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.CUNEORUM CLAVIS.

.

. FROM THE PAPERS OF THE LATE DANIEL SMITH. EDITED BY H. OBELISKS. HEMSWORTH. BY MEANS OF WHICH CAN BE READ THE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS ON THE STONE TABLETS. AND OTHER REMAINS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIA. CYLINDERS.CUNEORUM CLAVIS. ESQ. LONDON: PRINTED FOR THE EDITOR AT THE CHISWICK 1875. THE PRIMITIVE ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE OF THE ANCIENT ONES OF THE EARTH. W. PRESS.

CHISWICK PRESS : PRINTED BY WHITTINGHAM AND WILKINS. CHANCERY LANE. . TOOKS COURT.

and by comparing thefe with the cuneiform infcrip- tions. The following extracts are all that need be quoted : the object of the prejent work to direct the attention of the literati of England and of It is all " who feel interejled in the quejlion ' Which was the Primitive Alphabet of Man?' to a dijcovery made by the Author in the year 1848. permijjion from the Mufeum authorities to copy the infcriptions. injcribed with records written in a dumb Semitic character. now under the care of Mr. Jubhibited in the firjl column Jequent Jludy and inveJHgation have only tended to confirm this As Jbon as he had formed the alphabet. but he could only make .). and he then collected an alphabet of the earliejl Greek. Being an earnejl Jludent of Jubje&s tending to illujlrate or authenticate Holy Scripture. and much of of a purely perfonal character. brought to light by Mr. principally from an Elian bronze tablet. he firjl conviclion. It was then he perceived the Jtriking Jimilarity between Jbme of the early Greek letters and the cuneiform He obtained characters as exhibited on the Ajjyrian marbles. he formed an humble unit amongjl the many thousands who flocked to the Britifh Mujeum to gaze upon the exhumed remains of a mighty empire. copied an inscription. Newton. were refolvable into the Jimple of alphabets (vide Plate I. he found that all the various groups of characters. with a view to their elucidation. of the Britijh Mujeum . and having a Jlight knowledge of Greek. Layard's ex- cavations. HE it author's preface is very long.EDITOR'S PREFACE. tried to make it fpeak in that language . when nineteen letters exdijjefted.

But. and was very favourably received by the Melbourne prefs. Layard. Jlating that he was willing to communicate all the particulars to any perfon who felt an interejl in Biblical make known Jludies.' Thinking next that it might be Hebrew. and Paris. to the difcovery. from for Mr. he directed his attention once more to the Jiibjecl. Previoujly to his embarking for Aujlralia in he fubmitted his difcovery to the Rev. he applied himfelf to get a knowledge of that tongue . He fent copies of his fcholars But the alphabet. only anfwers he received were from two Hebrew who wanted employment.vi Editor's Preface. Hollis. and not hearing of the publication of anything CERTAIN by the great European philologijls. the fale him but . Greek. of 1850. January. who told him that the only plan was Nothing then remained to publijh the difcovery to the world. Dublin. to bring it before the public in the Jhape of the fir/I edition of his work on the Primitive Alphabet. but the hurry of departure from England prevented the preparation IJlington. under very many difficulties. but fcarcely had he ma/tered the Hebrew alphabet. Since the year 1859 he has been ufmg every means in his power. exprejjed quite a favourable opinion of it. for the Jlern realities of life. who He landed in Melbourne in of the manufcript for publication. 1864. but the confufion of colonial life in thofe early gold-days put a Jlop to all literary purfuits. other means of making known a difcovery fo imfeek fome literal or perfecl tranjlation portant to the literary world. to various learned focieties and gentlemen in London. and who would take the trouble of calling upon him. no of any one record. Jo as to make it he was induced to quite incontrovertible. when adverfe circumjtances compelled him to give up the jludy of Hebrew. and the cuneiform writings. fuch as Aparavi. having fome leifure on hand.' Babiloi. and kindly offered to get it publijhed in one of the quarterlies . About that time. B. and from that time until 1859 * ne P a P ers remained upon the Jhelf. with particulars. 1851. This appeared in Augujl. He advertized feveral times in the principal paper. having appeared.' and the name ' of the god Bell. from its feemingly abjlrufe nature. but he received only one anfwer. * * out a few names. while feeking his daily bread Jixteen thoufand miles from his native land.

Editor's Preface. in Jlricl clearly is exhibited the Jcheme of the * Primitive Alphabet. . and and advice as long as it was in her power. vii Still. the Author will not pretend to The other letter of introduction was to a literary lady 1 Jay. or too much engaged with their own peculiar hobbies. gone 1867.' and declared dijcovery to * intended all bojh the learned knight to be an erudite exprejjion. Jo that on land he found hirnfelf in the midjl of jlrangers. all in England. Ranyard. With this view he left Melbourne. E. and who advijed him to feek a more legitimate Jphere for his Jtudies.' which Jhown all analogy with extremely Jimple. and that 'fame kindly took him by the hand. his who very Jbon gave him be ' * * the cold Jhoulder. his friends ajjured him that. all honour to her name helped with money At the time he left the Jhores of Aujlralia. and landed in abfent from England Jeventeen years. and the early alphabets. he thinks. and to publijh an enlarged and a more correct edition of his work. as Jbon as he reached his native land. ! who and fortune awaited him. or too idle to ! think for themfehes^ but are contented to take all for granted learned men in that has been put forth by three or four men but in this peculiar branch of philology in the Jbme refpecls In the following pages he has. in its He application has only further to by the philologijts of found to be the long-wanted defideratum for Europe. author of "Stones Crying Out. ancient and interejling records of rightly interpreting the mojl will be 1 "The Mrs. he had who felt certain as to the truth of bis theory. feajible. conveying the all bojh* Whether meaning that be was ASHAMED at not being able to judge or appreciate the merits of his book. both as to the to be letters. He brought with him two letters of introduction." &c. was not adequate friends to the expenje of publication." and editor of Miffing Link.' How The literati of London are has he been disappointed bitterly either too ignorant of the Jubjeft brought before them. Having been his relatives February. number and the form of the hope that this Jyjtem. one to a Jo-called learned knight. he would be patronized. June. nearly and former friends were his return to his native to their lajl account. grojfefl and darkejl ignorance.

The abftrufenejs lies rather in the FORM : than in the " Introduction " we quote the following " It will be remembered what great excitement was caujed the learned world in the years 1848-49. the tenth in a direct Both Adam and Noah converjed with God 1 From a " " newfpaper paragraph defcribing the Literary Inqueft on the tranflations of the cylinders of Tiglath Pilezer.viii Editor's Preface. rejects all that has been done. King of AiTyria. and what rivalry there was among the clue to great Oriental Jcholars of Europe to find out the key or Yet the elucidation of the inscriptions thus brought to light. but especially by that of the Holy Scriptures themjelves . that lip and the Jame words J or. jbme of the mojl learned men of the prejent day ajjert that all that has been done (/. by the great ancejlor. and from the Perjian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. that the records of a nation Jo intimately hope connected with the early hijlory of the world will not remain reajbnable to unknown. as Jbme would render. date not known. The French and 1 Academy. treats the Jo-called translations as Still it is merely ingenious conjecture.*. jpoke the Jame language and ufed the of the a generally received opinion that in the early world. by the throughout means of partial refufcitation of Nineveh's ancient greatnejs.. of one fentiment and of one fpeech. he hopes. antiquity. by SUBJECT-MATTER. Noah. This opinion is fully borne out by a vajl majs of concurrent tejlimony from ancient and modern writers. from Mount Jame alphabetical characters in writing. readers who book merely to glance through it but even Juch readers would find. for we read in the nth chapter of Genejis. It is ages Ararat to the banks of the Nile. that the whole book is quite intelligible to any perjbn of average information. The Author may have feels that the apparent abjtrujenejs of the Jubjeft take up the the effeft of repelling many . all the Oriental nations. indeed. Layard's discoveries. in the way of decipherment) is unfatis- fattory." the From Mr. on a little clojer examination. It is not unreajbnable to Juppofe that this language was the Jame as * the whole earth was of one that Jpoken line from Adam. . extremely vague^ and even contradictory.

himjelf. ix Now. King of Elam. Jlill exijling.Editor's Preface. Ham. with this Thus the Jame primitive language as from father to Jon to Abram . therefore. they found the primitive language (or Hebrew) perjbns. and would prove that the language Jpoken was the by his father. this facl Jame. publijhed 150 years ago (Hutchin- . Profane hijlory informs us that Menes. It mujl. and by many proofs. King of Salem. of communication between Abram and the Egyptians language. King of Goyim (nations). and would account for the facility of intercourse between the Patriarchs and the Egyptians. which we and it appears from the names of places and Jliall call Hebrew . It is certain that the Egyptians then Jpoke the original language. " In an old Hebrew work. and ninety-five years before the building of He doubtlejs Jpoke the language he had been taught Babel. From this it appears that there could be no difficulty . and he mujl have had daily "interof courje with people. ejlablijhed himjelf. the eldejl Jon of Noah. Jacob communed freely with Pharaoh. moreover. Adam lived many years contemporaneously with Lamech. Adam. the Jon of made it the national tongue. there mujl have been an identity of primitive language Jeems aljb to have been underjlood by Melchizidek. have been a kindred tongue with that of the inhabitants of Sodom. in his childhood with Abram. grandjbn of Noah. and very probably by the Kings of Shinar and Ellajar. we Noah. or Mitzraim. as Jojephus tells us) into Canaan. for Lot dwelt its there. are in- We formed by the Jame author that he taught them arithmetic and the Jcience of ajlronomy. and from thence into Egypt. that the kings and their people jujl alluded to were writings dejcended from the five Jons of Shem. that wherever Abram. and descended language it was that Abram travelled from Ur of the it Noah /poke Chaldees. IJaac. by Chedorlaomer. where he dijputed with the priejls and learned men of that country. the father of Noah. and reigned in Egypt twenty-Jix years after the flood. The King Sodom find himjelf held a conference from the Jacred Further. and Jacob wandered. that There cannot be a doubt. and Tidal. If Jo. in other The words. when he fled from their persecutions (for preaching and teaching the worjhip of the true God.

tend to bring discredit upon Scriptural truth. admires old knowledge and ridicules new. And it is few covering anything we do not know. and that which has not been learned. certainly.x c Editor's Preface. A man may have vajl conceptions and little or none of words . learn to tell us learnedly what we already know or have in uje . and men who Jludy things feldom mind words. that men who the reajbn beneficial improvements. and that GALILEO was right. in faff. dijcujjion room for A arranged alphabetically. of the perjecutors of GALILEO were conand firmly believed that the new doclrine would jcientious men. or which is not in ufe. and mojl people who fpend their time In dif- we have Jo few objervable. and in advance of It is really ajtonijhing to find Jo much lamentable ignorance among the literati of England on this peculiar branch of philology. Jeldom mind things . in early days. learning to learn that which others have which comes by injlruclions from writings. Even the Jo-called l Philological Society ' (I am alluding to Jbme of the executive) treated the matter now under his age. which is are majlers of. and the fame opinions hold the minds of men in thraldom in the It is a mojl difficult matter for men to prejent day. give up opinions formed. and full of the one. that all their knowledge was dark compared with the light of fclence dijplayed at the prejent day. is acquired by obfervations and comparijbns of opinions. actions This age very unjujlly prizes the one and dejpijes or things. already or examples. which are Jo appojite to the prejent inquiry that I * There are two Jhall not apologize for introducing them Jon's : Jbrts of human learned.' which. learn to tell us anything we know not. Mojl Jcholars Jeldom do any considerable thing in the other. ? Why. is nothing more than a lift. and yet they can give of what they call c 105 pages Dictionary of Reduplicated Words.' in 12 vols. from the teachings of thoje they have been taught to look upon as the oracles of There cannot be a doubt but that wifdom and knowledge.) are the following observations. Philosophical Works. But what has whom many. which words. tell It us but confufedly at firft? This quotation was written 150 years ago. the other. Men who learn to mind words. of Juch profundities as the . with the greatejl contempt . if not all. time unfolded ignorance.

" I have heard of your work. Dr." When is prefled to give his reafons. F. and not improbably by Adam his patronnot believe 1 age. H. but I do in it. is one of the objects of the prefent work to endeavour to that the language here referred to was the Primitive prove language. pe. pokey. than it is either treated with filent contempt or ridiculed as the effufions of a maniac.' themfelves. and the puerile fubllmltles of the nurfery. to prevent further inquiry. e. faith to the Jleeves of their teachers.. Jhould go for nothing? it cannot be there The anfwer is. and then pronounce their verdicl. gentleman to folicit when he faid.. It has been heard aid by gentlemen who have only taken a curfory c Can it be pojfible that the works of Sir glance at this work.* &c. by Noah.Editor's Preface. Let them examine for mujl be fome mijlake. without troubling themfelves one moment to afcertain whether they are right or wrong * but no fooner is any new theory Jlarted antagonize to the blindly-received : men of the day. for they are only calculated to mljlead. culy cum. * Humpty Dumpty fat on a wall. It is to be regretted that we cannot get men to think for Mankind in general are too prone to pin their themfelves. whanky Puttee po. Let them carefully perufe the following pages.' &c. but worfe than ufelefs. it all that could be got from him was. of acknow. and to keep the world In Ignorance. .g. men theories of the great f R H T ledged learning. and that there is every proba- bility that the alphabetical characters ufed in the earliejl ages of the world were thofe here exhibited. It is alfo fought to be in the Ajjyrian cuneiform characters are to be found jhown that the primitive alphabetical characters ufed by man. viz. The author once waited upon a rev. &c.. and take all for granted that they propound. . Hokey. or Hebrew . " Of was bard to give up old opinions and take to new" And fo it with the majority of men. that it was fpoken all over the Eajl up "It to a very late hijlorical period . that the works of thefe great men in this branch of philology are not only worthlefs. and there will be not much doubt of their arriving at the conclufion. and Mr. . ribald chorufes of pot-boufe fongs * : xi fum. &c. that our prefent Roman alphabet is radically the fame as that which was ufed by Abram.

