will be a significantly greater volume than the product. use the calculated dew point. 5. In most cases. except that the reference temperature is the 14. If steam stripping were used rather than reboiling. sidestream draw trays are total draws. Reduced crude and lowest sidestream are steam stripped at 10 pounds steam per barrel of product. Overflash = 2_0 volume percent of feed. in the Type U calculation example. The alternate processing arrangement allows the total liquid to flow to the stripper.Atmospheric Another facet of the results of the analysis of fractionation capability is that. Estimate of Tower Operating Conditions Draw tray temperatures are estimated from the correlation of Figure 2.23. Atmospheric EFV temperatures for products corresponding to the estimated stripout for each product.7 psia dew point of the gross overhead product. Cooled. The stripped liquid is cooled and then split into product and pumpback reflux. the additional operating cost for stripping the reflux more than offsets the differences in capital investment. This bottoms-section heat balance is shown on Envelope I in Figure 2. been fully defined. Heat and Material Balance Calculations for Type R Towers 2. 6. the total liquid leaving the draw tray-sidestream product plus reflux to the tray below-is withdrawn from the tower. Steam rates to stripping sections and steam distribution between overhead distillate vapor and liquid. number of trays in each section and total number of trays in the tower. there appears to be a slight imbalance between the various sections. This plot will be of great assistance in tower sizing calculations. I. A complete Type R tower is shown in Figure 2_22_ This drawing illustrates the basic process and its essential auxiliaries as well as the external heat and material balance quantities. Plot these values versus tray number as vapor from tray and liquid to tray.

5.!- "". e e' e: 3. -t . H:HH ' Ii. Use of stripping steam in all product strippers rather than in only the first sidestream stripper will decrease draw tray temperatures of the second sidestream and all others above.36 Petroleum Refinery Distillation .. - 1+ + .8 rH . ttl "HH-FH rHr' 'j +++ . H. Stripping of reflux in addition to stripping the product will increase heat input to the system.. I. II c . ~. R tower.. . '+-i. An increased stripping steam rate will decrease product draw tray temperatures due to the reduced hydrocarbon partial pressures.j t- l± . t+.23. ~j ~~ e (IA' . -r' . DrawlTray temperatures-Type Note carefully the restrictions which apply and the indicated temperature variations which will occur as the process conditions differ from the stipulated bases. ~++ . - • 't ~ I. If this is by . tit .. An increase in overflash will slightly decrease draw tray temperatures of the second sidestream product and all others above.' ._ Figure 2. . 4.. An increase in flash zone pressure will increase draw tray temperatures..+1+ '1- I+H+ -'-tt ' +i+ -t =R:t". 2. ~. t.. .

temperatures at the next draw tray upward and all those higher will be increased. and later. In design work. °YOOI-l 01-I@tOI_1 J .m ENV.)/q'R Figure 2. (2) ABOVE TRAY 02 .V OOI-2 =VOFZ-lo 01-2 e 101-2 ENv.OYOOI-lI q'R= (Hlol-l-htOCIl n Lo. reboiling. plot a temperature and pressure profile for the tower by assuming linear change between draw trays. Having estimated draw tray temperatures and having set the operating pressure profile in previous work. Estimating the temperature of the cooled pumpback reflux requires a good deal of experience with the crude oil upon which the design is being based./q'. unfortunately.24.Atmospheric Tower 37 EXTERNA L HEAT QUANTITIES VOOHI O'i 01 =O'iFl +Qsl 0'001Q'OFZ +QCl 6Q'01=(Q'i -Q'oIOI +QOI = VOOI +SI . Heat and material balance quantities at first sidestream product draw tray-Type R tower.(HtOlhI01+I) TRAY L01+. If this is by steam stripping.~.-(QR-OlYS. after the heat duties and temperature levels of all . this temperature must be estimated. however.'" O.ENVELOPE m OR =[(~Q'FZ +QLD1) ~OVOOl +OO'I)J OlYSl =/LVS')(Cj(tOl-tOH-l) q'R . this is usually only available in an operations-analysis situation. 01+1@101+1 VOOI=VOOI-l-Ol °VOOl V001-1 . and. n HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS (1) ABOVE TRAY(Ol-l)-ENVElOPE OR "" IZ'io'FZ . these temperatures will be lowered due to the reduction of hydrocarbon partial pressures.

. repeat the procedure for a new assumed temperature. Calculate the internal reflux from Tray (01 + I) which is required to absorb the excess heat at Tray 01. ~. 10_ ~..: j. 6. it is usually not necessary to revise the assumed temperature of the cooled pumpback reflux unless. . some latitude is available in choosing the cool reflux temperatures.22. and the pumpback reflux. if the process is LO be designed for stripping of the pumpback reflux. a gross error was made in assuming the draw tray temperature.. Calculate the heat content of this stream as it reenters the tower. This subject would be more fittingly treated in a work on process optimization and is mentioned here to alert the reader to possible difficulties which will result from assuming unrealistic cool reflux temperatures.1) as the amount of vapor from Tray (D1 ~ 2) which enters and is condensed on Tray (01 .. The remaining sidestream draw trays are calculated by the same procedure as that outlined in the previous step. it must be verified that the crude oil in being preheated is capable of absorbing the heat from the purnpback reflux streams. Product Draw Trays the reflux coolers have been determined. and this will exert a far greater influence on the design of the heat exchange equipment than will the assumed temperature levels alone. .I) for the purpose of converting the subcooled pumpback reflux liquid to its bubble point.) 38 Petroleum Refinery Distillation ~ the exit liquid. It should be remembered that most designs will be based on several different operations. 3. I I ~: I ~ I C" ~. thus. -\. for the purpose of this calculation. 5.. 8. The key point is not to assume a temperature level which is unattainably low. I I I . in making partial pressure calculations. . Balance above Tray 0 I-Envelope III Top Tray Calculations The heat and material balance relationships at the top tray are determined by making a balance around Envelope IV as shown in Figure 2.1. If this temperature does not check the value assumed earlier. Convert the atmospheric bubble point of the unstripped liquid on the draw tray to this partial pressure. which also gives the equations to be used in making the calculations. 4. Calculate the reflux induced on Tray (01 . t 1 . is not considered part of . and each case must be studied on an individual basis in order to arrive at the most economical processing scheme. Calculate the heat effect at the sidestream stripper. 3.- .. Note that most of these points have already been encountered in the discussion of the Type U tower. Remember that. Calculate the heat removal capability of the internal reflux falling from Tray (D j + I). I I 9.21. These equations are to be used in the following sequence.'. Since a large portion of the reflux heat removal is accomplished by the latent heat of vaporization and a reiatively small portion by sensible heat. the stripout liquid falling to Tray D1 will be accordingly greater. . for some reason.. (\" ~. Also note that. I~ . The detailed flows around this section of the tower and the equations to be used in the calculations are the same as those given in Figure 2. . . Thus.22.--. <l (l (1 (1' (1' (1.' --. Calculate the reflux heat at Tray D I. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to the base of Tray (01 + 1)."' . _. Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure of product in the total vapor leaving the draw tray. 1)-Envelope /I Other Sidestream Calculate the reflux heat at Tray DI . Calculate the heat removal capability of the cooled pumpback reflux. but low values will require redoing the work. remembering to neglect the presence in the vapor of the product which is to be withdrawn on the next draw tray Up in the tower. First Sidestream Product Draw Tray ('t (l 2. 7. 2. (1 ~ The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making two balances which are shown as Envelopes II and III on Figure 2. detailed discussion will be presented here only to explain new concepts. Optimizing the crude preheat-tower cooling heat-exchange train is the heart of crude unit design. D 1. the presence of the next higher product vapor in the total vapor leaving the draw tray must be neglected. Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities to the base of Tray (01 + 1). Calculate the mole fraction of product vapors in the total vapors leaving the draw tray. cI I ~ I I ~" ~ '" I . The liquid leaving this draw tray is the sum of the product. Balance above Tray (011.. Calculate the heat absorbed by the stripout liquid in passing across the draw tray. Calculate the amount of cool pumpback reflux which is required to absorb the reflux heat at Tray (D1 . High values can be adjusted downward.~ " .1). If recalculation is required. LD1· The liquid which is revaporized in the product stripper falls to the draw tray as a small part of the reflux from Tray (D I + J) and. 1. An expanded view of these is illustrated by Figure 2_24.' '" 4.

m Q'iOl == O'in +051 Q'OFZ +QOl Q'OOI 8 Q' ol-IQ'i -0'0101 7- ENV..25.. -Q'o 1 Fl F QF 4 La cr SI -051 Sw Qsw 1 1 ENV. N EXTERNAL QUANTIT Q'i04=0'ioJ 0'004 ~O'o Oc HEAT IES + 0114 (I r Y ~ D Q'OOJ + 00" . w Ow . =(Q'i . TvpeA with two pumparound circuits. I Figure 2..n D1+1 01 L ~ (p OPAl 6 n!_ Q'iFZ-Of+ Q'OFZ -OW 80'fZ-IQ'i OSW 5 .0'0)0" + QPA2 04 +1 04 04-1 - L OR" ~ QpA2 0'i03 0'003 =0'i02 0'002 +O~J +003 -0'0)03 03 +1 L ~ L_ llOR3 ~0'03=(Q'i 03 0' i02 -=0' i 01 +OR2 0'002=0'001 +002 + OPAl 02 +1 ~0'D2-{0'i-Q'0102 02 L 6 ~QR2 • • ENV. Heat and material balance summary-atmospheric tower.

3. However. 2. Plot these values versus tray number as vapor from tray and liquid to tray. the following procedures are written accordingly. Assume no pump around heat removal in the section. In terms of the first side stream draw tray. Heat and Material Balance Calculations for Type A Towers A complete Type A Tower is shown in Figure 2. this is calculated by making a heat balance above Tray (01 . The only new point to be considered here is the definition of reflux from the draw tray. Reflux Considerations Internal Tabulate the flows of vapor and liquid at all key trays in the tower as moles per hour. The two values must check to within 2 percent of the absolute value of the condenser duty. In each section of the tower.2) and then calculating the internal reflux from Tray (01 . Summary of Vapor-Liquid Traffic A complete heat and material balance. the optimum can be found rather easily in subsequent iterations. For purposes of comparison. reflux is defined as the volume of liquid falling from the tray below the draw tray. a given material balance expressed in terms of ASTM 50 volume percent temperature difference and a given number of trays in the separation section. called F. these three trays are defined as being equivalent to one actual tray. Complete temperature and pressure profile. b. Draw tray locations and total number of trays. there is a value. thus affording feed preheat which is an obvious operating economy. a. . the optimum design of a crude unit utilizes crude oil as the coolant for the various tower heat removals. These calculations must be made for two cases. Thus. It is an inherent property of a Type U tower and a given material balance that. Fractionation Capability of the System This procedure is based on the assumption that a cornplete heat and material balance has been calculated for the process as a Type U tower. a minimum allowable reflux falling from draw trays can be calculated. Since.1) which is required to absorb the excess heat. This plot is of great value in tower design. Reflux volumetric flow rates from all draw trays and the top tray. note the reflux available in the tower as a Type U system. 2.: t: . which is the product of the number of actual trays and the volumetric reflux ratio in the section. this work is more concerned with the principles of petroleum fractionation rather than those of process optimization. nor would every tower employ two systems. 1. Looking back to Packie's work. This subject has been discussed in detail earlier in this work. by definition.22. the number of trays to be used in Packie's F -Factor is two less than the actual number of trays. the number of trays to be used in Packie's F-Factor is the actual number of trays in the section. This analysis contains the following things. there is some flexibility in the choice of draw tray locations and in the design of the pumparound systems.40 Condenser Petroleum Refinery Distillation Preliminary Steps Calculations and Overall Heat Balance The condenser duty is calculated by making a heat balance around Envelope V on Figure 2. it is known that for a given separation requirement expressed as (5·95) Gap.25. The two pumparound heat removal systems which are shown are for a typical installation and would not necessarily be located in these particular sections of the tower. This method may not always result in an optimum design after completion of the first calculation. 4. As will be seen in the development of the design procedure. It is minimum allowable operating reflux for the specified number of trays and the required separation. This drawing illustrates the basic process and its essential auxiliaries as well as the external heat and material balance quantities. assume a three-tray heat removal system. Based on Packie's analysis. Any modification to the system which removes tower heat will lower tower temperatures. For purposes of Packie's analysis. Thus. As in the case of the Type R tower. since internal reflux flows are at their maximum values. calculate the minimum reflux which must be available from the product draw trays to make the required separation. This must be checked against an overall system heat balance. The final task of the designer is to verify that the assumed thermal aspects of the design are practically attainable. For fractionation purposes. Calculation of Minimum Reflux 1. column temperatures will also be at their maximum levels. This is not minimum reflux in the sense that infinite plates are required for the separation. Thus.

Q'Ol-(Qv002 +Ql02 +QPA1/ QLYS2 =: 1 LV5211fli 102 -'02+1) q'R =(Hf02 -hf02+1) L 02+1(Q. and they are seldom in adjacent sections.HEAT EXTERNAL QUAN TITlES Q'j02=Q'iol Q'002=Q'001 ~Q'02= +QR2 +QPAI V002+ 1 +Q02 D2+ Atmospheric Tower 41 1 e 102+1 LOH1.0.(Q v002-1 }C~ II ---. By comparing the reflux available from a Type U oper· ation with minimum reflux requirements for sections having pumparound systems.m ENV. 1.Dl + S1 HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS (1) ABOVE TRAY (02-1) -E NVElOPE +Q) ~AI QR-Lo2(H'02-1-h'02) Q • -LlAQ' 01. For all sections.. two systems are employed. TRAY 02 = P'HC =IPT021(!lo2+1)/lLo2+1 at second sidestream product Figure 2. removal systems.r QPAP=LlQ'01-l02 A ( Hf02-1-hI02 ) -QY002-1 (2) ABOVE TRAY 0 -ENVELOPE QR =t!. From the Type U calculations.QPA 1/1 hfa .I t Vo 01 = Vo F Z - LO.0'0102 V002=V001-D2 QY002 D2 e t02 l02 V002-1 =:V001 QV002-1 D2-1 ~ '02-1 4'-_ ..QlYS21/q_'R m (3) PUMPAROUNO CIRCULATION RATE lPA 1 . assume that the change in flows across the draw trays will be the same as estimated in Step 2. . VS2 (Q'i .II ENY. Heat and material balance quantities Estimate of Reflux to Draw Trays at Minimum Reflux Conditions draw tray-Type 2.h 12a I QPAI/ lell la-f2a) H YOROCA~BON PART IAL PR ESSU RE ABOVE +V002-D3U A tower. determine the reflux to all draw trays as a function of the total overflow from the draw trays. select the appropriate sections in the column for location of pumparound heat 3./ 8Q'0 D1+1 ~?+---?~~?~----------~ ENV. In all cases. QR2 La +3 [a+2)~ 'a+2 '2a QpA1 D2 Q02 a@ fa La 4- I .26. this fraction will be less than 1. Normally.

the reflux heat above Tray (02 . 8. . The heat which must be removed in the pumparound circuit is now computed from known heat quantities. . Calculate draw tray temperatures for the case of minimum reflux operation. 3. Calculate the heat effect at the side stream stripper.~ I I I I I I I I I I I I Estimate By definition. remember to neglect the presence in the total vapor leaving the draw tray of the product to be removed on the next draw tray up in the tower.." First Sidestream Product Draw Tray I I I I I I Since there is no pumparound heat removal system in the section between the flash zone and the first sidestrearn product draw tray.~ . Thus.. The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making two balances which are shown as Envelopes H and III on Figure 2. 2. From Step 3. calculatetlte circulation rate of this stream. Calculate the reflux heat above Tray 02. the location of pumparound will usually be predetermined. of Tower Operating Temperatures for Design These are conventional calculations above a draw tray and have been covered in detail in earlier portions of this work.25. Thus. Calculate the reflux required to absorb the excess heat above Tray 02. Calculate the heat removal capability of the reflux available to the draw tray from the tray above. The sequence of calculations is discussed as follows. a section conno pumparound is calculated as a conventional Type tray which has been covered earlier. I..~ r1 ~ . .:''- I Top Tray Calculations Normally.. the results of the calculations for this tray will be the same as for a Type U tower. there will be no pumparound system in the section between the highest sidestrearn product draw tray and the top tray.. calculate the internal reflux falling to the the location draw trays. I. This is shown as Envelope I in Figure 2."'. 10.. Second $idestream Product Draw Tray ~ '. . By definition of a minimum reflux operation. Calculate the heat absorbed in passing across the draw tray by the liquid which is to be revaporized in the sidestream product stripper.21. An expanded view of this section is illustrated by Figure 2.I).I The following discussion assumes a pumparound systern between the first and second sidestream product draw trays. There will seldom be any discrepancy between this temperature and the value estimated from the minimum reflux calculations.1) has been preset as the . 4. This will provide an adequate temperature difference within the tower for the required heat transfer. 9. 6.". The sequence of calculations is as Follows..i . Assume that the returning pumparound liquid is 150 degrees F cooler than the tray to which it is being returned. 5. it is calculated in the normal manner for a top tray as illustrated by Figure 2. to the base of Tray (02 + I). neglecting the presence of the product to be removed at the next higher draw tray. 2. Calculate the heat content of the product vapors plus steam leaving Tray (02 . Estimate of Draw Reflux Tray Temperatures Conditions .Envelope 1/ '. . ". Since this also sets the temperature difference for the pump around liquid. 7.-."1 . "Estimate of Draw Tray Temperatures at Minimum Reflux Condi tions.26 which also gives the equations which are to be used in making the calculations. Convert the atmospheric bubble point of the product liquid flowing to the stripper to this partial pressure. Keeping this in mind.~.fr 1\ 42 Petroleum Refinery Distillation ~ '11 ~ of pump3.25. amount which can be absorbed by the predetermined available reflux.Il (l ('1 at Minimum Balance above Trey D2-Envelope 1. Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure of the product vapor in the total vapor leaving the draw tray. In making these calculations. Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities.. Plot a temperature-pressure proflle for the tower. There will be two temperature profiles-one for the maximum values (Type U) and one for the minimum values (minimum reflux).. Balance above Tray (D2 1). Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to thebaseofTray(02+ I).. the reflux from the upper draw tray in a section employing a pumparound system will be the minimum value. III i l 4. taking into account around systems. estimate the draw tray temperatures and plot this profile on the one developed in the previous section. 2. In systems taining U draw setting up a design.

