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Effect of Residual Gas Fraction on the Combustion Characteristics of Butane-Air Mixtures in the Constant-Volume Chamber
Myung Yoon Kim, Dae Sik Kim, and Chang Sik Lee*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791, Korea Received March 28, 2002
An experimental study was made to investigate the effect of residual gas on the combustion characteristics and flame propagation of butane-air mixtures in a constant-volume combustion chamber. The combustion process and flame propagation are studied under different ratios of residual gas and various equivalence ratios in the combustion chamber. The effects of the residual gas ratio on the combustion pressure, heat release rate, burned fraction, and flame propagation phenomena were studied in detail. The experimental apparatus consists of a constant-volume combustion chamber, a premixture chamber, a data acquisition system, and a laser Schlieren system with a high-speed camera. With an increase of the residual gas ratio in the combustion chamber, the combustion pressure and the rate of heat release decrease and the burning period of the fuel-air mixture is reduced by the increase of residual gas. The effects of residual gas on the combustion characteristics and flame propagation speed are dependent on the amount of residual gas. In the case of a higher residual gas ratio (more than 10%) in the chamber, the combustion pressure and heat release are steeply decreased. It is confirmed that residual gas in the combustion chamber lowered the rate of heat release as a result of the decrease of combustion temperature. The flame propagation speed decreases with the increase of residual gas in the combustion chamber.
1. Introduction The nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration of the exhaust gas from the automotive engine is primarily a function of combustion temperature. So, the most effective way of reducing NOx emission is to keep the combustion temperature down. Reduction of NOx formation by diluting the incoming air-fuel mixture with a small amount of inert gas is the simplest practical method. Air is available for a diluent gas, but it is not a nonreacting mixture like the exhaust gas. Tabata et al. investigated the effect of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) under stoichiometric and lean mixture conditions and compared it with the effect of lean operation through the exhaust gas recirculation.1 Arcoumanis et al. analyzed the effect of various levels of EGR on the combustion characteristics in the four-cylinder direct-injection optical diesel engine.2 Their study revealed that the increase of EGR rate showed higher cyclic pressure variations during the warm-up period and reduced flame core temperatures. In the spark ignition engine, the most practical approach for the reduction of exhaust emission and improvement of engine stability is to control the combustion period by enhanced mixture flow in the cylinder. It is well-known that EGR
* Corresponding Author. Phone: +82-2-2290-0427. Fax: +82-22281-5286. E-mail: cslee@ hanyang.ac.kr. (1) Tabata, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Fukube, T. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1995; No. 950684. (2) Arcoumanis, C.; Bae, C.; Nagwaney, A.; Whitelaw, J. H. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1995; No. 950850.
is effective in reducing NOx emissions,3 but the problem with exhaust gas recycling is an increase of the particulate matter. Shiozaki et al. measured the flame temperature under EGR conditions with a two-color imaging CCD camera.4 Also, Mitchell et al. measured the relationship between exhaust gas recirculation and intake air dilution on combustion through the optic access in a diesel engine.5 They indicated that flame temperature had a major influence on nitrogen oxide and that carbon monoxide emissions were influenced mainly by the O2 fraction in the intake air. Fundamental studies on exhaust gas recirculation have been carried out by many researchers, both theoretically and experimentally.6-8 Most of the previous researchers conducted engine tests to investigate the overall effect of exhaust gas recycling on emission control. But, these studies of engine combustion in the case of EGR have many uncertainties as a result of the difficulties of conducting experiments in the actual engine. From this point of
(3) Baert, R. S. G.; Beckman, D. E.; Verbeek, R. P. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1996; No. 960848. (4) Shiozaki, T.; Nakajima, H.; Kudo, Y.; Miyashita, A.; Aoyagi, Y. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1996; No. 960323. (5) Mitchell, D.; Pinson, J. A.; Lizinger, T. A. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1996; No. 932798. (6) Durnholz, M.; Eifler, G.; Endres, H. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1996; No. 920725. (7) Mouqallid, M.; Lecodier, B.; Trinite, M. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1994; No. 941990. (8) Ropke, S.; Schweimer, G. W.; Strauss, T. S. Soc. Automot. Eng. 1995; No. 950213.
