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MCS 042_Q:3>I

SUBNET:
………….

A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logically visible subdivision of an IP network.[1] The practice of dividing a network into
subnetworks is called subnetting.

All computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with a common, identical, most-significant bit-group in their IP
address. This results in the logical division of an IP address into two fields, a network or routing prefix and the rest field.
The rest field is a specific identifier for the computer or the network interface.
EXAMPLES & IMPLEMENTATION:

Subnetting is the process of designating some high-order bits from the host part and grouping them with the network
mask to form thesubnet mask. This divides a network into smaller subnets. The following diagram modifies the example
by moving 2 bits from the host part to the subnet mask to form a smaller subnet one fourth the previous size:

Binary form Dot-decimal notation

IP address 11000000.10101000.00000101.10000010 192.168.5.130

Subnet mask 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 255.255.255.192

Network prefix 11000000.10101000.00000101.10000000 192.168.5.128

Host part 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000010 0.0.0.2

SUPERNET:

A supernet is an Internet Protocol (IP) network that is formed from the combination of two or more networks (or subnets)
with a commonClassless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) routing prefix. The new routing prefix for the combined network
aggregates the prefixes of the constituent networks. It must not contain other prefixes of networks that do not lie in the
same routing path. The process of forming a supernet is often called supernetting, route aggregation, or route
summarization.

Supernetting within the Internet serves as a preventative strategy to avoid topological fragmentation of the IP
address space by using a hierarchical allocation system that delegates control of segments of address space to regional
network service providers.[1] This method facilitates regional route aggregation.
The benefits of supernetting are conservation of address space and efficiencies gained in routers in terms of memory
storage of route information and processing overhead when matching routes.

Examples
A company that operates 150 accounting services in each of 50 districts has a router in each office connected with a
frame relay link to its corporate headquarters. Without supernetting, the routing table on any given router might have to
account for 150 routers in each of the 50 districts, or 7500 different networks. However, if a hierarchical addressing
system is implemented with supernetting, then each district has a centralized site as interconnection point. Each route is
summarized before being advertised to other districts. Each router now only recognizes its own subnet and the other 49
summarized routes.

The determination of the summary route on a router involves the recognition of the number of highest-order bits that
match all addresses. The summary route is calculated as follows. A router has the following networks in its routing table:

192.168.98.0
192.168.99.0
192.168.100.0
192.168.101.0
192.168.102.0
192.168.105.0

Firstly, the addresses are converted to binary format and aligned in a list:

Address First Octet Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet

192.168.98.0 11000000 10101000 01100010 00000000

192.168.99.0 11000000 10101000 01100011 00000000

192.168.100.
11000000 10101000 01100100 00000000
0

192.168.101.
11000000 10101000 01100101 00000000
0

192.168.102.
11000000 10101000 01100110 00000000
0

192.168.105.
11000000 10101000 01101001 00000000
0