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of France and Europe. Born in Ajaccio, Corsica on August 15, 1769 Napoleon entered a military academy at Brienne ten years later. Five years later Napoleon entered Ecole Militaire (Military School) and a year later became commissioned as a lieutenant. Napoleon spent his time studying history and geography which helped him in his great military career. Under Napoleon’s leadership some have believed Napoleon to be a dictator, however Napoleon was a conqueror and a true military genius. Napoleon was born into a noble Italian family as his father, Carlo Bonaparte, was an attorney and Corsica’s court representative of Louis XVI of France and his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino, was a strict disciplinarian. It was under her influence that he was sent to a French military school. After attending various military schools Napoleon graduated in January of 1786 at the age of sixteen as a second lieutenant of the artillery. This was also around the same time that revolution was beginning in France. This was the perfect opportunity for young military leaders such as Napoleon to show skill and talent and earn a successful military career. It was Napoleon’s chance to shine during the Siege of Toulon when he was appointed captain of the artillery for the Republican side of the revolution. The siege was about two months long as it began in September of 1793 and ended in December of 1793. Napoleon did his part excellently as he tactically placed his guns to assault the British forces on the harbor. Napoleon also led successful assaults on crucial forts and seized them. Napoleon’s performance during the siege proved exceptional and surpassed the performance of his superiors. As Napoleon noticed the
Napoleon then influenced the commander to lead an assault on a key British fort which led to the republican victory and his promotion to General of the brigade. As General. He found himself working for the corrupt Paul Barras who used Napoleon to end a rising Royalist mob known as Vendemiaire. The treaty contained many secret clauses but it caused Austria to lose the Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy and in return receive the Venetian territories of Istria and Dalmatia. Napoleon used a canon loaded with a canister filled with iron balls to fire at the Royalists which became legendary as a “whiff of grapeshot”. Upon Napoleon’s release in 1795 he had no position and he began looking for power in Paris. and Rivoli. Napoleon was serving in Italy but was arrested during August 9 to August 20 of 1794 because his ties to the younger brother of Maximilien Robespierre led to suspicions of Napoleon being a Jacobin. Besides being a successful diplomat Napoleon was still a soldier and earned the French occupation of Belgium and earned victories in Lodi. Napoleon was beginning to develop as a politician and political experience was something that none of his military peers shared. 1797. which was the succeeding treaty to the Treaty of Leoben. which was a field army of the French Revolution.poor performance of his generals he led a scheme to have them replaced. Also under his influence he proposed a treaty to the papacy and the Treaty of Campo Formio. This led to Napoleon gaining the position of commander of the Army of the Interior. There Napoleon led a great campaign beginning with the Austrian signing of the Treaty of Leoben on April 19. After a successful campaign in Italy Napoleon returned to Paris where he was . Napoleon maintained his connections with government officials and a year later in 1796 took new command in the Army of Italy. Arcola.
Using about five divisions covered by about thirty guns and each supported with cavalry.000 troops met the forces of the Mameluke. one led by Murad Bey who had 21. Napoleon wanted to take over this territory but was stopped by British forces led by Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson who defeated Napoleon in the Battle of the Nile. Their naval force has proved to be a serious threat against any nation’s military force that attempted to cross the Channel. This invasion began when Napoleon and 25. After fighting with 1500 men for eight hours Napoleon arrived with 2500 men and two cannons. Napoleon continued to move into Syria until he reached Mount Tabor where he found General Jean-Baptiste Kleber battling a 35.000 man army led by Pasha of Damascus. Bonaparte did not like the scheme as he has seen failed plots such as the one led by Lazare Hoche on Ireland and Britain has proved to have a strong navy. Upon realizing this Napoleon strategically placed his soldiers in large square shaped divisions.000 troops. Napoleon was able to strategize his men into defeating the winning Turkish forces. Napoleon and .000 troops and another led by Ibrahim Bey who had 100. Although the confrontation seemed to be one sided the Mameluke faced their own problems. The Mameluke defeat signified the end of 700 years of Mameluke rule over Egypt. This battle became known as The Battle of The Pyramids or The Battle of Embabeh.appointed to take command of the army designated to invade England. the divisional squares were able to defeat the defending Mameluke. The French forces had to continue through the deserts with disease and fatigue until Turkish forces of about 8000 men met the French at Aboukir. Because of this Napoleon decided to lead an invasion on Egypt even though this expedition was just as dangerous. The two forces were divided by the Nile river leaving Murad’s forces to defend a village and Ibrahim’s forces out in the open.
