Introducing SEO into an enterprise-sized business

A white paper by the ADMA Digital Council September, 2010 Authors: Sylvia Kim – CareerOne Lucas Ng – Fairfax Digital Gary Nissim – OMD Max Sim – REA Group Mark Vozzo – Microsoft

Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) is now an integral and critical aspect of how products and services are marketed. And while positioning a brand so it has the greatest visibility in the search engine sphere is a key outcome, that isn’t where the SEO story ends. Effective interpretation of how search engines function and what people search for must seamlessly integrate with other important aspects, to contribute to an effective SEO outcome. This white paper details the SEO process, and highlights key areas for consideration to drive successful results.

Page 2

About the Authors

Sylvia Kim is the Search Strategy Marketing Manager at Sylvia has played a major role in paving the way for CareerOne to become a clear No.2 player in the competitive employment space from its long held No.3 position.

Max Sim has held management & senior leadership roles in Search Marketing (PPC/SEM, SEO, Social Media) & Analytics for News Corp subsidiaries. While executing the global Search strategy Max was involved in Product Development, Product Management, Usability & User Interface, Marketing, Editorial & IT decisionmaking across a wide spectrum of industries.

Lucas Ng is the Director of Search & Analytics at Fairfax Digital where he manages search marketing and web analytics operations for over a dozen of Australia’s most visited websites. Lucas also evangelizes search marketing at Fairfax Digital, where he has helped hundreds of work colleagues understand the benefits of search marketing and web analytics.

Mark Vozzo is the Search & Online Analytics Lead with Microsoft & prior to that was the Search Marketing Analyst at Fairfax Digital. He has been in the Digital Marketing industry his entire career since 1998 & has a wealth of knowledge & experience in the areas of SEO, Paid Search & Web Analytics for enterprise.

Gary Nissim has worked in digital for his entire career specialising in search for the past five years. He’s held numerous types of roles but has always been client focused understanding what drives businesses & what true success looks like.

Page 3

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................2  About the Authors .....................................................................................................................................3  Contents .....................................................................................................................................................4  Subject One: Setting Expectations...........................................................................................................5  Subject Two: The Team .............................................................................................................................7  Subject Three: KPIs and Milestones .........................................................................................................9  Subject Four: The Entire SEO Process ...................................................................................................12  Subject Five: Post Implementation and the Way Forward...................................................................14  Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................16  About the Australian Direct Marketing Association ..............................................................................17   

Page 4

Subject One: Setting Expectations
As with the start of any project, understanding goals and setting expectations is key. If all parties aren’t on the same page, the project is that much harder to manage. Is the goal to appear above competitors on all broad terms, no matter what the cost? Is it driving as much traffic as possible? Or is it high returns? Setting expectations isn’t just about setting goals. It’s about understanding timelines and investment levels, not only around the technical aspects of the project, but other areas like training and content development. Key issues that need to be settled are: Are these expectations achievable? Is a brand new domain going to be able to rank on the first page on a highly competitive term like ‘credit card’? Can the full project be completed during the next development cycle? What limitations will Content Management Systems (CMS) have on the overall project? SEO is not an exact science, it’s more of a black art. Factors that effect rankings often fall outside a project’s control including: The resources competitors are investing into SEO Changes in search engine algorithms Links dropping off sites on internal networks (or external sites). When setting expectations, there are a wide array of factors that need to be taken into consideration, ranging from: Training Ongoing assessment CMS limitations Obtaining company-wide buy in The quality of project management. How can an enterprise organisation achieve a seamless SEO campaign when there are so many stakeholders involved, with

different objectives and vastly different levels of knowledge? Training is a key pre-requisite for all parties involved in the project. Significant contributors will usually be from a mix of agency and/or in-house teams, from marketing to finance, sales to web development, PR to creative. The focus should clearly be SEO but should also look at other considerations, such as why SEO is important and how will it positively affect various parts of the business, competitor analysis, writing optimised content, fulfilment of leads and sales, brand guidelines, reporting and analysis. As well as understanding the basics of SEO, all parties need to be trained in the aspects of the project that relate to other team members. This will allow for greater understanding of each other’s goals and requirements. We’ll talk more about the SEO team in the next section. Timescales Setting timeframes is not an easy task, but an important one. Do technical projects ever get completed within budget and on time? It’s imperative that all parties agree to the set timescales, and that the schedule becomes a measurable or KPI with potential remuneration. Timescales should be agreed during a meeting chaired by the overall project lead and produced from a realistic base. All areas of the business need milestones. This isn’t just a technical project and requires involvement from other functions, including: Marketing (content development) Finance (does this fit into the finance systems being utilised?) Sales (how best to capture leads/sales) Goals To set goals, a number of factors need to be taken into consideration, and tasks allocated.
Page 5

