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psychology. It has, however, a long history and can trace its origins to a mixture of common human knowledge, works of art and philosophy. Sociology as a scientific discipline emerged in the early 19th century as an academic response to the challenge of modernity: as the world is becoming smaller and more integrated, people's experience of the world is increasingly atomized and dispersed. Sociologists hoped not only to understand what held social groups together, but also to develop an "antidote" to social disintegration.
Scientific Nature of Sociology. - The foregoing statements represent partially and in brief the complex material with which the science of society must deal. It must consider social facts of all kinds and arrange and classify these facts and deduce therefrom universal principles or laws relating to the growth and activity of human society . It deals with material which has existed from the beginnings of human association, but proposes to establish the most general fundamental truths concerning its existence. Sociology today represents the results of studies of different scientists sometimes along parallel lines, in other instances along converging lines and in still others, along trajectories which have crossed. Each science views society from a different standpoint, and sociology will not become a compact, well-defined science until sociologists are able to generalize the truths discovered by those approaching social phenomena from various points of view and to agree more or less closely upon the subject matter and the method of treatment. The Place of Sociology among the Social Sciences. — This point involves the real nature and scope of sociology. There is one group of writers who hold that sociology is a synthesis of all the social sciences, that the science is fabricated by running a thread through all the sciences and stringing them together in one mass. Others a little more discriminating hold that it is a synthesis or rather an amalgamation of the results of other social sciences. Herbert Spencer used the term " sociology " as a generic term to include all the other social sciences. From a scientific standpoint such a usage might be of value in showing that all are branches of one great science called " sociology " just as Spencer included the group of all natural sciences relating to life under the term " biology." But the present writers hold that sociology is one of several coordinating social sciences, the most recent of the group, created for a special purpose and standing on an independent basis, and that while economics, political science, or ethics may deal with specific laws relating to parts of society, sociology deals with the general laws which apply to the whole structure.' The Differentiation of the Social Sciences. — Let us suppose that there are numerous phenomena of human society which continually increase with the development of social order. Society may go on developing from century to century without any scientific attempt to make an orderly arrangement of these phenomena. But
psychology deals with the mental powers and habits of the individual. politics. or any other wellestablished social science. outside their legitimate boundaries. and economic life have been presented from specific standpoints. And so a new science called political economy is created. The laws of social being have not yet been set forth. It has a definite purpose and a specific body of classified knowledge. classified. does it obtain material from biology and psychology. On the other hand. — For pedagogic reasons. development. some observe that there are other groups of facts relating to government. have not been developed. and purposes when engaged in any of his social relationships. those relating to the moral conduct of the individual. as well as a body of laws and principles of its own. Its whole aim is to discover normal and abnormal action of the mind. Again. political science. As already stated. Political. and wills. the regularities to be found in man's thoughts. From scientific and pedagogical considerations it stands alone. too. But there are other social phenomena unclassified and other purposes unsatisfied. and the science of government is brought forth. then. feels. Much less is it a classification or coordination of the results of the independent social sciences. These various sciences continue to expand in their natural order but there still exist. and that there are certain principles involved in the development of social control. These two sciences dealing alone with the individual have completed the range of their scientific investigation when they have discovered and classified all the phenomena concerning the individual . It should not attempt to displace or absorb either political economy. and structure of society as a whole. As a result there is developed the science of ethics. religious. So. These facts are collected. is the opportunity for a new science called sociology. The processes of obtaining and distributing wealth as independent activities may not be involved in either ethics or politics. ethical. nor indeed is it a science built up of the parts of the several social sciences. whether they be economic. the principles established. It should not attempt to be merely a generic term including them all in a group. It refuses to be included in any of the other social sciences.gradually in the progress of knowledge scholars begin to realize that there are facts that constantly recur in the social process. feelings. but the general laws of society. for instance. No one yet has shown the universal forces at work in the growth. ethical. the other. and yet no one would think of including these within the scope of sociology. those manifested by him as a being who thinks. Nevertheless it does obtain data from economics. It . Sociology therefore occupies a very important place in the group of social sciences. The classification of these phenomena and deduction of general laws and principles make this chronologically the first of the social sciences. other social phenomena unclassified. political. and other social sciences. It is an independent science having a separate existence and its own methods of investigation. or religious. the one. The Pedagogic Limits of Sociology. ethics. and the other social sciences refuse to be grouped under it or to be absorbed or assimilated by it. those manifested by him as a living being. and other scientific purposes still unsatisfied. if for no other. it occupies much the same position with reference to the social sciences that biology holds to the natural sciences dealing with organic phenomena. Here. sociology should have a definite boundary.