Editor's Preface.. i. is not merely Juperfluous. whence they have myfterioujly disappeared.. are calculated to lead Jcientifk thinkers to the but that of his was warped..e. when the writer Jays (p. becaufe whatsoever is foreign to an ought argument. that he does not always Jubjcribe to his author's alleged facls. this latter. which evidently is beyond the Jcope of the inquiry. though he prefers the knowledge popular tradition to the Jcientifk and true explanation of the correcl two chapters of the text . Jaid to have been in the Briti/h Mujeum to (p. he would have expunged a great number of pajjages. or Jupporting the truth own Jyjlem. Such Jlatements as thofe. So again. many of his which he looks upon as imaginary. Jince he endeavoured to make which ought to Jland on Scientific demonjlration . being So indeed are all the devoid of all critical or hijlorical value. Again. it : with the Jincere prayer that it may tend to the further elucidation and confirmation of the Holy Scriptures. the long account of the apocryphal two jlones." that the primitive lanLamech to Noah . and that the Affyrian language is the primitive tongue." he aims at an object. that " Both Adam and Noah himjelf. 39). weakens it." implying that meaning of Cadmus (p. which ought not of anything elje to tend to ejtablijhing. but the author gives the myth. have been omitted. and does not Jlrengthen it. for which ajjertion there is no foundation. 128) " This work .. If the Jheets had come into hands in time. all came from that quarter.xii himjelf . 10). fanciful /peculations of ancient and modern writers reproduced in the firjl " Eajl. nor does he agree in all the inferences drawn from theje fafts. whatever may be the conjequences to any exifting Jyjlem or belief. ajjumption that the mind of the propounder of the new theory or at leajl biajjed. the true original Hebrew. has been carried on to completion . that Abram difguage descended through puted with the priejls and learned men of Egypt. making Cadmus a merchant prince of Phoenicia. and the fource of all languages. Utterances like the above. ancient and modern" Now the Editor wijhes it to be diflinftly underjlood. and taught converged with God them arithmetic and ajlronomy Juch ajjertions are totally unworthy of a work devoted to Jcientifk invejligation...

ourjelves to decide whether the forth in the following pages be true or not. extending natural formations is Jhape of all hence the mojl primitive religious creed represents the . whence the name. for as Juch we may conjider . alone. viz. . as editors theory put may reasonably be Juppojed to have Jbme Jheaking kindnejs for Without then taking upon works they edit. every mental procejs even has three conjlituents. on very Jlight lamentable failures to extfaft any Jenfe from the Ajjyrian Jlone records. who. which derive all their force from faith. and hijlorical Jcholars. When a Jblution of common Jalt Jo it is of cedars and ferns. author's rejearches into the nature of the primitive lead him to the conclujion that cuneiform writing is alphabet. objerve the coincidence. xiii and do&rines. if coincidence it be. the conceiving. and the thing con- univerjal law of nature. oriental. e. at a certain Jlage of concentration is can no longer retain the liquid form . and in Jpite of their certainly. which ajjume at lajl And on examining vital the definite form of Jmall pyramids. triangular or pyramidal . letters and combinations Now aljb to letters : the primitive the Jimplejl. have hitherto been accepted as the true expounders of cuneiform writing . form is the primitive Jhape of the mojl ancient tree. or fall by its defecls . biblical. why with an unprejudiced fpirit. the pine . Our objecl is neither to advocate nor condemn our author's it . we may this dejerves investigation yet point out one or two reajbns. In material nature the pyramidal or cone Deity as a Trinity.Editor's Preface. unfettered by the ditta of men. action in the mind./. Now our being all triangles in different the triangles being either equilateral . we find that it led men to give the Jame form to their earliejl conjlruftiens. foundation. ceived Jlowly evaporated the mojl Jimple procejs of Jblidifying the Jalt which remains behind. or Jides. its particles or molecules begin to depojlt themjelves as minute Jblids. the conceiver. with blind Jubmiflion. mutually Jupport each other. mujt Jland by its merits. and Jupply a key to an as yet theory unknown language. but as an attempt to elicit truth. it dejerves the attention of philologifls. and not the rejult of an its the primitive alphabet. positions or elongated into wedge-Jhapes.

and not by quadrilateral pyramids. nothing of this Jlone was as yet known. is the of the letters have a greater likenejs in form to the primitive than any that are Jeen in later Phoenician documents. Mexico. the hijlory of which is no doubt familiar to the reader. which was to be thus fymbolifed. years before the Jlone was heard of. very valuable to the caufe he advocates. now renders this unjbught-for. . like the facl of all natural manifejlations being primarily when our author And Juch a witnejs it Jeems to be. wherefore if it tell anything in favour of his theory of the primitive alphabet. the pyramids of Egypt. objerve that the author. had ajjigned Now nineteen letters to the primitive alphabet. is taken from the now famous Moabite Jlone. are the earliejl that have been found in the Phoenician character facl. Now bear in mind. and other countries.xiv Editor s Preface. had his attention been drawn to it the very circumjlance of his not been aware of it. unhaving expecled. it mujl be looked upon as a perfectly independent witnejs. 72) to the pyramidal form of ancient temples. what is worthy of particular attention. as the name indicates. This. that . he introduces the Moabitic type. by Great is the Jimplicity of our author's Jyjlem. The record was written with an alphabet of about nineteen letters. and Jhowing have undergone in the courje of time. But this could have been done by trilateral. that publijhed the firjl edition of his work at Melbourne in 1864. and thus totally impartial evidence. was written upon. The letters. and. For the Jlone triangular. and records events which tranjpired about the time of Homer and Hejiod. contrajled with 1 The author does indeed refer (p. Again the : in changes letters enumerating the various alphabets. Jujlly the author may remark that "the force of this many argument all in favour of the new theory mujl be Jeen and felt " reflecting minds. 1 As our author does not jeem to have been aware of this peculiarity of natural formation for there is no doubt that he would have Jeized upon a fa<3 Jo Jlrongly in favour of his Jyjlem. between five and Jix hundred years before the final dejlru&ion of Nineveh. moreover. but attributes its adoption to the idea of the Trinity.

Rawlinjbn. interpretation is almojl conculty. 148. any and from whom no interference of any kind is to be tolerated. think . "I " whenever I " " this it . or make them look as ridiculous and awkward as thefe expounders the giant Jlain by young Roland ? . homophones.be utter defpair of arriving at any fatisfa&ory And be are not to accepted without quejlioning. putting the mojt ridiculous. Hincks Talbot. interpretations upon them . weapons that only hurt philological the owners. in yet " their own confejjion. In injijls on his own abfurdities facl. Mejfrs. with an alphabet of Jbme three hundred letters. like Jlantly meet with admiQions loggerheads about Jo Jlmple a But in their own writings we contheje " : I entertain doubt " . different tranjlations of To give but two instances. I have omitted " I will " or. have met with any pajjage of particular diffi" Jbme "I . The former are latter and the Jhow the profejQional experts AJJyrian cryptography at thing as a proper name. whofe utterances ex cathedra are to refult. ideo- Fox graphs. more hopekflly Jlill frankly confefs jectural that having majlered every Babylonian character to which any clue exijled in the trilingual tablets. chiefly nonfenfe. who . than like the work of learned men ferioujly put forward. whofe productions and whofe mode of working cannot be improved by criticifed. polyphones." . outfider. with about five hundred variants. on our credulity. havoc among harmlefs inscriptions. frequently totally fenfelefs. and others. and indulge in a free fight among themfelves. would have us know-nothings. and whatever other weapons may have in their armoury of their modern Babel of confufed tongues. determinatives. in an infcription on the cylinder of Tiglath 146 and top of p. pajjing for when each expounder explanations. Jbme of the tranjlations given of the Ajfyrian texts look more like regular hoaxes .Editor's Preface. and occajionally they turn againjl each other. for champions of AJJyrian exegejis produced nents have they overcome None as what refults have thefe ? what linguijlic oppoyet they have made fad . The prefent writer was told by a gentleman." by theje bow to them as our teachers. the cumbrous machinery of Sir xv H. I have been tempted on : " cannot yet venture to decide . bottom of p. we refer to Pilezer. more occajions than one to abandon the Jludy altogether.

and the world to admit the value of his achievement. and making Jbme Jtiggejlions. and refufes to bow to idols. which ought objecl. offering him rewards and medals. adulatory twaddle in the pojl-prandial Palejline the merits of the hojl. have in any way been fojlered. Jlyle only. have given them every True. Rawlinfon. and their members to be conjidered as the patrons and fojlerers of Jcience. takes considerable interejl in Oriental philology and archaeology. but dares to think for himjelf. or that the leaders. he intended ajking a few quejlions. being legitimate. whiljl the public. to be the paramount But what Jo-called learned Jbciety ever really cared for that ? All Juch Jbcieties are Jlmply cliques. thus trying to cauje Jbme of the lujlre Jurroimding him to fall on themjelves. if he meant to exprejs opinions running counter to thoje held by Sir H. it is a facl that ought to prove to them that whiljl Juppojmg they are contributing to the Exploration Fund. ajjiiming authority to decide on the new difcoveries and inventions. firjl efforts Jcientific of genius towards the praclical Jblution of literary or difficulties. and their readinejs pompous arrogance. For Jmce no dijcuflion is to be allowed at the meetings. bent on upholding particular crotchets or hobbies of their Hence it would be difficult on ever Jo carefully the annals of Jcience. he was warned beforehand that he would not be allowed to Jpeak. when Jupprefs and crujh independent inquiry. how- a facl well known to their humble worfhippers ever popular the prejent writer was told by him that.xvi Editor's Preface. when at a recent meeting of the Palejline Exploration Fund. then compelled in Jpite of this oppojition the theje Societies eagerly rujh forward to enrol him among their members. glorifying there is but little chance of the difcovery of truth. On the contrary. indolence to man of genius has Jucceeded. have ridiculed and oppojed everything not hatched and nurjed in their own by Jcientific value of their forcing-houjes. This is a Jignificant facl. encouraged. we Jhould Jee that they or Jujlained by them. ever to bow facility to and ignorance. which the Jubfcribers to the above fund ought to bear in mind . to find one proof that new difJearching coveries have proceeded from Juch ajjbciated bodies. Let Juch men follow the example lately Jet by a dijlinguijhed . they are really Jupporting the Rawlinfon Exaltation Fund.

bringing him He has fmce then made a fecond and brought back a confiderable number of AJfyrian journey. how can we be fure can we be fure of the accuracy of any of " b . and is about as confounded a name for a king as that of Beerybinker in Wieland's fairy tale]." occurring in the above quotation. Bazanpalakura is to fay." True alfo. e. and Sir H. The name of " Akkad. Jon of Ummihzirriti [which mu|l have been a pojer to fpell.Editor's Preface. how can we be ajked to believe in Tugultininip? of Tugulti We fee ? that How ninip" is doubtful. tablets. alfo be found the name of Tugulti-ninip. by " thefe would-be patrons of fcience are fometimes hoijl by their own petard. that Mr. Oppert. xvii and rejeft all fuch tardy and felfijh acknowledgments. forming the firjl part of another already name. is that of the moon-god Akkad. Ninip-pal-ukin. was firjl propounded by Sir H. that there are feven million hairs in a cat's tail. writer. who rejlored the temple of Bel. and his followers dutifully adopt it ." Who Jhall difpute the No one ever disproved the ajjertion correclnejs of thefe names ? race of of the accurate naturalijl." /. according to ! if in this injiance the Orientalijls cannot agree among them- felves whether the Ajjyrian fyllables read Ninip. Jon of Abinam. to the delight of all Ajjyrian fcholars And when he tells them that one tablet contains " the name of the of the identical Jlone with ! ! very early King Babylon. details are taken may . in return. who tranjlates the full name. Rawlinjbn." it is eafy to add that we have here half-adozen royal names heretofore unknown. King of Ajjyria fame two is the latter half of the word reliable ? The fyllables occur on the cylinder of Tiglath Pilezer. which they are to be " patronized. 5 of our author's work. which was like looking for a needle in a Jtack of hay. while Mr. mojl of whofe infcriptions he deciphers quite readily. and that the king describes himfelf on the tablet as the Jon of Tajjigurubar. when a gentleman fent to the Eajl to find a particular infcribed Jlone. Jon of Agurabi. or fomething totally different. very fpeedily returned. of the " Sugamuna. as happened not long ago. the objection to it is Jlated on In the account from which thefe p. and that his name Agu. Talbot makes it Now. referred to above. Niniv-balufhat. impofed upon in their own line by fome clever hoaxer. Rawlinjbn.

" with notes aljb by the fame author.xviii their Editor s Preface. " Early Babylonian Injcriptions . though made by an outjider. George Smith's " Deluge Tablet. Smith. an ^ the publications that treat of cuneiform injcriptions are not Jo numerous. while the vernacular names of the gods. though the Congrejs " we eulogizer himjelf admits that [the profejjed Ajjyriologijls] are far from having overcome the elementary difficulties of phonetic reprejentation. Notwithjtanding the numerous alphabets and Jyllabaries that have been publijhed [our author's theory. it would Jeem. in theje invejligations. are for the mojl part rendered conventionally and which enter Jb largely into the compojition of provifionally. there are Jlill many cuneiform characters of doubtful powers [in the prejent treatije they are reduced to nineteen. are determined to ignore anything that may not proceed from their his followers own If Sir Henry Rawlinjbn and were honejl in their fully profit endeavours to arrive at the truth. they would grateby any Juggejtions. tranjlations ? Mejjrs. though the firjl edition of the work appeared in 1864. has no difficulty in identifying names]." with a whole hojl of other works on ancient Oriental injcriptions. Babylonian and and are thus ejQfential to hijlorical identiAJJyrian proper names. yet the in the Semitic Jeclion of the above referred-to Congress. of the on the " of . Bagjler and Sons promije us Mr. that one of this extent could eajily be overlooked." Theje are admijjions made by Sir Henry. What a mental feajl may we not expecl ? Mr. prove that thofe who rightly or wrongly have taken the lead chojen Jet. fication [Mr. the chief authority on the mode of deciphering Jpeeches made Ajfyrian injcriptions . does away with the necejQity of them]. Rawlinjbn's tranjlation injcriptions Cylinder Tiglath-Pilezer. other fouls will truft in you. " Sir H. that . in which not the mojl dijlant allujion is to be found to the Jyjtem propounded by our author. recently held in London. as far as we under/land it." eulogium Sir Henry bejlowed on him at the of Orientalijls. and none of them doubtful]. Smith evidently : acls on the maxim laid down by Mephijlopheles " If you but Then e/pecially after the in yourfelf confide.

fully bearing out what we utility. independent inquiry will meet with no rejponje from the Jelf-conflituted Lajl Court of Appeal of tablets. if pojjlble. it was not heard of again. each to read a mutilated paper. Nineveh But The appeal then lies to that Jeclion of the public AJJyriology. Jbme of leifurely the favoured few of the members were allowed ten minutes . while the rejl were coolly Jhelved. will be more appreciable than thoje of the recent Congrejs of Orientalijls. have even a Jemblance of furthering the pretended objeft the deciphering of the in xix view : as long as the real is objecl Jelf-glorincation. who had been Jent by the Indian government all the way from India. of learned Inaugural addrejjes and complimentary Jpeeches took the big-wigs more than half the time of the Congress up and mercilejjly rode their favourite hobbies . or rather inutility. Hindoo. which was Jimply a muddle and a /rated above as to the Jbcieties. which were Jaid to have drawn the Congrejs together. that take an interejl in the jubjecl . upon a uniform and univerjal alphabet to been exprejs the letters of Oriental alphabets . them can ejlablijh his own cafe. at the expenfe of the Indian tax-payer. was the tranjliteration of Oriental words. but after having mentioned in the president's addrejs. rendered himjelf remarkable chiefly by the comfortable naps he took during the inaugural addrejs and the reading of the papers. and having it tejled. but he And ought to have a chance of Jtating it. A . as far as the progrejs of Oriental learning is concerned. which in any court of law would rejult in the latter being committed for trial on the charges of incom- Whether the witnefs againjl petence and mifreprefentation. we venture to ajjert that the rejults of Juch tejling. and an impartial examination of the contents of this volume will jhow that the author's theory offers the prima facie evidence againjl the authorities hitherto acknowledged. and to fix.Editor's Preface. remains to be Jeen . One of the chief objecls. farce.

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David. and Solomon The two Mofes wrote in the Cuneiform Tables of Stone in the Britifh Mufeum. CHAPTER Confufion of Sentiment at Babel the Eaft The Weftern Nations peopled from copied his Alphabet from the Aflyrians Hebrew the Univerfal language Samaritan Pentateuch Hebrew Job. Mofes. -The Alphabet Greek Manufcripts and Syftem of Change in the Form of the 70 Pages 43 . . Rawlinfon Language throwing a doubt upon the Sacred Scriptures Various opinions of ancient authors as to the Fulfilment of the antiquity of the Alphabet Prophecy by Nahum Cadmus no mythological perfonage. Cadmus.CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. Author's Opinion of the Primitive Alphabet Nimroud Palace the Earlieft Character Sir The Cuneiform of the H.. Rawlinfon's Opinion of the Character and Language Writing letters The Sigaean Infcription .. but a merchant prince of Phoenicia An ideal picture of the triumphant pageant of Queen Ato/Ta.. Moabitic Stone. Poetry and Language Cadmus character Homer. ETTERS the gift of God Hebrew the Original Contradictions of Sir H. or Semiramis the Second The Author's application of the Primitive Probable refults 16 Pages I Alphabet . II. Pages 17 42 CHAPTER III.

