Lesson plan for teaching about vertices, maxima, and minima of quadratic functions

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Lesson plan for teaching about vertices, maxima, and minima of quadratic functions

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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minima or maxima.

Unit Objectives

2. Finding the axis of symmetry of a quadratic function.

3. Finding the vertex of a quadratic.

4. Determining if the vertex is a maxima or a minima

5. Factoring a quadratic equation with the X-Box method

6. Finding the zeros of a quadratic function.

7. Use a graphing calculator to find the zeros of a quadratic function.

Lesson Objective

The student will be able to find the vertex of a quadratic function and determine if

it is a maxima or minima.

Standards

NCTM: Algebra:

1) analyze functions of one variable by investigating rates of change, intercepts,

zeros, asymptotes, and local and global behavior

2) understand and compare the properties of classes of functions, including

exponential, polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and periodic functions.

HCPS:

MA.AI.9.3 Determine the zeros of a linear or quadratic function algebraically and

graphically

Sample performance Assessment : The student: Shows/explains how to

use an algebraic method (or graph, or graphing calculator) to find

the zeros of a function

GLO:

1. Self-directed learner.

2. Complex Thinking.

3. Effective communicator

Materials

Elmo

Prepared quadratic functions for investigation on sheets for the Elmo

Whiteboards for students

Bellwork:

y = 2x2 + 4x – 6, y = -3x2 -7x + 4, y = 5x2 – 20x + 3

Project the problems on the board and have students attempt to solve the problems.

As students work on the problems, walk about the room to see how they are doing.

Have volunteers come forward to solve the Bellwork problems. Add explanations

to make their work more understandable, if necessary.

Have them write the answer on their white boards and show it to me on command.

Remind students that the formula is a simple one: axis of symmetry is x = -b/2a

NEW INFORMATION

Students have previously learned how to find the axis of symmetry for a quadratic

of standard form (y = ax2 + bx +c). They have also learned that the graph of the

equation opens upward if a is positive and downward if negative.

Explain what the vertex is, and how it always lies on the axis of symmetry, and

that it is the y value of the vertex is the result of plugging the x-value of the axis of

symmetry into the function. Emphasize that the vertex is a point, with the x-value

being the axis of symmetry and the y value as the result. The vertex is always on

the axis of symmetry. Calculate the y-value of the vertex for the class, label the

point on the graph. Comment that a vertex on an open-upward quadratic function is

the lowest value of the function, the minima.

value of the function – the maxima.

Make a rule, the vertex is a maxima for a < 0 (negative) and a minima for a > 0

(positive)

Work 2 more problems on the Elmo to calculate the axis of symmetry and the

vertex and indicate if it is a maxima or a minima.

I will give them the following 4 problems to do, one at a time, as quickly as they

can, with their answers circled on their white boards:

Find the axis of symmetry, the vertex, and indicate if it is a maxima or minima.

y = -x2 + 4x -2

y = 12x2 + 24x – 8

y = -4x2 – 8x + 12

y = x2 + 6x - 4

I will explain it on the ELMO when they are finished.

GUIDED PRACTICE

Assign the first 12 problems on Worksheet 9.4A for classwork. Give assistance as

needed.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

CLOSURE

Summarize the lesson and explain that the vertex is always on the axis of

symmetry, it is a point with both and x and y value, and that it is either a maxima

or minima, depending upon the sign of 'a'. Have them clean up the room before

leaving, and thank them for their cooperation. Say “Have a good day” as they left

with the bell.

The lesson was a challenge for the students, as it took some of them a while to

recognize that the vertex was nothing more than (or less than) the point on the

quadratic function at the axis of symmetry, calculated by plugging in the x-value of

the AOS. They had an easy time with the maxima/minima, and with the actual

calculating of the y-value. About 75% of the students seemed to have gotten the

lesson when we went through the bellwork the next day. I spent some more time

on this the next day and returned to it as review several times through the unit.

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