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Computer Fundamentals and Programming

TERMINOLOGIES:

Program - A set of instructions, written in a specific programming language, which a


computer follows in processing data, performing an operation, or solving a logical
problem.

Software – Programs

Hardware - Physical component of a computer

DATA vs. INFORMATION

DATA – a collection of facts relating to events that take place. These facts could be in
the form of numbers, letters, special symbols or combination of these.

INFORMATION – data that has been organized and processed so that it is meaningful.
It is essential for effective performance of management functions of planning, organizing,
directing, and controlling for effective internal operations and external reporting.

DATA PROCESSING CYCLE

The process of converting data into useful and meaningful information:
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08
000083050000000000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c
0000000e0000800e000000140000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800
050000000b0200000000050000000c021a01b001040000002e0118001c000000fb02030
0010000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d003f00003f3f000000003f3f3f3f0
00000003f3f3f3f3f3f3f00040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb02f4ff00000

Course Material for CS10 Page 1 of 32


00000009001000000000740001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00000000000000
00000000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a0b
0000000100040000000000b0011a0120000500040000002d010000030000000000
THE PROGRAMMING CYCLE

1.) Defining the Problem


2.) Developing Software Requirements
3.) Designing the Program
4.) Coding the Program
5.) Checking out the program by Testing and Debugging
6.) Installing and Maintaining the Program
7.) Documentation

Program Elements and Structure

1.) Constants – Literal Value that does not change during program execution. It can
be of the numeric or string type.

Numeric Constant - may be an integer (whole number) or a real number (with a


decimal place). It may be preceded by a positive or negative sign.
Examples:
10 -28 +3.4 -0.413 0 201

Note: No other characters must or can appear together with the constants. The
following are examples of incorrect numeric constants:

10,000 $14.3 10mi/hr 1/2

String Constant – A character or group of characters enclosed in double quotation


marks ( “ ). The numbers 0-9, letters a-z or A-Z and all special characters like a space,
% $ - _ & etc. may be included.

Examples:
“C” “Tina” “.” “1225” “B & L”

Note: The entire string constant must always be enclosed in double quotation marks,
one before the first character and one after the last character (no more no less). The
following are examples of incorrect string constants:

“Cristina A. Pascua ACT” “Power Plant

2.) Variables – Is a portion of the computer’s main memory used to store a numeric or
string constant. The value stored in the variable must be given a unique variable name
but it can only hold one value at a given time.
Variable names must conform to the following requirements:

a.) Must contain only letters, numbers and/or an underscore.


b.) Must begin with a letter.
c.) Must Stop either with a letter or a number.
d.) Must be unique that is, not a name of another variable.
Computer Fundamentals and Programming

e.) Must not be a keyword like IF, WHILE and the like.

Note: Variable names are case sensitive, that is, upper and lower case letters are
differentiated. For example the variable TOTAL is not the same as total.
The following are example of incorrect variable name:

Year code 10ctr #5 Total=

3.) Expressions – is a group of program elements consisting of operands and


operators. Operands can be a constant, variable, and or an array element. Operators
can be arithmetic, logical, relational and/or string. Expressions always yield a value of
a certain type depending on the type of expressions used.

Arithmetic Expressions

Hierarchy or Priority of Operators

1.) Expressions in parenthesis


2.) */%
3.) +-

Examples:
1.) 10 + 4 * 8
= 10 + 32
= 42

2.) 50 % 6 – 5
=2–5
= -3

3.) 20 / 4 * 9
=5*9
= 45

String Expressions

Examples:

1.) “3” + “4” = “34”


2.) “Cris” + “tina” = ”Cristina”

Examples of incorrect usage of the + operator:

“3” + 4 100 + “Peso”

Relational Expressions

Greater than > Less than or equal to <=

Course Material for CS10 Page 3 of 32


Less than < Not equal !=
Greater than or equal to >= Is equal to ==

Examples:

Ctr1 > 10 3 <= 5 Temp1 != Temp2

Examples of incorrect Relational Expressions:

30 <= X <= 40 43 > < 50

Logical Expressions

Hierarchy or Priority of Operators

1.) Expressions in parenthesis


2.) Not (!)
3.) And (&&)
4.) Or (||)

TRUTH TABLE FOR NOT(!)