Pages 1 1 6 126 No Contents of this Chapter Author's Motive for Brandis on " The Aflyrian Infcriptions and Mode of " I am Darius " Author's TranflaDecipherment" Rawlinfon's Apology for the Writing Rawlinfon's "This Phraortes.. CHAPTER VII... Rawlinfon's Alphabet fully explained Opinion of Darknefs it by Dr.. Rawlinfon's Nineveh The Author's tranflation Mr.. The Sun worfhipped Tranflation in Aflyria under the form of a Bull of an infcription found on the back of a winged Bull Author^ difcovery of the Aflyrian Numerals on the Black Marble Obelifk Annals of Aalpharr. Rawlinfon's Temen Bar Rawlinfoi^s g errors in the Aflyrian numerals Singular coincidences betwe the Author's theory and the conjectures of Rawlinfon and others Critical notice of the Rev.xxii Contents. and worfhipped by the The Logos The Ineffable Name. Forfter's theory Pages 101 115 . Author's fyftem more Recapitulation of the four preceding chapters Sir H. CHAPTER VIII. .. ..... CHAPTER IV.. Hinckes .. Chaldeans at Babylon Pages 71 80 CHAPTER V.. RawAntagoniftic to all other theories fully defcribed Author's tranflation of an infcription found linfon's conjectures upon a brick A new hypothefis Sir H. Marble Obelifk .. C. Wall calculated to myftify vifible Ideographs a term Rawlinfon's Theory more His Doubts Coincidences "Nineveh" Difcrepancy in the Hiftory of his Alphabets Rawlinfon's Tranflation of Temen Bar's brick White is Black and Black is White Pote's Bonomi's "Nineveh" Bunfen's opinion of the Syf- tem of Dr. CHAPTER VI. Pages 127 144 tion to teft the primitive Alphabet &c. Layard's Sargon The Author's Ancient infcriptions in fupport of the new hypotranflation thefis Remarkable coincidences between guefles and the Author's tranflations Pages 8 1 I^DO . " Michaud's Syftem of Trichotomies throughout the Ancient World The true meaning of the "Golden Wedge of Ophir" Caillou" The fymbol of the Chaldeans' god Anu." Author's Tranflation Queries refpeding Rawlinfon's Alphabet -Inconfiftencies and Errors in his Tranflations from the Black .

from the Winged Figure Corroborative Fa&s Pages 145 1 60 ERRATA. dele "vignette. " Bilder und " Eilden und Sbriften" read Scbriften. . for for Kopp." Page 73. 10 from top. 1. for " Dr. Fox Talbot's Defence of Sir H. " Profeffor Bopp. Page 25. Author's Anfwer fon & c> Sec. 6 from top. 13 from bottom." " Ulrich Fr." read " Fr. RawlinCylinder of Tiglath Pilezer Great inconfiftencies in the Tranflation. 1. ]. Schlegel." . xxiii CHAPTER IX. Rawlinfon's confidence in his own works Rawlinfon's Author's Tranflation of Rawanachronifm requiring explanation Author's Tranflation linfon's "Invocation to the AiTyrian gods" Conclufion." read 9 from top. 1 Page 30." Page 30. and alfo.Contents. Muir.1.

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afcribes the . when the AfTyrian empire was its who power and B greatnefs. or whether an art fo eminently ufeful to man is not rather to be attributed to a fpecial Divine revelation. ERHAPS -in no fubject has been involved obfcurity. the Phoe- nician hiftorian. but a merchant prince of PhoeAn ideal picture of the triumphant pageant of Queen AtoiTa. greater or has caufed a greater writers diversity of of both opinion amongft ancient and modern days. throwing a doubt upon the Sacred Various opinions of ancient authors as to the antiquity Scriptures of the Alphabet The fulfilment of the Prophecy by Nahum Cadmus no mythological perfonage. Many writers afcribe the invention of letters to the Phoenicians. It has been a matter of much controverfy whether writing be really a human invention. with Mofes in the zenith of flourifhed nearly contemporaneoufly and Cadmus. God Hebrew the Original Language Contradicof Sir H. Sanchoniatho. Rawlinfon. than the origin of the alphabet.Ancient nines of CHAPTER Letters the gift of tions I. nicia or Semiramis the Second The Author's application' of the Primitive Alphabet Probable refults. but without fufficient evidence. Scarcely any two writers agree upon the point.

who lived about A. Pliny. who no doubt had confulted that magazine of ancient knowledge. 40. of the Hebrew letters does not appear even in the oldeftform his pofterity. the editor of the famous Polyglot In his prolegomena to that work he fays " that Bible. invention to Taaut. or at leaft." fpeaking of the origin of letters. in his " of Greece." " The truth feems to be that letters were an antediluvian invention preferved among the Aflyrians or Chaldeans. with at Babel. and that from Seth they defcended with the original language to Noah and fchool.2 Letters the Gift of God. after which. who were the immediate defcendants of Noah. the Ton of Mifor. when new characters in progrefs of time were invented." Mitford. and where that patriarch This circumftance affords a ftrong afterwards refided. by the immediate anceftors of his family. that the ufe of letters was known before the prefumption and afterwards tranfmitted to the Aflyrians and Chaldeans by Noah. fays Nothing appears fo probable as that it (the alphabet). with new languages. or Mitfraim of the Scriptures. and that Ifaac went to Shem's Other writers have attributed a knowledge of letters to Adam. and amongft thefe may be mentioned Bryan Walton.D. Philo. the Alexandrian Library." the Rabbins that Abraham was inftructed in literature and the fciences by Shem. lefs in the fquare character many cafes the letters exhibit refemblance to the objects reprefented by their names. was derived from the antediluvian world. much Of courfe in in ufe. Hiftory flood. and inhabited thofe very regions in the neighbourhood where the ark refted. fays " As for letters. fays. I am of opinion that they were known in : There is a tradition amongft AJJyria time out of mind. yet the old were preferred among thoje who had the primitive tongue'' The <c That the greateft of modern authorities. Seth learned letters from Adam. their progenitor. a learned Jew. aflerts that the invention muft be referred to Abraham. whom they continued till the confufion now no Phoenician alphabet. who is faid to be the Menes of the Egyptians. Gefenius. and was loft everywhere in migration for want of con: <c .

" and Whifton adds in a note. but preferved in Chaldea. fpeak plainly as to this fact. This muft be the ringer of God For the man who believes that our Maker intended to elevate the human fpecies by the ufe of a volume of revelation." The Pentateuch is generally acknowledged to be the moft ancient compofition extant and as that is held to have been written or compiled by Mofes. preferved by the defendants of Shem in the AfTyrian archives. fays that " thofe who then Mofes drew lived noted down with great accuracy the births and deaths of illuftrious men . and hence communicated to Egypt and fuch other countries as had acquired a fettled government. the difcovery of arbitrary chanot to denote words or the forms of things. Jofephus. that there muft have been a vaft mafs of hiftorical matter written. who have. but elementary and compound founds. and Rome. according to the primitive fafhion upon ftones. it is not reafonable to fuppofe fciences that a nation fo far advanced in the arts and art mould be ignorant of the and although we have at it. by Layard and As Nineveh and others. then. prefent no evidence to prove not be far diftant when it will be feen that largely from the documents and records D^DD (SEPHERIM). feems an invention fo aftonifhing as to eclipfe all others.Hebrew the Original its Language. ftill the time may of alphabetical writing. like the modern Hindoos. conclude. from the nature of its contents. nothing improbable in the invention of hieroglyphic writing. muft deem it probable that He had provided early methods of fecuring the facred records which were to constitute that volume. anterior to the Exodus. Greece. the AfTyrian empire had exifted for more than 700 years raffierS) ! . The difcoveries of late years. 3 ufe. attributed the difcovery of letters to the gods. it alfo prefuppofes. . that the heathen writers of Egypt. fpeaking of the early hiftory of man. from which Mofes either directly or indirectly drew his materials. have only venient materials for We recorded a tradition that has for whilft there is its fource in hiftorical truth . and to lead every devout mind to exclaim.

without form or order. who fays." May not this Ariceus be the fame as is mentioned by Mars Be that as it may. went forth with his family of 300 perfons exclufive of fervants. appeared unto them. Thus Mars " Ibas. but aflifted him in the confolidation of his kingdom and the overthrow of his enemies. Arieus the fon of Aram? nation and people had been called Haics ftrict there is much conflicting teftimony refpecting the iden- . the chief of whom was Percham. who not only permitted his reign. and made himfelf mafter of his dominions. was the Creator and Governor of mankind. the mighty hunter). the Armenian hiftorian informs us that Haicus. which I fuppofe to be a true account of that matter . guage of laid the foundation of the Armenian empire. in defcent from Haicus was Aram. in thofe early days. cc The Aflyrian King Ninus. and who frequently. 'Thefe people Jpoke the original lanHere they eftablifhed themfelves and Noah. up to whofe time the . and the tyrant was killed upon the field of battle. of the race of giants. " Thefe ancient fet down by thofe genealogies were firft them were tranfmitted down who then lived. Ibas. The fifth Togarmah. conquered and killed the then reigning King of Babylon. on Aram being terms of friend/hip with Ninus. affifted by an Arabian chief Ariceus.4 Opinion of the *almudifts." The Talmudifts are of opinion that the Aramean was the primitive language. and from to pofterity . and that Adam and Eve converfed in that language in Paradife. for there is no reafon to fuppofe that men were not taught to read and write foon after they were taught to fpeak . who under the Father. and proceeded northward to the country round about Ararat." This is partly confirmed by Diodorus Siculus. the fon of the grandfon of Japhet. the reigning king of Nineveh. whom they conquered on the plains of Gortouk in AfTyria. and perhaps all by the Meffiah him/elf . being opprefTed by Belus king of Babylon (fuppofed to be Nimrod. and here he incorporated with his followers a number of individuals whom he found living in the moft primitive ftate.

" That which can be Hiftory eftablifhed without much chance of error is. Rawlinfon tells us differently. 2000. a name that fubfequently became fynonymous with Syrian and Aflyrian. and Refen. and to Paleftine.e.Contradictions of Sir H. The prefumption is that the art of writing was equally Cf out of the Cities of the Plain. 5 tity of this Aram and Ninus. He cc that the Chaldeans appear to have been a branch fays of the HAMITIC RACE OF AKKAD. probably B. Babylonia from the with it originated the art of writing. Accad. which it is not necefTary for our purpofe to enter into here. and Calah. a great city between Nineveh and Calah." But Sir H. When the Semitic . This race. and Chronology) he ftates. and all the arts and fciences. tion of Babylonia was to a certain extent difplaced by Turanian tribes from the neighbouring mountains." and that " out of that land went forth AJfhur and built Nineveh. 2500 the primitive popula(i. Again. one thing feems certain. the tenth (x. and In another place {Affyrian of aftronomy in particular. Sir H. that it was Aram and his fon Arah who gave rife to the term Aramean. Rawlinfon " fays. and throws at the fame time a doubt upon the Scripture narrative. and the building of cities. Erech. does not tell He us. beginning Nimrod's kingdom was Babel. and being otherwife far more civilized than the people whom Sir H. inhabited fome period anterior to B. thefe immigrant tribes bringing with them the ufe of letters. as the they fuperfeded.C.C. the river Halys. Rawlinfon. here contradicts himfelf. c< The of Scripture informs us that. Rehoboth. which he made known to the known to all inhabitants of the cities he fubfequently built." reader will obferve. neither do we find among the ancient progenitors of the race in way. by the this name who this Akkad was.) chapter of Generis. that at earlieft times. to the Euxine." carrying with him the ufe of letters. and that that land (Babylonia) went forth Afshur. he adds. Rawlinfon. to the nations extending from the mouths of the Euphrates and The Tigris. and Calnah in the land of Shinar. 156 years before the Flood).

1900. in his " Remains of Japhet. beyond queftion. or B. does Sir H. however. one Chriftian era. M. but concerning which we have no certain account. that they received their original alphabet their prefent one being the invention of Ebn Muklah. Cufic. the capital of and in the Hebrew copy the word rendered Aflyria cf cc Aflyrian" is written -num (ASHUR.. 13) ? ing " Behold the land of the Chaldeans." Now. in which the Koran was originally written without points. no guide to direct us any more than we have concerning the fuppofed Books of Enoch.6 Antiquity of the Alphabet. Dr. tribes eftablifhed an empire in Aflyria in the thirteenth adopted the Akkadian alphabet. the This is furely proof fufficient that the took its name from the founder of its Aflyrian empire What can be the meancapital city. nearly 100 years before the birth of Abraham. founded Babylon about A. fome of which Origen tells us were found in Arabia Felix. about the tenth They do not appear century to have of the had any Morrah alphabet until a fhort time before Mahomet. firft which were. of the following paflage in Ifaiah (xxiii. added before the end of the This character is called century after the Hegira. the For common the purpofes a running hand- writing. Parfons. c. was intro- . traditionally from Ifhmael. this people was not." up had the priority of the Chaldeans ? The Aflyrian Belus. known under name of Nifkhi. Ben Morrah is faid to have introduced an alphabet which was founded on the Syriac Eftrangelo character." fuppofes letters to have been known to Adam. they raifed unlefs it be that the Aflyrian the palaces thereof. The Sabians a book which they aflert to have been written produce by Adam. : LXX. Rawlinfon mean to fay that the Aflyrian empire was not in exiftence until 200 years fubfequent to the time of Mofes ? The Sacred Writings plainly tell us that Afshur built Nineveh. in the dominions of the Queen of Saba. in Aflyria" and century they . The Arabians hold A(7(Tou|o). till the AJJyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wildernefs they fet up the towers thereof. 2100. 900 years earlier. B. c.

and this is the chara&er ftill in When the Koran was firft publifhed. Shareftan informs us that fects of people. the arguments are fo ftrong. 1 7 duced by Ebn Moklah.. Mitford and others. book-learned) who knew letters. the alphabet. was built. as the birth-place of letters.Antiquity of the Alphabet. many ages prior to the birth and though we have no direct evidence of their being antediluvian arts. who were defcended from Ham. the empire. and of courfe its characters. not a (ingle perfon in the whole kingdom of Yemen able to read or write Arabic. Egyptians. former called Mahomet cc The Illiterate Prophet.e. The Chaldeans appear to have the greateft claim . and like the Phoenicians were among the greateft as well as the moft ancient of commercial nations. capital of Phoenicia. and fo numerous in fupport of the view taken by Mr. viz. It is obfervable that the Chaldeans. and the Eaft alone. the people of the Book (i. and Japhet had their letters from the Phoenicians. to whom the honour is due. Phoenicians and Chaldees . but that the conteft may be confined to the Egyptians. but this one fad is certain. and who were Hence. the Jews and Chriftians who inhabited Medina. that we are compelled to conclude Mofes . the capital of the Aflyrian before Tyre. 2 Thus we have elementary very early feen that writing. and admit that they received it only a fhort time It is difficult to fay before the introduction of Iflamifm. 2 From Hutchinfon's " They feem to forget Philosophical Works. they all point to the Eaft. 1 that Nineveh. becaufe and that many nations defcended from Shem Phoenicia. before Mahomet there were two and the Idiots who lived in ignorant of both reading and Mecca. Chaldea was peopled before Egypt or firft. and Syrians. The Arabian writers do not pretend to a very early alphabet. there was ufe. the writing. were known at a of period." The vanity of each nation induces them to pretend to the moft early civilization." . all bordered upon each other. had flourimed for a period of 500 years ED.

There cannot be much doubt. known. how. far back in the mifts of antiquity. Sido" In Chaldeans and Peruvians. yet fo far removed from all authentic records that even the fite of their immenfe capital (Nineveh) has remained unknown for upwards of twenty-four centuries. in fad. contrafted with the perfect forms of the Primitive letters. and left behind them a lefs perfett knowledge of the primitive character. but that the whole of the original alphabet can be reconftrufted from the alphabets of the various bodies of people that wandered from the Plains of Shinar. attributing art of writing to primary Revelation there arifes a difficulty from the query. and another tribe one or two more. the Tyrians. the Orphic philofophers. the exigence creed among the Gentiles. fimplicity is this original alphabet which we are about to fubmit to the fcrutiny of the learned. Pelafgic nians. the primal characters being in their beautiful perfect in form and eminently fuperior It to any of which we have now a knowledge. who were far advanced in civilization. " Monotheifm Myftically Developed in Triads" "I would obferve that a 15. each character bearing the 1 evident imprefs of its Divine Author." the is perfion. literally fulfil the prophecy uttered by B. 6) more than 600 years 1 "And I will caft abominable "An- cient Egypt. and expofed to the view of Thefe difcoveries of Layard the aftonifhed world.8 *The Difcoveries of Layard that writing and the alphabet were. if the art of writing was known to mankind at the dif- of which pure primeval fhown by the mythological fyilems of the Greeks. that in the wanderings of the early nations. the few that had a firft and the moft perfecl knowledge of the primitive alphabet had died off. the Syrians. There exifted. Only within the memory of the prefent generation have its long-hidden treafures been difcovered. does it happen that each early nation mould have ufed each a cannot fuppofe that the art of writing was different alphabet?" We generally to a few of the mo ft cultivated . one tribe or nation retaining the perfect form of one or more of the original." p. This can be very plainly feen by the tablet of alphabets at the end of this volume. and fupplying the others from recollection and inventions of their own. the immediate gift of God to man. but only . : Nahum (iii. Hindoos. a mighty empire and people. Gliddon's ftrong analogy in tracing writing to Primeval Revelation may be found in afcending to the Divine origin of the belief in the Unity of the Godhead and of his ineffable attributes in the Trinity. and in the arts and fciences.C. as is evident from the uncouth and mifshapen letters of the Etrufcans and Pelafgics and other early nations.