A starting point would be to employ a base line or benchmarking period to measure success. Conducting competitor analysis allows businesses to measure themselves and monitor growth. There’ll always be a mix of goals required. Research needs to be conducted to understand what can be achieved. If the aim is to increase traffic around a certain term, it’s imperative to understand the search volume around that term, how competitive it is and what position would be needed, to achieve a set amount of traffic. Goals need to cover all aspects of the project, there needs to be a rationale behind each goal. They need to be flexible! As the project matures there’s no use chasing the unachievable – this will simply kill morale. Fine-tuning is the order of the day.

Page 6

Subject Two: The Team
Recruiting the SEO team Once people across the organisation understand and buy into SEO, it’s time to build the SEO team. It’s important to start with finding the person who will make it happen: The Search Engine

their SEO skill set on-the-job relies largely on their internal drive, particularly if they are the only Optimiser in the organisation. The candidate’s communication and networking skills should also be scrutinised, as evangelising and educating multiple stakeholders is another critical aspect required for the role. A certain level of business acumen should also be expected of the candidate. An effective Search Engine Optimiser needs to be aware of the role organic search plays in the wider marketing mix, as well as understanding the priority SEO takes over other projects. If someone inside the organisation is keen to transfer to SEO, their understanding of the organisation and their established network of connections can potentially outweigh any lack of technical knowledge, particularly for junior SEO roles. This SEL (Search Engine Land)1 article provides an interesting insight into determining which candidate is best suited to the role: Interviewing In-House SEO Candidates – Structuring the SEO team The ideal size of an SEO team will depend on the website(s). The larger the site, the more content there is to optimise. The more competitive the website’s industry, the harder it is to get ahead on key SEO metrics and monitor and respond to competitor activity. In reality, the headcount allocation usually dictates the size of the team! If there’s a single Optimiser in the company, be aware this person will be a generalist working across all aspects of SEO – many of which have become specialist roles in their own right, like link building, SEO copywriting, landing page optimisation, script writing for SEO etc.

To begin with, list the expected functions required of the Optimiser, as this helps identify the type of Optimiser needed. If you’re looking for a more code-savvy Optimiser, a development or engineering background can help solve technical challenges. If it’s an editorial Optimiser you’re after, you need to ask who has experience with copywriting and keyword research to write link-worthy content. Does your SEO require someone to wear multiple hats, like copywriting, web analytics and pay per click (PPC)? Where do they sit in the organisational chart? Positions can be divided into the follow three levels: Top layer – deciding the SEO strategy Managing SEO projects from start to finish – for example a project lead/project manager Operational – primarily responsible for tactical implementation What decision-making ability and/or financial responsibility will they have? Some Optimisers have the authority to make purchase decisions (tools, membership, conferences etc) and others can only make recommendations. Once the Search Engine Optimiser’s role and place in the organisation has been established, start recruiting the ideal candidate. When recruiting an enterprise Optimiser, the need for technical knowledge is a given. What should not be overlooked is the candidate’s passion. For an industry with few certification and tertiary education options, the candidate’s ability to learn and improve

1 Search Engine Land is a news and information site covering search engine marketing, searching issues and the search engine industry. (