X !X
FALSE TRUE
TRUE FALSE

TRUTH TABLE FOR AND(&&)

X Y X && Y
FALSE FALSE FALSE
FALSE TRUE FALSE
TRUE FALSE FALSE
TRUE TRUE TRUE

TRUTH TABLE FOR OR(||)

X Y X || Y
FALSE FALSE FALSE
FALSE TRUE TRUE
TRUE FALSE TRUE
TRUE TRUE TRUE

Examples:

15 >= 10 && 15 <= 20


T && T
Computer Fundamentals and Programming

Statements – are keywords, which perform a predefined procedure. The following


statements are available:

1.) IF Statement
2.) WHILE Statement
3.) FOR Statement

Exercises:

1.) 11 % 2 + 3 * 7 –2
2.) 100 % 5 % 3 % 2
3.) – (45 / 9) * 6 + 4
4.) (5 + 7) % (10 * 2 – 5) / (15 – (8 – 6 % 4))
5.) (8 + 21 % (18 – 5 * 3)) % (17 – (6 + 13 % 5))
6.) (12 == 12 % 2 * 2) && !(( 5 > 3) && (8<3))
7.) (6 > 3) && (8 != 8) || !(10 <= 10)
8.) 15 / 3 == 15 % 3
9.) 5 != 11 / 2

Exercises:

10.) Number of enrollees exceeded 5,000 students.


11.) HEIGHT is at least 170 cm.
12.) REVENUE is at most 80% of SALES.
13.) X is either 6, 8 , or 10
14.) X is any number except 1, 2, and 3.
15.) X is between 100 and 200.

FLOWCHARTS

- A graphic form of an algorithm.


- A diagram of a sequence of steps that a program must perform to produce the
desired output.
- Traditional tool of programmers which allow flexibility in terms of detail to be
included.

TYPES OF FLOWCHARTS

1.) System Flowchart – present the total picture without worrying about taking
care of every detail.
2.) Program Flowcharts – depicts a main segment of a complete computer
program.

FLOWCHARTING GUIDELINES

Course Material for CS10 Page 5 of 32


1.) Always use the ANSI standard symbols.
2.) Construct your flowcharts to read from top to bottom and left to right.
3.) Do not crisscross flow lines (used labeled connectors and use arrowheads to
indicate direction of the flow.
4.) Make the messages and labels in the flowchart symbol direct and descriptive.
5.) Strive for neatness, clarity and simplicity.

BASIC FLOWCHARTING SYMBOLS
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08
000083050000000000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c
0000000e0000800e000000140000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800
Input/Output Symbol

Computer Fundamentals and Programming
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08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Course Material for CS10 Page 7 of 32


C++ SPECIFICS

Data Types
Computer Fundamentals and Programming

Type Size Range of Values


unsigned short int 2 bytes 0 to 65, 535
short int 2 bytes -32,768 to 32,767
unsigned long int 4 bytes 0 to 4, 294,967,295
long int 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
int 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
unsigned int 4 bytes 0 to 4, 294,967,295
char 1 bytes 256 characters
bool 1 bytes true or false
float 4 bytes 1.2e-38 to3.4e38
double 8 bytes 2.2e-308 to 1.8e308

Escape Sequence Character

Character combinations consisting of a backslash (\) followed by a letter or by a


combination of digit is called "escape sequences."

Escape Sequence Represents


\a Bell (alert)
\b Backspace
\f Formfeed
\n New line
\r Carriage return
\t Horizontal tab
\v Vertical tab
\' Single quotation mark
\" Double quotation mark
\\ Backslash
\? Literal question mark
\ ooo ASCII character in octal notation
\x hh ASCII character in hexadecimal notation
\x hhhh Unicode character in hexadecimal notation
if this escape sequence is used in a wide-
character constant or a Unicode string
literal.
For example, WCHAR f = L'\x4e00' or
WCHAR b[] = L"The Chinese character for
one is \x4e00".

C++ SPECIFICS

Course Material for CS10 Page 9 of 32


#include<iostream.h>
int main()
#include<iostream.h>
int num1=1, num2=2;
int main()
int num1=1, num2=2;
++num1; cout<<++num1<<endl;
Compound Operators num1++; cout<<num1++<<endl;
num2++; cout<<++num2<<endl<<endl;
++num2;
In addition to basic cout<<num2++<<endl<<endl;
Arithmetic operators, compound operators are available in C++.