10.1021/ef0200774 CCC: $25.00 © 2003 American Chemical Society Published on Web 04/29/2003
2. Butane and air were premixed in a premixture chamber where their equivalence ratio was determined on the basis of their partial pressures measured by a diaphragm pressure transducer. 1000 fps). Figure 2. Flame propagation speed was calculated from the Schlieren images (512 × 512 pixel. and an ignition system. the fixed amount of fresh mixture is supplied to the combustion chamber. which consists of a light source.1. It has extensive optical windowssa pair of 130 mm diameter and 30 mm thickness quartz windows mounted on both sides of the combustion chamber.2. Figure 3. The experiments were performed for 5 kinds of residual gas ratio that included the range of 0. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of residual gas ratio on the combustion and flame propagation characteristics in the constant-volume combustion chamber. and this period of the stroke cycle is regarded as constant-volume combustion. Constant-volume combustion chamber. Vol. and the fan at the bottom of the premixture chamber was operated by electronic control. 17. Two plate electrical heaters (300 W) were installed on the outside walls of the combustion chamber and coupled to a K-type thermocouple. A constant-volume combustion chamber is filled with a butane-air mixture at each equivalence ratio. The test rig consists of the constant-volume combustion chamber. The highspeed Schlieren system and optical system were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber. Experimental Procedures. mass fraction burned. The fuel and air were mixed in a premixing chamber. as shown in Figure 2. Ignition was achieved by a transistorized coil ignition system (TCI) with electronic ignition using a 12 V power supply. pressure data acquisition system. Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of the optical system for combustion visualization. Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus. the burned gas was discharged and then as much as the amount of burned gas that corresponds to the residual gas ratio. and the data acquisition system. Phantom).8 to 1. A heater of 1 kW was installed to avoid fuel liquefaction under high pressure in the chamber. 2003 Kim et al. and a high-speed camera (maximum 3000 fps. an intake and exhaust valve. The output of the amplifier was input to the data acquisition system (Keithley. The combustion chamber is a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 100 mm and a depth of 40 mm. The fuel used in this experiment is butane. the spark plug was elongated to the center of the combustion chamber. Experimental Section 2. and high-speed camera.756 Energy & Fuels. To ignite the mixture in the center of the combustion chamber. the ignition system. and the visualization of the flame propagation under the various equivalence ratios and residual gas ratios. The system of combustion visualization was achieved by a high-speed Schlieren system. the rate of heat release. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of experimental apparatus. where their equivalence ratio was determined on the basis of the partial pressures of component gases such as air and fuel as measured by a pressure transducer. The total volume of the premixture chamber was measured to be 3290 cm3. This system allows the temperature of the chamber to be kept constant at 363 K in order to prevent water condensation on the windows after combustion. The information obtained from the experimental results provides detailed combustion characteristics such as combustion pressure. and the mixture is allowed enough time to decay completely in the chamber to make a quiescent flow condition. which digitized and stored the voltage signal with a sampling rate of 1 kHz. In this study.8 nm. The constant-volume combustion chamber consists of a cylindrical chamber. No. In a spark ignition engine. Experimental Apparatus. The instantaneous pressure variation in the combustion chamber was monitored by a piezoelectric pressure transducer (Kistler. A He-Ne laser was used as a light source. the fuel supply system. At the same initial pressure condition. with maximum output of 10 mW and light wavelength of 632. Schematic diagram of the optical system. A signal generator was used for synchronization of the ignition system. 3.2 of equivalence ratio and initial mixture pressure from 1 to 5 bar. concave mirror (300 mm). 2. the combustion happens ideally near the top dead center at the end of the compression stroke. the effect of residual gas on combustion in a constant-volume combustion chamber is important to understand as the influencing factor for the reduction of combustion temperature and formation of emissions. view. Figure 1. . 6061B) connected to a charge amplifier. DAS-58). the constant-volume combustion chamber was made to investigate the influence of the residual gas ratio on combustion phenomena. which has a volume of 341 cm3. When the burned gas temperature decreased to the same temperature as that of the combustion chamber.