and an overhead yielded as two products.: D. no. EXAMPLE BALANCE TYPE HEAT AND MATERIAL CALCULATIONS TOWER U ATMOSPHERIC f The following calculations will illustrate in detail the procedure for calculating the heat and material balance quantities around a Type U atmospheric crude tower. 1970).1 0. 51-78. vall Nostrand Co .1 2. Nelson. Thus.5 34. 3.1 6. the fractionation capability is known as a part of the design input. 157. W. Process A. 6. from and vapor to the bottom tray in all pumpsystems. (February 1957). Ends Analysis bbl. Petroleum Refinery Engineering. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics (Houston: Gulf Publishing Co. 2.J. J." Petroleum Refiner 36. 1965).0 4.\ Symposium on Crude Oil DIstillation.3 2. "NI'R.Eerties of 36. J. one liquid and one vapor. pp. 2.." A [ChE Transactions 37 (1941). 0. four sidedraw distillates. Inc. another pumparound system may be provided.Atmospheric However.1 1. 5. 93-105. Pack ie . (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. A side implication of this is that the apportionment of trays between the various sections was incorrect. Edmister.9 1. Rate Light ComE' = 50.000 barrels per stream 100 bbl. it becomes obvious that there is still a good deal of excess reflux leaving the top tray.7 13. Winn. Feed day (BPSD). 4th ed.4 4. per of Oil C2H6 C3R8 iC4HIO nC4HIO iC5H12 nC 5H12 Total 13 177 276 760 459 397 2082 . Liquid round Liquid around to and vapor from the top tray in all pumpasystems.. Data Boo]: 011 ll y drocarb ons (Princeton. It is necessary to calculate and to tabulate vapor and liquid quantities at the following locations in addition to those already determined.e. The design will be based on fractionating dry crude feed into a residuum. pp.8 8. moles 0. 1. Design Basis API Crude Oil t Pro. In calculating a Type A tower. Summary of Vapor-Liquid Traffic W. the calculations required here are routine and have been discussed in full detail in earlier portions of this work. References 1.B. Maxwell. F. p.4 2.30 l." Oil and Gas Journal (March 30..6 1b. N. "Physical Properties by Nomogram.L. 1961).W. -. if in the actual design calculations. 2. Fractionation Capability of the System Tower 43 1. 4. "Distillation Equipment in the Oil Refining Industry.4 5.W. 1958).

volume-mole-weight relationships. • .. .. The volume-male-weight relationship crude is plotted on Fig... "F EFV Distillations EFV.. VOt.. ~ o l: 20 VOLUME 40 PERCENT 60 OVER 10 Figure 2.. .. 2 .. 190 235 304 366 429 493 555 619 685 727 for the whole "F 62 144 255 344 437 531 623 717 819 897 4..27 ..44 Petroleum Refinery 0 istil lation WT."!.3 degree API crude.. 3. u w __. 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 85 % TBP.36.27."!.. s. TBP and Atmos12heric Vol. .. .. .. ILu Z U Q< Lu c.t.

Product Light Naphtha Heavy Naphtha Light Distillate Heavy Distillate Atmos. Zone Calculations 2. To insure adequate fractionation between streams. Heavy distillate and all lighter sidestreams will be reboil-stripped removing an amount of the stripper feed equivalent to steam stripping at a rate of 10 lb./bbl. be 700°F at the outlet and 30 psia. Flash The conditions at the furnace outlet have been preset at 700°F and 30 psia.0 psia. ASTM t I drum will operate Pressure drop between the reflux tray will be 5.0 vol. together with the feed-flash liquid. Gas Oil Residuum C.Atmospheric Tower 45 B. Product Specifications This process will be designed to yield./bbl. light distillate. as specification distillates. light naphtha as an overhead and heavy naphtha. Atmospheric gas oil will also be yielded as a sidedraw liquid as it is available from the total crude vaporization minus (total specification products + overflash). of +25 +35 +10 +5 No Spec. Criteria for setting are as follows. Atmospheric gas oil and the tower bottoms will be stripped with 65 psia. and heavy distillate as sidedraws. It will overflow from the first tray above the flash zone and. the top Pressure drop between the top tray zone will be 5. 3. of net stripped liquid. Conditions D. material of balance (5-95) . of the crude Overflash will be set at 2. Datum Points at l20°F drum and and 15. product stripping of all sidestreams and the tower bottoms is specified.. '" . The reflux ASTM the design End Point. 275 380 560 650 No Spec. Pressure-Temperature 12. net stripped liquid. will fall to the residuum stripping section. and the flash heater will 4 .0 psia. percent of whole crude feed. -500°F steam at a rate of 10 lb.0 psia. ·Using Maxwell's vapor pressure- .

/hr. bbl.2 vol. respectively. Vapor bbl. Vapor feed 2. I \ ! I 1.508 416./hr.. . percent of the feed. ./hr. MMBTU/hr. ~' ~ .I ~ c: I I I • (.765 + (185.. the stripout from residuum in a 4-tray section is 1.4 bbl. e. Taking a design basis of time as 1 hour. ./hr. @ 46.512 This checks QFO calculated above.4 vol.~ From Figure 2. The temperature and vapor-liquid equilibrium conditions existing there must be determined by a trialand-error procedure. of stripped liquid. percent of the amount fed when the steam rate is 10 lb. the total pressure is 25 psia. In subsequent calculations. Crude Therefore.480 2.740 " -. ..6" API... @ 11. Over flash Feed flash == 41.8 wt. At the entrance to the tower. of the feed. is now calculated == = == 1./hr. 1- ~ I'll' Liquid The heat as QFO 575 bbl. from Figure 2. = 428~765 Ib./hr.00~.7 liquid bbl.1 . " ~'" t • If.. ~ leaving the furnace. calculated x 453) == I I content == as 337. = I ~eI I eI eI I I ./hr.145 MMBTU/hr.784 mol./hr.. Thus. percent. Assuming a temperature of 695°F./hr./bbl.8 wt.. is equivalent to 67. 46 Petroleum Refinery Distillation temperature nomogram. @ 47./hr.. . ¥. it is seen that the total feed to the residuum stripping section is the sum of the feed flash liquid and the overflash. 0 • ~ ~./hr.747 lb.277 bbl. this results in the vaporization of 72. (428..747 x 456) 337. lb.512 lb.2 vol.4 bbl. Referring to Figure 2~11. to the process 12.083 614.9° of the feed x 590) is now API. • Il~.I ~ -. '> ~ 537./hr. . @ 152 mol.4° input == by the feed ~ l" (416.480 x 593) + (197.. I .. .6 wt.~ ".13.9 API 2.-.. this results in the vaporization of 74.545. 1b. @ " wt. QFZI will be the value used rather heat balance than QFO. 185. API. moles/hr. percent which.27. @ 154 mol. percent and 69. ../hr. 197. ' '~" I I Liquid The heat QFZI == = 537..

zone Therefore. • ./500°F stripping = 5722 x 1283 = 7. MMBTU/hr.0 psia.4 + 317. Evaluation and Product Properties Product cut Distillations By a trial-and-error procedure./hr. Using Qsw 65 pSia./hr.5 bbl.5 bbl. @ 159 mol./hr.569 x 427) = 83.704.9 mol.2 +41. leaves the tower at 660°F.7 pSia.0 wt. Total hydrocarbon vapor leaving flash zone is (F -W +LO) and is equal to (2083 -572. wt. the external the flash zone are.012 x 579./hr.9 bbl.~ 1 Using Maxwell's nomogram.9) 3022. Thus.1 bbl/hr.722 Ib.2 bbl. W.1 = 6.1 -6. percent and 70. total hydrocarbon vapor from flash zone 1552./bbl. the hydrocarbon partial pressure at a total pressure of 25. = W = 579. percent temperature of 648°F converts to 690°F at 22.994 lb.5 vol.9 steam to tower = bottoms 572. -. ! i r· 3. 196.4/3022. 429./hr.935 = (Qi .935 MMBTU/hr • steam. the whole crude is into fractions satisfying the boiling range and .5 vol./hr.3 in the flash mol.QO)FZ QFZI + Qsw = 344. heat quantities In summation.414 MMBTU/hr. Total vapor from flash zone = (hydrocarbon + Sw) (2704. percent of the crude feed./hr. is ~ PHC = 25.341 MMBTU/hr.349 ·MMBTU/hr./74.552. to the top of 6QFZ Crude A. Thus. @ 47. Qw = (196. = 260. @ 10 Ib. the bottoms liqUid. which is 74. 317.4 psia.3) = 22. This is the flash zone temperature..Atmospheric Tower 47 Stripping Stripout Net section feed = 579./hr. Qoyz Q~LFZ = Qw = 83.569 lb.4 psia./hr.4 mol. Sw 5.0 (2704. = 0.7) = 1. the 14./hr.1° API 2. Assuming a 30°F temperature drop across the stripping section.

I [DI$T.._----!:. DISl. (". ~. I . TBP curves for atmospheric tower feed and products. ...~: -'I ' ~ :~l '_::.{ ('t . . Ii I I.S ('t (1' +OVERFLASH PfI!ODUCTSl J ~...t. I I ... ''Ij .... !:(DIST.L...( (l ~ •.I .28. I I I C' - .. .: . (l -. II' i" ... 36... I ~ • -. I .3 degree API crude..3 H'w'T_ 32.__~--':2~0 --~L.._--CI~O OVER ~-~--. I I "" I I 'UCENT Figure 2. L LT.2 HV'I'. -200::--0 --J...: i tt..1 NAPHTHA IT DUT S2.. I . ~ (' " -.O -_l~~~-f.. f\' () . NAP:HTHA 19." .:-60 VOLUME ~-~--'--.. C" I eI c 'I cI I I ~ I . . ~...

B.28 shows the proper apportionment and TBP distillations. Light Distillate I . Edmister's are used to techniques convert the TBP's to ASTM & EFV distillations. I ~ ~ I • • AtmosEheric 0 10 30 50 Gas Oil 698 703 711 716 ASTM By plotting the ASTM distillations. Figures 2.537) .Atmospheric Tower 49 (5-9 5) gap criteria defined in Section l. Figure 2.15 and 2. D . The data is summarized as follows. the following (5-95) gap requirements are obtained. 50 70 90 100 0 10 30 50 70 90 100 0 10 30 50 70 90 100 D Heav::i:istillate 0 10 30 50 70 90 100 0 10 30 50 % TBP2 140 187 237 295 199 237 277 305 328 363 398 332 376 420 457 495 542 590 510 537 575 602 623 655 685 625 647 677 697 of ASTM2 149 182 221 275 254 272 293 309 324 350 380 386 408 432 454 480 517 560 545 556 575 590 603 626 650 641 650 655 676 of EFV2 137 153 169 189 278 287 297 304 310 321 330 417 428 440 451 462 478 493 594 598 608 615 621 630 637 .+13DF.16 are used to estimate the T BP temperatures of the fractions. Stream Light NaEhtha Vol.242) a +26DF. LN HN LD HD liN: LD: HD: AGO: (268 . of Heavy NaEhtha •.363) = +35 F. (550 . (645 . <398 .638) a +7DF.

6 12. From the light ends analysis given in Section l.. HN.5722 lb. F.013 69.7 231.7 50.O.2 are for the gross overhead product.e.1923 lb. .0. The properties of the gas and in the liquid phase into which LN separates reflux drum will be determined in Section 3.3 572. percent . z lb. Flow From Figure 2~13 is estimated the volume percent of feed to product strippers which is revaporized.7 654./bbl. percent of the crud e. i. the stripout./hr. . 402..0 4./hr.055 74.367 72.5 39.8 122. ** .413 60.EFV~ 695 590 411 274 189 @ @ @ @ @ 3168 3271 5042 2474 63.0 123.5 229. D..1 489.D which follows.3 184. we see that C2H6 through nC5H12 comprises 8.A.9 Streams "API 78./hr.199 196. Rates Around Product Strippers * . Atmos.0 3.Stripped with steam .. LD. OF Ib. The TBP end point of the light naphtha is 295°F and light naphtha is the front 19. .6 Mol.2. 94.7 33.5% -4./hr. 5. 1100.3 vol.0 266 .50 Petroleum Refinery Distillation B.5 4.599 72.6 vol.6 418. Stream AGO HD LD HN LN % S.. .2 192. *** Stripped with steam . Summarizing./hr.A Note that the EFV temperature approximations are obtained by plotting the EFV Data calculated in Step and extrapolating the front end to minus 20 percent.3 No S .8 Wt. Stream LN* HN LD HD AGO** w*** Notes: bb1.0% -3. 86. one can approximate the amounts present of those components heavier than the heaviest identifiable discrete component.684 126.4 26. Analysis of Total Light Naphtha (LN) By plotting the TEP curve of the total LN going overhead and knowing the light ends composition./hr./hr.. and HD are reboil-stripped to a revaporization equivalent to steam stripping of 10 lb.0 587.Rates and properties C.3% +100% 3.484 121.9 302. Flow Rates and Properties 1b.958 -5% -4.569 of Product mol.

8 72.47 100. percent of LN.308 way psia psia.6 vol.1 158. in the following and 120°F.00 100.77 11. Considering the LN to be a mixture of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons.00 The LN is not totally condensible at 15.0 . the water exert its full vapor pressure and thus.5 38.4 96.88 9.693 At 13. Therefore. LN seaprates . the vapor pressure of water is 1.66 7.5 127. the TBP boiling ranges of C6 and heavier components can now be defined and.67 14.61 10.61 8.7 95.26 11.80 6.1. will . C6 C7 C8 C9 TBP Range! 122-177 175-218 211-269 255-314 of TBP Cut Point. Percent Mole Percent Moles/hr. and using the densities and molecular wei gh ts af n -a1k an est 0 d e fin e the C6 th raug h Cg • s .4 162.91 10. In tabular form.00 0.00 11. At 120°F.40 8.692 Thus.52 4.7 229.7 110.308 psia. 'i· Camp. 8.0 psia and 120°F in the reflux drum.06 20.84 14. .2 1100.0 0. 13.94 17. since liquid water will be formed.50 5. w e arrive at the following composition of LN.Atmospheric Tower 51 of whole crude which is equivalent to 44. the separate properties of the vapor and liquid phases into which LN separates by virtue of equilibrium flash condensation are obtained by making a flash calculation at the conditions of temperature and hydrocarbon partial pressure which exist in the reflux drum. PHC . Component C2 H6 C3 H8 iC4 HI0 nC4HI0 iC5H12 nCSH12 C6 C7 Cs C9 Total Vol. from these can be determined the TBP cut points between components.77 3. 176 215 262 of From this.33 21. 15.

6° API. bottom) Stream AGO-Dl HD-D2 LD-D3 HN-D4 LN-(D5 (from Temperature. Locations Draw tray temperatures are the EFV temperatures cited Draw Tray No.9 1. bb1.3 11. mal.8) Draw Tray Above the Flash detail Zone Refer to Figures 2. °API Water..0 129. Wt.1 575. 8 estimated using in Section 3.1 524.2 79.5 351. total hydrocarbon vapor @ 51.4 83.C. 9 26. Draw for Tray Vap:or Phase 8. steam./hr. Mol.199 5.52 Petroleum Refinery Distillation Stream Comp:onent C 2H6 C 3H8 iC 4H 10 nC 4H 10 iC 5H 12 nC 5H 12 C6 C7 C8 C9 Total./hr. lb. .9 48.9 73. 610 560 425 295 205 + V5) 14 20 28 35 Note that linear temperature and pressure variation between draw trays is assumed so that.8 78.328 Op:eratin£_Temperatures Figure 2-18 of " .1 45./hr./hr.7 85. mal.1 1.No. 4.722 Tray 8 at an assumed the calcu0 temperature of 610 are lb.19 which lational procedure to be followed.0 41.5 135. Calculation of the First (AGO Tray .8 78. Ib.8 92.uid Phase 0.0 144.1 28.509 60. lb. 5.6 37./hr.~ l I ~.2 4.712 206. hydrocarbon liquid product @ 26.L .2 6 .317 and Estimated Li9.9 89.7 69.17 and 2.6 68. C· . for the purpose of simplifying this illustration./hr.887 195.0° API. Leaving 357./hr.5 6. lb.6 87 . we will not plot a temperature-pressure profile.9 40./hr.

658 MMBTU/hr.::: 346.44 psia.D5) plus the steam from the bottoms stripper to be inerts.3) .199 x 417).::: 107. (60. of 65 pSia/SOO°F steam and will leave the tower 30°F cooler at 580°F.44 psia is 610°F which checks the assumed temperature.016 MMBTU/hr.016)/94 . Thus.Atmospheric Tower 53 Thus. Qi8 QO.7 psia bubble point (695°F) of the unstripped liquid on the tray. MMBTU/hr.0. Dl will be stripped with 1923 lb.__.2 In the vapor leaving Tray 8.--------- .L ~_~_~_.199 x 393 . QSl . in passing across Tray 8 is heated to 610°F.:::60. Now._---. they leave their respective towers 300p hotter than their draw tray temperatures.8 bQa = = QiFZ + QSl . the hydrocarbon partial pressure of Dl in the vapor leaving Tray a is calculated as PHG . . 1 These values are tabulated Worksheet Summary on the He~t and Material Balance By similar t~chniques which are ~etailed in the text. and 28 are calculated as 559./hr. Thus.6° API is 94 BTU/lb.292 MMBTU/hr.::: 5. The heat effects the Worksheet.~--. when converted to 5./hr.323 MMBTU/hr.277 lb.493 239..::: 375. Since these streams are reboiled.816 QOFZ + Qnl . mol. 20. The heat removal capability of Tray 9 reflux liquid to 610°F vapor at 26. we neglect the pressure of HD (D2) and consider all other lighter products (D3 . At the product stripper. .2/3426. = 24. QV8 QL8 QR8 (357.::: 23.122 35. thus absorbing 0. 424.:::(QR8 . from 603°F Thus.225.35 (766. the estimated 14.::: 766. the heat quantities to the base I of Tray 9 are . L9. The liquid which is to be revaporized in the sidestream stripper falls from Tray 9 at 603°F and.---.467 MMBTU!hr.414 . the temperatures of Trays 14. MMBTUlhr.::: 1923 x 1283 = 2./hr. bQFZ -(QV8 + QL8) = 260.509 X 538) + (5722 x 1342). QD1. :Using Maxwell's nomogram. I up through Tray 28 are summarized on . and 293°F. .