The following are the compound Operators in C++: *=, /=, %=, +=, and - =
Value of num1 = 3 and value of num2 = 4
Value
Normal of num1
Arithmetic = 2 and value
Expression of num2
Arithmetic =3
Expression Using Compound
Operators

Var = Var * 2 Var *= 2

Var = Var / 3 Var /= 3

Var = Var % 5 Var %= 5


Var += 4
Var = Var + 4
Var -= 1
Var = Var – 1

Unary Operators (Prefix and Postfix)

The available unary operators in C++ are ++ which increments a variable by 1 and - -
which decrements a variable by 1. It can be written as PREFIX or before the variable or
POSTFIX after the variable.

PREFIX Example: ++X or --X

POSTFIX Example: X++ or X--

Sample Program 1 :

Sample Program 2 :
Computer Fundamentals and Programming

A SIMPLE C++ PROGRAM
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08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ELEMENTS OF A C++ PROGRAM

Course Material for CS10 Page 11 of 32


1.) comment – represented by // for a single line comment
and /* */ for multiple line comments.
2.) compiler directives
3.) main function
4.) variables
5.) data types
data types includes the following: int, float, double, char
6.) special characters
; - terminates a statement
, - separates variable names of the same type
() – used in function declaration and function call
{ } – begin and end symbol
7.) expressions – can be arithmetic, relational and logical
8.) reserved word – cannot be used as a user defined identifier.
example: return, int, float, double, char, for, while, do, etc.
9.) statements - any line terminated by a semicolon

• Basic input statement used in C++ is cin

syntax: cin>>variable_name;
cin>>var1>>var2>>var3;
example: cin>>num;
cin>>num1>>num2>>num3;

• Basic output statement used in C++ is cout



syntax: cout<<variable_name;
cout<<var1<<var2<<var3;
cout<<“string”;
cout<<“string”<<variable_name;
example: cout<<num;
cout<<num1<<num2<<num3;
cout<<“Hello Philippines Mabuhay!”;
cout<<“Sum = “<<sum;

SEQUENTIAL PROGRAM STRUCTURE


Computer Fundamentals and Programming

1.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that will input temperature in Celsius and
output the corresponding temperature in Fahrenheit.

The formula is a follows:

Fahrenheit = 9 (Celsius) + 32
5

0100090000030202000002008a01000000008a01000026060f000a03574d46430100000
00000010008980000000001000000e802000000000000e8020000010000006c0000000
0000000000000001a000000430000000000000000000000873b0000db26000020454d4
600000100e80200000e00000002000000000000000000000000000000a00b0000240f00
00d20000001101000000000000000000000000000050340300682a0400160000000c00
0000180000000a00000010000000000000000000000009000000100000007008000082
050000250000000c0000000e000080120000000c000000010000005200000070010000
01000000c4ffffff000000000000000000000000900100000000000007400012540069006
d006500730020004e0065007700200052006f006d0061006e0000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
cb30093000000000040000000000ae3008310930000000006716900100100202060305
0405020304ef3a00e0417800c00900000000000000ff01000000000000540069006d0065
0073002000000065007700200052006f006d0061006e000000540069006d00650073002
0004e0065007700200052006f006d0061006e0000007c4911004c3eaf30944911006476
000800000000250000000c00000001000000180000000c000000000000025400000054
00000000000000000000001a000000430000000100000074cee1401263e14000000000
36000000010000004c0000000400000000000000000000007008000082050000500000
0020001a001b00000046000000280000001c0000004744494302000000ffffffffffffffff7108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Course Material for CS10 Page 13 of 32


2.) Pepperoni++ Pizza House charges 10% service charge and 5% sales tax on the
gross bill of the customer. Create a flowchart and a c++ program that would input the
gross bill of the customer and the amount given by the customer to the waiter. It must
output the customer’s total bill and change (if there’s any).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08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 Fundamentals and Programming

C++ Program

#include <iostream.h>

void main()
double DO, AC;
AC = 0;
cout<< " Input number of men who dropped out: ";
cin>> DO;
AC = (1000.00 * DO) / (10 – DO);
cout "Additional Contribution ="<< AC<<endl;