9 upon thee. and foundation of every fcience ? Or. and will fet thee as a gazing ftock. and now flabs. can we conceive it poffible that it would be wanting in the very eflentials of civilization. . . and will make thee vile. Herodotus informs us Egypt. and his boughs were multiplied." A grave-yard covered a portion of Nineveh's ancient greatnefs. 5-8). are placed in the mufeums of almoft all the civilized nations of the world Ezekiel of the mighty empire which rofe firft in the order fpeaks of time. xxxi. trees of the field. and was in the zenith of its power and greatnefs. to have introduced letters into Greece 2511) a mythological character named Cadmus is faid from Phoenicia. when. engraved with a pen of iron. and works of art dug from the ruins of her fplendid palaces. and that Cadmus himfelf and not of Phoenicia. of Greece or Rome nation bets are demonftrably derived from the Aflyrian. hide him. and of an high ftature and his top was among the His height was exalted above all the thick boughs..fulfil the filth Prophecy of Nahum. . ! . There is great diverfity of opinion concerning this Cadmus fome contending that the letters introduced were was a native of Egyptian.. and which. . of that of any fubfequent fhort. that this Cadmus and the Phoenicians he brought with him " introduced many improvements among the Greeks and alphabetical writing too not known among them . Nor any tree in the garden of God was " With like unto him in his beauty (chap. 4.000 years fince. . formed the bafis " Behold the of kingly rule: Affyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches and with a fhadowing fhroud. fuch a view of the greatnefs and glory of this mighty empire. whofe alphafor example. when he mot forth Thus was he fair in his greatdwelt all great nations. becaufe of the multitude of . about this time (A. . . the cedars in the garden of God could not nefs. and his branches became long. and whofe glorious literature enfhrines fome of the brighter! emanations of the human intellect ? AfTyria had exifted as an empire for more than 700 years. that its alphabet would fall in power or form.M. . and under his fhadow waters.

off the letters but his very name difproves the ftatement. Jofeph Scaliger proves that the Greek letters and thofe of the later alphabets formed from them derive which are the fame their origin from the Ancient Phoenician." or " cc and pointing evidently to the locality of antiquity his fuppofed invention. Phoenicia. The Hebrews but a fmall nation were comprehended under the being name of Syrian.io Cadmus a Merchant Prince. (Latin. and that thofe were the fame as the Hebraic." "precedency." or from the Eaft ? But let it be taken for granted that Cadmus was a mere mortal. 2511). taking precedency of all others. and he will become a merchant prince of Some ancient writers call him an Egyptian. or. or the fource of the alphabet. expreffive of the fact that the fixteen letters introduced into Greece were received from " The ancient ones of the Earth." "priority.M. about the time of the Exodus. what does the legend of Cadmus mean ? him of all his mythological Strip appendages. the whole hiftory of the Cadmean alphabet fimply a myth or legend. and in the courfe of his commercial peregrinations. Now. of the earth. Moft of the learned agree that Cadmus carried the Phoenician or Syrian letters into Greece. eaftward of Phoenicia and as alfo being the/r/?." (pWTOTp) a or indeed. he had imbibed a tafte for trade and travelling. The Ionian Greeks inhabited at that time the parts adjacent to Phoenicia. (but very much in advance of the age he lived in. endowed with feelings common to humanity. us 3 ) we have the " the ancient ones Is not. meaning eaftern. in the Hebrew idiom. and they having received from thence the art of alphabetical writing.) that living amongft a mercantile community. before that time" (A. for by cutting Greek termination oc. employed it with the alteration of fome few characters. as the Samaritan. he had vifited the great metropolis of the then known world (Nineveh) had feen it in all its glory and magnificence had been an eye-witnefs of the pomp and pageantry of a forming a Hebrew root (DTP). . being " "eanV' or : COM. and were ufed by the Jews before the Babylonian captivity. They confefTed that the art was of Phoenician origin.

ancient and . clothed in blue all moft gorgeoufly. chariots. and the fhouts of the multitude. mighty men with mields. fymbolical of the nation's god that guarded in filent majefty the entrance of her magnificent palace. the rattling of the wheels. fome few letters were altered. and warriors. all of them princely men and the the broadways of the city. priefts. the prancing of the horfes. feeing adaptability to the wants of his own for the tranfmiflion of their records from generapeople tion to generation. and invented new ones. edged with gold and filken fringe of moft exquifite colours. vifits to the city of Nineveh he had feen the beautiful fimplicity and fuperiority of the primitive AfTyrian Alphabet over the rough and mifshapen characters of the Phoenicians and Pelafgi and he could only fee with true prophetic eye the power it would give him with the people of his own nation.Ideal Pageant of Queen Atoffa. emerge from between the coloflal winged bulls. as they welcomed the appearance of Semiramis the In the courfe of his Second. whofe fplendour of appearance. if he were to introduce in ftyle. might think of appropriating all the To this end he honour of an inventor to himfelf. It has been obferved above that. in introducing the alphabet into Phoenicia. He had heard of the whip. ftately youths riding upon horfes. kings. and her father Belochus. and thus accommodated his new alphabet to fome rude characters already in ufe. On me came furrounded by her court. royal triumph the oftentation 1 1 had feen the (lately Queen AtofTa. clothed in rich and gorgeous robes. girded with girdles. and the wonderful art of alphabetical writing. and beautifully embroidered in all their parts. valiant in fcarlet. The tablet of alphabets (Plate 7). of them deferable young men. remarkable by the dyed attire upon their heads. in all and pride of Oriental fplendour. lightning-like motion. and this is readily accounted for its by the fuppofition that the intro- ducer. amongft that femi-barbarous race more refined manners. made them feem like flaming in meteors noife . will convince even the moft fceptical perfon that all alphabets. followed by captains and rulers. altered fome letters.

bulls. Herodotus tells us that the firft method of inftructing men and tranfmitting fcience was by infcriptions. But we know copied their letters from the early Greeks. f \S^ alphabet. and notice the remarkable refemblance and early Cadmean. both in his own country and in Paleftine. in every probability.). d |> t IX and AB c '> With l^' B . copied One ftrong proof of the theirs from the Aflyrians. *f BG. A ." " by Plato. who informs us in his that Pififtratus caufed to be engraved on ft one ufeful precepts in hufbandry for the benefit of his is by means of infcriptions that countrymen. and other works of art. is well known that the ancients engraved on temples and columns the principles of fcience as well as the events of hiflory. and this cc who flourifhed about the time of the is confirmed Hippias. lyllables. the primitive and early Greek.12 Infer ipt ions on Stone. truth of the primitive alphabet is the fact that on the various flabs. Sanchoniatho. can be fuccefsfully profecuted. For example that the Romans O A B with >. And it investigation into the ancient languages. forming and fentences. Let the reader turn to the tablet of alphabets (Plate between the 7). a Phoenician hiftorian born at Berytus moft of his Trojan War (1200 B. and the gradual deteriora'primitive tion until its final lofs in the Palmy rene. and the Greeks. it is by infcriptions alone we can trace its gradual improvement from its rude and primitive ftate to a more refined and perfect form as we find it at the And it is chiefly by infcriptions that an prefent day. |>. . are derived either directly or indirectly from It the Aflyrian arrow-headed (or cuneiform) characters. modern. >/." we perceive the various changes and modifications of language . ducks. the letters of the primitive alphabet are feen to enter into combination with each other. is faid to have drawn from infcriptions which he found in temples and hiftory on columns. words. in Syria. c.

All. for ever. juft as we have in our Hebrew copy of the 1 1 pth pfalm. and ideographs.Application of Primitive Alphabet. not by the cumbrous machinery of homophones. and not break entirely with " Such is the fenfe the obligations of the people elicited. mowing us alphabet. the myfte: O ! rious thofe movements of the True God. the firft fifteen phrafes are fhort prayers beginning with in the tranflation.e. I examined with great before the public gaze. Being deeply care the tablets in fubject. and upon examination of the fifth tablet in the fecond glafs cafe on the right of the gallery. ff that there is nothing new under the fun. a chamber filled about months the Mufeum the 9x6 with fmall clay tablets inches and under. is contained in the following facts. but that they had not only a knowledge of the True God. plainly that the Aflyrians were not fuch idolaters as they are generally reprefented. written upon clay ." i. but alfo an earneft Take the two following defire to know more of him. determinatives. eight with G. polyphones. 1 3 But the ftrongeft of reft. and fo on through the letters of the The prayers are deeply interesting. all proofs and one which will fet all controverfy." ! my ! the purport of to embrace the beauty of the True God. and alphabetically and precifely with the in the fame order. but by the fimple application And as of nineteen letters.. not by 300 letters and 500 variants ." for we find that the original of Caxton's original is in the Britifh Mufeum. all can be read. Solomon faid. and " O it is defire mutations. the excavators came acrofs what they called a f< Royal the matter at beyond Library. and what is remarkable. during the excavations at Nineveh or Nimroud and Kouyunjik. authorities Within have thefe few brought them in glafs cafes in interefted in the Kouyunjik gallery. eight with O B. I Kouyunjik found it to contain a lift of phrafes or fhort prayers arranged fame letters. as you will fee in my primitive alphabet. eight verfes beginning with A. <c that I could adopt fome prayers as examples method of explaining the apparent changes. viz. placing them queftion.

when the zeal of the archasologift and the philologift 1 See " Athenaeum'* of Dec. who Hebrew words. confequently would carry with him the language he had been taught by his father Shem. that nine out of every ten words. 1869 notice of Caxton's Fifteen O's. or upon any of the flabs excavated at Nineveh. there are juft fifteen fhort phrafes or prayers. It was the Jones that the Primitive language was irrecoverably loft at the difperfion at Babel. Hebrew language to the AfTyrian cuneiform writing. with the language. viz. by means of the primitive on the flabs from the Nimroud alphabet to be no other than Hebrew in its moft Palace. This is a thrilling fa 51 as it ferves as a connecting link between the antediluvian world and the prefent day. are pure '. and alfo. and the/<z^7 elicited by means of the primitive alphabet. but others have difputed in favour of the Hebrew being the It does not feem primitive language of mankind. amongft the ruins of the Eaft.. has given a clear." &c. opinion of Sir W. that land went forth Amur " Out of and builded Nineveh. Jones's Opinion. thoujand and four years anterior to The language deduced. 25th. proves inconteftably that Hebrew was the primitive language. or prayers beginning with O.14 between three 1 Caxton. that. to deftroy the primitive tongue in order to carry out the generally Juppofed miracle of the If we are to look upon the Old confufion of language. definite refult. proves The author in his application of the primitive form. the fyftem of alphabetical writing which is ftill preferved intafl upon the multitudinous Jepherim lately difcovered by Layard. Botta. This faff leaves little doubt when the prefent difcovery mail be followed up. Rich and others. neceflary. in our opinion." In like manner. found upon the black marble obelifk. Sir W. : "A . on the tablet above mentioned. has been very much confirmed in his views by the fact that all that has been attempted by him in the way of tranfinfcribed lation. we mail find that previous to the difperfion. Teftament Scriptures as arranged in chronological order.

if they ever exifted. And what may we not expect to refult in the way of difcovery when the language of this ancient people is Who can fay what treafures of knowfully developed ? not yet lie buried in Nineveh's ancient ruins. the prophets of God ? There is a tradition exifting to this the hiftory and the day amongft the orientals that Seth wrote wifdom of the ages preceding the Deluge. . ledge may and long in the loft to the world mounds around ? What arts and fciences may not be brought to light from of her fplendid palaces hiftorical ? What precious truth of the Sacred the archives records. on both burnt and unburnt bricks or tablets. Thefe tablets. in the primitive Great Eaftern by Noah. fo for if water might deftroy that they might never perim the unburnt tablets. There another Eaftern tradition. and handed down in the family of Shem to the firft rulers of this ancient empire. to the effect that behind him ten volumes or tablets. . but neceflarily occult fubject. philologifts with juft fufficient light to mow them thofe dim and fhadowy outlines of ancient hiftories." the tombs of Jonah and Seth. confirming the <c Nebbe Book. fhall 1 5 be awakened to purfue the clue given in thefe pages to its ultimate iffue. when the ability of the great oriental fcholars of Europe fhall have been brought to bear on this highly interefting. are now loft . may not ftill be difcoverable ? Who will . that have lain for more than forty centuries in doubt and gloom. the burnt ones might ftill remain and if a fire fhould occur. the refult will be its complete and final elucidation as an hiftorical hypothefis. or fome trace of them. may not be found in the mounds of " Nebbe Allah Yunus" and Sheth.Probable Refult s. Hitherto the AfTyrian have been but groping in darknefs vifible. on which were written the revelations and commands of God. amongft the ruins of the buried can tell what memorials of cities of the Eaft ? is Noah left Who the antediluvian world. but who can tell whether they may not yet be found. preferved from the Deluge. the baked tablets which had been expofed to heat would only become more hardened.

and to the knowledge of the true Mefliah ? Thefe fpeculations may appear to fome perfons as merely the dreams of enthufiafm but. and let the reader difpaflionately examine the theory now fubmitted to his attention. and true religion. we have (imply indicated here the courfe of hiftorical inveftigaLet all precontion and difcovery in our own day. whilft the author is fully appear in the fequel. and what influence this may have on the final reftoration of God's ancient people to their fatherland. their kingdom. ceived notions upon the fubjecT: be caft afide. venture to fay what new light may not be thrown upon the hiftorical enigma of the loft ten tribes of Ifrael. . after all. but the caufes of this will In fine. He may naturally feel furprifed that the theory has hitherto efcaped the refearches and the learning of the fcholars of Europe . tainty. philofophy. he feels that it is entirely worthy of the deepeft refearch and attention of all who are interefted in the advancement of fcience. aware of the importance of the learning required to cope fuccefsfully with the many difficulties infeparable from fo abftrufe and occult a fubject. and we are perfuaded that its iimplicity.1 6 Probable Refults. and felf-evident truthful nefs will fatisfy him of its cer.

infpired them with language and the language thus communicated to the firft man was no other hurft. and afterwards became felf-civilized and invented language. ftate in patting that we hold firmly by the Scriptural doctrine that man was created perfefl. We may. and Solomon Mofes wrote in the Cuneiform character The two Tables of Stone in the Britijb Mufeum. Mofes. with intelligence vaftly fuperior to that of the favage." HEBREW IN WHICH MOSES WROTE AND . than THAT SPAKE. Job.CHAPTER LANGUAGE. or attempt to combat the opinions of thofe who affert that man was created in a ftate of abfolute barbarifm. Confufion of Sentiment the Eaft at II. cc Hebrew Lexicon. or that God either taught our firft parents to fpeak. David. or which comes to the fame thing. that language was the immediate gift of God to Adam. . and fully gifted with the capacity of holding communication This is the view of the learned Parkwith his fpecies. Babel The Weftern his Nations peopled from Alphabet from the Aflyrians Hebrew the Univerfal Language Samaritan Pentateuch Hebrew Poetry and Language Cadmus. Cadmus copied E fhall not enter into a critical difquifition on the nature of language. however. Moabitic Stone Homer. in his Preface to his "It appears evident from the Mofaic account of fays: the original formation of man." who.