Page 7

If you’re lucky enough to have a SEO team, the make-up of the team should be one that covers individual weaknesses – if your SEO developer can code and script, but not educate and engage management or marketing, hire a great SEO evangelist. If you have a SEO copywriter who understands editorial but not HTML, CSS or the difference between URL rewrites and redirects, hire a technical SEO who does. Where does an in-house SEO team belong? Whether you have a team of four or a single SEO, there’s often a turf war on which department in-house SEO(s) should belong to. The department that seems most aligned with the team’s job titles may not be where they are most effective! In the long term, SEO team effectiveness is determined by the availability and efficient use of development resources (SEO buy-in, evangelism and education can only take you so far). This is why the SEO team should be situated where they can directly influence whoever manages and allocates development resources. If marketing drives product development, then sit the SEO team in marketing. If each one of your organisation’s websites has its own decentralised product management team who controls the development allocation, sit a SEO resource separately in each team. Do not be inflexible in your SEO team deployment as SEO is a discipline that sits across multiple departments. Whether it’s siloed Optimisers, centralised SEO teams, or a solo SEO resource sitting in the marketing team, it doesn’t matter where they sit as long as they can get results. If you have a large SEO team, divide the team into the ‘sandwich’, with a top layer of executive management responsible for the SEO strategy, creating SEO champions at the senior leadership level and mentoring the SEO team. The meat of the sandwich is your middle management who will evangelise to the wider company and

manage the third and final layer of SEO doers, the largest group in the SEO team. Whether it’s a solo or 50-strong SEO team, what’s inside an Optimiser’s mind is what you will be paying for. Make sure your company builds a knowledge base filled with internal case studies of SEO success and failure. You don’t want them to leave without archiving their valuable IP. Make sure you have a system to record and share what’s been learnt from working with your organisation’s stakeholders and on your websites!

Page 8

Subject Three: KPIs and Milestones
As mentioned above, SEO is a companywide initiative with everyone from the senior management through to web developers playing an important role. Teamwork is the key for achieving outstanding SEO results. If your enterprise is serious about optimising sites to meet business goals from organic search traffic, KPIs need to be clearly defined and assigned to the relevant stakeholders. This section aims to provide some examples of important KPIs that will help deliver SEO success. These can be aligned to roles/functions within the business. KPIs for the manager of website technology This role makes key decisions around web technology deployed by the enterprise, e.g. Content Management Systems (CMS), eCommerce and Blogging Platforms etc. Some of the common job titles for this role include, Chief Technology Officer (CTO), IT Manager, Website Manager, Senior Webmaster.
KPI: Web Server Uptime Metric: No. of days/hours/minutes of downtime per month About: If your site goes down frequently then there’s a higher chance the search robot will try to access the site when it is offline. If this happens the search engines will assume you are not serious about doing business online and promote a competitor with better uptime.

KPI: Site/Page Speed Metric: Measured in milliseconds; compare page load of your homepage vs competitors and key landing pages. About: Google takes speed into consideration (article: Site Speed, Google’s Next Ranking Factor). The faster a page loads, the quicker it can be crawled and the better the user experience. Search Engines deliver users to quick sites.

KPI: Web Analytics Tagging Instrumentation Metric: Measured as a percentage; No. of pages tagged / Total No. of pages About: There is no point doing any SEO if you can’t measure the impact. To measure this KPI you should engage a professional service like Accenture, speak to your Web Analytics Provider, or do it in-house using WASP or Observepoint.

KPI: Content Management System (CMS) Audit for SEO Minimum Standards compliance Metric: Measured as a percentage; No. of CMS/templates that meet SEO Standards / Total No. of CMS/templates in the enterprise. About: Large enterprises typically have multiple CMSs for different sections/ functionality of the website (at Microsoft there are over a dozen CMSs). This KPI aims to provide a high level view on the SEO capabilities of each CMS and provide a way to benchmark them. Below is an example of how Microsoft audits one of their CMSs You need a standard set of SEO Minimum Standard questions and a score for each. Complete the sheet for each CMS deployed. The quantitative score allows you to benchmark each of your web platforms.

Page 9

KPIs for managers of external communications This person plays a vital role in driving traffic to the site from external sources. It’s their role to put the company in the spotlight in terms of new product launches, company announcements, mergers and acquisitions etc. Some example job roles include: Corporate Communications Officer (CCO), PR Officer, PR Manager.
KPI: Press Release Publishing Frequency Metric: No. of Press Releases published online each month About: Press releases are a great source of backlinks to your site. Be sure to include keyword rich links back to your site within the body of the Press Release. E.g. Instead of the typical “About Us” blurb with a link to, a much better approach would be to include link text to Product Pages using the Product Name as the link. If the PR story is about the CEO, include a link containing the name of the CEO to his/her profile page. These techniques help with rankings.