3.) Ten young men agreed to purchase a gift worth RO10.000 for their idol: Lady Gogo.
In addition, they agreed to continue with their plan even if at least one of them drops out.
Create a flowchart and a c++ program that would input the number of men who dropped
out (assume 0 to 9 only) and output how much more will each have to contribute toward
the purchase of the gift.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08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4.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that would input an integer number and then

Course Material for CS10 Page 15 of 32


output its one’s digit or the right most digit.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08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5.) Workers at a particular company were given a 15.5% salary increase. Moreover, the
increase was retroactive for 2 months, that is, effective two months ago. Create a
flowchart and a c++ program that takes the employee’s old salary as input and then
output the amount of retroactive pay (balance) due the employee and his new salary as
well.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 Fundamentals and Programming

6.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that would input numeric values to A, B, C, D
and exchange their values such that A goes to B, B goes to C, C goes to D, and D goes
to A.
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Course Material for CS10 Page 17 of 32


SELECTION/CONDITIONAL PROGRAM STRUCTURE

1.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that will prompt the user to input two numbers
and output the highest number entered.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08
000083050000000000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c
C++ Program

Computer Fundamentals and Programming


#include<iostream.h>

void main()
int num

cout<<" Input an integer number: ";


cin>> num;

if (num % 2 == 0)
cout<< " The number you’ve entered is an even number"<<endl;
else
cout<< 2.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that would input an integer number and then
" The number you’ve entered is an odd number"<<endl;
indicate whether the number is an even or an odd number.
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08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Course Material for CS10 Page 19 of 32


3.) Juan dela Cruz Restaurant is offering a 10% discount to all customers whose last
name is also dela Cruz. Input the last name of the customer and the total amount due to
the customer and then output the amount to be paid.
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08
000083050000000000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c
0000000e0000800e000000140000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800
050000000b0200000000050000000c021a01b001040000002e0118001c000000fb02030
0010000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d003f00003f3f000000003f3f3f3f0
C++ Program

#include <iostream.h>
Computer Fundamentals and Programming
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>

void main()
char Lname[40];
double AmtPd, AmtDue;

puts("Input CustomerLast Name : ");


gets(Lname);
cout<<"Input amount due : ";
cin>>AmtDue;
if (strcmpi(Lname, "dela Cruz")==0)

AmtPd = AmtDue - AmtDue *0.1;


cout<< " You are entitled to a 10% discount "<<endl;
cout<< " Amount to be paid = "<< AmtPd<<endl;

else

AmtPd = AmtDue;
cout<< " You are not entitled to a 10% discount "<<endl;
cout<< " Amount to be paid = "<< AmtPd<<endl;

Course Material for CS10 Page 21 of 32


C++ Program

#include <iostream.h>

void main()
double NHrs, Salary;

cout<< " Input number of hours worked: ";


cin>> NHrs;
if4.)
(NHrs > 30)
Workers at Kookaburra Factory have a regular working hours of 30 hours per week
Salary
and are paid $ 10.00 per=hour.
300However,
+ (NHrsif –the
30) * 17.50;
workers rendered more than 30 hours
else
per week, the excess hours are paid 75% more. Create a flowchart and a c++ program
that would inputSalary = NHrs
the number * 10.00;
of hours rendered by a worker in one week and output his
cout<< " Your salary = "<< Salary<<endl;
net salary.
0100090000030202000002008a01000000008a01000026060f000a03574d46430100000
00000010008980000000001000000e802000000000000e8020000010000006c0000000
0000000000000001a000000430000000000000000000000873b0000db26000020454d4
600000100e80200000e00000002000000000000000000000000000000a00b0000240f00
00d20000001101000000000000000000000000000050340300682a0400160000000c00
0000180000000a00000010000000000000000000000009000000100000007008000082
050000250000000c0000000e000080120000000c000000010000005200000070010000
01000000c4ffffff000000000000000000000000900100000000000007400012540069006
d006500730020004e0065007700200052006f006d0061006e0000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
cb30093000000000040000000000ae3008310930000000006716900100100202060305
0405020304ef3a00e0417800c00900000000000000ff01000000000000540069006d0065
0073002000000065007700200052006f006d0061006e000000540069006d00650073002
0004e0065007700200052006f006d0061006e0000007c4911004c3eaf30944911006476
000800000000250000000c00000001000000180000000c000000000000025400000054
00000000000000000000001a000000430000000100000074cee1401263e14000000000
36000000010000004c0000000400000000000000000000007008000082050000500000
0020001a001b00000046000000280000001c0000004744494302000000ffffffffffffffff7108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 Fundamentals and Programming

5.) The fine for an over-speeding violation depends on the speed of the erring driver, as
follows:
121 to 150 km/h = RO 30.000
151 km/h and above = RO 50.000

Create a flowchart and a c++ program to input the car’s speed and then output
the fine, if there’s any.