-.. ~-" ...' L-.t- a r- 1'0 0 0 rJ. t .... t I . .. • to o 0 .-I j --+---1 I .---t .._j ~t_+~i __ .. .. ['I') 9 lO . . ---+...--i·- --...~ - ! ._0 .. + . I I I .r -~-.....r" Ii' .... i~ :- !. .... _. )'-+-1 j .t iIi --+.. tI ON "I<J I'I~ .- .....~ " 8 9 20 a" t\i " . j I .:Z: II 0 Q N .. 2 • t.. 1-------:- ---'or - . N. -"'Q >v ! lJ) II lit 0-: N -rrI X . t 2 -~ .. . '" ~ ~ 2 3 4 .. ---. L 0 f Ii' WI .. . 5 a " " ._ ~ 8 .. tI . !_L_"": - t'-... . 0 r- 0- '" OJ + u o '" a OJ 'It Q 0~ r-_ ..1.-..---.----.: 1:' 1\1 (T ~ I t-= oj J a: N + 0 0- .X .I 2 0 "'" Q (fI 1: " r roI . (1J l: .....1 __ ~_J~1__l ....... I .54 Petroleum Refinery 0 istillation .j r • -c. -t ._J __ ~ +------ - J_1...-~ ---{ __ ~j__l __li __ LI ~i 1.. ..._. : i _l_-_. -~-- ~ .--- 5 t---~ I I --~"'-.... t ' -+-----'~ 1 : ...._ • - . -. .. +. . ---.L_t i : ~ L-. . .--t . L-~ 30 . Q i. -l--+-.. II: a 4 " • v (0 V N' 0- III .. • • 5 •l °0 \t. t--- _- t . j .-r i-·--1 I I I ---l- -._-~i . i ! _ _l __ ~i__ ~J__l __ ~~~ __ ~_L t __ L_~~ +-1+-'1'- : i __ ~~ ___ .L V' r: ~ I II 0 -fIl 10_ \) 07rUl .

r "" re r: I II . '1 ~---.l ' .. \n 'Co "> Q 8 9 lq- '" r- 20 . .. . o JI a 4 c .. 8 N N 30 + at __ n _0 a 0..Atmospheric Tower 55 "1: .. 10 toI""t Q 0- " 0 o o ~~ \t) \f N l..-- 2 3 1 5 I: ...Q N 0M • . ~ a a o~ .- . 1P "1: ~ ~ + a " e.......... o "If l: .

3 mol./hr.56 Petroleum Refinery Distillation 6. MMBTU/hr.QV35 = 117.0 the All the above fractionation .599x . system heat balance.5) = = 18.953 MMBTU/hr.2/7100. the following fraction checked.7 13. Trays 8 8 6 6 exceed F (At 50) ASTM 160 231 278 314 8.024 MMBTU/hr. of draw trays criteria can be (5-95) Possible +46 +45 +36 +26 requirements. = (94.839 x 144) = 136.004 deviation.18 1. (qR)LR = 206 BTU/lb.0 (6676.33 2. Converting the atmospheric to 18. MMBTU/hr.2 34.438 x 350 + 7645 x 1153) -(45. Separation LN-HN HN-LD LD-HD HD-AGO LD/P No.1 7. = 6151.839 lb. ~hus.0147% 7• Fractionation By making heat balances to the bases and the top tray. By overall Qc 6Qc Q28 -(Qvs 0.712 x 144 + 570.924 . Top Tray is QV35 QR35 and Condenser Tray Calculations the heat leaving Tray 35 Assuming 235 at 205°F.80 psia by Maxwell's of 205°p checks. . Neglecting PHe I V5. Qc the consider duty EFV dew point of the total LN nrimogram.16 65. LR = 570.80 psia. 20. = 6Q28 MMBTU/hr.15 4.887 x 315 + 1317 x 1114 + 6328 x 88 + 48. the assumed temperature is now calculated as = (665.020 + Qns + QH20) = = 136./hr. 350) + (7645 x 1153) = 41.

still contains a large volume of distillable oils which can be recovered by vacuum processing. Thus. Additionally. the rejection to the residuum of heavy impurities. This cut point is strongly influenced by the metals content of the distillates. On the whole. they are often redistilled. These oils are usually refined further by solvent extraction and other types of treating including hydroprocessing. There are exceptions to this as in the case of asphalt manufacture or where large volumes of residual fuels are required such as for bunkering operations. 57 . The vacuum gas oils have several uses. At these operating conditions. the maximum amount of oils which will vaporize is described approximately by whole crude TBP cut points between distillates and residual liquid of 700 to 800 degrees F.. the type of refinery and its downstream processing capabilities and. commonly called reduced crude. is not a stringent requirement in itself. these distillates may serve as feedstocks for other process units where they can be converted to even more valuable materials. Thus. the anticipated sales of products. In the course of these processing steps. however. depending upon the type of crude oil feed. they command a higher price in the marketplace. and. Some of these problems are discussed briefly as follows.. These stocks must be as free as possible of Conradson carbon. whole crude TBP cut points between distillates and residuum can be as high as 1. this is a fair statement covering most situations. In an atmospheric tower operating at as low a pressure and as high a temperature as practical in the flash zone. At the current economic operating levels of maximum vacuum and temperature in the flash zone. Types of Operations in Vacuum Distillation Vacuum distillates and residua can have several uses. but metals content. but not necessarily to the same degree of importance as in atrnospheric distillates. color and.125 degrees F. ! The objective of crude oil distillation is generally to maximize the extraction of distillate liquids from the raw crude feed. The principal criteria for producing lube oil fractions are viscosity. Since distillates of given gravity are cleaner and freer from objectionable impurities than an unprocessed crude having the same gravity. boiling range. each will require different considerations in design.. it is clearly to the advantage of the refiner to recover as much distillate as possible from a given crude. to a certain extent. while an indication of poor fractionation. although they all will have the same general properties. particularly nickel and vanadium. the general function of the vacuum tower is to remove the maximum possible amount of distillate from the charge stock consistent with meeting product specifications on the residuum as well as the distillates. For a 30 degree API crude. the atmospheric residuum. most important of all. the vacu- urn distillates can be as much as 30 volume percent of the whole crude.075 to 1.

Cooled reflux is pumped back to the tray below the draw tray to provide fractionation between the two light vacuum distillates. the two methods are relatively equivalent. It is imperative. The asphalt specifications will most often be set by the owner. atmospheric boiling range. The pumpback reflux system has the advantage . I I . experimental data is necessary. that they be as free as possible of carbon and asphaltic materials. Feedstocks for distillate hydrotreaters and/or hydrocrackers need not necessarily be metal free since these same metals are often found in hydrogenation catalysts. can be used to define the separation. the two types of towers are designed and calculated in approximately the same way. In terms of heat removal and equipment requirements. usually 0 to 5 degrees API. it must be remembered that the key to satisfactory operations is the maximum volume of clean gas oil. gas oil quality must remain high. and more frequent regeneration will be required. however.1 shows utilization of cooled pumpback reflux from the draw tray to the tray below at all trays except the top sidestream. is a source of ash and is also harmful to most furnace refractory materials. The metals content. The resulting residual fuels are slightly lighter than in normal operations but are still quite adequate from the end use standpoint. Distillate fuel oils which are to be used without further processing arc usually specified by API gravity. in effect.58 Petroleum Refinery 0 istillation For asphalt operation. In asphalt operation.. It can also be defined by determining the amount of distillate yield which will produce a bottoms stream having the desired gravity. is blended into residual fuels. In pitch operation. In asphalt operation. though. relating asphalt penetration to residual volume. The gravity of asphalt streams usually falls in the range of 5 to 8 degrees API. Vacuum tower residuum properties can be set in various ways. the vacuum unit is defined in exactly this way. These oils should have the minimum amount of Conradson carbon content without sacrificing gas oil recovery. metals content and flash or fire point. f. coking of the catalyst will occur more rapidly. must be strictly limited since these are severe catalyst poisons. When distillate production is to be maximized. Metals content. Sidestrea~ products are stripped in external towers to control front end properties. one can normally set the volume percent of either the whole crude or reduced crude which is to be yielded as vacuum residuum. particularly vanadium. More usually. free from contamination by heavier materials. One other method of vacuum tower operation which is rather rare is the production of large volumes of bunker fuels. This is. . Units have been built to make asphalt over the penetration range of 85 down to 10 (approximately 7 to 4 degrees API). This heat recoverY. This is called pitch operation. Product cleanliness is far more irnportant here than in the case of catalytic cracking feedstocks. Figure 3. and this material. This is necessary to prevent excessive laydown of coke on the cracking catalyst. Operations Vacuum towers for manufacture of oils destined either for lube oils or some other type of specialty oils must be designed to provide the same relative degree of fractionation between streams as in the atmospheric tower. Heat recovery is practiced by exchanging hot downflowing tower liquid streams against incoming cool crude oil feed for the atmospheric tower or against other cooler process streams in the unit. Pitch operation can be practiced with any type of crude. Using this information. For pitch operation. the amount of gas oil allowed to remain in the bottoms stream must be minimized. This liquid is c~mdensed by pumparound heat removal using a grid type material for vapor-liquid contacting. the limiting factor is the practical economic limit to how much distillate can be lifted from a given system and is defined in terms of the lowest possible operating pressure and highest allowable oil temperature in the tower flash zone. Both the external heat recovery and the internal vapor and liquid traffic quantities are essentially equal. These refineries usually produce distillates to satisfy marketing requirements which may vary a great deal and yield the remaining gas oil with the residuum. If they are not. some gas oil must be left in the residuum in order to provide the proper degree of plasticity. Lube or Specialty Vacuum Distillate must meet cer- Gas oils intended for catalytic cracking feedstocks must be very clean and require a good separation between distillate and residuum. Not all crudes can be used to make asphalt since this is a question of whether or not the particular residuum has the proper composition of matter to render it suitable in asphalt applications.2 shows utilization of cooled purnparound reflux in two sections of the tower. In meeting these various product specifications. ' Figure 3. In some cases. This question can only be answered experimentally and is usually contained in a detailed crude assay. the quality of the residuum is of little importance other than to minimize its content of recoverable oils. particularly vanadium and nickel. This operation is usually practiced in foreign refineries in the producing areas where marine fuel requirements are high. either TBP or ASTM. Since the latter two properties are general functions of the front end boiling range and the others of total stream yield. and it may be necessary to design for more than one grade of product.can be practiced in two different ways.:. but the residuum tain stringent specifications as well. viscosity. specifying a TBP cut point for vacuum distillates. distillate volume can be readily established. Accordingly.

OIST. 1-+--.__ SIE A M ~ ~VAC. lube type vacuum tower with pumpback reflux heat removal..1 LIGHT VAC. 1..2 II G HT VAC. NO. (PITCH BOTTOM: OR ASPHALT) Figure 3.1 HEAVY VAC. '-+FEED .. h--__ NO. .-- NO.5 TE AM 'NO.OIST. Vacuum Tower 59 . . 015T.1. ~OVERfLASH LIQUID . DIST.2 HEAVY VAC.. TO JETS .. . .

t . STEAM 1---------1_ •...1 VAC. L-~-------------OVERFlASH REDUC ED CRUDE FROM FURNACE HEAVY OIST. . "'_'.2 VAC....2 VAC. II GH T 015T.-TO J ET5 . BOT TO M S (P ITC H O~ ASPHAL TJ Figure 3.. LOWER PUMPAROUNO h---I-NO. LIGHT 015T. Lube type vacuum tower with pumparound reflux heat removal. If If UPPER PUM PAROUND If NO.. It MI DO LE PUMPAROUNO .-" __ S TE A M L-- --I_ VAC. . ~. 1-_-+- " . .~ 60 Petroleum Refinery Distillation .: NO. LlQU 10 . ..2. ~ ..

grid type contacting sections and chimney draw trays. There are two reasons for this. Figure 3. product quality is more easily maintained by refluxing this section rather than by a high density washing with cool oil. I. a tower with pumparound reflux must either be provided with more trays. Since trays require pressure drop to be effective. First. Fuels type vacuum tower. Lowering the total pressure of the system decreases the amount of steam required to effect a given vaporiza- 2. Note the two different types of draw trays shown in the illustrations. one more tray in the section would be required to provide the equal degree of fractionation. Also. On~fl lIaUID ASH STE~M-----r------~ '--- V~C BOTTOMS !AS~H"'IT·~rTCHI Figure 3. Fuels Operation The manufacture of distillates either directly for fuels or for feed to downstream processing units ordinarily does not require any particular degree of fractionation between cuts. Figure 3. For all practical purposes. anything which minimizes tray requirements is directionally correct. Tray design principles for low In the design of any vacuum tower. the trend has been toward the greater use of sieve trays in vacuum towers because of their lower cost and inherently lower ultimate minimum pressure drop.3 shows a typical fuels type tower.3).1 uses the chimney type in which the vapor flows through risers. . In recent years. For these reasons. the operation of the main condensing sections can be described as a single-stage equilibrium condensation. usually one in each section.2 utilizes a fractionating tray with a sealed downcomer in which the liquid is collected. that all trays are true fractionating trays since all internal liquids provide equilibrium reflux whereas the liquids in the pumparound sections are foreign with respect to the cornposition of the vapors passing through these sections. ' Economic Considerations in Vacuum Tower Design \. Lowering the hydrocarbon partial pressure in the flash zone increases vaporization and._-t------~ fEED -~__. For this reason. If one employs fractionating type draw trays. this would indicate four trays between draws at the maximum since the draw counts as a tray. Bubble-caps are rarely used any longer.2 arrangement will provide more trays for a given pressure drop although a Figure 3.3. In order to Simplify this discussion. Accordingly. Figure 3. the first question to be settled is the selection of the optimum operating pressure of the system. a pumparound section tray is usually considered to be only 30 to 50 percent as effective as other trays in the tower. it is generally believed that the materials which contaminate the heavy vacuum gas oil are vaporized upward from the flash zone rather than being entrained upward. Thus. another pumparound circuit would require significant additional investment. If chimney type draw trays are used.1 arrangement is a better way of collecting and removing the liquid.Vacuum Tower 61 '----f-----L__ lIGH T VAC DIST. the distillates can be condensed by cooled purnparound reflux. Obviously. wide cuts are usually acceptable. Nelson (4) recommends using 3 to 5 trays between the draws. pressure drop applications are adequately discussed in various manufacturer's bulletins (2. The process design of the grid sections is discussed thoroughly in the manufacturers' literature (5). assuming that a maximum allowable flash zone temperature has been set. trays have been presented in a recent article (1). Note that the overflash liquid is condensed by cooled pumpback reflux rather than by another purnparound circuit. hence. The grid materials used in these towers have been developed only recently. Detailed design considerations for chimney. let us consider certain facts. Secondly. and the liquid is collected on the tray deck. or sacrifice a certain amount of fractionation capability. The number of trays between draw trays is set rather arbitrarily. a Figure 3. distillate production.

It is highly desirable to base the development of vacuum region equilibrium flash data upon experimental vaporliquid equilibrium studies. crude into a vacuum region phase diagram are described. for the whole reduced crude. This may be a defensible position for feasibility studies or for rough order-of-magnitude designs since a properly executed design will include all the required process systems. . a fuels-pitch operation. From this. The first covers a lube-asphalt operation and the second. the minimum practical pressure at the top of the tower is in the range of 10 millimeters Hg absolute. I f. calculate the atmospheric EFV eurve of the reduced crude. Plot a vacuum region phase diagram. Lowering the system pressure increases the steam requirements for the vacuum producing jets. In the following discussion. Raising the system pressure increases steam requirements and also increases tower cross-sectional area requirements. the following three-step procedure is used to develop all the necessary information. The exact material balance for design purposes is determined by calcu· lation of either how much oil can be lifted from the charge at the optimum flash zone temperature-pressure or the relative distillate-residuum separation required to produce a desired asphalt quality. The following procedures were used to develop the overall material balance. There well may be errors in material and heat balances and in equipment sizing. K. However. Note that the steam to a vacuum tower is for the primary purpose of reducing the hydrocarbon partial pressure in the nash zone and not for stripping the vacuum bottoms. the engineer should insist on having available experimental vacuum region vapor-liquid equilibrium data. This involves 3 study of requirements for vapor pressure reduction steam and jet steam at various pressure levels. no discussion of the properties of vacuum distillates is offered here. 4.4. Using Edmister's (8) procedures. the necessary properties can be estimated by assuming that the value of K is constant for all distillates. If such assistance is not available. Using Packie's (7) procedure. Vacuum Unit Charge Data Since the reduced crude charge to a vacuum tower has already been partially processed in the atmospheric tower. some still believe that a whole crude TBP curve and gravity study is sufficient for the entire design. For this reason. it seems recklessly penurious to skimp on the relatively small costs involved in acquiring sound basic design information. However. for construction grade design work. 2. Vacuum jet vendors can be very helpful in this type of study. Since the design of multimilliondollar facilities hinges on the accuracy of the basic data. However. calculate the average molecular weight and the characterization factor. it follows that the optimum pressure will be that which minimizes total steam usage. for some reason. Using data from Maxwell (9) and/or Winn (10). The other three distillates are yielded only as determined by the lube cuts. At present day economic conditions. some basic information about the whole crude and its fractions has been developed and should be available at this point. are normally provided with stripping trays. however. it is theoretically possible that no steam would be required. Two illustrations are presented-with this section.62 Petroleum Refinery Distillation 3. but these tend to be rather small when compared to the error inherent in failing to provide all the necessary process components. convert the atrnospheric EFV curve to various levels of reduced pressure down to 5 millimeters Hg absolute. The relative yields of the various distillate fractions will almost invariably be determined by the owner's specifications. Lube-Asphalt Operation The final material balance superimposed on the whole crude TBP curve is shown by Figure 3. The techniques for each case are quite different and are discussed separately for this reason. the determination of the reduced crude TBP curve and its gravity must still be measured in the laboratory. a ful! detailed assay is not available. 1. tion. At a low enough pressure. Given this basic data. The base sections of vacuum towers. it is necessary to develop feed flash data from the reduced crude apart from that previously calculated during the design of the atmospheric section. Although most of the physical property data for the reduced crude and its product fractions can be obtained from the assay of the whole crude. The physical properties of the various products to be yielded from the tower are calculated or estimated from the properties of the whole crude as given in the assay report. the analytical procedures for converting the atmospheric TBP curve of the reduced 3. and these present the general procedures for setting up the overall material balance. This is for a typical operation producing as basic products asphalt and two lube stocks. Estimate of Material Balance The general criteria for establishing the design material balance were outlined in the opening section. an excellent presentation of this subject has been made by Ludwig (6).