Go forth tion.1 8 Confufion of Sentiment at Babel. in the firft volume of his " Obfer1 Genefis xi. thou and thy wife and thy fons. God fpake alfo to Abraham." out He fought fank morally and intellectually. Leland's Cf Advantage and Neceffity of the Chriftian Revelation. with Cain and Enoch. it appears that he was not left to acquire In Dr. many inventions." and But he did not lofe the faculty of fpeech. which would have been too tedious and flow as he was circumftanced . generally termed the conBy a careful ftudy of the' we find that will the word naw x (SAPHAH)J rendered fc confiderable modification." And God fpake unto Noah. the gift of language. faying. God conBut man fell from his original purity. and held communion with Him. which neceflarily fuppofes that he was furniflied with a ftock of ideas. : ideas in the ordinary way." we find this view fupported cc From the account given by Mofes of the primeval ftate of man. Vitringa ftates. Many critics language. Ifaac. over a period of many years <c And the Lord faid during the building of the ark unto Noah. God converfed with Noah. in giving names to the inferior animals which were brought before him for that purpofe. I. He addrefled to Adam what and the patriarchs before the is This brings us fufion of language at Babel. . the bow in the cloud. : for thee have I feen righteous before me in this generafc And God fpake unto Noah. and there can fcarcely be a doubt that it was in the fame language as that in which flood. Enoch walked with God. a fpecimen of which he gave. " verfed with Adam and Eve." when He gave them the token in the heavens." of the ark. Come thou and all thine houfe into the ark. and to his fons with him. Hebrew original of Generis. but was at once furnimed with the knowledge which was then He was immediately endued with necefTary for him. and thy Cf Tons' wives with thee. and Jacob ." undergo hold that it does not mean language but confejfion. and defends this opinion.

p. " I need face of all the earth. and each of thefe followed So each party the dictates of his refpective leader.) it. in Works" (vol. inftead of agreeing upon a new form for them all. and. and forced each. "Gentleman's Magazine." and in the courfe of his difquifition he fhows that Hebrew was the language then fpoken. According to this hypothecs the univerfal language in ufe before that event would not appear to have been afterwards confined to any particular family or tribe. cc that now (SAPHAH) is the lip. or religious opinion. . Before the. the indication of the mind. alfo enters ject. all men had the fame religious confeflion or creed and the fame words. and one common form . and mould be rendered confejfion^fent intent. it is never once in the Bible ufed in any other fenfe than for confejjion. notwithstanding the tranflation of the : He fully into the fub- Jews ufe the word in that fenfe in their private and where it cannot be in any other fenfe. iv. (SHEMIM or SHEMAYIM). apoftates wifhing to fet up an altar to the names D^DU. which was oppofed by the true The effect I think was that thofe who had believers." May. This confufion of Jentiment was in confequence of the Bible. 1797. Each principal gained adherents. (except the ftrongeft which it is likely Nimrod headed. and continued to be the univerfal language long after the event at Babel (noticed in the Introduction). and each fetJ fet up a particular form of confeflion with regard to the object of its veneration. formed itfelf into a feel. difagreed among themfelves about wording and the manner and degrees of the fervice. and were beginning to frame another.Confiifion of Sentiment at EabeL 1 9 vationes Sacrae. and fo produce a new object of worfhip . 17). This produced a feparation. His tranflation of the pafTage is as cc follows Come.apoftafy at Babel. the heavens.) his " Philofophical contends that the word now (SAPHAH) means literally lip. (Vide Parkhurft's letter in The learned John Hutchinfon. let us go down and confound their So Jehovah fcattered them abroad over the confejfion. fallen away from the true confejfion. and when ufed for the voice." only fay/' he adds. the writings.

and the difperfion of thofe who held them. therefpeech is by all limited to the country about Babel. And I may affert that there is fcarcely one eminent miracle performed in early times and recorded by Mofes. by a difference of opinion or fentiment. of the Puritans of England. or by the more or lefs advanced deftruction of the formative fyftem. of languages mows that races now feparated by vaft tracts of land are allied. Changes and the fimple fact of the difperfion of mankind will fufficiently account for nearly all the alterations which The comparative ftudy language has fince undergone." The " miracle" at Babel was. of the Huguenots of France. numbers of whom were driven from their native lands. by means of the more or lefs altered ftructure of the language. in fad. do not refer." vol. and have migrated from one common Jeat> indicates the courfe of all migrations. verfion This view of the fubjeft is partly fupported by a " Ancient in his Mythology. of time and place will modify any language. and in tracing the leading epochs of development. and of the Covenanters of Scotland. iv.2O The Wejlern Nations 1 to feek a feparate Jettlement and fo caufed a difperfion. is later writer. ancient condition of language and confequently into the 1 Walker. defcendants now form a new empire in the far weft. fays : " Our (Saphath kol ha Arets) is not here meant 'The language of the whole Earth/ but of the whole region or provinces which language was not changed. but conThis confufion of founded. certainly faulty in this place. 40-1. By ywiVDnDW . realizes. the like of which has been feen even in modern times for inftance. and whofe ." fore. the difperfion of the Albigenfes. inftead of "the language of the whole Earth" fubflitute the language of the whole country. a confufion (or rather diffufion) of religious fentiments. nay even the apocryphal books. which race has retained moft nearly the language common to all who had migrated from the common feat of " The larger! field for fuch investigations into the origin. by the permanence of certain forms. But I think I may fafely affirm that the pretended miracle of the confufion of tongues at Babel is never once recited or referred to. pp. or at leaft the New Teftament. We muft. to which the latter prophets.

in hiftorical language. he went to the north with his followers. went forth Mitzraim with his fons and followers and founded the Egyptian Empire. in their the Perfian. fenfe . and his name is feen on one of the walls of the Palace of Luxor at Thebes. Greek. and enclofed in one of the ufual cartouches. Rehoboth. ufed various foreign alphabets century the Armenians. that it is almoft impoflible to tell what to but what we can gather from believe refpe<5ling them the moft authentic fources is that Cham or Ham arrived in Egypt about A. tyranny of the Aflyrian Belus (or Nimrod). The early ages of Egypt are fo enveloped in the mifts of antiquity.M. Out of that land (Babylonia) went forth Afshur. 1662. the grandfon of Japhet. period ftricT: 21 the whole family of mankind was in the of the word. 1 About one hundred years prior to the confufion at Babel. and founded the kingdom of Armenia.) So Cape. in favour Egypt came from the from the of the migration of the firft fettlers plains of Shinar. Ethiopians called themfelves Chaldeans. went forth Hycus.PeopledJrom the Raft. the fon of TogarTo efcape from the mah. A. 1662. extending from the Ganges to the Iberian extremity of Europe. And his fon Mitzraim began to reign as the firft monarch of Egypt A. p. 471. and founded the cities of Nineveh. It is written U. and eftablimed himfelf in the region of Ararat.N > Menei. when ^ Manetho alfo notices the fa<5b that the firft man who ruled in North Eaft and founded the city of MemThis in itfelf is a ftrong argument phis. and from Sicily to the North " Cofmos. 1 The (hepherd " Till the beginning of the fifth writings. prefents itfelf in the long chain of Indo-Germanic languages. Diodorus Siculus ftates that the Egyptians were a colony of Ethiopians and Scaliger informs us that the . and Refen. ii. and the . According to Manetho this firft king was called Menes." Out of that land. 1576. to be regarded as one living whole. Calah. M." vol. M." (Humboldt's cc we read that.

where the defcendants of Elam fettled was denominated Elymais y fo late as the beginning of the Chriftian era . and migrating from thence. are now admitted by all Manetho fays have been of Semitic origin. Canaan. c. is that which the Armenians J ftill ufe. the Shepherd Kings. who built Tyre. that the facred characters of the Egyptians were Chaldaic. and to the boundary line of Egypt on the fouth.") Out of that in a ftyle refembling the Syriac. were alfo called Phoenicians. This alphabet. and originally confifting of thirty-fix characters. and that people always progenitor aflerted that they had formerly dwelt upon the Red Sea. but as the number of chara&ers in thefe alphabets was inefficient to exprefs all the founds in the Armenian language. may be traced to a Chaldaic. written from left to right. a term fuppofed to be derived from the number of palm trees (powxoj) which grew in the country. The Sidonians.D. is considered to The country be the founder of the Perfian empire. again. the origin of the Egyptian language is. Elam. the fon of Shem and brother of Afshur." to the Refer Addenda on Penny Cyclopedia. Mifrob invented for the ufe of his countrymen a particular alphabet. particularly the latter . Now. Hebrew. called hiftorians to The Wejiern Nations 1 Hykfos. thefe fhepherds were Arabians . B. . other authorities call that them Phoenicians. and moft of the Perfian names which are to be found in the Grecian hiftories. and that names of perfons and places are for the moft Egyptian A ftill ftronger proof of part reducible to the Hebrew. to which fubfequently two more were added. ftationed themfelves on the coaft of Syria." and Sthan " country. was the of the Phoenicians. which was introduced in the year A. or Phoenician origin. kingdom of Egypt who put an end to the old 2200. Scaliger alfo tells us that the moft elegant and moft beautiful of their facred and profane books are written Chaldean or Affyrian.22 warriors. a term extended in antiquity to all Arabian races. 406. It was alfo called Paleftine (from Pali a cc fhepherd. their firft fettlement being named Sidon after Canaan's eldeft fon. All the nations and ftates which arofe afterwards and fpread over the regions of Syria (the land of Canaan) fpread outwards from Sidon to the Euphrates on the eaft.

land cc 23 went the fons of Javan." ! " . favour this opinion. From tranflations given in a fubfequent part of this work. p. 1760. M.Peopledfrom the Eaft. tranflated by means of the Primitive Alphabet. the ifles of the MediterThe Greeks believed themfelves to be ranean Sea. it will be feen that if the characters had changed.C. The Pelafgian alphabet con1 fided of only fixteen letters." " When the Hykfos were expelled from Egypt they went under different denominations. going far to fettle thofe long-difputed problems of the Pelafgic and primitive languages. Inachidae. king of quently ' 1 Many have been the inquiries about this ancient people. Danaidas. even Herodotus is at a lofs to determine whether " The Arcadians are faid to they mould not be efteemed barbarians. &c. Heraclidae. by thefe were the ifles of the Gentiles divided in their lands. Lalagees. Pelafgus Areas was meant Pelafgus the Afkite. the fon of Zeuth. we read Tarmifh. but there is fufficient hiftorical evidence to fhow that they fprang from the barbarian Pelafgi who wandered from the fliores of the Red Sea and arrived in the " Peloponnefus about B. in his "Philofophical Works. Kittim and Dodamin. mixed up with the errors of the Aflyrians.) 2nd. or to have fprung from the earth . and the purport of thefe changes." vol. as well as about their language . My God." the many ifles of the Grecian Archipelago. before being called it is plain that Areas was a title. The Semitic language of Eber. and for many ages after there was but one language Pelafgians in the world. "Oh that I could adopt fome method to mow the myfterious movements of the True God. many of the expreflions on the flabs. and much of the religion of the ancient Jews. are to be found upon the Nineveh flabs . oh that thou wouldft mow me the True GodT (See tranllation from the B. alfo. captivity) may yet It is my opinion that many of the doctrines. Antochthones. being ftyled and Cadmeans." fays that fome of the works of the ancient or real Jews (before the hopes be found preferved by the heathen . Elifhah. the great grandfon of Shem. and that by . 174. O." Pelafgii. : One or two examples will be deeply interefting. The Pelafgi were fubfedriven out of ThefTaly by Deucalion. the language Hill remained the fame. Beli Beli libi chu aluf. iii. was common to all mankind. have been named from Areas. My God. " I am not without Hutchinfon.

" Dr. as mown copied from Eolian in the fubfequent table.24 Cadmus copied his Alphabet that country.C. ver. and its characters were the firft letters introduced into Italy. beginnings of the hiftory of India. There is every probability that the Pelafgic letters had fufrered great deterioration from the time of the difperfion. may notice here the ftrong refemblance exifting between the Etrufcan and the Cadmean alphabets. are loft in the mifts of remote anEgypt We have no records that can be relied on of tiquity. a period of 750 years having elapfed fince they had been taken from the oriOne remarkable fact connected with the Pelafgic ginal. . when they parted into Italy and fettled in that part called Etruria. they knew none older than Pelafgic the Ionic. are principally tablets or columns. as appears from the Farnefe infcriptions of Herodes Atticus. alphabet is. 30 of Genefis. The Etrufcan alphabet is certainly Pelafgic. and we may reafonably conclude that they would both ufe the fame alphabet. like thofe of and Greece. the Alexandrian. as we know from the Bouftrophedon infcription. the original peopling of India. that it was written from left to right. 1529. I mention this becaufe the Cadmean letters. in B. Ionia and Eolia being colonized by refugees driven by where Cadmus firft introthe Heraclidae from Bceotia duced the art of writing and lying adjacent to each other. of the New Teftament. a mount of the eaft. e. thou goeft unto Sephar. of the Cf that their dwelling was from Mefha as fons of Joktan.g. but it feems probable that it was firft colonized by the defcendants of Joktan. they may be called the fame country. whereas the We Cadmean was written both ways. for we read in the loth chap. This fact rather militates againft the theory of the Phoenician origin of the Cadmean 1 The Romans would never acknowledge the alphabet. letters as Grecian . fo in many of the old MSS. Muir from which fays there is in the Rig Veda an expreffion 1 The to right Both Greek and Latin were anciently written alternately from left and right to left in confecutive lines.

Manu. and the furviving reprefentatives of one older language. the races of men who fpoke thofe feveral languages all defcended from one common ftock.from it the AJJyrians. and he adds that in one of the Bramanas there is a tradition that the progenitor of the Hindus. precifely the fame number that Cadmus introduced into Greece. bringing with them their own dialect. Greek. as fpeakers of one and the fame language. which now no longer exifts. reduced to their fimpleft form. and ultimately became what we call the Sanfcrit. Max Miiller) " who cannot perfons" (fays ProfefTor realize the fact that. tween the Semitic roots. In after ages a people of Japhetic origin certainly fettled in India. and their anceftors at a very remote period lived together in fome country (out of Hindoftan) fpeaking one language. and Latin are all fifters. or derivations from. and in all probability formed the Thefe brought with them the origin of the Arian race. at a very remote but a very real period in the hiftory of the world. Muir and others). with which the language of the firft inhabitants gradually blended. Zend. and the roots of the Arian languages. the daughters of one mother. 25 would appear that the ancient inhabitants of India always retained fome recollection of having previoufly lived in a colder country . and that Sanfcrit." 1 " Hiftory of Antient Sanfcrit Literature. the anceftors of the Homeric poets and of the poets of the Veda muft have lived together as members of one and the fame race. fixteen rock-infcription letters. but afterwards feparated to wander from their primitive abodes at various times and in different The comparifons that have been made bedirections. that thofe forms of fpeech have all one common origin. ftrong affinity exifting others of the fame region lifhed between (fince It appears from the this language and conclusively eftab- by Dr. Moreover. have made it more than probable that the material elements with which they 1 There are many both ftarted were originally the fame. defcended from the northern mountain after a deluge." .

fouth. may judge from their alphabet. Still. in their moft claflic monuments" (alluding Is it any wonder to the familiar honeyfuckle ornament). he ftates that cc with regard right. if we of the original letters. or elfe from the nature of his purfuits in after life had entirely for. there are fome points of ftriking likenefs in thefe characters to the letters of the primitive alphabet. eaft. fo that his defendants. Mr. ." to the cuneiform characters it is important to obferve. with fome improvement. many of the characters had furTered great deterioration. that Cadmus copied his alphabet from fo refined a people Sir ? H. . words. draws an inference which. and weft. he cannot fupport. during a period of 800 years. as it that cc the feems to me. had been peopled by tribes wandering from one common centre the plains of Shinar carrying with them the alphabet and the art of writing in more or lefs perfection. fays He powers of its elements (the Perfepolitan cuneiform) were chiefly borrowed from the Greek alphabet. and fentences. for in their alphabet we have many traces The Etrufcan and Pelafgi. according to the period that had elapfed fince their firft departure from the land of their birth and thus I conclude that Mitzraim. being the firft to emigrate from the land of his fathers.26 Cadmus copied his Alphabet all Thus we have feen that countries. muft have left the plains of Shinar with a perfect knowledge of letters but from their wandering life. . north. the Egyptians. The Phoenicians appear to be the next in order of time and literature. AfTyrians pofTefTed a highly refined tafte in inventing and ornamenting. while he holds this view of the direction of the writing. as no other fet of letters known to have been in exiftence and within reach of Perfian obfervation were written from left to In another place. gotten them were obliged to have recourfe to the clumfy expedient of pictures to reprefent letters. Layard is of opinion that the Aflyrian writing <c the (cuneiform) is from left to right and he fays that . had either been brought up wholly ignorant of letters. which the Greeks adopted. Rawlinfon.