6.) In the game of JACK N POY each of the two player choose either a scissors (code
X), paper (code P), or stone (code S). If one chooses scissors and the other chooses
stone then stone wins. If one chooses paper and the other stone then paper wins. If one
chooses paper and the other scissors then scissors wins. If they both choose the same
then the result is a tie. Create a flowchart or a c++ program that will input two character
codes corresponding to the object selected and then output either the message
“PLAYER 1 WINS” or “PLAYER 2 WINS”.

ITERATIVE PROGRAM STRUCTURE

1.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that will generate the following number series:
10, 5, 9, 10, 8, 15, 7, 20, 6, and 25

0100090000030202000002008a01000000008a01000026060f000a03574d46430100000
00000010008980000000001000000e802000000000000e8020000010000006c0000000
0000000000000001a000000430000000000000000000000873b0000db26000020454d4
600000100e80200000e00000002000000000000000000000000000000a00b0000240f00
00d20000001101000000000000000000000000000050340300682a0400160000000c00
0000180000000a00000010000000000000000000000009000000100000007008000082
050000250000000c0000000e000080120000000c000000010000005200000070010000
01000000c4ffffff000000000000000000000000900100000000000007400012540069006
d006500730020004e0065007700200052006f006d0061006e0000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
cb30093000000000040000000000ae3008310930000000006716900100100202060305
0405020304ef3a00e0417800c00900000000000000ff01000000000000540069006d0065
0073002000000065007700200052006f006d0061006e000000540069006d00650073002
0004e0065007700200052006f006d0061006e0000007c4911004c3eaf30944911006476
000800000000250000000c00000001000000180000000c000000000000025400000054
00000000000000000000001a000000430000000100000074cee1401263e14000000000
36000000010000004c0000000400000000000000000000007008000082050000500000
0020001a001b00000046000000280000001c0000004744494302000000ffffffffffffffff7108

Course Material for CS10 Page 23 of 32

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.)
Create a flowchart/c++ program that will generate the following number series:
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, and 55
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08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.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that will generate the following number series:
1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, 29, 37, and 46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 Fundamentals and Programming

4.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that will input five numbers and output how many of
the numbers entered are odd or even.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08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Course Material for CS10 Page 25 of 32


C++ Program

#include <iostream.h>

void main()
int num, ctr=1, ctro=0, ctre=0;

do

cin>> num;
if (num % 2 == 0)
ctre = ctre + 1;
else
ctro = ctro + 1;
ctr = ctr + 1;
while (ctr <= 5);
cout<< ctro<<endl<< ctre<<endl;

5.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that will input five numbers and output how many of
the numbers entered are positive or negative.
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08
000083050000000000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c
0000000e0000800e000000140000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800
050000000b0200000000050000000c021a01b001040000002e0118001c000000fb02030
C++ Program
Score[0] Score[1] Score[2] Score[3] Score[4]
#include <iostream.h>
Computer Fundamentals and Programming
void main()
int num, ctr=1, ctrp=0, ctrn=0;

do

cin>> num;
if (num > 0)
ctrp = ctrp + 1;
else
ctrn = ctrn + 1;
ctr = ctr + 1;
while (ctr <= 5);
cout<<ctrp<<endl<<ctrn<<endl;

6.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that will input 10 alphabetic characters and output
how many of the characters entered were vowels and consonants. Disregard characters
that are not alphabetic.
7.) Create a flowchart/ c++ program that will input 5 numbers and output the highest
number entered.
8.) Create a flowchart/ c++ program that will input 6 score for quizzes (0-100). Eliminate
the lowest quiz and compute and output the average of the five remaining quizzes.