Asphalt having a specification of 80 pen. The required distillation ranges for the lube cuts were specified. Total distillate yield is set by analysis of the portion of the crude assay covering asphalt properties. The owner specified the requirement specification products off the tower.Vacuum Tower 63 76. it is seen that the TBP cut volume between atmospheric distillates and reduced crude is 52. A heavy lube cut having a mid-volume viscosity of 700 SSU as measured at 100 degrees F and a yield on whole crude of 6. I~< .0 volume percent.0 yolume percent. asphalt requires a residuum yield of23.5 to 55.0 ± 2 percent. it is seen that an 80 pen. it is determined that the heavy lube will occupy the whole crude range of 71.4. a. From Figure 3. - • .. The overall system material balance is established by the following sequence. OISTS 71 "' """'GO 10 PEN. AlMOS TOWE. 4. ASPHALT VOLUME ~UCfNT Figure 3. Whole crude TBP temperature-yield curve. respectively.0 volume percent.0 and 57.0 ± 3 volume percent and that the light lube will occupy the whole crude volume range of 57. From Figure 3.- f-: T·&: .1 6.9 volume percent on whole crude. are 71.4.~· percent. the whole crude cut volume between vacuum distillates and residuum occurs at 76. From Fig- ure 3. 2. the tower will also yield the following three product streams. it is determined that the mid-volumes of heavy lube and light lube. 1. Thus. to make three 3. 2.1 volume percent.5.. as measured at 77 degrees F.0 volume percent of whole crude. Thus. A light lube cut having a mid-volume viscosity of 100 SSU as measured at 100 degrees F and a yield on whole crude of 4. From these points and their respective yield requirements. 3. A light vacuum gas oil (LVGO) over the range 52. 1.6. lube-asphalt operation.

.5. c.. 5.0 to 68. fractionation requirements are established by assuming that the TBP cut point is the mid-point of the total IBP_9yerlap_ _1l_etween. Crude assay data.91ated to minus 20 percent for estimating -the front end of the unstripped liquids which exist onth-e-draw trays.: 30 + " i' _'0 :. .7.+-'" .0 to 76.I! I 50 40 . r+ .~ 11++ I_ _. f+-H-J--. Item I above sets the total distillate yield at 812 volume percent of whole crude. _ 'I [ . VOL ~ ~UCfNT OF 6 WHOLE ~7 elUDE 21 '9 o Figure 3. From the distillation ranges of the lube cuts.1+ : ". The owner specified two requirements for the design of the system. . 90 1 i. The light vacuum gas oil (LVGO) was set at 30 volume percent of the total vacuum gas oils. ...100 degrees F. I [ 120 b:i+ 110 . A heavy vacuum gas oil (lNGO) over the range 74. even.'~+h' ! I ~60 . ''':'"-1 Z BO Q ! 70 +w Z : i.Mealculated an~p_l~tt_ed.!!p. __ L..The following procedures were used to develop the overall material balance. -L . though it is somewhat greater in volume than would normally be designed as overflash.0 volume percent.._~_ b. Thus. '--+' +H+-c+ : ': . Stream gravities are obtalned Trom the whole crude properties.. 2. ! I ' m~ I I. 6.c.~_--. ..".. 4. +' i . . Product properties are determined as follows. 100 . the yields of all products have been set. -. . Fuels-Pitch Operation The final material balance superimposed on the whole crude TBP curve is shown by Figure 3. . This cut may also be thought of as condensed overflash. '. . 1._.I I I' .products. ' +-i---I-.. From the Tiip distillations of the products..0 volume percent. " +- . ASTM and atmospheric EFY_CllIYe_S_.. .64 140 Petroleum Refinery Distillation 130 -+tt f-l-' ++ ~'"-. A medium vacuum gas oil (MVGO) over the range 59. Asphalt yield versus penetration.I + ~- . ' . This is for a typical operation producing maximum distillates and minimum residuum from a reduced crude feed. and molecular weights are calculated.-..:-t- +I+i . The overall system material balance is established by the following sequence. The TBP cut point between the distillates and the residuum was set at 1. . 1. . HI.. c Note that the EFV curves ~reextr.-+i~J_-~ -+-~i 20 10 0 2 AHHAlT 4 YiElD...

Vacuum Tower
100· F H.l. MID-VOl.

65

71"1.

PERCENT

, •
..
...,
;:)

I

210· F

l.l. MID-vOL PERCENT 57%

"
~ ~

U')

...,
on

>I-

0 >

u

..
flo

,
"

Figure 3.6. Crude assay data, viscosities of vacuum gas oils.

. t

66

Petroleum

Refinery

Distillation

1200

1100

1000TI±t+

)0-

" '"
m

i' 800
700

-<

c
m

-<

'"
o

500

400

'

300

200

100

,

,t~ ,

---:----i-+,

,

o

o

10

20

90

100

Figure 3.7. Whole crude TBP temperature-yield

curve, fuels-pitch

operation.

2.

3. 4.

The designer sets the amount of over flash depending upon the degree of purity required in the heavy vacuo urn gas oil. If color requirements and/or allowable metals level specifications are not severe, 1 to 2 volume percent of vacuum tower feed is normally taken as overflash. For tight specifications or for crudes having high metals content, as much as 4 percent may be taken. Two percent was used in Figure 3.7. In practice, operators never take any more over flash than necessary; thus, over flash capability may be considered as built-in extra capacity. Facilities should always be provided for measuring overflash and for yielding it as a product stream, even though it may be returned to the column sump or recycled to the furnace. Item 2 above sets the sidestream yields of heavy and light vacuum gas oils. Since a fuels-type tower operates more or less as a series of equilibrium condensations, the properties of the products are estimated by the following technique.

a.

b.

From the atmospheric EFV curve of the reduced crude, tabulate the EFV curves of the products and convert them to the ASTM and TBP curves. Stream gravities are obtained from the crude assay, and molecular weights are calculated. ., Flash Zone and Tower Base Calculations

The following discussion outlines procedures for calculating the overall heat balance around the flash zone and tower base. These procedures apply for both types of vacuum towers and are considered independently of the rest of the heat and material balance calculations. To this point, it is assumed that the following items have been completed. I. An overall material balance for the system has been developed including overflash and the amount of hydrocarbon decomposition gases which are produced in the process by virtue of the high temperatures to

Vacuum Table 3.1 Pressure As Recommended Sections Chimney trays Fuels towers Lube towers Fractionating Trays Grid sections Demisters Drop Values for Design Purposes Drop Values, e.a. where

Tower

67

D

= total

hydrocarbon

distillate

products

including

6 to 8 mm 1 to 2 mm 2 to 5 mm J to 2 mm
J mmHg

Hg Hg Hg Hg

the decomposition gas, moles per hour, and HIC= ratio of hydrocarbon partial pressure to total pressure in the flash zone, mole fraction. This analysis assumes essentially no stripping of the feed flash liquid in the base section of the tower, although, in a later step, 3 temperature drop across the bottoms stripping zone will be set. Nelsons' correlations show very little stripout at the steam rates usually employed, but experience shows that temperature drops as high as 30 degrees F between flash zone and bottoms do occur. This is of little real importance, however, since the heat input to the system can be calculated independently of the absolute ther-

mal condition
which the reduced crude is subjected. The symbol, is used for this material in the calculations.

G,

of the feed. The error inherent in an incorrect estimate toms temperature carries two considerations.

of the bot·

2.

A value for inward air leakage is assumed which can be
checked later by the methods outlined in Ludwig. For the heat balance, this leakage is assumed to occur totally at the flash zone. The symbol, A, is used for this material in the calculations.

I.

From

the viewpoint

of the furnace,

a low estimate

of

the exit bottoms to the system required.

temperature to be calculated

will cause the heat input as lower than actually

3.

The maximum allowable flash zone temperature has been established. As pointed out in Chapter 2, this has been the subject of much discussion throughout the industry. Normally, maximum flash zone temperatures range from 775 to 800 degrees F. The tower top pressure has been established.

2.

From the viewpoint of the tower heat balance, a low estimate of the exit bottoms temperature will cause the various tower heat removal quantities to be calculated to the coolas lower than actual. This applies especially ing requirements for the vacuum residuum.

4.

Flash Zone Pressure In order to determine the flash zone pressure, it is first necessary to allocate trays and/or other internals to various sections of the tower and then to assume pressure drops across these sections. The number of trays between lube tower draw trays is normally 3 to 5. Modern fuels towers use grid sections. Pressure drop values recommended for design purposes are given in Table 3.1. Having assumed the internal configuration of the tower, the flash zone pressure is then calculated arithmetically. Steam Requirements Knowing the flash zone temperature and the feed

In practice, comparison question.

the value of these discrepancies is quite small in to the total values of these heat quantities in The most conservative design approach would be

to assume a zero temperature drop for the liquid from the flash zone to the base of the tower. This would maximize both feed heat input and heat removal duties. Conversely, assuming a high temperature drop, say 30 degrees F, would be a tighter, more competitive approach.

Heat Quantities
The calculations necessary

todefine

the heat balance

vaporization requirements, the hydrocarbon partial pressure, P' He' in the flash zone is found by inspection of the vacuum region EFV curves which were developed earlier in this chapter. The difference between the partial pressure and the total pressure in the flash zone must be made up by the air leakage and by steam. The required steam to the flash zone is calculated as

Sw

=:

[(D!YHC) - D] - A, moles per hour

around the base section of the tower are shown on Figure 3.8. This illustration is self-explanatory as to the calculation of the total feed heat input and the furnace duty. Note the role played by the condensed overflash liquid. If this stream is returned to the system, either as overflow from the draw tray to the flash zone or as recycle from the draw tray to the furnace, it must be taken into account in the heat balance. If it leaves the system as a product stream, it will not be seen as a heat input to the flash zone. This is the reason for the question mark in the equation for calculating the feed heat input. The tabulation of the external heat quantities at the top of the flash zone is made to facilitate the heat balance

LEAVING FLASH ZONE (0 F + QA + Qswl. BTU/HR. OVE RFLASH. (Q'i-Q'oIFZ.8. Q'OFZ=Qw. Flash zone heat and material balance. HYDROCARBON DECOMPOSITION GAS. (a" + asw'" ? alOI]. Figure 3.68 Petroleum Refinery Distillation EXTERNAL Q'iFZ= HEAT QUANTITIES BTU/HR. = HEAT BALANCE EaUA T ION S aF= [(OVOFl +OwlQFUIN= (QF-QAW1. l OlO F QAW FEED TOWER FROM ATMOSPHERIC A Q" AIR LEA Sw asw STEAM W BOTTOMS aw XD Lo G = = TOTAL DISTILLATE PRODUCTS EXC LUS IVE OF OVERfL ASH. BTU/HI. Z. . t Lo : 10NLY TURNED IF RE· TO VOFZ= QyOfZ (2:0+ Lo+ GI+A+ Sw I f. LlQ'FZ= BTU/HR. BTU/Hit.

Reflux heat is defined as the difference between the heat input of the feed and at the product strippers and the heat outflow of liquid products. the leakage air and the bottoms steam being defined as inerts. As good a rule as any is to assume a hydrocarbon partial pressure equal to 30 to 50 percent of the total pressure at any tray. allows an overhead temperature of 200 to 275 degrees F. Calculate the amount of heat which leaves the system in the overhead vapor. it is necessary to verify that the heat exchange system is capable of producing the assumed reflux temperatures. the overall system material balance and the properties of all product streams must have been defined. a cool oil temperature of 150 to 200 degrees F will not require excessive pump horsepower. external cooling of tower streams (product coolers excluded) and the exit vapors of products plus steam at the point in question.9. The overall material balance should be adjusted to show the amount of oil lost Estimating draw tray temperatures for vacuum operations is much more difficult than in atmospheric towers because of the greater relative effect of calculated internal reflux on hydrocarbon partial pressure. it will be necessary to recalculate the tower. This oil loss is at the expense of the top sidestream product. Figure 3_10 is an expanded view of this section and gives the equations used in making the calculations. and this data can usually be predicted from the crude assay _Normally. This latter temperature is a function of the viscosity properties of the oil in question. Note that the bubble point to be used in the partial pressure calculations is that of the unstripped liquid on the tray. Locate and plot the EFV temperature for this degree of stripout on the product EFV curves which were drawn in the calculations following the previous section. The temperature of the cooled pumpback reflux is estimated at 100 to 150 degrees F lower than the draw tray temperatures except where. The amount of oil lost with the overhead stream is determined by making an oil vapor pressure calculation. . The temperature at this pressure is read from the vacuum region EFV curves. Upon completion of the total design. Knowing the thermal condition of the steam. Heat and Material Balance Calculations for lube-Type Towers 69 with the overhead vapor. a different value would be indicated. The value of the tabulation will be seen in later sections. Since this draw tray is a chimney tray and performs no fractionation. Calculate the reflux heat at the exit of the grid. Plot the assumed profile for the trayed section of the tower. in tum.Vacuum Tower calculations in proceeding up the tower. Steam to Product Strippers These auxiliary towers will be used to strip only product and not the pumpback reflux. assuming that the oil exerts its full vapor pressure at the temperature of the exit vapor. for specific reasons. These equations are to be used in the following sequence. This. Maxwell's nomogram is useful in estimating this vapor pressure. calculate the heat input to all the strippers. For design. This will result in a stripout of approximately 5 weight percent and a temperature drop across the stripper of 15 to 20 degrees F.purposes. Prior to beginning these calculations. set a steam rate of 10 pounds per barrel of final product as measured at 60 degrees F. The method is based on calculating the hydrocarbon product partial pressure in the vapor above each draw tray and converting the bubble point of the product liquid on the tray to this pressure. The heat removal across this portion of the tower is accomplished internally by revaporizing sub cooled reflux which is pumped back from the next draw tray up in the tower. Tower Top Conditions The temperature of the steam and noncondensible materials leaving the top of the tower is determined by setting a 50 to 75 degree F approach to the minimum practical cool oil temperature in the top pumparound system. Estimate of Tower Temperature Profile This section outlines procedures for calculating product draw tray temperatures at all points in the tower and for making an overall heat balance around the system. If this analysis uncovers significant differences. the temperature of the condensed liquid leaving the tray is estimated as being the dew point of the hydrocarbon vapor from the flash zone at the hydrocarbon partial pressure above the draw tray. based on a different set of cooled reflux temperatures. Overflash Liquid (Ol) Condensing Section The overflash liquid condensing section is calculated as a single-stage flash condensation. with the possible exception of the first product above the over flash liquid condensing section. 1. The vapor temperature leaving the grid is estimated in the same way but referred to the total pressure at that pointThe heat and material balance relationships around this section are determined by making a balance around Envelope I as shown on Figure 3.

. Sl ~Sl I lOI ENV.. L 03 ¢J 0[3 D' 2 S3 0'i02 "'O'iOl 0'002-0'001 40'02 + OS2 +QC2+Q02 Y OSJ - 03 003 02+1 ENV. D4 OC4 Lo . lYI 02 .. O'iOI =O'iGO +OSI 0'001= O'OGO +QCl 40'01 ENV.IU + QOI 01+1 1 L. "'" - l02 ~ QC2 .-Lo OlO ~R_lEAK~ 0" Sw Osw - l ~ I STEAM ~w Figure 3.1 D'3 0'002 +OCJ +003 ENY.-L..70 Petroleum Refinery Distillation 1 lPA . n. 0'4 <.9... S2 OS2 - 02 002 Q'iGO =Q'iFl O'OGO =Q'OFZ AQ'GO ENV. E XTERNAL QUANTITIES HEAT X ~ 04 ·1 L 0 . J I lo OF A FEED ~.. Q'iFI=QF+OA+QSW Q'OFl= AO'fl.. Heat and material balance summary. Ow . Q'i03==Q'i02+QS3 0'003= 40'02 03 OJ . OD . A • V OH QVOH I A • A ENV. 02-1 <.._ D'l ::=t-.:(Q Qw 'i -QblFl F I ><1 GO I QCI 1 01 001 .. lube type vacuum tower with pumpback reflux heat removal...II + 0 LO I...¥ 03+1 A ~L.... I'--"-~""A ~" 1 01 .