KPI: Press Release Syndication Metric: No. of Syndication partners & Traffic from syndicated sites About: Syndication helps get your message out there. Some of these sites have good page rank and authority, others do not. It is good to measure number of Syndication partners as well as the traffic you get from each over time. Be aware of dupe content. You should only have one source press release published, so to avoid the dupe content penalty, make sure syndicated versions to link to the source published on your site. If you have a social media strategy, treat sites like Twitter and Facebook as syndication partners.

KPIs for managers of content This is one of the most important areas of SEO as these roles are responsible for producing keyword-rich content. Some example job roles include: Chief Marketing Officer (CMO), Marketing Director, Marketing Manager etc.

Page 10

KPI: Broken Links Metric: Total No. of Broken Links About: The more broken links, the poorer the quality of the site from a Search Engine Perspective. Use tools like IIS SEO ToolKit or Xenu Link Sleuth to compile a list of broken links. You want this number to go down over time.

KPI: Frequency of Updates and Timelines Metric: An agreement on how often a page(s) is updated (e.g. once a week) or if it’s a campaign, an agreed delivery date for a piece of content. About: Pick key pages of the site and make sure they’re updated on a regular basis. The more often a page is updated the more often the search robot will visit your website. If working on a campaign, content delivery timeframes need to be clearly defined.

KPI: Social Bookmarking Implementation Metric: No. of pages with Social Bookmarking enabled About: This is one of the best ways to gain backlinks and help drive traffic to your site from Social Networks.

KPI: Meta Data Quality Metric: Expressed as a percentage; No. of pages with unique, keyword optimised Page Title & Meta Description / Total No. of pages About: Title Tags and Meta Descriptions are important as they form parts of snippet in a Search Engine Result.

KPI: Number of Backlinks Metrics: No. of backlinks over time About: Search engines give a lot of weight to the number of links to your site. Use tools like: Backlink Watch or Yahoo Site Explorer to monitor the number of backlinks over time. There must be a link building strategy in place.

KPI: Content Migration Milestone: Create a 301 Redirection Plan Metric: No. of 301 Redirects implemented About: This KPI is essential for when migrating old content to a new platform/site. When deploying a new CMS make sure it adheres to SEO Minimum Standards. Ensure there is a 301 redirect in place from the old URLs to the new URLs. If this is not done properly, you’ll suffer major ranking drop. See Why use a 301 re-direct.

KPI: Blogging Frequency Metric: No. of Blog posts per week/month About: Search Engines love blogs. Large enterprises need to blog on a regular basis. Chart posts over time and monitor the kinds of topics that resonate with your audience and generate the most traffic.

Page 11

Subject Four: The Entire SEO Process
The SEO process is a complex one involving the gradual integration of SEO into existing practices. For some organisations, having an SEO team exert its influence is a radical thing – similar to when Marketing departments were first introduced in the 1920s, migrating companies from a product focus to a marketing focus. The transformation to an SEO focus means the organisation suddenly finds itself confronting SEO technical, design and content decisions that would previously be made without additional stakeholder involvement. Below are the Key Success Factors for an SEO program and how to achieve it. The Process of Integration

5) agree on the process for testing 301 redirects2 prelaunch

Stage 2 – Within the first 9 months
6) If you use Waterfall3 methodology set up touch points at the concept, design, build and post-launch stage with the stakeholders including Business Analyst, designers and coders. Set up a customised 7 point checklist4 for each. This should be supported by more formal SEO KPIs for the BA, Designer, Coders, Editors and Marketing 7) Continue to cultivate supporters in the business who’ll alert you when anything is going on. Recognise people in front of their teams and the company; give rewards when you publicise success. Get them to see SEO as a vehicle for their publicity/dialogue with the company and their direct reports. Every step of the way their progress should be rewarded. This is especially effective with editorial staff. 8) Run training regularly for different groups in the business, keep it informal and focus on a just one key behaviour/habit at a time.