to be the one fole type of writing employed by all the nations of Weftern Afia. Babylonia. when the Ifraelites returned with the Egyptians notwithftanding their intercourfe during feveral hundred years. up to 1 A " Britannia the colonial author. one and the fame. all languages are derived from Antiquiffima. J. and even to the CafTiterides or Britifh Ifles.from of homophones. and many ages fubfeto Canaan. Noachian. in a recently publifhed work." column of alphabets. the Aflyrian alphabet was thus adopted without reference to the language. like the Bardic alphabet. Mr. all its 27 that the Aflyrian alphabet. as a proof." And yet this Aflyrian alphabet. and their fojourning in eaft. or even the clafs of language to which it was required to be applied. continued from the time many was firft organized. Phoenicia. " the he pompoufly calls mathematically conceived and divinely-formed for its angular uniquenefs of defign and flyle. and of Elymais are fo far as eflentials are concerned. Egypt. appears that one common language was fpoken all over the 1 the days of Mofes. is derived. (See 5th Cimmerian. Sufiana. Thomas. whether called Adamic. along the coafts of Africa. which Hebrew. There is therefore no doubt but that the alphabets of Aflyria. J. cumbrous array its moft when it Egyptian model up to the Armenia. as well as the Gaelic. and what is ftill more remarkable. quently . Aflyrian or Hebrew. and inconvenient laxity. but my object at prefent is to mow that the earlieft languages. borrowed How I introducing his alphabet into phonetic powers from the Greek ! is this to be reconciled ? mail enter more fully into the character of this alphabet fubfequently . and Armenia. from the primitive Welm. were eflentially one and the fame. from its period probably of Cyrus the Great.) There is but little doubt that the Welfh. amongft the various colonies planted by the Phoenicians to CarIt thage. with imperfections. from Syria to the heart of Perfia ." contends that and all alphabets from the Bardic or Welfti alphabet. . its the AJJyrians. which muft have exifted at leaft 700 years prior to Cadmus its Greece. Nearly all writers on the fubject are agreed that Hebrew was fpoken all over Arabia.

who was commanded by God to preach repentance to the effeminate and luxurious King Sardanapalus. &c. . and afterwards he and his princes converfed freely with him. paid his fare. When Mofes lived. the wildernefs forty years. might have come feveral hundred miles. And when he had entered a I am an Hebrew. and took fhip for Tar/him or We are not informed to what country the Tarfus. c. (Jomua ix. Bochart. who they fuppofed." Book n. and fo did many others. and even with the Gibeonites. <c Then . but took it for granted that people at that diftance (poke the fame lancc guage as they did. they fpoke the very fame language as all the met with in their travels. but that they were fhipmafter and mariners belonged. which went out with them from Egypt. . his nobles. . thus be traced as a native tongue of the eaft all may round the coafts of the Mediterranean. fpeaking the Hebrew tongue.28 Hebrew the univerfal Language. 4 and Numbers xxii. fled to the firft feaport. may from their language to Jonah. it appears to have been the only medium of communication throughout the known world. tion and of what people art thou ? And he faid unto them. Jofhua ii. who made a league with them nations they and Spies. . all fpoke Hebrew. and the people of Nineveh. ftrangers. and had no fufpicion from their language. and moft part of their time with a mixed multitude. ? and whence comeft thou ? What is thy country. and it feems There to have continued fo up to a very late period. by the deceit practifed upon them. in his Canaan de Colonis and Sermone Phcenicium. Rahab Balaam lived at Pethor of Deut. proves that in Mofes' time and many ages after. Joppa. as the Ifraelites did too freely and when the Ifraelites entered with the Moabites Canaan they converfed with the Canaanites. or The Hebrew very near it.). xxiii. Heathen faid be gathered What is thine occupathey unto him. Jonah difobeyed the command. 5 the meflengers of Mefopotamia the King of Moab. evidence that Hebrew was the is ftrong prefumptive language fpoken by the AfTyrians at the time of the preaching of Jonah. Tell us.

"Yet Did they cry out. through bathing while heated in the waters of the Cydnus. and fubfeIt was quently the moft celebrated city of Cilicia. M. king of AiTyria that is. What that was there is no mention. Hebrew was the language of The characters employed by the ten tribes in Hebrew were." ftone him ? did they imprifon him ? did cc Away upon faid with him. A. 862. being almoft the fame as thofe feen in the Samaritan copies of the Pen- . and fubftituted it for that which they had previoufly ufed. c. or B. in all the pomp of eaftern fplendour. 3142. had confiderable trade with all parts of the coaft of the Mediterranean. Joppa. efpecially with Tarfus. and was a free It was here that Alexander city of Greece and Rome. through the mouth of his Up away to the period when the ten tribes were carried captive into AfTyria. however. the it is not fit ! fhould live earth. totally different from writing The Samaritan thofe now in ufe among the Jews. forty days and Nineveh fhall be overthrown. the Great nearly loft his life.Hebrew the univerfal Language. Thefe coins clearly fhow that the characters in queftion Phoenician. retained nearly their ancient fhape. 29 day's journey into the Great City. Ezra borrowed the fquare character with which the Hebrew text is now written from the Chaldee. by the Maccabean coins dug out of the ruins of Jerufalem. Hazael king of Syria. and about the time of Sardanapalus. Samaria. he cried and faid. proves to be utterly unfounded. but the ftory on which this refts." No they fuch a fellow They believed what God prophet Jonah. fituated on the banks of the Cydnus. It was alfo the native of the Apoftle Paul. They did not require an interpreter. Jonah's flight took place in the reign of Jehoafh. being the only feaport pofTefled by the Jews. letters (as they are called) are clofely allied to the and appear originally to have been emIt is ftated that ployed by the whole Jewim nation. Here alfo Cleopatra paid her celebrated vifit to Mark Antony. then a rifing colony. king of Ifrael. and hence he ftyles himfelf a city free-born Roman.

remarkable coincidence or corroboration. c. Dr. he could have gone one ftep further. as we have done. the elements or wedges are nearly the fame. are the infcriptions found amongft the ruins of Palmyra. Etrufcan. the celebrated German philologift und Shriften der Vorzeit"). ftrongly corroborative of the truth of the primitive alphabet. If this be fo. ftates that modern Hebrew letters down from the character through the early Greek. which the prefent Hebrew character mows any likenefs of figure. truth of this . Many of the of our own alphabet that one Still more origin of the Greek alphabet. 1859: "Another thing in- very letters^ clofely rejemble thqfe can fcarcely be miftaken in tracing ours up through the Roman and the Greek to that of Phoenicia . if not their actual identity. mowing a different language or dialect. 130. death when this ftory reprefents complete change. tially the fame as the Aflyrian. more than three centuries from the time to have undergone a of Simon Maccabeus. one of which is dated as early as the fortyninth year of our era. 1 This is a Phoenician to the Palmyrene. . Thomfon's remarks upon a Phoenician infcription found upon a will juft Sarcophagus terefted at Sidon. and fo traced the modern Hebrew to its fountain head. but they enter into different combinations. this accords with and confirms the ancient tradition in regard to the me much in this tablet. until the them The oldeft writings in Hebrew to about B. mowing the Babylonian new theory for if ProferTor Bopp had known anything of the AfTyrian cuneiform. We mention two more facts. then we have on this tablet of Afhmanazer. the The Babylonian character is efTenAfTyrian cuneiform. interefting is the fact that the characters on this ftone are fo like the old as to eftablifh their clofe relationship.30 tateuch Hebrew for the univerfal Language. in the laft edition of his Grammar. the very alphabet that God employed to preferve and tranfmit to us the pricelefs 1 Hebrew modern Hebrew Gefenius. admits the fquare or to be defcended from the Palmyrene. ProfefTor cc Bilden (in his he traces the Bopp.

every letter of which forms a perfect geometrical figure fymbolical from the earlieft ages. read before the Afiatic Society in September 1857. no doubt. upon gazelles. It has been afferted their divinely-formed letters. Efq. aflertion.. gradually deteriorating and blending with the and mifshapen letters of the early Greek and Phoerough nician alphabets. in a paper of bet. called the Chaldee or fquare character. but now Again. and no doubt he will recognize the one original in all its beautiful ftmplicily. Phoenician alphabets. by Cyril C. it is alfo very probable that they reverfed the order of writing. Therefore we conclude that the Hebrew letters now in ufe. but this expreffion tf one original" conveys the idea that loft. many ages prior to the fettlement of the Phoenicians as a people . horfes. which accompanied a number of ancient infcriptions in an undeciphered character found in the Eaft of the Hauran. there mutt have been one of an earlier date. The firft intimation we have of a foreign language Rabfhakeh was before being fpoken in the eaft is when own . there are that the Jews rejected great doubts. making it read from right to left. Graham. and horfemen always accompanied " The infcriptions are in a rude chaby infcriptions. only becaufe the If there be any truth in this Samaritans ufed them. are evidently derived from the Phoenician and Palmyrene . let any one look at the primitive. and in all nations of the myfterious 'Three in One. which has analogies with the oldeft Greek and racter." Look at the primitive alphaformed. apes. Again. 3 1 his Divine Law. the Triune Deity.Hebrew gift the univerfal Language. philofophers and hiftorians point to Phoenicia as the birthplace of letters." <c One " original ! What can this mean ? Many writers. and the time of its introduction. known to the Hebrews as the land of Bafhan. but with regard to the details of the origin of this character. in which they found a vaft (tones number of were reprefentations of camels. and it is not improbable that they may have been old enough for a time when the Greek and Phoenician alphabets were nearer to the one original which than we find in any other cafe.

for they were funk into the loweft (late of cc heathenifm They fet up groves and images on every hill and under every high green tree.and Joahjasweread. brought men from various cities of AfTyria and placed them in the cities of Samaria. even two calves. Eliakim. and indeed they continue to make ufe of the very fame cuftoms to them their A . and made a grove. : the conquering king of Affyria. and the people were by them taught the laws and the holy worfhip of God. and ferved Baal. or cared for any facred records expelled Jews (the Pentateuch and other facred books were kept in Jerufalem). and they left all the commandments of the Lord their God. to thy fervants : in the Syrian (Arameari) language for we under ftand it." colonifts from the five cities of AfTyria brought with own gods. fo they fent ambafladors to the king of AfTyria. this very day. they alfo brought with them the manners and cuftoms of thofe cities. and worshipped all The new the hoft of heaven. 26. and the plague ceafed immediately . and.andShebna. and defired him to fend fome of thofe priefts of the Ifraelites whom he had taken captive ." Again. they wormipped him in a refpedlful manner. and Jofephus upon informs us that Cf plague feized upon them by which they were deftroyed they learned by an oracle which they confulted that they ought to worfhip the Almighty God as the method for their deliverance. faid cc unto Rabfhakeh Speak. when Shalmanezer. people that are on the wall. and there they primitive or cuneiform." 1 2 Kings xviii. and made them molten images. and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the '. and when he fent them. and without doubt their fyftem of writing alfo. brought themfelves the anger of God . .32 The Samaritan Pentateuch. by worfhipping them. I pray thee. 1 Jerufalem. which could not be any other than the burnt incenfe in all the high places as did the heathen. We are nowhere told that the had any. and wrought wicked things to provoke the Lord to anger.

it was. provement 1 this time. have here a ftrong confirmation We of the identity of the Hebrew language. that the Jews change their alphabetical characters. 33 The date and origin of the Samaritan Pentateuch have been hitherto wrapped in myftery but I think it may be traced to about this time. all originally of The language. that when the new colonifts had . the priefts. alfo. nearly word for word. ch. "concludes that the old written Samaritan alphabet muft have been given by Mofes." by L. or " Stones crying independently framed by him under Divine influence. " is pure the race of Abram" Hebrew. which. obferved) But to return." ftates his opinion that tc Job was an inhabitant of Idumea." Mills' s . for it is not improbable that all the pofterity The Rev.. and wiflied to imitate their neighbours in every refpect in letters and religious polity. J. having their intellectual and fpiritual imat heart. although the author appears to have been an Idumean 1 . but written in the Samaritan character. N. for it feems to be the moft probable conjecture. making began to them ap- proximate more to the Phoenician. together with his friends. become fufficiently enlightened refpecling the laws and religion of the Hebrews. with which the prefent Hebrew has no Modern Samaritans. having a knowledge of that character. p. who refided fome time at Nablous in the years 1855 and 1856. after infpefting the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch.The Samaritan Pentateuch. in his of the Hebrews. p. 85. " That in the earlieft had fpecimens previoufly ftated. Mills. is able to read that ancient document. either modified from character previoujly exifting. or at leaft Arabians of the adjacent country. the Samaritan Pentateuch being in pure Hebrew. viz. fo that any Hebrew fcholar. was written in the primitive character. cc Lectures on the Sacred Poetry Bifhop Lowth. I think." But the author forgot to mention what out. from (as before a fpirit of oppofition to the Samaritans. 9. affinity. Mills of Chaldean writing and the wedge form.. 288. R. procured for them a copy of the Pentateuch from the original. he adds. and of its being fpoken by the colonifts from the five cities of ArTyria. there can be no From doubt. between which confiderlater AfTyrian the great charafteriftic element is the able modification was effefted Mr.

Noah and his immediate defcendants . called the Pentateuch. and weft vailing tongue down to the deftruction of Nineveh. Canaan was its home. With all thefe facts before us. if it This poem. Enoch. 2180. and with the Hebrew nation fubfequently to the time of Mofes and yet of whom there is not one authentic hiftorical record known to us. ledge they pofferTed from the patriarchs who furvived the Flood.Hebrew the Original Language. It was eflentially the language of the Canaanitim or Phoenician race by whom Paleftine was inhabited before the immigration of Abraham's pofterity. and who muft have received all the know. whether of the family of Keturah or Immael fpoke for a confiderable time one common language. or B. was originally written in the ancient down to us by means of nineHebrew. The next in order of time are the writings of Mofes. teen alphabetical letters only. it does feem aftoniming that a people fo far advanced in the arts and fciences as the Affyrians. mould be fo little known a nation the firft and greateft of ancient days. Gefenius. Job is fuppofed to have lived 184 years before Abram." It has thus been mown that the Hebrew tongue muft have been the language by which God at the creation communicated his will to Adam that the fame language was fpoken by Seth. excepting an occafional mention of them in the Holy Scriptures." Finally. which had flourimed for a : a people who muft have been period of 1500 years well acquainted with the patriarchs of old. to Canaan. Idumeans. and that it continued to be the one preeaft. and Arabians.C. has been handed . we find that the earlieft literary compofition we have is the fublime poem of Job. . fays in his " Grammar" " As far as we can trace the Hebrew language. the greater! of modern philologifts. which muft alfo have been written and tranfmitted down to the prefent age by the aid of the fame nineteen letters. If we take a retrofpective glance at the early literature of the world. fouth. 34 of Abraham Ifraelites. that it was fpread by them north. and was with them transferred to Egypt and brought back.

viz. zenith of its power and greatnefs. ment in favour of thp new theory muft be feen and felt by all reflecting upon this ftone is the earliefl . and its people muft have had frequent intercourfe with the AfTyrians. and even their fyftems of religion. from whom the elegant Greeks copied and adopted manners and cuftoms. and the Greeks began About cc 450 years fubfequent to Mofes. is it to be imagined for an inftant that the great and mighty people. and with the fame number Solomon has handed down to pofterity his invaluable proverbs and lefTons of wifdom. juft arrived in this country. About 150 years later Greece gave birth to the fathers of heathen poetry. who reigned B. the rubbings of the Moabite ftone. weapons of war. ideas ? No ! When the veil that has hitherto concealed is removed there will be no more AfTyria's brightnefs no further conjecture on this fubject. will mine forth clear as the noonday fun. to make known their wants or to exprefs their ences. more overwhelming evidence as to the truth of the new fyftem propounded in this work. Homer and Hefiod. ftyles of architecture. Egypt muft 1 And now we have. The truth doubt. what is remarkable. and thofe muft have been written with the fame nineteen letters. and relates fome of the works and doings of one Mefa.About this Hebrew Poetry and Language.C. fhould be fo far behind all others in literature as to require no lefs than 300 letters in their alphabet. the infcription that has been found in the Phoenician and what is worthy of particular notice is the facl. . character minds. with 500 variants to thofe letters." gave forth his infpired poems. arts and fci- modes of warfare. that many of the letters have a greater likenefs in form to the primitive than any The force of this arguthat are feen in later Phoenician documents. king of Moab. 896. the fweet finger of Ifrael. the forerunners of all nations. whofe immortal works required only an alphabet of fixteen letters to immortalize them in the world's literature. the ArTyrians. David. and records events which tranfpired about the time of Homer and Hefiod. 35 period Cadmus introduced letters into Greece to cultivate literature. 1 With thefe facts before us. and yet the record contained upon this ftone was written with an alphabet of about 19 letters s and. This ftone was written upon. between five and fix hundred years before the final deftrudion of Nineveh. when the empire of AfTyria was in the Moab was the adjoining kingdom.