Giddings has broadened out his structure of sociology and has reduced " consciousness of kind " to a subordinate place. indeed. although each one sees it in a somewhat different light. either as to his origin. Gumplowicz. such as economics. This is made to dominate everything else. GIDDINGS." Giddings. in his Social Laws. finally. philosophy of history. he has attempted to reduce sociology to three fundamental conceptions . At present we must be content to direct the mind of the student along the highway of general development. I I. viewed sociology from a single fundamental principle. Inductive Sociology. For example. Novicow. anthropology.is true that biology incidentally touches upon some phases of social life influenced by biological conditions. Sociology in its Psychological Aspects. But in neither case is there any aim or purpose to present systematically the phenomena of social life." which represents a number of writers who try to show that society has been built through the moral or psychic action of individuals in association. structure. III. group-struggles being the fundamental fact. . H. Such works as Ross's Social Control. has viewed society from the standpoint of the contact of races. as to what is the fundamental social fact on which society is built up. namely. there are other writers who see sociology as a general science. the science rep-resents a much broader foundation than any one of them." In his later works. and who seek to find some single unifying principle on which to base it. however. Chap. but deals with the phenomena arising from his association with his fellows. Various Conceptions of Sociology. in his Der Rassenkampf (War of Races). has laid unusual stress upon a single feature of social action. Spencer's Ceremonial Institutions. ELLWOOD. and political science. where. however. imitation. it occupies its true position. It does not inquire into the growth of the individual man. an important characteristic — an idea which is essential to all rightly constructed society. On the other hand. Notwithstanding the importance of all the above concepts of sociology. The Principles of Sociology. biology. in his Principles. and Durkheim's Laws and Methods of Sociology are good examples of this concept of sociology. This view prevails in special studies of sociologists rather than as the foundation of a completed system. we have a new conception termed by Ward " unconscious social constraint. Such a work would be a monumental treatise of the subject. " repetition. and adaptation. It would be beyond the range of possibility of an ordinary textbook to give it an adequate presentation. A complete sociology must take all that is true in each one of these ideas and weave the whole matter into a logically constructed science. opposition. " The consciousness of kind. CHARLES A. and that this represents. Chap.. sociology has to do with the association of the bio-psychical units. and also that psychology branches out occasionally into social psychology for the purpose of interpreting individual characteristics. has approached this same idea from a different stand-point. F. or evolution. — While various writers have viewed sociology from many different standpoints. viz. although it is a very important concept. Later. The Foundation of Sociology. in his Les Luttes entre societies humaines (Struggle Among Human Societies). M. Chap. They differ. Tarde in his Laws of Imitation. distinct from any of these special sciences. II. pointing out certain movements of society and the laws that govern them. and consequently as to the central principle or conception in sociology. And.
Methodology of Sociology. Sociology' which had once been treated as social philosophy. proposed the word ethology for this new science. Reprinted as brochure. No single definition has yet been accepted as completely satisfactory. GEORGE E. I. is traditionally considered to be the father of sociology. emerged as an independent social science in 19th century. Chap. Johnson opines that "sociology is the science that deals with social groups". 3. "Sociology" is composed of two words : socius. 475-500. Comte is accredited with the coining of the term sociology (in 1839). Emile Durkheim: "Science of social institutions". . a Frenchman. WARD.SMALL. another social thinker and philosopher of the 19th century. pp. or the philosophy of the history. For our purpose of study a few definitions may be cited here. Harry M. Max Weber defines sociology as " the science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a casual explanation of its course and effects". and VINCENT. ALBION W. "Contemporary Sociology. 4. 5. Pure Sociology. In fact. Chicago. 10. SMALL. 9. 70. meaning science or study. 629-658. John Stuart Mill. Vol.. LESTER F. Auguste Comete. Chap. Ogburn and Nimkoff : "Sociology is the scientific study of social life". Kingsley Davis says that "Sociology is a general science of society". the discovery of which is the object of investigation". p. Auguste Comte. 7. 6. and 'logos'. Franklin Henry Giddings defines sociology as "the science of social phenomena". The etymological meaning of "sociology" is thus the science of society. meaning companion or associate. Bk. 749-762. Small defines sociology as "the science of social relationships". there are lot of definitions of sociology as there are sociologists. 8. Henry Fairchild: "Sociology is the study of man and his human environment in their relations to each other". Outlines of Sociology. defines sociology as the science of social phenomena "subject to natural and invariable laws. Herbert Spencer developed his systematic study of society and adopted the word "sociology" in his works. Sociology has been defined in a number of ways by different sociologists. I. VII. II and III. the founding father of sociology. Chaps. 1. III. With the contributions of Spencer and others it (sociology) became the permanent name of the new science. 11." American Journal of Sociology. Marshal Jones defines sociology as "the study of man-in-relationship-to-men". Introduction to the Study of Society. 1902.. Park regards sociology as "the science of collective behavior". ALBION W. 2.