Stage 1 – Within the first 3 months
With the help of a senior sponsor, agree with technology stakeholders to 1) access their code change tracking system so you know what is happening and when 2) get involved in the design and strategy meetings to understand site changes 3) access analytics and set up benchmarks for SEO traffic and SEO conversions, as well as position tracking 4) get buy-in from the technology stakeholders to gradually take responsibility for notifying you at the earliest stage if a) link text is changing b) links are being removed c) links are being redirected to different destination d) content is being considered for deletion e) content is being relocated f) URLs are being changed

Stage 3 – Within the first 12 months
9) Try and get yourself reporting to Product rather than Marketing and even better, to an influential senior leader. This can give real leverage in terms of rolling out initiatives and preventing SEO issues. 10) Set up a Search Council that is a cross disciplinary – key players from IT, Marketing and Editorial should be members. Keep this as formal or informal as you like according to the culture of the organisation. Ensure the cross disciplinary team is seen as the extended SEO team and gets the kudos when SEO grows.

2 A 301 redirect is a method of telling web browsers and search engines that a web page or site has been permanently moved to a new location. 3 The waterfall model is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design (validation), Construction, Testing and Maintenance. 4

Page 12

11) Last but not least keep your SEO team happy or they will leave! Hopefully by this stage you have realised your SEO team are as much account managers as SEO specialists. They should be socialising with all the right people in technology, marketing and editorial to extend the influence of the team. You cannot afford to lose them. To keep the “game” interesting for the team and maintain professionalism, run it like an external agency, located internally. SEO can get tedious and repetitive, and good SEO people are usually quite entrepreneurial and ambitious (which is why many get into the game in the first place). Make sure you have a good narrative for the team about how their role contributes to grander visions. For some people it’s appropriate to focus on the contribution they’re making, and what they mean to the business bottom line. For some of your entrepreneurial SEO team reports, you need to pitch it as the benefit of running a small agency within a larger company. Get them to imagine using this skill in their future endeavours or collecting kudos on LinkedIn or their resumes.

early to get them to take responsibility for notifying you at ideation5 stage if link text is changing, being removed, redirected, considered for deletion or content is being relocated, deleted or URLs are being changed.

Stage 4 – Within the first 18 months
12) Develop a step-by-step program for your clients that can be printed on an A4 sheet and stuck in front of them, so they don’t keep bothering you about SEO. These include: a) clarify and establish business outcomes and metrics b) do the keyword research c) do the tech audit and information architecture audit d) do the content editing to include keywords e) do the link building strategies and tactics f) remember to gradually hand over responsibility of SEO, it is never too


idea generation Page 13

Subject Five: Post Implementation and the Way Forward
Monitoring of KPI metrics Make sure the KPIs are being monitored. UAT (User Acceptance Testing): Requirements (Spec) vs Delivery (Product) Prior to go-live, a UAT (User Acceptance Testing) must be carried out to ensure all requirements are met in what is being delivered. This can be as simple as the inhouse SEO team being given access to the site’s staging environment and checking it against every component specified in the requirements document. If any discrepancies or errors are identified, they can be corrected before go-live. Depending on the programming/technical expertise of the SEO team, some or all of the UAT can be outsourced to a third party to provide an independent assessment. Involving a third party can also be beneficial as they may be able to provide different points of view or identify areas that maybe have been missed. Other areas of importance When you are heavily engaged in the implementation of the project, it can be easy to miss other areas of high importance. Here are some: 1. 301 redirects – ensure all changed/removed URL’s are added to the 301 redirect list for 1 to 1 redirect where possible. This will help in two areas: a) transfer of Page Rank from the old URL to the new URL b) user experience 2. Add URL – you can also speed up the 301 redirect detection by search engines by manually submitting the old URL’s of the key pages 3. Webmaster Tools – especially if you’re setting up a new domain/sub-domain 4. XML sitemap – will help the new pages to get indexed faster 5. HTML sitemap – can be used to ensure there are no orphaned pages

6. Robots.txt – add the reference to the XML sitemap 7. 404 Error page – ensure you have a customised 404 error page with the links to the main sections of the site (e.g. global navigation, mini-sitemap, etc) Post-implementation Communication Post-implementation communication is one of the most important steps of an SEO project. If you’ve had to convince a number of stakeholders to get the SEO project approved, it’s especially important that they’re made aware of the success (and/or the limitations) of the project so you can get their buy-in more easily the next time. Here are some tips: 1. Provide an easy to understand post implementation analysis for each stakeholder (e.g. add colourful charts to show before-and-after snapshots). 2. Put a $ value on the additional traffic/conversion from SEO project using other marketing/sales channels cost per traffic/conversion (e.g. PPC, affiliate partners, online, etc). 3. Provide a ROI/break even analysis (total cost of project vs $ value of additional traffic/conversion) to show that after a certain time period, the project cost has been earned back and the website will enjoy ‘free’ traffic for an indefinite amount of time (or until a competitor pushes your website down the SERP6). On-going optimisation The initial implementation may have been completed, but SEO work never stops. By continually monitoring the KPI metrics, you will naturally identify a number of areas needing further optimisation/customisation. These may include: Ranking of specific pages/keywords Bounce rate of specific pages Conversion rate of specific keywords/pages Link building for specific pages