They are fuch ftones as a man of ordinary ftrength could take. evidently for the purpofe of fixing them upon a rod of metal. is it not reafonable to afTume that Mofes wrote with the character then prevalent. king of Samaria. and that that character was no other than the primitive or ancient Hebrew. down. a fize being about 12x15 inches. and carry a confiderable diftance. fo that both fides could be feen and read. and magnificent kingdom. THE ART OF ALPHA- BETICAL WRITING." that at the facking of the temple by Jehoafh. They are written upon cuneiform character. by way of mention of the fact that there are at this moment in the Britifh Mufeum (or ought to be) two ftones anfwering in every refpect to the defcription given of the two ftones delivered to Mofes at Sinai. and that God himfelf wrote upon the tables of ftone in a character underftood by the people for whom they were efpecially intended. They are flightly convex. 10). however. We We . beautifully cut. From the many facts and arguments brought forward to prove the famenefs of the language originally fpoken all over the Eaft. called the cunei- form It ? not be amifs to introduce here. in the earlieft . refined. their may epifode. came out of Egypt. " There was nothing in the ark fave the two tables which Mofes put therein at Horeb. of the firft temple built by Solomon (2 Chron. AfTyria. v. one under each arm. when the Lord made a covenant with the children of Ifrael when they think it probable. what became of the two tables of the law and the coveread of them in the account of the dedication nant. the edges of the letters being well defined and looking frem as from the chifel and they have in fact every appearance of being The facred record does not ftate miraculoufly preferred.36 yield the fitter The Two Tables of Stone palm to her ancient. they were transferred with the ark to Samaria both fides. to the time of Mofes. at leaft. as being the cradle of the arts and fciences and the preferver of the greateft of all arts and the foundation of every fcience. with holes drilled in the thicknefs of the ftone in the lower part.

invaded Samaria. mufl be difcovered" Let us look at the pofition in which thefe two ftones were found.. from fome higher motive. or even Sepharim. and carried off all the took away gold and filver that was in the king's palace. copies of them were exhibited in the churches chained to the defk. trace the ftones into the capital of the AfTyrian empire. fee. Now. the great king of AfTyria. anxious even to get a glimpfe of the precious articles. may fuppofe that the We Samaritans had heard and read in their copy of the Pentateuch of the awful wonders of Sinai at the giving of the law. The Jewifh population he diftributed into the various cities of his empire . and to read for themfelves the laws of God and his covenant with his ancient people. 117 years fubfequent to the facking of Jerufalem by Jehoafh. 14)." This is con" He firmed by Jofephus (book ix. xv. and after a fiege of three years conquered and facked the capital. when the Scriptures were firft tranflated from the original. in the early days of the Reformation. and returned to Samaria. Shalmanezer.in the Britijh Mufeum. and all the vejfels that were found in the houfe of the Lord. and when Jehoafh made his triumphant entry into Samaria he was no doubt prefTed upon by eager thoufands. f< 37 (sKingsxiv. and endeavour to form : . which. but the riches and precious part of the booty he carried with him to Nineveh. Juft as. and carried away everything of value into AfTyria. ix. fo that all might read for themfelves. 3) the treafures of God. there yet exift two archaic treafures. from the original To fatisfy their natural curiofity. but free for all who chofe If fuch was the cafe. we can eafily to come and read. "And he" (Jehoafh) took all the gold and filver. Nineveh: for. covered with gold. in the " Journal of the Royal Afiatic Society" (vol. chap." It is not Jikely that Jehoafh would overlook fuch precious booty : as the ark of the covenant. independently of its facred contents. he caufed the ftones to be fet up in the temple or fome other public place. if excavations are continued. page 305) are " Beneath thefe eminences thefe remarkable words (alluding to the mounds of Nimroud).

Layard fays <c It is difficult to determine the original fite of the fmall tablets they appear : : to have been built up infide the walls above the flabs. army in Egypt. of Ifaac. tranfgrefllon." conjecture was confirmed by fubfequent difLet us aflume thefe two tablets to be the and it is eafy to account for their Tradition had told the AfTyrians of fingular pofition. and the feeding-place of the young lions ? The lion did tear in pieces enough for his whelps. he couched as a lion. the Scriptures fpeak of the lion of the tribe of Judah. forgiving iniquity. faith the Lord of Hofts. and their hearts fainted The nations around worfhipped gods of within them. proclaiming God's feverity againft " Where is the of Nineveh. or to have been placed behind the Jlals themfehes . the wonders performed by the leader of the Ifraelitim original Sinaitic ftones. as an old lion . keeping mercy and for thoufands. who mall roufe 1 Nahum. As the ark of the Lord had always ftone . and filled his holes with prey. thou art gone up : he Hooped down. fays dwelling of the lions (the monarchs). long-fuffering. of their pafTage through the Red Sea. and fin.38 The Two Tables of Stone fome reafonable conjecture for their being placed in fuch an extraordinary fituation. and truth. my fon. Similarly. 7). the inhabitants : him up. They were difcovered behind one of the human-headed lions * which formed the enin the fouth-weft palace of trance to the chamber D Nimroud. and the voice of thy meflengers mall no more be heard. merciful and abundant gracious. Mr. and his dens with ravin. and (his children) ftrangled for his lionefles (wives and concubines). I am againft thee. and that will by no means clear the guilty." And . and of the many miracles performed by the God of the Hebrews not the in their tranfit God in through the defert. from the prey." They had heard of his terrible doings. wood and appears that it The lion appears to be a type of the reigning monarchs of Aflyria. and I will cut off thy prey from the earth." the prophet his enemies. and of Jacob. as goodnefs knew <c the Lord God. and the fword mall devour thy young lions. and from fculptures found at Nineveh had been cuftomary for the AfTyrians it their gods in proceflion upon the (houlders of to carry men (Ifaiah xlvi. to me and this coveries. They of Abram. and " Judah is a lion's whelp. Behold.

" The Affyrians we may fuppofe had hitherto looked upon the ark with awe and dread. God ! is come into the camp. 39 been borne upon the fhoulders of the Levites in all their wanderings.in the Britijh Mufeum. what he had done to the furrounding nations. They have brought about the ark of the God of Ifrael to us to flay us and our people. or undergoing fome extenfive repairs. Woe unto us heretofore. . . what more reafonable than that in the pride and blafphemy of his heart. for (i Samuel iv. years fubfequently to this period we hear the infolent and blafphemous language of Sennacherib before the walls of Jerufalem. faying. there can be no wonder if they afcribed all the miracles to the ark or to the objects contained in it. And they faid. 7 and 8) they faid. but when the God of taken at Samaria its glory had departed Ifrael had given up his ancient people to their own hearts' defire and when Shalmanezer found nothing in the ark fave the two ftones containing the laws which denounced his own practices and the cuftoms of his nation. or the king may have removed for the exprefs purpofe of hiding what he imaFourteen gined to be the actual God of the Israelites. he refolved upon placing them where they would be as loft for ever ? At prefent we have no dates. with the acts of his predeceflbr." And cc the Philiftines were afraid. frefh in his "Hath any of the gods of the nations memory: delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Aflyria? Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad ? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim ? and have they delivered SAMARIA OUT OF MY HAND ? Who are they among all the gods of thefe lands. but it may perhaps ere long be found that the palace was either being built. as in fact the Ekronites did: "And it came to pass as the ark of God came to Ekron. that have delivered their land . Woe for there hath not been fuch a thing mall deliver us out unto us ! Who of the hands of thefe mighty Gods ? 'Thefe are the Gods that fmote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wildernefs. that the Ekronites cried out. about the time of the Samaritan caufed the flab to be conqueft.

and placed on a ledge of the 1 For three years previous I England. 1867. What has become of them at my excitement I really believed them gallery. to be compared with the infcription on the two ftones found at to my leaving the colony of Victoria for had looked moft anxioufly for every monthly mail to bring me fome news from the gentleman to whom I configned my manufcript of the Decalogue but I looked in vain. that the Lord fhould deliver Jerufalem my hand. in the ignorance of his heart. two ftones were found. but. fingularly enough. and gentlemanly demeanour. . wall on the right as you enter the Nimroud of them. in two ftones I had feen nineteen years previoufly . alas! in vain. and guarded by the human- my headed lion. and Dr. though he thinks me a little cracked. I found they could not be the ftones I had feen in 1 849. this is but hypothecs. . I believe in affifting me in all my arduous inveftigations. for they were double the fize. common But the drain ! to fet this matter at reft and to teft this difcovery. Of this particular / am quite confident. " Afiatic Journal" where it is dated that they contain the cc Standard Infcription. upon mature reflection. thanks to Dr. written in Hebrew. I loft no time in vifiting the Mufeum . to be the On my rirft fight Here I think it my duty to record my fincere prefent is a myftery.40 out of out of The Two Tables of Stone hand. Birch allured me that they had no boles in the bottom. that the mighty God of Ifrael was imbedded in the ftone walls of his palace." But is it likely they would have been buried in the wall if they contained any of the records of the empire ? As well might we expect to find a genealogical lift of kings built up in the wall of a ! . 1 author fent to England a manufcript copy of the Decalogue. but. Birch for his unwearied attention. nor any one that could remember fuch ftones as I defcribed. there is no mention of them in the folio volume of inscriptions publifhed at the expenfe of the Imperial Government under the fuperintendence of Sir Henry There is fome allufion to them in the Rawlinfon. but in the cuneiform character according to the primitive alphabet. kindnefs. They were enclofed in glafs cafes. On my arrival in England in June." He thought. No fuch Hones could be found. which bore a great reiemblance to the two I had defcribed above. After many earneft inquiries. the genius of his race Of courfe. The author has not had any opportunity of learning what may be the nature of the infcriptions upon thefe two remarkable ftones for.

Come up unto me into the mount. equivalent to the ancient will be wanting. Again." contained in the twentieth. 26) is in precifely . Mofes. Thefe are evidently that thou mayeft teach them. and an epitome of what was contained in the paflage juft cited. broke the firft two tables. The Arabic has but one letter to exprefs both founds. the B (or pfi) will very likely have to be fupplied (p). and p a fofter b. there is no D probable that when the alphabet was given as concife as poffible. on a both fides. another formidable obftacle will appear in the comparifon. Greek Digamma/*. Should they not agree. . Thus. the voluminous nature of the infcription. and a law and commandments which I have written. It is to man it was by ^ (vau).in the Eritlfli Mufeum. that the two ftones contained a law "And and commandments. q (or p ) and laftly. twenty-fecond the nineteenth verfe of the chapters. the author's for they theory would not necefTarily be difproved be infcriptions of another kind. The ancients frequently ufe one for the other. In the new alphabet. twenty-third chapter of Exodus. the Deca- logue containing all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. being the fame. and I will give thee tables of ftone. that it will be found. however. having only one the fign for b and />. however. and the Greeks were often doubtful which letter to ufe. for fign for each phonetic power. But ftill the comparifon might be worked out. But turn to the thirty-fourth note that there follows chapter of Exodus. The If we take it for granted that the Decalogue alone was written upon the ftones which would take up but it will be difficult to a very fmall portion of them account for the fact that the originals were written upon I think. and be there. 12: the Lord faid unto Mofes. careful examination of the Hebrew copy and from many texts of Scripture. The clofe of this epitome (v. it will be obferved. In any cafe the might experiment would be attended with many difficulties. Exod. namely. and continued unto as we know. but fupplied by k (or n). twenty-firft. verfe one. xxiv. example. 41 Nineveh. as b is but a harder />.

e. } to be written on both fpace afllgned them fides of the ftones and in this particular the refemblance would be at once feen between the two ftones found at Nineveh and the actual two tables delivered to Mofes .42 : "The Two Tables of Stone." all the /. for after the tenor of theje words. the fame words as the clofeofthe commandments (19 v. Write 23 chap. Then the Lord faid unto Mofes.) thou (this epitome) thefe words. amidft thunderings and lightnings at Sinai. . I have made a covenant with thee and with This <c law and commandments" would require Ifrael.

Layard. who fays that cc thefe characters long preceded thofe of Korfabad and KouyunThis is an important fact. and that there was a gradual It was from progreflion towards the moft intricate. as it proves that the jik. moft Jimple were the ear Heft. Nimroud Palace by Mr. viz. found in the fource." one of the flabs from the Nimroud Palace the author to : formed the alphabet feen Sir in the tablet which follows. gift of God then. that letters are the direct to man. Rawlinfon. we cannot imagine an alphabet planned by Infinite Wifdom fall fhort of the utmoft It perfection. [SSUMING. Now. all H.CHAPTER III. gation leads rather to the conclufion that the moft diffimilar alphabets muft all be traced to one common The Aflyrian cuneiform. Rawlinfon's Opinion of the Charafter and Language Greek Manufcripts and The Sigaean Infcription Change in the Form Syftem of Writing of the Letters The Alphabet. there have not yet been difcovered two alphabets effentially different alphabets The progrefs of learned inveftiifolated and unrelated. after exprefllng an opinion that . Author's Opinion of the Primitive Alphabet The Cuneiform of the Nimroud Palace the Earlieft Charafter Sir H. muft be an alphabet free from all defects and redundancies at leaft as perfect as the Greek or Roman. PRIMITIVE ALPHABET.

and the language in which the writing is exprefled unintelligible. that not only is the fyftem of AfTyrian writing in the laft degree obfcure. language. or at leaft 3. we mould ftill be very far from a connected hiftory of the AfTyrian Empire. This infcription muft have been engraved as early as the time of Solomon. except through the imperfect key of the Behuftan infcriptions and the faint analogies of other Semitic but that even if all the tablets tongues (mark this) hitherto difcovered were as certainly to be understood as the memorials of Greece or Rome. but it muft be remembered. but alfo the ancient mode of writing from the left hand to the right. and to notice the change that took place as time advanced. (See Plate I. a headland of the Syrian coaft. The moft ancient of them that has come down to us exhibits both methods. it is highly interefting and convincing to fee the ftrong likenefs exifting between the two. and comparing them with the primitive or cuneiform. but the next line begins at the right hand and proceeds to the left. and thus it is carried on. near the fite of ancient Troy. goes on to fay that peculiarities of form. In tracing the Greek characters up to the time of Cadmus. an affection for certain characters incidental to the localities. and is contained on a tablet which was difinterred upon the promontory of Sigaeum. The infcription begins on the left hand fide of the tablet and proceeds to the right." But what can this mean ? How can Sir H. a limitation of ufage.) Figure i reprefents the .000 years ago. according to his own account. Rawlinfon undertake to aflert this of a people whofe . but un- queftionably the alphabets are in the main point identical.44 Author's Opinion of the alphabets in the Eaft (cuneiform alphabets) were origicc there are nally one and the fame. is unintelligible and in the laft degree obfcure ? The earlieft Greek infcriptions we pofTefs mow not only many of the forms of the primitive Hebrew alphabet. each fucceeding line beginning where the preceding one finifhed a mode of writing which was fhortly after fuperfeded by the prefent one of writing from left to right.