Kimball Young and Raymond W. Often accused by the right of being left-wing. sociology is the study of human interactions and inter-relations. their conditions and consequences". Morris Ginsberg: of the various definitions of sociology the one given by Morris Ginsberg seems to be more satisfactory and comprehensive. ranging from the analysis of passing encounters between individuals in the street up to the investigation of world-wide social processes”. In “The Complete A-Z Sociology Handbook” (1996) Tony Lawson and Joan Garrod two writers with recent experience of being am AQA Chief Examiner . A careful examination of various definitions cited above. his social relations and his society.in this particular extract . 1989) provides the following general definition: “Sociology is the study of human social life. It is now an established discipline in post-16 education and has offered generations of students insights into the social world they inhabit.. However. having as its subject matter our own behaviour as social beings.12. As you will no-doubt note. It is a dazzling and compelling enterprise.is more-concerned with describing the sociological enterprise in very general terms than with trying to nail-down a specific definition. The scope of sociology is extremely wide. it includes individuals of every political opinion who are united by a commitment to search for knowledge and understanding through providing evidence for the theories and insights they offer”. Anthony Giddens (“Sociology”. which grew out of the search for understanding associated with the industrial and scientific revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. Giddens . He defines sociology in the following way: "In the broadest sense. "Sociology is the scientific study of social aspects of human life". Their divergent views about the definition of sociology only reveal their distinct approaches to its study. Alex Inkeles says. makes it evident that sociologists differ in their opinion about definition of sociology.provide the following definition: “Sociology is the study of individuals in groups and social formations in a systematic way. 13. the common idea underlying all the definitions mentioned above is that sociology is concerned with man. groups and societies. Mack say.. 14. "Sociology is the study of systems of social action and of their inter-relations". .
was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. Significant contributions to the social sciences were made by Muslim scientists in the Islamic civilization during the Middle Ages. The social sciences developed from the sciences (experimental and applied). in which the social phenomena was identified with and understood. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim. arising from the methodological dichotomy present. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine. sociobiology. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices. opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. The fourth route taken. there was no difference between mathematics and the study of history. . Conversely. the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded on this distinction. This unity of science as descriptive remains and deductive reasoning from axioms created a scientific framework. the interdisciplinary and crossdisciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behavior and social and environmental factors affecting it made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. The development of social science subfields became very quantitative in methodology. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. Comte also referred to the field as social physics. The Age of Enlightenment saw a revolution within natural philosophy. influenced by Comte or other fields. Following this period. Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. One route that was taken was the rise of social research. In Ancient history. various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure. changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Around the turn of the 20th century. there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the Social Sciences. theory (description) and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject. Social science was influenced by positivism. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in various grand encyclopedia of Diderot. based in economics. metaphysical speculation was avoided. The growth of the social sciences is also reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. studying "social facts". After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution. relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. such as the Industrial revolution and the French revolution. the accelerating trend of mathematical studies presumed a reality independent of the observer and worked by its own rules. this was championed by figures such as Max Weber. Auguste Comte used the term "science social" to describe the field. Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and was influenced by the Age of Revolutions.history of the social sciences begins in the roots of ancient philosophy. taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. and Vilfredo Pareto. focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. In some quarters. In this route. with articles from Rousseau and other pioneers. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field. A third means developed. poetry or politics. neuropsychology.
the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law. and art. Psychology Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior and mental processes. including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics. growing data banks. with considerable success. quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century. Statistical methods were used confidently. Durkheim. and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behaviour of individuals. education. the field. while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation-specific human . for more. health. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity. the various realms of social science progress in a myriad of ways. At present though. In the contemporary period. economy and trade. increasing the overall knowledge of society. political science. Increasingly. and sometime distinct in approach toward. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte. or more generally to all disciplines outside of noble science and arts. By the late 19th century. economics. continue to provide usable frameworks for massive. Researchers continues to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories which. Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Psychology differs from anthropology. Marx. and Weber. see consilience.bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science. The social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of.
Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application. In reality. major block. For example. Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole. The word psychology comes from the ancient Greek ψυχή.Sc. psyche ("soul". though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced. Many people associate Psychology with Clinical Psychology which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology. and not simply the biological or neural processes themselves. Mathematical psychology. In British universities. In practice.Psy. and of the overall processes of a system. Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behavior. and Quantitative Analysis of Behaviour to name only a few. Cognitive Psychology. purely social sciences. social and occupational psychology are. indicates a balance between natural and social sciences.A.behavior. Developmental Psychology. B. Neuropsychology. however. indicates a strong (or entire) scientific concentration. emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and/or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred: B. generally speaking. Industrial-Organizational Psychology. study). whereas a B. Psychology has myriad specialties including: Social Psychology. underlines a majority of social science credits. biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application (as is clinical medicine). "mind") and logy. . whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely. others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences. there is quite a lot of cross-fertilization that takes place among the various fields.
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