In this experiment. The experiments were carried out for each condition. 15. 2003 757 Figure 4. Also. Pmix is the pressure of the fuel-air mixture gas. where dQ is the gross heat energy released as a result of combustion. No.8 and 1. 3. which included five residual gas ratios (0.3. The butane-air mixture with residual gas composition was obtained as follows.Pi Pmax . 17. rRG ) mRG × 100 (%) mmix + mRG (1) where mRG and mmix are the mass of residual gas and mass of butane-air mixture (without residual gas).8 to 1. and Pmax is the maximum combustion pressure in the combustion chamber. Applying the ideal gas equation to the gas mixture in the combustion chamber and differentiating about time PV ) mRT dV dP dT P +V ) mR dτ dτ dτ (5) (6) .Combustion Characteristics of Butane-Air Mixtures Energy & Fuels. A constant-volume combustion chamber is filled with a butane-air mixture at each equivalence ratio. in order to determine the heat release rate. was calculated from the measured pressure trace on the basis of the assumption that combustion pressure corresponds to the mass fraction.Pi (3) where Mb(τ) is the mass fraction burned at time τ. m is the mass of the mixture. the burned gas was discharged with the state of test residual gas ratio. Effect of residual gas on the combustion pressure at Φ ) 0. P is the pressure in the combustion chamber. Time history of combustion pressure at different equivalent ratios. In this paper. if we ignore the heat transfer to the combustion chamber wall. Residual Gas Ratio and Heat Release. Vol. 5. Pi is the initial pressure in the combustion chamber before combustion. respectively. P(τ) is the instant pressure in the combustion chamber.2. And the burned gas and fresh fuel-air were mixed in a combustion chamber where the residual gas ratio was determined on the basis of their partial pressure. initial pressure in the combustion chamber increases with the increase of residual gas fraction as follows: Pi ) Pmix + PRG (2) where Pi is the initial pressure in the combustion chamber (with residual gas). and it is ignited by an electric spark plug.2 and various fuel-air mixture pressures. The combustion characteristics were obtained from the pressure data in the combustion chamber. and PRG is the pressure of the residual gas. Effect of residual gas on the combustion pressure at stoichiometric equivalence ratios. the residual gas ratio rRG in the combustion chamber is defined as Figure 5. and 20%) at various equivalence ratios from 0. Also. The mass fraction burned Mb(τ). dT is the gas temperature change in the combustion chamber. Also. 10. 2. and dV is the change in the cylinder volume. and the flame propagation characteristics were analyzed by the optical system and high-speed digital camera system. the residual gas ratio was controlled from 0 to 20% with 5% intervals at each experimental condition. the first law equation can be written as follows: dV dQ dT ) mcv +P dτ dτ dτ (4) Mb(τ) ) P(τ) . and it can be expressed as follows: Figure 6. After the burned gas temperature was decreased to that of the test condition. the combustion duration was defined as elapsed time required to reach the maximum pressure from spark ignition in a constant-volume combustion chamber. cv is the specific heat at constant volume.
17.2. the combustion duration is increased with the increase of residual gas ratio and equivalence ratio.1 dτ where κ is the ratio of specific heats. . the timing at which the maximum pressure appears is retarded in proportion to the increase of the residual gas fraction in the mass of mixture. No. This figure shows that the combustion pressure decreases with an increase of residual gas ratio. This is a result of the increase of the inert gas fraction that the residual mass left over from the previous combustion in the chamber. the length of time required to reach the maximum value of the combustion pressure is retarded in accordance with the increase of residual gas ratio.1 dτ κ . Also. 3. Effect of residual gas on the mass fraction burned. As a result of the residual fraction.8. Experimental Results and Discussion 3. there are very small variations of maximum pressure with the increase of the residual gas ratio at low equivalence ratio of Φ ) 0. Figure 5 shows the effect of residual gas on the combustion pressure in the chamber at the mixture pressure of 3 bar and equivalence ratio of 1. Effect of Residual Gas on Combustion Characteristics. As indicated in Figure 6. 3. As shown in Figure 5.0. Effect of initial pressure on combustion duration. Figure 9. In the range of lean mixture. Figure 8. The effects of initial pressure on the total combustion duration under various residual gas conditions are illustrated in Figure 7. 2003 Kim et al. Substitution of eq 6 into eq 4 and rearrangement of the terms give the usual form of the first law of heat release equation: 1 dP κ dV dQ ) V + P dτ κ . Effect of residual gas ratio and equivalent ratio on the combustion duration (Pmix ) 3 bar). The effects of residual gas on the combustion pressure in the chamber at different equivalence ratios are illustrated in Figure 6.1. The maximum pressure appears in the equivalence ratio Φ ) 1. the peak value of combustion pressure decreases with an increase of the residual gas fraction in the chamber because of the inert effect of the residual gas. Effect of residual gas ratio on the maximum combustion pressure at Pmix ) 3 bar. (7) Figure 10. The total combustion period was proportional to the increase of initial pressure. Figure 4 shows the effect of the equivalence ratio on the combustion pressure history in the combustion chamber at an initial mixture pressure of 3 bar (without residual gas). Also. Figure 7. Vol. it cannot be fired at over 15% of the residual gas ratio.758 Energy & Fuels.