ARRAYS

ARRAYS - a series of simple variables grouped together under one single variable.

int Score[5];

In the computer’s main memory, this can be depicted as:

Notice that a total of 5 adjacent slots are allotted because the array is declared as size 5.

Course Material for CS10 Page 27 of 32


In effect, array SCORE can hold 5 different values at the same time.

There are certain rules to follow when using subscripts and they are as follows:

1The value of the subscript must be a positive integer number.


2It can be an integer constant (e.g., Score[2]), numeric variable with integer
value (e. g., Score[X] where X is a numeric variable with integer value)
3The first element always has a subscript of 0.
4The value of the subscript cannot exceed the size of the array minus 1. For
example, for array Score, the subscript must be between 0 and 4 only since
Score was declared as Score[5].
5The subscript must be enclosed in square bracket.

Examples of Incorrect usage of subscript:

Consider the variable declaration below:

int TOTAL[12], IND;


char XX[20];

1.) TOTAL [0.1]


2.) TOTAL [-1]
3.) TOTAL [14]

* Subscript must be between 0 and the size of the array minus 1 which in this case
12.

2.) TOTAL {2}

* Subscript must be enclosed within square bracket. No other symbols must be


used.

3.) TOTAL [XX]

* Subscript must be either an integer constant, numeric variable with integer value
or an arithmetic expression with integer value or an arithmetic expression with
integer result. The above is a character array variable which violates the rule just
mentioned.

4.) TOTAL [“2”]

* Subscript must be numeric.

5.) TOTAL [5+10]

* The resulting answer of 15 exceeds the size of the array which was defined as
TOTAL is ARRAY [12]

Assigning values to an array element using assignment statement:


Flowchart
Computer Fundamentals and Programming

To assign number 10 to element number 0, the statement is:

Score[0] = 10;

To assign number 20 + 30 to element number 1, the statement is:

Score[1] = 20 + 30;

To assign expression X / 5 to element number 3, the statement is:

Score[3] = X / 5;

To assign the content of variable X to element number 4, the statement is:

Score[4] = X;

To assign the content of element number 4 to element number 3, the statement is:

Score[3] = Score[4]

To assign the result of multiplying the content of element number 4 to element number 2
and putting the result in element number 1, the statement is:

Score[1] = Score[5] * Score[3]

To assign zero to all the elements of array Score, the statement is:

ctr = 0;
while (ctr<5)
{
Score(ctr) = 0;
ctr = ctr + 1;
}

1.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that would accept 10 numbers and then display
all 10 numbers together with its total.
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Course Material for CS10 Page 29 of 32


C++ Program

#include <iostream.h>

void main()
int NUM[10];
int ctr=0, sum=0;
do

cin>> NUM[ctr];
sum = sum + NUM[ctr];
ctr = ctr + 1;
while (ctr <10);
ctr =0;
do

cout<< NUM[ctr];
ctr = ctr + 1;
while (ctr < 10);
cout<<"The total of all the numbers entered = "<<sum<<endl;
Computer Fundamentals and Programming

2.) Create a flowchart/c++ program that would assign numbers 8-15 to an array of 8
elements. The program must then display the contents of the array starting from
the last element.
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08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Course Material for CS10 Page 31 of 32


C++ Program

#include <iostream.h>

void main()
int NUM[8];
Int ctr=0, value=8;

do

NUM[ctr] = value;
value = value + 1;
ctr = ctr + 1;
while (ctr <=7);

Exercises:
ctr=7;
do
1.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that will declare an array named A with 10
cout<<
elements. Prompt NUM[ctr];
the user to input values into its first five cells and copy the
ctr = ctr – 1;
numbers entered into its last five cells. Finally, output the content of array A.
while (ctr >= 0);
2.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that will input values to array A[10] and
array B[10]. Exchange their values in reverse order and output the new content
of arrays A and B.

3.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that will declare an array named NUM with
10 elements. Compute its product such that all the elements in the odd
subscripts will be your multiplicand and all the elements in the even subscript will
be your multiplier. Placed the product into the array named PROD with 5
elements and finally output the content of array PROD.

4.) Create a flowchart and a c++ program that will prompt the user to input numbers
into array C and the input should be terminated by a zero sentinel. Output the
contents of array C and also the highest and the lowest number entered.