Q'GO= (0' i- l ~§ l01 t '001 ~ . calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure in this vapor and convert the atmospheric bubble point of the unstripped liquid product on the tray to this partial pressure. 1. I t is assumed that the amount of hydrocarbon which is revaporized in the Dl product stripper falls to Tray DI as part of the internal reflux from Tray (Dl + 1) and absorbs a small amount of the reflux heat in passing ./hr Figure 3. Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquids quantities leaving the grid.La lOVOGO T~ -a La La J VOfZ=1:D+ Ll./ + Q La a'o IGO . First Sidestream Product (01) Draw Tray The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making a balance around Envelope II as shown on Figure 3. 4. Convert the internal reflux from pounds per hour to moles per hour. REQUIRED PUMPBACK REFLUX=[Q.a 'rt La +G+A+Sw t I ENV. Btu/hr.11 shows an expanded view of this section and gives the equations used in making the calculations. Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities at the base of Tray (D! +1). Calculate the heat removal capability of the internal reflux to the tra y Calculate the internal reflux required to absorb the excess heat at Tray DI. Heat and material balance-overflash Iiquid condensing section. 2.10. Ib. Calculate the heat removal capability of the reflux available to the tray. HEAT REMOVAL CAPABlll TV OF REFLUX=q'R=(HtGo-ht'0011. 4.I --HEAT BALANCE EQUATION S Btu/lb. Calculate the mole fraction of hydrocarbon product vapor in the total vapor leaving the draw tray but neglect the presence of the product to be removed on the next draw tray up in the tower. RE FLU X H EA T = QR =( ~Q'fZaVoGo-QLOI. From this. 3. 3. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities as Q' values at the grid outlet.FZ Q 'aGo:: Q'on Ll. 5. These equations are to be used in the following sequence.eN1 Vacuum EXT ER NA l AT GRID HE A T Q UANTITlES Tower 71 OUTLET Q'iGO=Q'.*. This will include the heat effects of product liquid Dl . ' • . < '''__-- " • & . 6. Calculate the reflux heat at Tray D I. 7. Figure 3. If this temperature does not check the value assumed earlier./q'. Calculate the value of this heat rernoval.9. 2. the reflux cooler and the stripping steam to the product stripper. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to the base of Tray (Dl + 1). repeat the procedure for a new assumed temperature. across the tray.). 5. Calculate the pumpback reflux required to absorb the reflux heat.- " VaG a =Vo rz.

Calculate the internal reflux to Tray D2 by making a balance above this tray as shown by Envelope IV..(li Q'GO +Ql oll-(Q . " 'II -. HYDRQCARBON P'HC=( PToll[Lol+l/ 01 IVooI-02 + LOI +11] sidestream Figure 3. This induced reflux is the amount of vapor from Tray (02 -r. 1.01 QVOOI 4 VSI +SI . . neglecting the presence of product D3. II HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS Q. '. OOI +Qo'l1... The calculations for this section are similar to those in the previous section. Calculate the reflux induced on Tray (D2 -I) by the use of sub cooled reflux.2) which enters and is condensed on Tray (D2 . . -~ " .1 I I I I ( . ~.I I I ". S.. I' ( (l (l _. I ~. j I '. with the exception of handling the pumpback reflux. 2. S q'I-{HtOI-hlOl +11. ~'-"~ '2 Petroleum EXTERNAL Q'iDI = Q/iGO Dl= Q'OGO Refinery HEAT +Q51 +QCI DI Distillation t 001 +I=VOOI +SI QUANTITIES Q'o +QOI to t DI +1 1I Q'DI =(Q'i-Q'o) l Dl +1 VOD1= VOGO . The sequence of calculations is as follows....'I./ f l 01 @ tOl <' <' ~.. Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure in the total vapor leaving the draw tray. 3. I I I I . Heat and material balance-first product draw.. l=(tvSlllflltOl-t01+1). rl » v . Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities at the base of Tray (D2 + 1).11.9 and in detail on Figure 3.12. Calculate the pumpback reflux required to Tray (D2-1) by making a balance above this tray as shown by Envelope Ill.. 4. These balances are around Envelopes III and IV as shown on Figure 3. 6.1) for the purpose of converting the cooled pumpback reflux to bubble point liquid. Convert the atmospheric bubble point of the unstripped liquid product on the tray to this partial pressure and check the assumed temperature. HEAT ABSORBED BY Lv SP=Ql .~ f t ~ " ~ I I E NV. L01+1 =IQ~-Ql""SIl/q'l PART tAL PRESSU RE ABQV E TRAY «<.II QO'1 <' ~ ~ L01@ Qlol tool 11 It eI I "I I ~ _. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to the base of Tray (02 + 1). Second Sidestream Product (02) Draw Tray The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making two balances. .

9. + Ql02]-(QO'2 f02+ IV . Ql/q'R ABOVE QI=[I. The heat and material balance quantities around this section are shown by Envelopes V and VI on Figure 3.AQ'02={Q'i HEAT +QS2 QUANTITIES +QC2+Q02 -Q'ol 02 t 02+1(ilt02+1 l 02 + 1 VOD2=VODI +l-D2~ QV002 ._)\ ~ . the product vapor is defined as the sumof product 04 and the purnpback reflux while the • .III III BALANCE EQUATIQNS TRAY 02-1 -ENV. stream product and cooling the tower overhead. D2 -1)]. the required pumpback reflux is calculated and used to calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure above the tray.6.02=0'iOl 0'002::::0'001 .IV HEAT III ENV. A temperature Top Sidestream Product (D4) Draw Tray The analysis of this section of the tower involves calculating the required pumpback reflux to the tray below the draw tray together with the pump around reflux and external heat removal requirements for condensing the side- on Tray (04 ~ 1) was assumed in the preliminary steps... I.12. D2 -2 -h . OR= tlQ'Ol-QVODl +1 q'l== Ht02-1-hto02] L02 . TRAY P2-1 Figure 3.. Using methods outlined previously.Vacuum Tower V002 + 1:::: 002 + 52 V 73 EXTERNAL Q'.2 02 Q02 ENV. In this case. Keep in mind that in making the partial pressure calculations. Heat and material batance=second 7. All further sections in the tower below the top sidestream draw tray are calculated in the same manner as Tray D2. QVOo~ 1) ::::Il vS21(~l!f02- q'. . Figure 3.13 is an expanded view of this section and lists the equations used in the analysis. The recommended sequence of calculations is as follows. VS2 + 52 V001+1 QVOD1+1 D2-'2 @ t02 .Q'ol CLVS2 TRAY D2-ENV. HYDROCARBO N PARliA ON t- 1 PRESSU RE ABOVE TRAY 02 P'He" Rio (PT02)[IL02 + 1l/(VOD2- 03 + l02 +11] INDUCED 2. sidestream product draw. always neglect the presence of the next higher product vapor in the total vapor leaving the draw tray.1 - REFLUX L02[ 1h 02 - h roo 21/! H .l02 Ht02-ht02-hI02+1 +1-(QRD2-QLVS21/q'.

Traffic Vapor-Liquid At all the trays which were calculated in the design. D4-1@ tD~-1 '" . = D4+ YOH D4 I . 6... " f1 i .EN V.13. 3.' . LpA' Check the calculation ofLpA by making a heat balance around Envelope VI.6Q'03 -QV04-1 q'R= HI04-I-hI004 l04=QR/q'R ABOVE TRAY (04 -1) . Designate this quantity as Q' C4. keeping in mind that the ou tIet temperature from this exchanger has already been defined. Check the value of QC4 by calculating the heat requirements for cooling (lPA + D4 + lD4) over the required temperature range.Qo'.6Q'03-Q04-QvOH) Q'C4= D'~ (h'04-hI004) lPA= (QC-4.. :. Heat and material balance-top sidestream product draw.Q. Convert the atmospheric dew point of D4 to this hydrocarbon partial pressure and check the assumed temperature. ~ !. D4-2 @tO~-2 ENV. Calculate the portion of QC4 required to cool the liquid (D4 + LD4) from the draw tray temperature to the exit temperature. Qc~ r I OYO~-I ~ . 74 Petroleum Refinery Distillation ~ l ~. This must check the value calculated in Step 4 above. 2. Calculate the duty of the cooler as QC4 by making an overall system heat balance.Y HEAT BALANC E EOUA TrONS QR = .h 1004) AS A C HEC K.. The remaining portion of QC4 is that required to cool the pumparound reflux. (QC4-Q'C~ I=[(QVO~-l 1" QVl DoC).~ t VD -4-' os. V HYDROCARBON PARTIAL PRESSURE P' H C =(PT04 -IJ [L04/ ( l O~ +04+ YOH J] HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS ABOYE TRAY (Do4-1I AROUND D4 GRID QC4= (.\' #' \. vapor and liquid flow rates were developed. 4. The temperature of the liquid on Tray D4 is found by converting the atmospheric bubble point of the product liquid to the hydrocarbon partial pressure existing above Tray D4. In this section. tower overhead stream comprises the inerts. these pieces of information will be assembled to develop an . 5.c-QvoH] Figure 3.C4)/ [h 10-4.

Establish a pressure profile across the tower using previously recommended guidelines.10." Hydrocarbon Processing 47. Estimates of gap-overlap may be made as a matter of interest. Discussion of tray design techniques is outside the scope of this work. air and hydrocarbon decomposition gas. The temperatures of the exit products and the purnparound reflux streams from their coolers are established taking into account the temperature-viscosity relationships of these very heavy oils. Since the operation of the sidestrearn product condensing sections can be described closely as equilibrium condensations. 2. In this type of tower. . The expressions and equations on this figure are self-explanatory. Internal liquid flow rates to draw trays. Product temperatures may also be set by heat balance considerations in downstream units. the following items 75 3. but it must be remembered that Packie's curves were intended to apply only to atmospheric crude towers. Inc. D. diagram. and the interested reader is referred to the previously cited vendor Iitera t ure. The procedure was discussed earlier and illustrated by Figures 3. steam. Note also that this sketch contains all the vapor-liquid internal traffic data. Liquid temperatures are set by converting the atmospheric bubble points of the products to the appropriate partial pressures existing above the draw trays. 4900.14 shows the complete heat and material balance relationships for such a tower. Heat and Material Balance Calculations for Fuels-Type Towers This section presents the remainder of the procedures required to calculate the heat and material balance around a fuels-type vacuum tower. There is almost always a difference between the sum of the first two quantities and the third. Texas..19 and 3. developing the diagram reduces to a matter of arithmetic. Glitsch & Sons. Material balance around all product strippers. Consider a section of the tower containing the tray below a draw down to the tray above the next lowest draw. Make flash zone calculations of steam requirements and heat input to the tower in accordance with earlier sections. 7 (July.E. As a quick refresher. no. 119-20. and. Unlike an atmospheric tower or a lube-type tower. with the exception of the overflash condensing section. " Fractionation Analysis Set the temperature of the vapor and liquid streams at key points in the tower. including air leakage and hydrocarbon decomposition gas. I. Product streams leaving their respective draw trays. This section of the tower is calculated in the same 'manner as the lube-type lower. This information is required for tray design or for analysis of the trays in existing towers. Wheeler. Fritz W. this difference is assumed to be split equally between the trays in the section. its induced reflux and reflux from the lower tray. 1. the following items must be accomplished to this poin t. The known liquid rates in the section are purnpback reflux to the upper tray. the entire vapor charge to the tower is generated in the flash zone. I. there is no internal equilibrium reflux. Overflash Liquid Condensing Section There are no correlations known to the writer for analyzing fractionation in vacuum towers. Temperature Using this information. The material balance and heat balance relationships are analytical rather than trial-and-error in nature. 4. At this point. Profile 2. 3. Instructions for making the calculations at the flash zone and at the overflash liquid condensing section were presented in the previous section. The only place where caution must be used is in handling induced reflux. ' 2." Bulletin No. In the analysis. the vapor temperatures can be estimated from the reduced crude EFV curves at the appropriate degree of vaporization and hydrocarbon partial pressure. The Packie analysis can be employed but only to show that a proper traysreflux balance exists in the various sections. Figure 3. Sidestream Products (01 and 02) Condensing Sections The calculation of a fuels-type tower is much Simpler than a lube-type. these temperatures can be established analytically and do not require a trial-and-error approach. "Ballast Tray Design Manual. 1968) pp. overflash. References "Design Criteria for Chimney Trays. Vapor leaving the flash zone including total distillate products. This analysis also applies to the overflash liquid condensing section because the reflux required to condense the overflash is generally the same relative number of moles as the overflash. Purnpback and pumparound reflux rates.Vacuum Tower internal traffic are known. 6. 5. All the heat is removed by pumparound reflux. Set the overall material balance. Induced reflux where appropriate. Dallas.

YOH QYOH Lp2 t002 l P2= QR/q'R QC2 Q 'i 0 I =Q'OGO Q'OOI= Q'OGO + QDI + Qel llQ'OI V002=VOOI t .01 ~0..Q'iFZ Q'OGo: O'OFl +QlO LOl +Swl Q'iFZ=QF +Q ..~2+-_---J _ ____j"-- L PI 'to 01 EQUATIONS SECTION FOR D2 Q02 HEAT BALANCE Dl CONDENSING QR (6.Q'GO.QOI-QYOD2J=QCI q'R=[ hlol...1 V001=VOFZ+ t LOl-Lo 010 tOI 1011-LOH+Lpl Qel Q'iGO .Q' a IF z F FEED OF -----.QYOH)= QC2 q'R...6.14. ..[QRiq' = ..Q 02.+Qsw· O'OfZ: Qw C=~~~--------------~QlO LoOtLo Lo .. Heat and material balance summary-fuels type vacuum tower with pumparound heat removal.hto o i l LpP.:[ht02-hto02).76 Petroleum Refinery Distillation tYOH HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS FOR 02 CONDENSING SECTION QR =[A Q'OI.-1 a.-- A AIR LEAKAGE SWSTEAM Qs L_ ~w Qw Figure 3. 0 ' a F 1 - { 0 'i ..

J.e. I (Houston: Gulf Publishing Company. . J.E. 1964). "Glitsch Grid-A New Design for Column Internals. p. . E.W.W. . Wichita. W. Inc. 4. J." Petroleum Refiner 36.. W. "Distillation Equipment in the Oil Refining Industry.Vacuum Tower 3. Kansas. 157. 9. Data Book on Hydrocarbons (Princeton. pp. Glitsch & Sons. van Nostrand Co. 4th ed.B. Winn. Inc. Vol. "Physical Properties by Nomogram. 51-78. Nelson.L. Koch Flexitray Design Manual. no." AIChE Transactions 37 (1941). . . Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics (Houston: Gulf Publishing Company. 6.. Edmister. N.. Applied 'Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants. 5.. 7070. 77 7. Texas. F..: D. 8. Maxwell. Ludwig. 1964). Petroleum Refinery Engineering. . (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Koch Engineering Co.. Inc. Fritz W. 10. Packie. 1958). 1957). Dallas. 1965). . 2 (February." Bulletin No.

2. 2. the procedures given are somewhat less detailed to avoid useless repetition. At the entrance to the fractionator. The use of pumparound reflux in these towers is almost universal. of the tower is seldom used and. it is a superheated vapor and must be cooled and simultaneously fractionated in carefully controlled stages to yield products having the desired properties. not a vapor-liquid mixture.. 1.000 degrees F. The principal follows. light 78 .~. The heaviest materials must be condensed out and yielded as a bottoms liquid to prevent contamination of the first sided raw liquid. The principal areas of difference between the two systems are as follows. : ~' I 'I)' If " • 11. thus. These reactions ordinarily occur at pressures of 10 to 15 psig and at temperatures in the range of 1. The API Data Book (4) is also useful. and. Keeping these points in mind. reflux and fractionation requirements arc discussed iIT Reference 5 which presents a correlation similar to Packie (6). 3.. The problems and calculational techniques involved in catalytic fractionator design are quite similar to those encountered in crude distillation.. a 1\ ".. I J ~ • n ~ ~ ! I:.. The interrelationship between trays.' I>- " . for a more realistic approach. The sidedraw products usually have much wider boiling ranges than do the corresponding products from a crude unit. I .. The feed to the tower is a superheated vapor. The reactor effluent stream contains a full range of products from hydrogen through coke. Pumpback reflux to the side sections . The properties of these streams are discussed in a later portion of this chapter. the tower the same general way as IS 3 crude tower. The function of the catalytic cracking unit is to convert heavy straight-run distillate fractions into Iigh ter and more useful liquids and gases by high temperature pyrolysis in the presence of a catalyst: Typical flow schemes and operating conditions are given in Reference 1. 3. areas of similarity in the two systems are as The physical properties of the fluids being processed can be st udied and calculated by the methods of Edmister (2) and Maxwell (3). only in cases where a sharp separation between the cycle oils is required. '01 . Later independent work has suggested that. calculated in Effluent] The composition of a catalytic cracking unit reactor product stream is usually described as a mixture of discrete light ends consisting of hydrogen through the Cs's. I. ~. the systems should be calculated neglecting the presence of n-butane and all lighter components. Properties of Tower Feedstream (Reactor IS ~. then.

Catalytic and heavy cycle oils most often described by ASTM or TBP distillations and the heavy bottoms. The cycle oils may be broken down into sub fractions identifiable by TBP boiling ranges. Alternately, the composition may be reported in the same way as a crude oil, i.e., a mixture of light ends (hydro. gen through C5 's) and a TBP curve covering the range C6 through end point. If the first method for specifying the feed is used, the concentrations are usually reported on a weight basis, gravity data being available for the heavier cuts. This raw data is converted in to a more usable form by the following proce-

Cracking

Unit

79

pressed to a pressure level suitable for light ends recovery and is recombined With the overhead liquid stream, cooled and fed to a gas recovery plant. A typical catalytic cracking unit gas plant is shown in Figure 4.1. Product Properties

Product streams from catalytic cracking unit main fractiona tors have the following general properties and end uses.

.,

dures.

Catalytically

Cracked Naphthas

I,

2.

3. 4.

Using conventional physical property estimating methods (3,4), convert the weight units into volumetric and molar units. The volumetric quantities are easily plotted into the familiar TBP·yield curve by graphical combination techniques. Using Packie's procedure (6), convert the TBP curve into an atmospheric EFV curve. Using Edmister's techniques, develop a phase diagram for the feed.

•• I.
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..