Napoleon wanted to explore his potential in French politics so upon his return he became a part of the Coup de Brumaire. 1800 was supported by three-million voters whose only opposition was one-thousand sixty-two voters in opposition. Napoleon has learned from the revolution that the voice of the public people cannot be ignored. The sole purpose of this council was to provide advise to the First Consul which was beneficial because Napoleon was able to prepare for any debate or criticism that may come his way. Napoleon was a member of this consul alongside Roger Ducos. Bonaparte earned other opportunities to gain and use power from the constitution. Napoleon’s technique for tackling this situation was submitting general legislative outlines that would please the people but execute the orders with detailed executive decrees. The Senate had the ability to issue orders that could bypass the legislature. the Council of Five-Hundred. He was able to begin a new State council known as the Counseil d’Etat. In the consulate Napoleon played a part in the negotiations that went towards creating the new constitution.his closest friends decided to leave for France and left the French forces under the command of General Kleber. a Jacobin lawyer and Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes. Napoleon was able to bend the Senate more and more towards his will and eventually avoid parliamentary opposition. a former priest and revolutionary pamphleteer and deputy. Napoleon was elected by the Directory’s largest legislative Chamber. Napoleon . He has experienced similar discussion when he took part in creating the Cispadane when in the Cisalpine Republic in Italy. An end was brought to the five-man executive Consulate as a new three-man Consulate was born. The French people saw the three men with equal power but soon Napoleon found his way to the position of First Consul. Napoleon was to release a new constitution which on February 7.
Napoleon was always portrayed in the best light as his mistakes were overlooked and any achievement that came as a result of luck was seen as part of master plan. traveling over the Alps to confront the Austrians. Now that Napoleon was Emperor he began to work on his ambition to dominate Europe. Because of Desaix’s death Napoleon received all the glory that rightfully belonged to General Desaix. This brought Napoleon closer to becoming the head of state in France. This was about the same time period that Napoleon moved back to Italy with an army. The royalists plotted an assassination on Napoleon on December 24. Bonaparte saw this as an opportunity to get rid of the Jacobin threat as he issued a “senatus consultum” which exiled 130 Jacobins and the real royalists were dealt with separately. A prime example was the battle of Marengo on June 14. General Napoleon’s status as First Consul enable Napoleon to have the best coverage of all the generals. Napoleon was saved by the arrival of General Desaix who died as the French earned victory. Another thing that Napoleon wanted to bring an end to was the royalist counter revolution in the West. However Napoleon still had enemies in royalists and radical Jacobins. After two years as First Consul Napoleon was able to gain internal security and an end revolution and upheaval. 1804 Napoleon was crowned Emperor of France in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.was able to earn internal order within his nation and made peace with enemies from other countries. However one large error occurred when a royalist figurehead was arrested and . 1800 as a group of them tried to bomb him. On December 2. 1800 in which General Napoleon believed the Austrians were retreating and he divided his army in half to go after them only to find an Austrian force that was twice the size of Napoleon’s forces.
Great Britain. From this victory Napoleon earned areas in Germany and Italy that were influenced by Austrians. 1805 Napoleon took his French Naval Fleet and joined with Admiral Villanueve of Spain to try and force Admiral Nelson’s British forces off the channel. General Bonaparte secretly deployed his soldiers on Austrian territory where they found Austrian General Mack waiting for the Russian General Kutusov. The British fleet did not lose a single ship as the French and Spanish lost about eighteen vessels combined. 1805. Russia and Sweden. This turned European nations against Napoleon as they formed the Third Coalition. Napoleon used his knowledge of the field’s geography to defeat both the Austrians and Russians by fooling them into thinking his army was in a weak position by positioning his army in a weak location instead of the main center location that was made of a frozen lake.tried without a fair trial eventually leading to the royalist’s execution. With his new influence Napoleon once again tried to focus on Europe. 1805 Napoleon faced the Austrian and Russian forces in the Battle of Austerlitz. His new plan was to try and exclude England from trade in . In response Napoleon began assembling a massive army known as the first Grande Armee. Luring his allied opponents with his weak position the allies stepped onto the frozen lake and under the weight of soldiers and guns the lake cracked and drowned many of their soldiers. although Admiral Nelson was shot and died in this battle. The Third Coalition consisted of Austria. On October 21. Without the help of the Russians General Mack was forced to surrender at Ulm on November 22. Napoleon’s ambitions of invading England ended with that battle but Napoleon continued to face the Austrians and Russians. 1805. The French and Spanish allies were defeated by Nelson’s superior fleet. On December 2. Without Austrian forces in the way Napoleon was able to take over Vienna by November 25.
While Napoleon used some of his force to keep the Prussians retreating he began advancing towards the Wellington forces south of the village of Waterloo. dreams and ambitions as he lost 32. In order to gain support Napoleon placed his troops in Spain and forced King Charles IV to step down from the throne and appointed his brother Joseph Bonaparte to be king of Spain who was crowned in July of 1808. . Napoleon would have control over Europe for about six years until his career would come to an end in a crucial turning point known as the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was a military genius who used his abilities to work through the ranks and eventually become a politician who ruled France and later Europe. Through luck and strategy he was able to build the great career and legacy that is known by many people. The only entity that was to be convinced of adopting the new policy was Portugal. On June 16 Napoleon had defeated Prussian forces at Ligny only to find the Duke of Wellington at a crucial area.000 men and 7000 captured. Bonaparte’s defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon’s rule. The victory went to Wellington when they stopped the advancement of the French forces.hopes of crippling its economy.