Search engine results page Page 14

Don’t be afraid to utilise external third parties to check through the work implemented. In SEO, small mistakes can make the difference between success and failure. Attention to detail can make all the difference!

Page 15

This white paper in no way describes the entire process of how to implement true enterprise SEO. The processes are complex, involving numerous stakeholders, procedures and potential pains. ADMA’s Digital Council thought it worthwhile to outline the thought processes one ideally should follow when looking to embark on a campaign of this complexity. Often the optimisation of a site isn’t considered a large project, and consequently is poorly thought out and planned, leading to less than stellar results. Optimisation can also be left in the hands of a small team lacking the broad skills set and background in marketing or technology departments. SEO implementation has business-wide ramifications and needs to be treated that way. When embarking on such an important project we recommend effective planning, a clear understanding of the goals, and getting the right people on board. These factors can make all the difference

Page 16

About the Australian Direct Marketing Association
ADMA was formed in 1966 and is the peak industry body of the Australian direct marketing industry. Our primary objective is to help companies achieve better marketing results through the enlightened use of direct marketing. We achieve this through the three pillars of our activity; Advocacy, Knowledge and Community. Advocacy During its 44 years of operation ADMA has been involved in the formulation of law relevant to the direct marketing industry. Predominantly our focus has been the Privacy Act 1988, the Spam Act 2003 and the Do Not Call Register Act 2006. Knowledge ADMA improves Australian marketers knowledge by a number of different ways including education, councils and events. ADMA runs a number of courses including the pre-eminent Certificate of Direct and Digital Marketing. A number of short courses are also offered. ADMA Councils provide a meeting place for Australian marketers to develop discuss common problems and develop industry best practice. ADMA Councils run free events and issue white papers on leading areas of interest. ADMA Events feature renowned international and national marketers. Community ADMA has over 500 member organisations including major financial institutions, telecommunications companies, energy providers, travel service companies, major charities, statutory corporations, educational institutions and specialist suppliers of direct marketing services. ADMA events and councils offer the perfect way for marketers to meet and network.

About ADMA Councils This paper is the work of the Digital Council. ADMA has seven different councils including: a) Agency b) Analytics and Data c) Contact Centre d) Digital e) Mail Marketing f) Multi-Channel Acquisition

g) Relationship Marketing / Customer Management The Digital, Multi-Channel Acquisition and Relationship Marketing /Customer Management Councils are Super-Councils because each has broad cross over of multiple facets of marketing disciplines. The objectives of the ADMA Councils are to: a) provide forums for sharing information on matters of specific common interest aimed at increasing the industry sector body of knowledge a) assist in the development of a unified approach on public policy and regulatory matters b) develop, where appropriate, industry best practice guidelines that set ADMA members apart from others in the industry c) add value to ADMA membership. ADMA Councils allow marketers to network, discuss best practice and regulatory issues, discuss current challenges and make new contacts. ADMA Councils are a free member benefit. Joining an ADMA Council is easy and any employee of an ADMA Member can join by emailing or calling 02 9277 5419.

Page 17

How to Become an ADMA Member
By becoming an ADMA member you join Australia’s largest marketing industry association. ADMA membership delivers Protection, Promotion and Education benefits to all employees in your company including: a) Access to free Regulatory guidance, updates and compliance webinars b) The ability to participate in member-only ADMA Councils c) 35% discount on ADMA events and education programs Becoming an ADMA member is easy. ADMA Councils are a free member benefit. Simply complete the online form or call 02 9277 5400.

Page 18

Australian Direct Marketing Association Level 6, 50 Carrington Street Sydney NSW 2000

Page 19

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.