,
"

These procedures have all been discussed earlier in great detail and are mentioned here only to ensure that they are not forgotten. A comparative study of catalytic fractionator feed and crude oil 'will show that they both have approximately the same TBP initial and final boiling points. However, the catalytic fractionator feed is much lighter in terms ofTBP ternperature versus volume percent vaporized. This is explained by the fact that the aromatics and condensed aromatics which make up the bulk of the catalytically cracked oils are much heavier than are the paraffins or naphthenes of similar boiling temperatures. Product Properties and Separations

This stream(s) consists of materials up to an ASTM end point of approximately 400 degrees F. Until relatively recently, stabilized catalytic naphtha was blended directly into motor fuel. In most modern refineries, however, this product is now desulfurized by mild hydrogen processing. Olefin saturation usually occurs also. Since catalytic naphtha is seldom used without further processing, it is not the usual practice to split the naphthas in the main fractionator. If the split should be required, it can be done easily. In any event, the tower and the reflux system should be designed to allow a reasonable variation in naphtha end point and sharpness of fractionation between the naphtha and light cycle oil. Light Cycle Oil, LCO Light cycle oil has the same general ASTM boiling range as the combined light and heavy atmospheric distillates=say 400 to 700 degrees F -and is used in the same general applications. If reasonably sulfur free, it can be sold directly as heating oil. It is commonly subjected to a mild hydrotreating for sulfur removal and for olefin saturation . It is often used as hydrocracking feedstock. It can be recycled back to the reactor along with the heavy cycle oil in order to increase conversion on the fresh feed. However, LCO is a poorer feedstock for-catalytic cracking than is HCO because the former is rich in ring structures which are more difficult to crack. Thus, LCO recycle can be practiced only at the expense of conversion per pass. For these reasons, it is a more normal practice to yield LCO as a product stream from the unit. Heavy Cycle Oil, HCO Heavy cycle oil has the same general ASTM boiling range=say, 700 to 900 degrees F~as the combined atrnospheric and vacuum gas oils yielded from a crude unit. This stream is almost invariably recycled to the reactor and cracked to extinction. Hence, facilities for cutting HeO into separate fractions are seldom required.

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A catalytic fractionator can be designed to yield products of any desired boiling range in much the same manner as a crude tower. However, catalytically cracked fractions are generally subjected to further processing and/or treating before being sold and, thus, have a rather constant cornposition, regardless of refinery location. Most towers are designed to yield an overhead product=catalytic naphtha and lighter; two liquid sidestreams, commonly called light cycle oil, LCO, and heavy cycle oil, HCO; and a bottoms stream, commonly called slurry oil or decant oil. The overhead product stream further yields a vapor and a liquid, their compositions being determined by the temperature and pressure at which the equilibrium partial condensation occurs. In most units, the resultant vapor stream is corn-

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product,

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The bottoms stream is actually nothing more than what is left over after the maximum distillate yield has been attained. This is a vel)' foul stream and is usually blended into residual fuel. A rare but occasional practice is to design the base section of the tower as an HeO condensing section so that the bottoms streams will be HeO in addition to slurry oil. This operation requires that the bottoms slurry oil also be recycled to the reactor. This often results in low conversion to gasoline and more rapid coke formation. Separation Criteria

in which Packie is applied to Figures 4.2 and 4.3 have been and are recommended for design The nomenclature for Figure 4.2

atmospheric crude towers. drawn from this reference and analysis of these units. is as follows.

As was the case in crude oil distillation, the sharpness of fractionation is described in terms of the ASTM (5 - 95) temperature differences. Pack ie's relationships, per Sf, do not apply to catalytic fractionation. However. Houghland, Lemieux, and Schreiner (5) have developed similar correlations for catalytic towers which are used in the same way as

LN = gallons per hour of equilibrium reflux from the top tray or gallons per hour equilibrium reflux from the bottom pumparound tray, measured as 60 degree F liquid. ~ '" gallons per hour total distillates to the top tray measured as 60 degree F liquid. ~-l = first sidestream product below top tray, measured as 60 degree F liquid. NT = number of actual trays in section. Note that each tray in pumparound heat removal service counts as one third of an actual tray. The nomenclature for Figure 4.3 is as follows. LN = gallons per hour reflux from the upper draw tray or gallons per hour reflux from bottom pumparound tray, measured as 60 degree F liquid. PN = gallons per hour total product vapors to upper draw tray, measured as 60 degree F liquid.

"' 1'-....-. Both correlations require a steam stripping rate to product strippers of at least 8. ' ~ '.----.-. ---+-' _. Note that each tray in pumparound heat removal service counts as one third of an actual tray. 1- .4 pounds per barrel of stripped product.-]_:::t_IT.I I ~ It " . I. However. _. I 82 Petroleum Refinery Distillation . 3 . ASTM boiling ranges for LCO and HCO.:t ~ .'stt. Thus.. Estimate of Material Balance L In a typical design.--~L___l__J_JI-'--J__J-L__'___'--'----'---'_---L.s1 H ts~} -~_j_ _.._ rL~ =-:t=..3.L__j . NT = number of actual trays in section.:n 96"-ft1 ---+-~ _~~ . ~ . . 1'-. If t t If I I .. .+ • .L_ ~~..--. Fractionation Petroleum Institute. ~. If~· .- .. Gross overhead ASTM end point._TI ..::: Figure 4. the original definition of the correlation is recommended since it represents a more conservative view of the problem. TBP cut point between slurry oil and HCO.-.---. lY:-.r_r._.:::t~-+- ::::.) between sidestream products. the material balance and separation criteria maybe defined by._ '~----.i.--. catalytic cracking fractionators. Thus.t. ~::.-t '-'- "_. ± 1:::t±t J_ ---!----L-L-H '--i-. Subsequent information indicates that the correlation is more realistic if the presence of n-butane and all lighter components is disregarded in defining the product vapors.r---"_. .__. (Used by permission of the American #. the effective internal reflux ratio from draw trays is greater than the apparent ratio since n-butane and all lighter components is disregarded in defining the product vapors. . the effective internal reflux ratio from draw trays is greater than the apparent ratio since n-butane and lighter do not count in defining the product vapor. 2.\..---t__1 _ ___j_-'--i-+--~__.I I I .----.____:: . 3.

These trays are for desuperheating the feed vapor to its dew point and for quenching and condensing that portion of the total feed which is to be yielded as bottoms product (slurry or decant oil). In determining the design material balance and product properties. In expansion studies. The preliminary tray configuration of the tower is established based on the following general guidelines.. set a steam rate to the sidestrearn strippers and estimate the material balance around these towers.. between four and eight trays will suffice. nine trays between the RCO and / • 5. This will be very useful in making the heat and material balance calculations. Z .. These are the 14. certain assumptions will be made and later checked against the results of the calculations._ 2. .13. In the case of catalytic towers and unlike crude unit towers. 51~ . trays having a high percentage of open area such as disc-and-donut.Catalytic Cracki ng Unit 83 J() 4. Calculate and plot the ASTM curves of the naphtha and cycle oils. Because of the high tendency toward coke formation in this section of the tower. regardless of where they are located geographically. Depending upon the value of this heat quantity which must be removed. a different approach to setting tray and heat removal requirements has been taken here. "- 4. one is usually interested in maximizing throughput by increasing heat removal via pumparound. Set the steam rate to the tower bottoms at 10 pounds per barrel of bottoms product. This procedure is exactly the same as that presented in Chapter 2. Accordingly. 1. develop TBP cut points between fractions.7 psia bubble points of the product liquids on the draw trays and will be used later in calculating draw tray temperatures.. it is not necessary to set up a material balance around the feed entry point and the bottoms stripping trays because the vapor-liquid traffic at this point does not influence the overall heat and material balance calculations. Trays are required between the feed entry point and the first product draw tray. to minus 20 percent. conventional trays such as valves or bubble-caps are not used here. extrapolating those for the sidestrearns. Heat and Material Balance Calculations The design of a catalytic fractionator is accomplished in essentially the same manner as an atmospheric crude tower. This procedure quickly shows how much heat is available for a given material balance . Plot the EFV curves. plot the API gravity and molecular weight of liquid leaving trays versus tray number. These trays are also of the high open area type. Calculate EFV curves for the overhead and for all sidestreams. 8.. 2.95) temperature differences may be specified or may be allowed to be the natural result of the abovc criteria. find the EFV temperatures of the sidestreams at the appropriate minus vaporization percentages. Preliminary Steps These are translated into design information following stepwise procedure. There is a slight difference in the techniques employed for analyzing fractionation capability. otherwise. At the conditions of temperature and pressure existing in the overhead accumulator. by the 1. Figure 2. it is generally true that the separation requirements for the HCO·LCO separation are much less stringent than those for the LCO-naphtha separation.. 3. Assume that liquids leaving the tray above and tray below draw trays have the same gravity and molecular weight as the product liquid. After the number of trays and the draw tray locations have been set. Catalytic fractioriators are no exception. side-to-side baffles or "shed" angle iron decks are the types most commonly employed.15 will be useful in converting between TBP and ASTM end and initial points. 7. Although the tower has the same process configuration as a Type A atmospheric crude tower. but. At the indicated vaporization.. . calculate the vapor-liquid separation which will occur in this drum. Tabulate the properties of the combined product vapors in the various sections of the tower. remembering that water will exert its pure-component vapor pressure in the vapor phase. Number of Trays It is generally true that most towers in similar services will have about the same number of total trays and draw tray locations. Using Figure 2. Such an approach would easily lend itself to crude unit design and is of particular utility in revamp studies. II 3. a steam rate of 10 pounds t-'er barrel of stripped liquid is recommended. From the whole feed TBP curve. In getting the design underway. Rather. Calculate and tabulate weight and molar yields of the fractions from which product gravities and molecular weights are calculated. For design purposes. ASTM (5 . Four stearn stripping trays are provided below the feed point for stripping recoverable material from the slurry oil. 6. LCO and HCO. the procedures are nearly identical.

at very low values and employing zero reflux from the overhead condenser. minimizes the tower diameter. For later use in heat and material balance calculations. the vapor rising to draw trays will contain only products. A three-tray pumparound heat removal system is required for Trays (8 . This will lower the partial pressure of water in the gross overhead vapor. let the pumparound heat removal take less than 100 percent of the total reflux. Only enough pumpback reflux should be used to avoid the possibility of water condensation. in turn. 2. Initial Premises for Process Design It is necessary to make initial assumptions relative to proposed heat removal schemes prior to commencing design calculations. from the upper sidestream draw tray. Maximizing heat removal is usually accomplished by process-to-process exchange at various points in the unit. The feed temperature and pressure is given. This is accomplished by setting the internal reflux from sidestrearn draw trays at zero or. the temperature of these vapors is the dew point of the particular product at the partial pressure at which it exists in the total vapor. plot pressure versus tray number. As in the case of atmospheric and vacuum tower design. Thus. This indicates that these pyrolysis solids are fractionated back to the bottoms rather than washed back by the scrubbing action of the liquid. Operating Pressure The conditions of· temperature. If water condensation does occur. even at very high liquid wash rates across the trays. Calculate the heat content of all stripping steam streams. heat. Note that the coke is treated as zero degree API" liquid. Thus. and pressure of the feed at the tower inlet will almost invariably be set by the design of the reactor section. 2. the remainder of the heat removal being accomplished by the pump around system. 1. Many designers employ zero internal reflux from the lowest sidestream draw tray and accomplish the total heat duty in the lower section of the tower by pumparound heat removal. Assume a 5 psi pressure drop from the feed tray to the top of the tower and a 5 psi pressure drop from the top tray to the overhead product accumulator. it follows that internal reflux requirements are comparatively low. the pumparound heat removals were assumed on the following bases. the remainder being satisfied by internal reflux. Definable Heat Quantities At this early point in the design. 3. 3.ternal reflux will be required from the condenser to the top tray. it is desirable to remove as much heat as possible from the system. the following quantities can be defined. Tray B. Calculate the heat content of the feed. both in the feed and in the bottoms product stream. it will be necessary to redesign the system to require some pumpback reflux from the condenser to the top tray. Vapor Temperatures to Draw Trays Assuming Zero Internal Reflux from Draw Trays At this assumed operating condition.1) to (B . For the section of the tower up through the tray below the lower sidestream product (HCO) draw tray. Since the separations made in catalytic Iractionators are relatively easy in comparison with atmospheric crude tower separations and since the number of trays available is quite high by petroleum fractionation standards.84 Petroleum Refinery Distillation LCO draw trays and 11 trays above the LCO draw tray are typical configurations. Provide a purnparound heat removal system utilizing the top three trays in the tower. Assume a value for the temperature of the stripping steam. In using this scheme. This heat removal will be such that no ex. check to see that the partial pressure of water in the overhead vapor is sufficiently low to preclude water condensation in the upper few trays of the tower. A suggested value for design is 75 percent. one should design for a high level of heat removal by pumparound systems. It is common practice to limit the temperature of the slurry oil to a maximum of 700 degrees F to minimize thermal decomposition in the section of the tower below the first product draw tray. Set zero internal reflux. at most. 1. In normal practice. from Tray A. A secondary benefit is that internal reflux is minimized which. Another way of considering this is that the upper purnparound heat removal balances the system so that only overhead product leaves the top tray. It has been the author's experience that a small amount of internal reflux to the lower section of the tower will do a more effective job of washing back the pyrolysis solids than does total heat removal by pumparound.3). and this affords substantial utility savings. Each of these two sections will normally contain a three-tray pumparound heat removal section. the presence of the product to be removed at the t . heat For the purposes of the illustrative design procedure.

Catalytic next draw tray up in the tower is neglected. All lighter product vapors and steam are considered as inert gases. The temperature of vapor leaving the top tray is also calculated as the dew point of the overhead product-both vapor and liquid-at its partial pressure in this stream. The flash zone temperature is determined from the phase diagram as the temperature of the total products leaving the feed section at the total hydrocarbon partial pressure existing there. For later use in heat and material balance calculations, plot these temperature points versus tray number on the tray-pressure profile. Process Flowsheet Set up a process flowshcet such as Figure 4.4 which will be used in making the detailed heat and material balance calculations. Heavy Cycle Oil (Hea) Draw Tray The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making balances around Envelopes I and II as shown on Figure 4.4. An expanded view of this section is given on Figure 4_5 together with the equations used in making the calculations. These equations are used in the following sequence. I. Estimation of Lower Pumparound Heat RemovalEnvelope I a, In an earlier step, the temperature of the vapor leaving Tray (A - I) was calculated for the case of zero internal reflux from Tray A. At this temperature, calculate the heat content of the vapor leaving Tray (A ~ I). b_ From this and the heat quantities at points lower in the tower, calculate the duty of the lower purnparound cooler, QC I, which is required to satisfy the stipulation of zero reflux heat and, thus, zero internal reflux at Tray (A - I). c. In accordance with the design premise, set Oc 1 equal to the predetermined percentage of the value calculated above. d. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities above Tray (A - 1)_ e. Set the temperature of the cooled pumparound liquid at least 150 degrees F lower than the Tray (A - 1) temperature and calculate the lower pumparound circulation rate. Tray A Balance-Envelope II a. Assume an operating temperature on Tray A. Calculate the heat content of the vapor and of the liquid product leaving Tray A at this temperature. g. b.

Cracking

Unit

85

c.

From these heat quantities and the external heat quantities below Tray A, i.e., the external heat quantities above Tray (A - I), compute the reflux heat above Tray A as QR' The hydrocarbon which is to be revaporized in the product stripper falls to the draw tray as part of the internal reflux from Tray (A + 1)_ In passing across the tray, it absorbs a small amount of the reflux heat. This heat quantity is defined as QLSVHCO' Calculate the heat removal capability of the reflux available to the tray as q'RCalculate the internal reflux required to absorb the excess heat at Tray A as LA + I and convert it to moles per hour. Calculate the hydrocarbon partial pressure of LA+1 in the total vapor leaving Tray A_ As in previous similar calculations, ignore the presence in the total vapor of the product to be removed on the next draw tray up in the column and consider all other lighter products and steam to be inerts, Convert the atmospheric bubble point of the unstripped hydrocarbon liquid on the draw tray to this partial pressure and check the assumed temperature. If there is a significant difference, assume a new temperature and repeat the procedure. Set the temperature of the stripped HCO from the sidestream stripper at 30 degrees F lower than the draw tray temperature and calculate the heat content of this product stream leaving the system. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to the base of Tray (A + 1)_ Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities above Tray A_

d. e.

r_

h.

L

j.

Ught Cycle Oil (leO) Draw Tray The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making balances around Envelopes 1Il and IV as shown on Figure 4.4. An expanded view of this section together with the equations used in the computations is given by Figure 4_6_ The following calculational sequence is recommended.

L

2_

Calculation of Midpumparound Heat RemovalEnvelope III a_ In an earlier step, the vapor temperature leaving Tray (B - I) was calculated for the condition of zero internal reflux from Tray B_At this temperature, calculate the heat content of the vapor leaving Tray (B - 1)_

1

h -.',

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catalytic cracking unit-main fractionator.

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Figure 4.4. Heat and material balance summary,

b
4Il;.

.

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87

EXTE RNAL HEAT

OUAN T I TI ES

O'iA=O'i lA-I} +051 Q'OA=O'O(A-]) + OHCO aO'A= (Q'i-O'O)A

~ [A+I)@t(A+1) L(A +1l • _ ... \ VA=V(A-l1-HCO 'QVA I A@tA LA.
I

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-

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-

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A S2 OS2 HCO QHCO

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V{A-l = F -5O+S1 ~ OV(A-l) (A-l)@ t(A-ll

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HEAT BALANCE EOUATIONS SETTI NG lA=O,QC1=(OF+OS1)-(QSO+QV(A-l, (2) DEFI NE QC1DSGN- .75 QCl CALCULATIONS ABOVE TRAY A-E NVELOPE l! QR=4.Q'(A-I) -(OVA+OHCOA) QLSVHCO- (LSVHCO) (c) (tA-t (A -1 I) q'R =( HtA-h'(Ai"ll) L(A +ll=(QR -0 PUMPAROUND lCl=QC1/(C)( HYDROCARBON P'HC=(PTA)[(UA lSVHCO)/q'R CIRCULATION 700-tlCl} PARTI Al +1l)/(L(A PRESSURE ABOVE RATE

III

-

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-

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so

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draw tray.

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Petroleum

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Q' is=Q 'it 8-1)+Qs3 Q'OIl=Q'O(O-1) +Q Leo 6Q's= (O'i-O'olo

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4

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OF QC2 -ENVELOPE

m

(2)

ABOVE

TRAY B-ENVElOPE

Ii:

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q'. -(

-(Ova +QHcoa)

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(3)

PUMPAROUN~

lo

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draw tray.

b.

2.

Calculate the heat removal required in the midpumparound cooler to produce zero internal reflux from Tray B. c. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities above Tray (B - 1). d. Set the cooled pumparound liquid temperature at least 150 degrees lower than the Tray (B - I) temperature and calculate the midpumparound circulation rate. Tray B Balance-Envelope IV a. At the assumed temperature, calculate the heat contents of the vapor and liquid streams leaving

b. c.

d. e. f.