which is a normalized quantity with a scale of 0 to 1. As the residual gas fraction in the chamber is increased. Figure 9 shows the influence of the residual gas ratio on the combustion duration for different equivalent ratios. Z. Z. 237-250. The residual gas ratios are slightly affected by the maximum pressure at the range within 10% of the residual fraction. Burn-rate analysis is used mainly to obtain the mass fraction burned. 66-WA/DGP-4. the maximum combustion pressures are steeply decreased. M. 3. 66. G.Combustion Characteristics of Butane-Air Mixtures Energy & Fuels. Soliman. With an (9) Kodah. in the case of higher residual gas ratios. Jahmany. Heat-release analysis is used to produce absolute energy. the combustion duration is longer than that of the lower ratio of residual gas. H.10 There are two main approaches.. 2003 759 Figure 11. which are often referred to as “burn-rate analysis” and “heat-release analysis”. 3.. ASME 1966. However. Figure 8 shows the effect of equivalence ratio on the maximum pressure with different residual gas ratios.. Effect of residual gas ratio on the rate of heat release at different equivalence ratios. As illustrated in the figures. Abu Qudais. A. S. (10) Krieger. 17. Borman. Mass Fraction Burned and Heat-Release Rate. Appl. The rate of heat release is a very important parameter because this has a very significant influence on pressure-rise rate and NOx emissions.2. Vol. . the difference of the combustion durations between 0% and 20% of residual gas ratio is very large since a high residual gas ratio brings about the decrease of combustion temperature and an increase of heat loss.. B. R. Energy 2000. H.9. Thermodynamic analysis of measured cylinder pressure data is a very powerful tool used for quantifying combustion parameters. Figure 10 shows the mass fraction burned at the residual gas ratios rRG ) 0% and rRG ) 10%. No. L.
image processing software was used to calculate the diameters of the flame. Therefore.3.760 Energy & Fuels. influenced by the rise . Effect of Residual Gas on Flame Propagation. the flame speed is very low compared to the same condition without residual gas. Moreover. In the case of higher residual gas ratios. the diameters of the flame were calculated from the left and right end of the flame surface and flame speed was calculated from the diameters. No. Schlieren pictures of flame propagation in various residual gas ratios at Pmix ) 3 bar. as shown in the comparison of mass fraction burned. Also. the chamber. In the case of rRG ) 20%. Figure 12. Figure 13 shows the measured flame speed obtained by a Schlieren picture at three equivalence ratios and variable residual gas ratio. As illustrated in the flame pictures. With an increase in the residual gas ratio in Figure 13. The flame behaviors of a mixture are obtained from a continuous recording of a single spark event. The speed of early flame propagation is lower than the intermediate stage because of higher heat loss at the early stage of combustion. the center of the flame was raised and the flame shape was distorted with a high residual gas ratio. it can be inferred that the increase in residual fraction in the mass of the mixture plays an important role in the decrease of maximum temperature in the chamber. 3. The speed of flame propagation is dependent on the residual gas fraction and equivalence ratio. As indicated in the figures. flame core shape is an ellipsoidal trace because of interaction between spark energy and heat transfer with the buoyancy. the combustion durations were considerably affected by residual gas in the rich equivalence ratios. The effects of residual gas fraction on the flame propagation are shown in Figure 12. as shown in the pictures. the peak value of the heat-release rate was rapidly decreased and its timing was retarded at high residual gas ratios. 2003 Kim et al. Effect of residual gas ratio on the flame propagation speed. increase of residual gas ratio. 17. Also. The flame speed was calculated from digitized video images consisting of a 512 × 512 pixel array. Vol. Figure 11 shows the effect of residual gas ratio on the heat-release rate. Under the effect of buoyancy. flame speed is fastest when the flame passes through the middle region of the combustion chamber. From these results of pressure and heat-release rate. the total combustion duration increases. the flame propagation speed decreases. 3.
compared to the case of a lower residual gas ratio. Vol. In the case of a higher residual gas ratio in the chamber. In the case of a higher residual gas ratio. 3. The effect of residual gas on the combustion characteristics and flame propagation speed are analyzed by using the constant-volume chamber with an optical arrangement and a high-speed Schlieren system. Conclusions An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of the residual gas on the combustion characteristics and flame propagation in a constant-volume chamber. the combustion characteristics such as combustion pressure and heat release are steeply decreased. Acknowledgment. flame propagation speed is slightly lower in the final stage than in the intermediate stage. the increase of residual gas fraction in the constant-volume chamber influences the burning period. It is confirmed that the residual gas effect shows a lowered rate of heat release as a result of the decrease of combustion temperature. 2003 761 of unburned gas pressure. the maximum pressure of gas in the combustion chamber is steeply decreased. This work is supported by the fund of National Center for Cleaner Production of Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Project No. (3) The residual gas ratios are slightly affected at the maximum pressure at the range within 10% of the residual gas fraction. The main results of this work are summarized as follows: (1) The combustion pressure and heat release rate of the butane-air mixture were decreased in accordance with an increase of residual gas ratio.Combustion Characteristics of Butane-Air Mixtures Energy & Fuels. (2) From the result of mass fraction burned. (4) The flame propagation speed is dependent on the residual gas ratio and equivalence ratio. With an increase of the residual gas portion in the chamber. 4. the flame propagation speed decreases. EF0200774 .: 99-1K-34). 17. No.
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