Tray B. Note that the liquid is to be considered as only the product quantity. Calculate the reflux heat above Tray B. Calculate the heat absorbed in passing across Tray B by the liquid which is to be revaporized in the sidestream stripper. Calculate the heat removal capability of the reflux available to Tray B. Calculate the internal reflux from Tray (B + I) and convert it to moles per hour. Calculate the partial pressure of product vapor in the total vapor rising from Tray B, neglecting the

ENVELOPE OCOH ~ Ovn . In"practice it may not be feasible to set the temperature of the cool pumparound liquid ISO degrees F lower than the overhead vapor temperature. take a reasonable approach to the temperature of the available cooling medium and calculate the top purnparound circulation rate. j. h. In this case. b. Set the temperature drop across the sidestream stripper at 30 degrees F and calculate the heat content of the product leaving the system.(ONV +QNl +OH20) Figure 4. . Calculation of Overhead Condenser Duty -Envelope VI The overhead condenser duty is calculated as the enthalpy difference between the overhead vapor and the products from the overhead accumulator. An expanded view of this section together with the equations to be used in the computations is given by Figure 4. Heat and material balance equations+top troy and condenser. "". the temperature of the overhead product vapor was calculated on the basis that there would be zero external reflux to the tower from the condenser. ~ HEAT BALANCE EQUATIONS (1) ABOVE TRAY N-ENVELOPE:iZ: QC3 =4. At this temperature. Note that this stream consists only of product materials and stripping steam.4. presence in the vapor of the overhead distillate liquid and considering the overhead distillate vapor and steam as inerts.7.tCl2) DUTY. Calculate and tabulate the vapor and liquid quantities above Tray B. Convert the bubble point of the unstripped hydrocarbon liquid on the draw tray to this partial pressure and check the assumed temperature.7. 2. c. i. calculate the hiat content of the vapor leaving the tower.Catalytic Cracking Unit 89 r----+--- NV QNV n (g tn tcaz QC3 '-----t--- H20 QH20 (n-2)@t(n-2) ENV. In Step D.Q'8 -Qvn (2) PUMPAROUND CIRCULATION lC3=OCl/(C)( t( n-2). and Overhead Condenser Duty Top Tray Calculaticns The heat and material balance relationships at this section of the tower are determined by making balances around Envelopes V and VI as shown on Figure 4. 1. RATE :iI (3) CONDENSER g. The top purnparound heat removal is now calculated as that amount required to balance the tower. Calculate and tabulate the external heat quantities to the base of Tray (B + 1). Calculations of Top Pumparound Heat RemovalEnvelope V a.

9. (May 13." AIChE Transactions 37 (1941).R.1954).e. Calculations Calculation of Internal Reflux to Key Trays By making heat balances.K./pp / of Direct-Contact Gas Coolers.3.e." Petrol Chemica! Engineer (A ugust. Kansas. 1965).. W. E. . 1966). 10. trays" and side-to-side trays. Jet trays are similar to conventional trays. Neeld and O'Bara (7) and Fair (8) have published procedures for calculating the heat transfer capabilities of "jet 4. c. Tray (B . Fair.. Houghland. Vapor.Liquid Traffic Tabulate and plot the vapor and liquid traffic at key points in the tower. Technical Refining (Washington. "The Performance of Catalytic Cracking Unit Fractionating Towers. J . pp. Liquid to the top tray in the bottom pump around section. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics (Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.2 are the liquid rates which are used in the fractionation analysis. no 7 (July. they can be added as required with only minor modifications to the calculations. Edmister.L: D.S.3). Fritz W. LB _ 3 and LN . 1970). D." [Ivdro carb o n Processing (September.J.90 Petroleum Refinery 0 istillation Fractionation I. 3. References "1970 Refining Processes Handbook. van Nostrand Co.B.W.1). This plot will usually identify the points of maximum load in the tower and will be of great assistance in tower sizing and tray design calculations. Since tower diameters are used in the heat transfer calculations." 19th Midyear Meeting. Fractionation Calculations Using Figures 4. the remaining tasks are to ensure that the assumed pump around configuration can indeed remove the required amount of heat from the tower. Wichita. J . and W. 1970). l nc. Glitsch & Sons l nc. b. 6. "Ballast Tray Design Manual. thus." Bulletin No. If the fractionation criteria have not been satisifed." J. respectively. API Division of Refilling. N. R. G. Tray (A . S.. I . Dat a Book-Petroleum 53-59.: American Petroleum Institute. Do fa Book on Hydrocarbons (Princeton. bubble-cap or valve trays. Liquid from the bottom tray in the midpurnparound section.2 and 4. 196 J). a.. "Jet Trays in Heat CEP 66.T. and. 174-79. 2. Liquid from the bottom tray in the top pumparound section. Schreiner. calculate the internal reflux at the following points in the tower. "Koch Flexilray Design Manual. .g. Process Design Considerations Assuming that the heat and material balance calculations have been finished and that the design appears fea'sible. Neeld and Transfer Service. Maxwell. 7. pp." Koch Engineering Co. determine the degree of separation possible for the system as calculated. Dallas. 4900. 8.2). 51-78. j. "Design Q'BarJ. Packie. which would normally be specified for this service. If an insufficient number of heat transfer trays were provided in the original design assumptions. e. additional trays or reduced heat removal may be employed to achieve the desired separation. . "Distillation Equipment in the Oil Refining Industry.e. Lemieux. Texas. tray sizing calculations may be made using procedures from Ctitsch (9) or Koch (10) or any other method which the reader might prefer. Tray (N .. 1961). Neeld and O'Bara's correlations may be used as checks.

let us explore the historical development of light ends recovery plants within the context of the total refinery... this practice was dangerous. some enterprising person invented a stove utilizing as fuel either propane or butane. there are many reasons for recovering light ends. to fractionate the discrete light ends components and to separate the heavier continuous boiling materials into two or more fractions. As time. This section will concern itself with the distillation processes required to separate light hydrocarbon components from the heavier continuous-boiling fractions. In time. . the tower produced fewer fractions having wider boiling ranges. passes and the petroleum industry and society develops.. petroleum was separated into relatively narrow fractions while. As will be seen in the development of this section. could be fractionated into propane and butane as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In the case of the atmospheric crude tower. which the refinery could easily produce. i. New processes are developed to improve gasoline octane..2 shows a typical scheme for processing the whole naphtha stabilizer liquid distillate into propane and butane while still yielding fuel gas consisting of ethane and lighter. and a need developed for better control of vapor pressure which radically affects carburetion and ignition. each being dictated by the process configuration and economics of the refinery in question. A more narrow definition might consider only C3 and C4 liquids as light ends since. Petrochemical 5-'" :. Besides being wasteful.. in the case of the FCCU main fractionator. ethane and Iigh ter is used as fuel gas and the pentanes and hexanes are blended directly into gasoline. this work has considered gross or rough separations. the lightest (overhead) fraction was a fullrange naphtha.e. It required that the naphtha stabilizer be redesigned at a higher pressure level in order to yield a liquid distillate which. the term "light ends" generally means any discrete component lighter than heptane which can be identified by a name. kerosene. A secondary benefit was that the vapor distillate from this tower-essentially butanes and lighter-could be used as fuel gas within the refinery. and product specifications continually tighten. everything in the tower feed up to a certain predetermined end point. .. Figure 5. This includes everything from hydrogen through the hexanes... in many refineries.. Figure shows a typical whole naphtha stabilizer producing a vapor distillate to the refinery fuel gas system. gasoline specifications became more stringent. In the early days of the industry. r~ ." . 10 turn. In both cases. Up to this point. I I .1 . In most cases. gasoline became valuable and was produced. The refiner accomplished this by installing a naphtha stabilizer with which he could closely cont rol gasoline vapor pressure. In the refinery. stove oil and lubricants were the principal products. For a moment. As the automobile engine developed. the demand for refinery products skyrockets. '" . the raw naphtha distillate was stored in open tankage where the light components vaporized and the gasoline became self-stabilized. With 91 the advent of the automobile.

. Later. Figure 5. this is the end of the similarity between petroleum fractionators and the classical distillation column normally studied in the classroom. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider distillate fractionator design in the terminology of the refinery and simultaneously to show the similarity to classical distillation design principles. mainly because there is a reasonable amount of fairly accurate equilibrium data in the literature with which to demonstrate: the calculation procedures. the refinery engineer uses terms such as initial and final boiling points. at the most.. ~ __ ~ C2H6 and LIGHTER TO FUEL GAS ~: LIQUID FEED FROM STABILIZER nC4 HIO and LIGHTER !L_. DEPROPANIZER r---. Consider the types of distillation problems normally encountered in the course of an engineering education. industries arise.I. boiling range... but there is also a great area of common ground. . when the student is introduced to multicomponent separations. three products. They are usually concerned with binary systems requiring easily defined separations. LPG recovery from refinery gas. gap specifications and so on. The distillation of petroleum fractions is discussed hurriedly.1..S shows a typical crude unit gas plant in a modem refinery designed to maximize the production of high octane gasoline... A secondary objective is to con- ~ .92 Petroleum Refinery 0 istillation DEETHANI ZE R DIST. They are fitted with condensers and reboilers and process generally one feed into two or. To a certain extent this is true. Unfortunately. LIQUID r. PROPANE n·C oj HID and su El TO CAS LIGHTER fEED WHOlE NAPH THA '------- iC5 HI2 ond HEAVIER TO GASOLINE UENDING Figure 5.. Where the student or even experienced engineer is accustomed to think of distillation in terms of percent recovery. and the concept of the relationship between reflux and trays to separation capa· bility is seldom considered in detail.. the systems are almost invariably mixtures of light hydrocarbons.--_BUTANES Figure 5. Petroleum distillate fractionators are identical in appearance to the classical model studied in the classroom. allowable impurity levels and the like. This would lead the casual observer to the conclusion that different procedures would be required to design petroleum fractionators as opposed to conventional chemical systems. if at all.2. Whole naphtha stabilizer with vapor distillate. basing themselves on light hydrocarbon feedstocks. An understanding of this will afford a much greater appreciation of the design and operation of petroleum fractionators.. The feed enters the tower at an intermediate tray so that there is always a stripping section below the feed tray and a rectifying section above it.

This could include 93 catalytic cracking units. ---. with a crude unit since the naphtha must be debutanized to permit its being stored at atmospheric pressure. Propane: fuel gas liquid fuel (LPG) ethylene unit feedstock alkylation unit feedstock (when mixed with propylene) 4_ Isobutane: fuel gas liquid fuel (LPG) petrochemical feedstock (pyrolysis to propylene and isobuty lene) alkylation unit feedstock (when mixed with butylenes) gasoline blending (vapor pressure and octane improvement) 5_ N-butane: fuel gas liquid fuel ethylene unit feedstock gasoline blending 6. The other references discuss design fundamentals considered in this chapter. The unsaturates gas plant would be designed to process total light ends from all sources of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Where this is not the case. Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons are never fed to the same gas plant. only catalytically cracked naphtha is of suitable quality for sale without further processing or treating.--_ --.. Many refineries will have several units in this service. In the following sections are listed various hydrocarbons and naphthas found in the refinery and the purposes for which they are used. hydrocrackers. . They are always found in the following places. a secondary consideration is the reduction of the naphtha vapor pressure. It is possible to design a light ends unit to process feeds from several plants... one might design a saturates gas plant to process the total naphtha from a crude unit plus light ends from all other sources of saturated hydrocarbons within the complex. In conjunction [. clear RON = 24. the first five of the cited references are recommended. one key rule must be observed.3) 7. As in No. the reason being that the saturated light ends are most often sold as fuel while the unsaturated light ends are used as feedstocks to other units.Refinery Light Ends Fractionation sider the representation of these separations by a McCabeThiele graphical analysis so that the operation and key component profile throughout the tower may be more easily visualized. In conjunction with a hydrocracker which ordinarily yields considerable volumes of light ends in addition to the liquid product being produced. 2. This chapter assumes that the reader has a reasonable knowledge of the properties of various petroleum fractions and products and of the methods available for estimating physical properties and physical equilibria. In conjunction with a catalytic cracking unit since the raw catalytic naphtha is rich in propylene and butylenes which are used as alkylation unit feedstocks. their multiplicity being dictated by being keyed into various types of processing units.~~~-. Ethane: fuel gas ethylene unit feedstock 3. and this is often done. Saturated Light Ends-Products and Specifications Products and End Uses 1. This could include hydrotreaters. naphtha fractionators would probably be provided for each naphtha since. In this latter case... . clear RON = 6 L 7) isomerization unit feedstock (conversion to isopen tane ) catalytic reformer feedstock (part of stabilized naphtha) 8_ N-hexane: gasoline component (low octane. clear research octane number = 92. 4. isomerizers and catalytic reformers. 3_ In conjunction with a coking unit for the same reasons as in No_ 2. Introduction A light ends fractionation unit can be found in several locations within the refinery processing scheme. Isopentane: gasoline blending (octane improvement. Thus.8) isomerization unit feedstock (conversion to C6 isomers) . N-pentane: gasoline component (low octane.. cokers or any thermal decomposition unit.--_. . In taking this approach. of those mentioned. Methane: fuel gas hydrogen unit feed gas 2. . 1 above. particularly in the case of building a grass roots refinery or in the case of a major expansion involving several new units.

2 dirne thylbutane (RON clear = 91.4 2. Since these products are most often used for feeds to petrochemical units. Ethane. two variables are defined which are composition dependent and which are used as bases for separations in towers yielding these products." t ~ .1 100. Usually 100 to 400 degrees F. Ethylene: petrochemical feedstock 2.4 93. Care must be taken to reject all C1 1 's from this stream since the conversion or C 10 paraffins and naphthenes to C 10 aromatics increases the ASTM end point by 15 to 25 degrees F.1 93. For both propane and butane. These specifications are usually established by the processing requirements of the receiving unit and. This will vary somewhat with the nature of. Catalytic Reformer Feed for Motor Gasoline Production Butane. These specifications cover many aspects of product quality and composition.7) Low octane gasoline blending or isomerization unit feedstock: 2 me thylpentane (RON clear = 73.t 94 Petroleum Refinery Distillation Other Components.0 Unsaturated Light Ends-Products and Specifications Products and End Uses catalytic reformer feedstock (part of naphtha) 9. Vol. The specifications for other possible light ends products are usually set either by purity requirements for downstream processing units or by economic design considerations when being used as gasoline blendstock. their purity specifications are often quite high-99 percent and even higher being quite common.8) 2.0 t t Liq. the naphtha under consideration.5 liquid the maximum impurity Propane.3 dimethylbutane (RON clear = 101.1. The vapor pressure as measured at 100 degrees F shall not exceed 70 psig.95 liquid volume percent.::' shows the maximum impurity level compositions for the indicated ratios of iso.5 100.1 Maximum Component Ethane Propane Isobutane TOTAL Impurity Compositions Mole % 4. and the isopenrane content shall not exceed 1. thus. Straight-run Naphthas Motor Gasoline pressure as measured at 100 degrees psig. Butadiene: petrochemical feedstock Product Specifications Product Specifications The bulk of the propane and butanes which arc produced as refinery liquids are sold as fuel in the form of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). ethylene desirable Ethane has become very valuable for use as an plant feedstock. can seldom be treated as design variables in the fractionation step of feed preparation. Ascrizzi (6) has summarized the compositions and properties for this application. . Propylene: pe trochernical feedstock alkylation unit feedstock (when mixed with propane) 3. . many of which are outside the control or influence of the distillation portion of the total manufacturing process. % 4. The vapor F shall not exceed 200 not exceed 2. and the isobutane content shall volume percent. C6 Isomers (often referred to as "isohexanes"] high octane gasoline blending: 2.. Usually 100 to 375 or 385 degrees F ASTM containing basically isopentane through the C 10 '5. TABLE 5. Ten to 12 psia is a good target vapor pressure for the finished product. Table 5. Detailed specifications for these materials have been published by the Natural Gas Processors' Association (NGPA). lit: I '.S) stabilized !. ABTM containing sufficient front end volatility-usually as butane-for suitable ignition but not so much as to produce vapor locking.I: I I I .to normal butane. Butylenes: petrochemical feedstock alkylation unit feedstock (when mixed with isobutane) 4. These correlate to compositions given in Table 5.5 2.4) 3 methylpentane (RON clear = 74.

it can readily be calculated by applying classical light ends methods to the assumed pseu docomponent s.General Mixture of iC4 and nC4 Liq.9 -. ranging from 122 to 156 degrees F.76·77). there are many criteria.95 100. B .00 74.. As an illustration.C4 = 100% nC4 Mole % 24. Naphtha for Cracking to Petrochemicals As pointed out by Nelson (OC]. Vol. all C7 paraffins boil between 175 and 209 degrees F. which influence the compositions of desirable cracking feedstocks. rather rigid composition criteria.862 X 1. The end result is a separation based on light key recovery on the distillate and heavy key recovery in the bottoms.2 .95 100. All C6 paraffins have pure component boiling point.0 76.00 1.3 - C . the material covered here will be limited 10 the types of separations encountered in the fractionation of continuous boiling petroleum liquids. March 10. Note that the final point of the lighter component is not exactly the same as the initial point of the heavier component. Fractionation Specifications for Naphthas General composition requirements for the fractionation of light ends or discrete components have been discussed in previous sections of this chapter. The procedures discussed consider the separation to be a split between two discrete components. Vol. consider a mixture of C6• C~ and C. paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons.25 1. 3. and the portion boiling between 21 I to 269 degrees F is Cg. Vol.C4 Component Propane Isobutanc Nbutane Isopentane Total = 95 100% iC4 Mole % 11. This would indicate an ASTM boiling range of approximately 150 to 250 degrees F. 1969. % 21. Precursors for the xylenes boil over a TBP range of 245 to 270 degrees F.7 100. Thus. Desirable molecular weights usually range from 80 to 120.138X X 76. naphthenes boil between 22 [ and 269 degrees F. This anomaly is overcome by setting the TBP cut point between pseudocomponents at the midpoint between the two temperatures. low aromatic. Although they may appear to be radically different.25 - Liq. This is accomplished by breaking up the feedstock as described by a TBP distillation into pseudocomponents which have a relatively narrow boiling range characteristic. . all C7 naphthenes boil between 190 and 218 degrees F. and all C. Cyclohexane boils at 177 degrees F. they result in the same general analysis 'after the fractions are broken up into their respective pseudocomponents. These separations can be specified in one of four ways. The main properties desirable in a cracking feedstock are high naphthene .0 Liq.80 88. No matter how the required fractionation is specified.85-. 1969.80 - 1.6 100. The split is solved by trial-and-error to find the proper combination of TBP end point of the lighter product and TBP overlap at the cut point which will satisfy the ASTM temperature requirements. low isoparaffin straight-run materials and low sulfur content. 104105) discu sse s this in de tail. % 21. and all C8 paraffins boil between 211 and 258 degrees F.2 Composition Variables of NGPA Grade Butanes Case A . These four different types of fractionation specifications are discussed as follows. % 9. Precursors for toluene boil over a TEe range of 189 to 245 degrees F. for this illustration. that portion of the TBP curve boiling over the range j 22 to 177 degrees F is C6. economic as well as technical. Setting fractionation requirements for these towers generally reduces to solving a material balance problem to yield products meeting predetermined and.0 Catalytic Reformer Feed (BTX) Production for Petrochemical Precursors for benzene boil over a TBP range of 156 to 177 degrees F.95 100. usually. Nelson (OG]. the portion boiling between 175 to 2 [8 degrees F is C 7.4 86.Refinery Light Ends Fractionation TABLE 5. Feb. their recoveries being determined by economic considerations. Light Product ASTM End Point and ASTM (5·95) Gap Specification This is the type of specification normally encountered in refinery work.1 1. Thus.

~ ." . there are yet other factors which must be considered in developing the process. ethane and lighter may make up as much as 10 to 12 mole percent of the gross feed to the main tower which can equate to as much as 20 mole percent of the feed to the gas plant. Ii C' \: '.this type of specification. Only in the rarest of cases would these be mixed to form feed for a single unit. Alternately. I . it may include nitrogen.! I I '" I •I . catalytic cracking units. The various configurations of refinery light ends units in addition to other valuable qualitative information can be found in Bozeman's (8) excellent paper. the separation is stated to be a complete split between two components.~ fit 'I 'I I' 11 II t I ~ ~. Reducing C3 loss would require operating a refrigerated condenser which. requires a costly feed drying system. " ~.. hydrogen sulfide and occasionally helium. carbon dioxide. The second and much more subtle factor considers the relative quantities which are present of components which are lighter than the lightest product. Yielding ethane and lighter as a vapor distillate at a maximum pressure level and using a water-cooled condenser would result in high losses overhead of the C3 's in the feed. Note that the ASTM (5-95) Gap cannot be specified in this case. but rather results from plotting the ASTM curves.. It is obvious that processing such a feedstock in a conventional deethanizer would result in the following. The arrangement of the towers will be de termined by' the distribution of products within the overall feed stream. '1 I . ASTM boiling ranges are stated for the product streams. one then estimates the distribution of the key pseudocomponents and.. the required recovery of light and heavy keys in the distillate and bottoms.9. this will include hydrogen as well as hydrocarbons. t.. In these types of units. This latter type is not found within the refinery and is not considered here in any degree of detail but is based on the same design principles now being discussed. thence..: These two undesirabilities can be avoided by using a reboiled absorber as the first tower in such a gas plant followed by the product fractionators. the physical state-either vapor or liquid-in which the products must be delivered to other systems or to storage.. f Boiling Ranges of Products In this type of specification.8. Recovery of Keys In this type of specification. their compositions or purities. one finds that a large percentage of the total feed consists of components lighter than the lightest product. I I I . In the natural gas processing plant. within the framework of establishing design criteria for a gas plant. The first of these obviously is the desired/required number of product streams to be yielded. Once the split is set up.. cokers and natural gas processing units. in tum. This results in the minimum amount of heavy key in the distillate consistent with yielding only the total light ends volume overhead. These points suffice to define the (f ~. the separation. economic criteria which must be observed. " .' I .I I . By converting these to TBP curves. This subject will be considered in detail in the next section of this chapter. one may specify recovery of the major key in a product stream. _" ~. The design material balance is set up by cutting the feedstock so that the total volume of the distillate is the same as the total volume of the desired light ends recovery. I. The amount of heavy ends in the distillate is established by setting the distillate TBP end point at the final TBP temperature of the light component boiling range. the availability and condition of utility streams and. This is obviously not possible. In the case of an FCCU main fractionator design. quite often. I . 2.. coker or hydrocracker is shown by Figure 5. This situation occurs in gas plants for hydrocrackers.i •• I I I I 1 1-1.-: I I I I . However. In the case of the first three units mentioned above... The TBP initial point of the bottoms is established by assuming that the total TBP overlap at the cut point is distributed equally between the products.. '" 'tl _/i ". is stated directly. A typical configuration for a natural gas processing plant utilizing a reboiled absorber is shown by Figure 5. respectively. it reduces to a light and heavy key recovery specification. A sharp separation is made by using an absorption oil to recover the heavy key in the bottoms and reboiled stripping to reject the light key to the overhead vapor..: . A typical gas plant utilizing a reboiled absorber for an FeCU fractionation section. specified yields or recoveries of any particular component(s). The design of this type of tower will be discussed in the final section of this chapter. the other being defined as an allowable impurity concentration in that stream. Types of Light Ends Plants As was discussed in the previous section. Split between Components In ..- \~ ~ 96 Petroleum Refinery Distillation required number of towers and approximate ternperatu re and pressure levels at key points throughout the system. light ends plants are designed to prucessonly either saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons.

quite often. In recent years. Utilize this spare capacity wherever possible.~ . This is true even in the case of difficult separations where one might be inclined to operate a refrigerated condenser to achieve a lower operating temperature profile and. elementary principles arc either neglected or treated hastily. In the varying operating conditions and product slates encountered in the average refinery. Above this level. the first tower can be a deisobutanizer yielding a n-butane b'ottoms product followed by a depropanizer . The following guidelines should be observed in selecting operating utilities. but. Consider. the depropanizer would be designed to fractionate between propane and isobutane. By inspection. high temperature oil which must be cooled before being stored and direct fired heaters. Steam is the first choice for bottoms product temperatures up to approximately 350 degrees F. Arrangement of Processing Steps-Unit Arrangement 1. This would seem indicated in revamps or major expansions as well. Since all distillation processes involve the addition of and removal of heat. Having defined the separation and the distillate condensing temperature. either hot oil or a direct fired reboiler will be required. resulting in substandard designs or in work which must be redone due to the assumption of erroneous bases. 2. The C4 splitter would contain a large number of trays since the separation is relatively difficult. the first order of business is to determine how this can best and most economically be accomplished. These are not the only points to be considered but are indicative of the type of thinking which must be done prior to commencing actual design work.. a three-component system consisting of propane. the trend has been toward maximizing air-cooler usage and minimizing cooling water usage This discussion applies only to situations where two or more towers in sequence are being considered. 2. would contain a moderate number of trays. for example. Refrigeration is rarely found in refinery gas plants but is quite common in modern natural gas proc· essing plants and in petrochemical plants such as ethylene units. Basic Design Considerations Assuming that the chemical engineering function of the unit has been determined. the tower could contain a moderate number of trays. 5. . but in any multiple product distillation train. The excess heat contained in hot process streams should be used with caution. Detailed design procedures for different types of towers will be presented in later sections of this chapter. i. thus. 3. the proper selection of process temperature levels becomes the first and most important job of the designer. Minimizing steam consumption by using fired heater reo boilers will minimize steam plant and boiler feedwater preparation facilities. the author prefers using hot products for crude feed preheat and for auxiliary reboiling only when the hot stream contains at least 50 percent more heat than required by the controlling reboiler duty. there are a number of ways in which the towers can be arranged. the first tower would contain a relativelyjlarge number of trays since it would be designed for the isobutane-n-butane separation. One must then choose the proper heating medium. the separation{s) to be made have been established. Some of the material pre· sented may seem overly basic.Refinery Light Ends Fractionation 97 Process Design Considerations This section will discuss the basic principles involved in designing a single light ends tower and/or a complete processing unit yielding several products. determine whether or not there is any excess capacity in the existing utility systems and how much is available for the design in question. An alternate approach is to use a hot oil loop where one furnace fires enough heat for all reboilers on the service. The first tower can be a depropanizer yielding a propane product distillate followed by a C4 splitter (deisobutanizer). If the cooling water system has insufficient spare capacity for the design. In crude unit design. the availability of the stream being considered as a heat source may not always be adequate.e. there are usually three sources of heatsteam. when designing grass-roots facilities. a lower relative volatility which will decrease tray requirements. especially. isobutane and n-butane which must be separated into relatively pure components. In the refinery. When installing new facilities in an existing refinery. 4. Alternately. it is ob· vious that Method I is the better process design because: 1. Equipment costs will be lower since the large tower will bd designed for a lower pressure.. Two routes can be used.fin coolers. It is obviously desirable to remove heat from the condenser by using either cooling water or air. the depropanizer.3. The second tower. Since this is a relatively easy split. In the first scheme. Single towers are designed on the basis of the available feed. the bottoms temperature now follows. air-cooled condensers and product coolers are usually cheaper than additions to the refinery cooling water system. In the second scheme. The operating conditions and relative equipment sizes for the two are shown in Figure 5. Operating costs will be lower since the deisobutanizer ~ :.

. ti iJ~· I II I I .. . -'-... OF TOWER DESIGN TRAYS DIAM. .O iC4 1 mole F-3moles C3-1 i(4-1 n(4-1 2 mole I I I I I I I I I -....IJJI~. "' ...!"..'¢!'. >..". Process design alternates for production of propane... PRESSURE.. .. .. I I I nC4 1 mole RELATIVE RELATIVE TOWER NO... isobutane and n-butane. \ '\" 98 Petroleum Refinery 0 isti lIation (3 1 mole 120· 2... PRESSURE......c... ..... !l!!ill!lllllll!...• ......61 120 120· 169p...... .0p5..""_ ' .""l ""'q!'!'!'!'!''''!' ""!""! . ...IIII! !!II!!(!!II!!.. .l.... ."..• """.. ""..... ...•..•. !III!'I!Il . nCo( 1 mole RElATIVE RElATIVE TOWER NO...!... psig 300 METHOD 2 2..02 210 METHOD 300 2 Figure 5. .. ""' "'..!. ".o C3 1 mole I I I F -3mole C3 -I iC4 -I riC4 -I 190· 179p..:. =. •..""'...1""" . . ""' .. •.:..• .. ....~!'.. ' .•. .. .Ij[I!LI .a!li!! !I'I! !Ii!!!'l'!!41!'!'! """""IIIiII!II!IJ...... psig iC4 1 mole 2 3.. OF TOWER DESIGN TRAYS DIAM....JIXIljl.... """..3. 111114I111M!III12 _:- :$11jjl .. t. . t. .#*""'""'"'....

and W leaves the tower as bubble point liquid." He goes further to point out that the heat requirements of any given tower are determined by the separation being made rather than by the heat added to the process by the feed. " 3. respectively. high heat requirements should be minimized.000 BPSD crude oil feed to the refinery. required by the process and is expressed as QCM = (D + RM) x (H .Refinery condenser load will be approximately half that of Method 2. thus. for sake of clarity. F=D+W In the example of Figure 5. The tower arrangement which results in minimum thermal costconsidering both the cooling of reflux and reboil heating-will usually define the optimum arrangement of lowers. the flowshee t and material balance. By inspection. "It is usually thought that the feed should be hot and one rule that the writer has heard is that the [mole"] percent of the feed vaporized should equal the [mole?] percent of the overhead product. The material balance for this operation is given by Table 5.. This work was based on analyzing three binary hydrocarbon systems so that the calculations could be easily treated by hand. a parametric study was made by this author to determine the effect of the thermal condition of the feed upon the overall process de. This will result in minimizing equipment sizes and utility consumptions. Calculations can be made to determine the minimum reflux. The arrangement of processing steps is typical of many refineries. Basic Heat Effect. Rule 2 was used as the principal criterion. This will be reflected in a lower reboiler heat duty for Method I. However. the real impact of the above rules can best be seen in the design of an overall fractionation unit. He states. Heat Effect Due to Minimum Reflux." The feed to a tower having high reflux requirements and. QCM. Now consider Figure 5.6. Heat Required by Oistitletion Processes This subject has been treated thoroughly throughout the literature. D leaves the tower as a dew point vapor. ~ ~ '{~ "Try and achieve a 50·50 split of the feed into distillate and bottoms. heat loads become minimized. However. ratio required to affect the desired separation for a given thermal condition of the feed. To further explore this question. particularly of those which have grown by expansion and revamp. for a unit processing the same feedstock into the same products but arranged in accordance with Harbert's rules." Consider a given fractionation system operating at conditions of minimum reflux (and infinite trays). one can quickly see the savings in both capital and operating costs which can be achieved by an intelligent approach to process layout . . Feed Preheat Light Ends Fractionation 99 I. This leads to minimum heat needs for the separation.3 which selects Method I as the better design. and Rule 3 confirms that Method 1 is the better choice. In reference to Figure 5. consistent with the required material balance. Consider Figure 5.3. which is a flowsheet for a complex refinery saturates gas plant based on 100.h) . the heat needs of the two halves of the column also approach equality. the relationships developed also apply to multicomponent systems. it is represented here. 2. sign of a tower and the heat quantities involved. Harbert (7) addressed himself to this problem and arrived at three rulesof-thumb for arriving at the most economical arrangement of towers in any given fractionation plant. "M inirnize the charge to a tower where a difficult separation is required. "Total heat inputs to all the towers of a system provide a good measure of the process effectiveness. He points out that the feeling among designers is that tower feed should be preheated." If the quantities of the two product streams are made as nearly equal as possible. This heat effect takes into account the heat removed by the condenser. and the heat degraded across the tower is used to the maximum. once in each half of the tower. A further section of Harbert's paper considers the questions of preheating the feed to a tower and how much feed preheat is desirable. The heat effect incurred by this process is expressed as Note that the heat removed in 'condensing D to a bubble point liquid plus the amount of heat contained in D as a bubble point liquid is equal to the heat content of D as a vapor.4. This type of analysis should be applied in the arrangement of any multitower fractionation train.5 and Table 5. but. in condensing the distillate plus the minimum amount of reflux.4. By inspection. i. This also applies to systems requiring refrigerated reflux where one must consider compression as well as heat transfer costs.

53 59.40 24..95 1563..31 3.61 80.60 .54 ssss 1.70 6.68 51.81 62..1 I 57.51 JlI ill .95 1900.""" SUmmorv fOO' Rtfine<y So:tura1es G .95 1440.96 62.17 5.76 62. Compo~.69 7231 2152 737 184.53 525 7.88 109.63 10.90 31.75 3.46 62.98 32.63 62.43 ..69 32. Figure 5.55 28.4 refinery saturates gas plant.69 121. tc:5 35.. moles/hour 2.10 61.90 31.95 1900. C.:l.99 58.50 11654 1.'' 63.58 1.58 ~ 175 .52 1179.51 . 6n2 3961 82. C .58 1175.66 3.5) . iC" --T- rt t'? (f I WHOlf .42 23.68 2 35.88 60.81 62.06 32.3 refinery saturates (1 Mato!!rial Balance Summary for Refinery Saturates Ga-s.43 .72 39.51 6. .6~ ~99.f.63 5.39 . C. 22 DMB 23 OMB 2MEP 3MEP nC.72 39.53 18.07 ..61 63.55 :!8.87 61.26 52. LSO .40 24. iC4 nC.53 59.17 1.61 1172.51 6.98 116.91 737 265.81 8.04 . 239 80.61 In..03 317 \.99 57.90 31.61 .61 80. "'.63 10.58 119.06 32.2J 43.61 Bo.4.72 39.7J 121..5 I 663 10.37 184.H{J C. + ToW.12 37.81 62.~.53 IB82 7.89 118.40 24.95 1501.03 60 2.60 150 63 <' ~ ~.23 43.06 .61J 3.60 2.91 23.96 62.52 1179.Typical Flow Scheme tF~gLlre 5. TABLE 5.22 58..07 ." ~.42 61.72 39.".04 2. 1 35.51 6.55 124.nt C.61 82. ie.06 .39 Cof..NIIEO NA:PHTH A tt qas plant.l:: 109.H.m-Altornote Flow Scheme IFivure 12 35.99 4920 .50 .17 13~ 3.60 2.55 124.82 7.55 124.47 1.37 725. -- Stream No.60 2.:.63 3.08 3..50 .ll} 58.25 337.50 15930 178.89 I ~l.13 117~95 1359.. eye.51 663 10.22 34.47 1.55 31. Alternate flow scheme.9 I I~O~ 1.63 10.61 80.81 .52 1179.69 74. c.8 I .22 59..35 58 1.26 .Il 54.08 9.58 119.99 58.96 3555 124. Typical flow scheme. 2.C.31 3. " <" ~.51 114.03 2.77 8.11 57.72 39.68 9.98 116.63 1081 62.68 51.61 82. APHTHA ~iEED DEHEX .56 10.63 .72 39.55 121.61 S2AO 24. Figure 5.60 1.50 .61 117.53 5.17 16 17 nC.40 24.08 1.22 59.34 23. Mat .51 11537 L50 3.25 37.5. ~ .34 .76 6272 3961 82.46 62.51 6.07 .43 3 4 5 I> 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 34.53 59.6J 5. .55 124. 22 DMB 23 DMB 2 MEP 3 MEP irs nC~ 35. _.Plant.77 2.9.11 54. ial BoI.52 1179.69 72.6J -" " 114.51 11537 1.54 cyc.92 8.2 8.22 5958 119.70 6.11 1..05 58 US 31.4) Stream No Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 C.34 .13 43. ..37 22.50 .01 122. '" .87 61.52 7..31 21.25 7.91 737 388.99 4920 9.69 32.52 1179. TABLE 5. + Total.OS nCo C.63 .58 1.91 7.63 J.69 32. moles/hour -c.81 62.03 15 .47 117 ~ 3.56 10.6 2.60 337. C.

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