and the Lamed or Lambda is turned upon its two . that long before. is an art which. . and fome to the left.' 45 name of Agefilaus the Spartan king. however. 500 years fubfequent to the introduction of letters by Cadmus. retained not only the original principle upon which an alphabet was con- land. God had taught man it as our opinion And though very an alphabetic fyftem of writing. but We . . widely diffufed. fome letters turned to the right. They took up their dwellingplace not far from the locality of the fuppofed miracle have already given of the Confufion of tongues. when once loft. No tribe or race of man its ftructed (the triangle). but the common people would in time fo confufe the form of the letters. Now. Figure 2. fcendants of Shem. Several of the ancient alphabets will mow that they were formed from recollection or conjecture and it feems that. emigrated in large bodies. : proper application in the formation of an alphabet. and a the left leg or fupport given to it. and altered from an obtufe to an acute angle. we find that the Awleph or Alpha has a right leg or fupport added to it the Gimel or Gamma has a perpendicular line given. that they would be fcarcely recognizable as That this in fact took place is the fame characters. which forms the k . points. and fettled for a time at various diftances from their native There might be fome among thefe emigrants who would retain a knowledge of writing. fome oblique. as that part of the earth became over-peopled. evident. a few ages after the Confufion. writing man never again recovers. Figure 3 gives name of the Spartan king in the character of his own time. Primitive Alphabet. the multitudes. from the form of the Pelafgic or Etrufcan fome of which are erect. but all alike The deplainly derived from the primitive alphabet. in the primitive or ancient Hebrew charafter. in order to efcape from the tyranny and oppreiTion of the great ones of the earth. the fame name in the early Greek or Cadmean the dotted lines mow the alterations fuppofed to be made by Cadmus the Awleph or Alpha having its right point obliqued to the right.

refemblance between the letter and the figure of an ox. "> fuppofed . or head. viz. which are alfo Hebrew names of vifible objects. letter head or chief of a family or tribe (Judges vi. or A. . The firft which fignifies the chief. There are fome philologifts who aflert that the letters of the ancient alphabets are pictorial reprefentations of the founds or names of the letters . 1 5) as the and in this fenfe may be taken as the head of a family It alfo fignifies an Ox. while in the prefent or modern Hebrew there is but one. The the Hebrews and ancient alphabets in ufe among the whole race of Shem appear to have been conftructed upon this principle... ALEPH. two or three triangles. In treating of the primitive alphabet. we mall endeavour to fhow that only true with refpect to the primitive Thefe theorifers do not go back far enough alphabet. the nail or hook-pin. It will be feen. each with a name fignificant of its figure this principle is . with but a fingle exception of one. . and in the pages that will immediately follow. that this principle will be clearly traceable in the primitive alphabet in nearly every one of the nineteen letters . not from any or tribe of letters. we mall fee that all the letters are compofed. as we proceed through the alphabet. they go only to the ancient Hebrew. has ever fucceeded in regaining the art when loft. . the form of a phyfical object was made the fign of the found with which its name commenced. which is a compound of Samaritan and Phoenician and fometimes to eke out their theories.46 Author s Opinion of the with which we in modern times have become acquainted. ALPHA. is called aleph. the vau y which has is any refemblance to the object which its found to reprefent. The names of the letters commence with the founds they feverally fignify. viz. they bring in the modern Hebrew.

the Greeks gave it the name of Alpha." to accompany. being a mere breathcc a breath. ancient Hebrew. 3) little ornamentation. 2). and Samaritan. the modern Hebrews have evidently copied their firft to letter. or wifti ing. defire. from whom fanciful. of AgefiSpartan king. This is the firft letter that Cadmus took the liberty of altering he retained the original figure. imperial Rome gave it a right leg (No. We corroborative proof of its origin. proceeding from the heart or foul. as in . which is nothing more than an equilateral triangle with its apex of letters into in the reign Greece by Cadmus. Aleph it alfo is denotes in " beginning or origin. and launched it forth to the world From an examito be ufed in its prefent form (No. the Palmyrenes a little more fo. Awleph." and rnV (LUFH)." " to adhere to any one. The Phoenicians began to be a little the right. laus the we find the . but from its having been the firft right articulate found uttered by Adam. The firft breath is to be accompanied and joined with others to communicating and making known our wants to our fellow-men. but flightly inclined it to the right. and gave it the addition of a left leg (as feen in No. it will be clearly feen that they are deteriorations or departures from the primitive fimple Awleph. not only becaufe that pofition cc C{ be joined to any one. &c. but from the latter 47 being the chief or leading animal of the brute creation in its general utility when alive. Bardic.. compofed of nit* (AUE). So that the very name of the firft letter is expreflive of its meaning." &c. and alfo in its forming the principal article of food to man when dead. and." from a natural of precedence. which is only a tranfpofition of the About 500 years fubfequent to the introduction letters. nation of the firft letter (fee the Tablet of Alphabets) of the Pelafgic.Primitive Alphabet. Alpha afluming or to its prefent figure by the addition of a approximating and finally. find this form of the letter upon the earlieft Greek monuments . . 4).

and that it more properly reprefented a tent. i. By look. as they wandered from the plains of Shinar. clofe from the primitive form. blended the Palmyrene and the Phoenician. and there is every probability that the Hebrews. at fome prea flill further departure There is much .Author's Opinion of the Pn. . with Dawleth the door. and gave the Hebrew alphabet its In the Etrufcan B (No. as Dawleth look at it did a tent door. as reprefented on the Aflyrian flabs or he would not have faid that the Phoenician ing at the Tablet of Alphabets it will be perceived that the Phoenician and ancient Hebrew are both alike. we obferve prefent form. that was its primitive figure there was a gradual departure from the original fimplicity of the primitive alphabet by the Hamitic tribes." In the modern Hebrew character there is not any refemblance to its name but if we take the Primitive No. had adopted in fome meafure the form of their letters. the fact appears to be. cc from one point of view. but from their alphabet (rude as it is). or B. S. who wandered from the plains of Shinar to the eaftern part of the Red Sea. BETA. and . Gradually they merged from the primitive character into the Samaritan. 3). 4). and fo continued for ages. living in proximity to the Phoenicians. and myth as to the origin of obfcurity the Etrufcans and Pelafgii. and Moabitic. we have the exact reprefentation of the primitive houfe or tent. fays that "its original figure was the Phoenician B (No. until fome individual. i). in his Lexicon. BETH." Primitive (No. It is evident Gefenius never faw the B. which fignifies Houfe. and Gefenius. whofe name has not come down to us. or northern part of Arabia. Afia muft claim them as her own and I take them to be an offshoot of fome Hamitic tribe.

as I have not been able to find in the primitive writing any character. E or G. and with fome flight alterations (which be noticed in their proper places). . fore. adopted by the Greeks. 1529. half The Pb the form of B. and Etrufcan letters both clearly derived from one common origin. like our I conclude that. fcripfi alfo. E or P. from the remarkable refemblance between the Cadmean and the primitive. hiftoric period. as language and ideas fhall became more refined. or v y and in the Hebrew lan- / guage the n or b is frequently founded as i>. 3 or 4. illitealphabets fettled in that part called Etruria. B. 2). comes lapfus fcribo. comes pafco from labor. 5. In progrefs of time. king of Theflaly. i. . c. and which I take to be the one which was introduced by Cadmus into Greece. in the infancy of days. Ph. The Cadmean. are nearly the fame as the Pelafgic. . fevum. The name of . about 1700 B. a. one thing appears certain. 49 as a and firft became known wandering people who inhabited a country fince called Argolis. 6. GIMEL. as is the cafe in Arabic and Moabitic. c. C. febum.Primitive Alphabet. C or Roman G. and if we look down the fecond column of letters in the Tablet of Alphabets which I have rate named the Cadmean. when they pafled into Italy. but whether Cadmus or not. and P a harder B. The and unfettled people. b was ufed for />. they gave the fofter found. is precifely the fame in figure as the primitive No. until driven out by Deucalion. both. and thofe were the firft letters introduced into Italy and the Etrufcan and Pelafgic are both characterise of a wandering. In ancient times B and P were frequently written one for the other. and as we find from ancient words from bofco. that the one was taken from the Affyrian or primitive. which forms our prefent P. There. alfo B. either in form or phonetic power.. P. GAMMA. G.. for B is only a fofter P. or early Greek B (No. was alfo fupplied by Vau.

anfwering to that of Gamma in the Greek. is a proof of its derivation from the gimel of the Hebrew. that the earth gives or returns nourimment to intimating every living creature for the labour beftowed upon her. the true profile of the breaft of a woman. then is me confidered mature. alfo means "mature or ripe" and of woman is in this fenfe alfo the breaft the emblem or fymbol of maturity. or the great mother. which fignified the earth. as alfo the ancient Hebrew and Samaritan gimel (fee the Tablet of Alphabets) from the Aflyrian or primitive. GML." yield or return the fruits. and Bardic (No. 3). i). and who continues to fupply it until the child is of cc when fufficient ftrength to be weaned. gamma and the Latin C. who is reprefented breafts. &c. 5) has degenerated into a femicircle. wherever they found the letter C changed . here we have. writing Tuioq alfo ufed . in tranflating from the Latin. the mother or the nurfe it is always applied to If who fuckles the child. with many VD:J. then. or in a ftate This letter is the forerunner of the Greek of puberty. 5). it for G or K. as the magna mater.. The Greeks. for Cajus. be obferved that the 2). Etrufcan (reverfed pofition it holds in the Roman alphabet. when the breaft of the female is fully developed. are alike .50 Author s Opinion of the is this letter (according to Gefenius) to be feen from its Phoenician figure (No. and the Cadmean (No. In our more probable to be a peror fymbolical reprefentation of VQJ (GML). " earners neck" (very rude and opinion the primitive letter is fonification a rude reprefentation of a far-fetched indeed). 4). ufed as a verb active in this fenfe. " to " retribution or return. in- G . or Cybele." and in this fenfe applied to the breaft of the mother that yields or returns the nourimment me has received to her infant. Parkhurft fays. This idea appears to have been adopted and carried out by the Greeks in the worfhip given by them to Diana of the Ephefians. &c. the agent that returns in a life-giving ftream the nourimment me had previoufly received. for." we are to believe that the founds of the letters reprefent vifible objects. The Romans C and Casfar. No. It will primitive (No. the Roman (No.

which is found fometimes to the right and fometimes to the left. memorate the And on the Cnoeus or Gajus. to change the form of this letter about 100 B. by leaving the left angle as it was and circumeafe in writing. the Samaritan is the fame as the Modern Greek. pillar of Duillius. Roman. " Lecio pucnando ex" fociont" &c. as Cajus. 6. agnom. " door of a primitive houfe or tent. converting the into a femicircle. the Phoenician. differently.). 5). All evidently derived from only turned to the left. as feen upon the Black Marble Obelifk and the Bull infcription. and the Samaritan are all like the brew. 51 firft naval victory gained by the Romans over the Carthaginians. 3) the modern Delta (No. Primitive. This character is alfo the primitive numeral ten (X.C. reprefents what its name fignifies. See alfo the Chapter of the Mafonic Symbols. accordThe Latins began ing to the direction of the writing. and in the famous Bouftrophedon infcription. Delta. with the addition of a leg. Gnosus. Sam.. 2)." In the earlieft Greek characters (No. acnom. forming our prefent D. Mod.&Phce. we read. Dawleth. as we the celebrated Farnefe infcriptions by Herodes Atticus. Appendix. for Legio pugnando effugiunt. or D. which are to be feen on Eolian tablets in the Britifh Mufeum. for the greater find in two Subfequently they placed it upright. Etrufcan. erefted to com- the AfTyrian or primitive. &c. the angles of this letter are unequal and come nearer to the primitive (No. A The ancient Henearly preferves its original figure.." The ancient Hebrew and the Phoenician gimel are both alike . primitive..Primitive Alphabet. i) than The Etrufcan (No. Greek. Cadmean. flecting the other two. angles .

anfwering to the Hebrews. being uttered feebly in fome words and more ftrongly in others. Bardic. and for which. which is partly corroborated by ( what Gefenius fays in fpeaking of Cheth (which is no other cc than the long E or nra of the Greeks): While the Hebrew was a living language. and Phoenician (fee Tablet). or 6. only one was ufed (the 8th). fome ages fubfequent." This opinion of a duality of found as well as of form is greatly ftrengthened by the clofe refemblance exifting between the letters He and Cheth in the ancient and modern Hebrew. or flender E.. anfwering to the Cheth of the Hebrew. viz. 2. VFVVA I. nail. At the time of the introduction of letters into Greece by Cadmus. DIGAMMA. i is the Greek Digamma: the Etrufname. It is our opinion that in the primitive times the Aflyrians ufed both long and fhort E or f n and Cheth n ). peg. : Prim. Etrufcan & Phoenician. Samaritan. and of which all the Hebrew grammarians fail to give any meaning to its name.52 Author's Opinion of the n of the E. Cad mean. F or V. or hook. * * This is one of the letters of which there is fome doubt. this letter had two grades of found. anfwers to the modern Hebrew in form and meaning. EPSILON. We think it anfwers to the power and form of {lender E or E<7r<nAoi/. It is wanting in the Etrufcan and Pelafgic alphabets the nearer! approach to it in form is the Palmyrene. E^iAo* of the Greeks. and this is the only letter' in the of its modern Hebrew alphabet whofe form is fignificant No. The primitive Vau VAU. the Greeks had the character 6 to diftinguifh it from their Ainfworth tells us that this letter long E or yjra. (the 5th) was ufed both long and fhort among the ancient Greeks. can and Pelafgic (3 and 4) are precifely the fame as the .

Old Canarefe. as the element of that God-like gift to man for through it God fpeaks to man. and fometimes turned it into V. or V. the worfhip of the departed true and living God. wanting the top outline. and the name of the character of men. The (W) characters in all the remaining alphabets have a ftrong This fixth letter of the primitive and family likenefs. down. fpeaks to God in prayer. as the numeral One (i). Ainfworth tells us that the old Latins letter from the Eolians. of notation had fome reference to the mythology of the 1 This (ingle character alfo is the primitive Vau ancients. /^-keavem . ^z-kyam. " Ann? the chief of the Chaldean triad . The Hebrews alfo thus we . Sanfcrit. Vide the in all its article in of it various phafes. the firft or the beginning this character forming the primitive numeral One (i) y as feen on the Black Marble Obelifk. received this . Among the primitive races numbers were confidered to have myftic And with this view it was thought the fyftem powers. It " <c the ancient ones of the earth had appears that when from their primeval faith. Hebrew alphabets is a moft myfterious character. praife. The Eolians ufed it the latter way. the Greeks turned it firft to the right and then to the left. and conIn fad. V. but corrupted in and was no doubt copied from it .Primitive Alphabet. in fhape as the Greek Digamma. viz.. U U threefold fymbolical reprefentation ift. as the emblem of the Deity. 1 ^-kyamu firft each language. where the author Vide Appendix. and jrdly. treats . made it their twentieth (2Oth) letter. the Latins fequently to the primitive (No. retained in Tulugu. i). the initial of Cf The Word" in feveral of the earlieft Oriental languages. they retained this character as a jj. VV. and the Bull infcriptions from Nineveh. New . but turned it upfide pofition. Mafonic emblems. : the 2nd. inftead of OFIS writing ovis thereby mowing its relationfhip to the Hebrew Vau. fame 53 The Bardic is the primitive. and meditation. gave this character the phonetic power of fee whence our double is derived. and man alphabet.

54

Author

s

Opinion of the

Canarefe, ^z-kiavu ; and Tamul, ^z-rtie. Laftly, the in its horizontal portion (as feen upon Michaud's figure Caillou, fee figure 2, plate i, Appendix) is the primi-

Lamed, the initial of the Logos, the emblem of the Invifible God by whom all things were created. Therefore, I think we may reafonably conclude that the early Chaldeans worfhipped darkly under this The fymbolical reprefentation of form
tive

myfterious

:

the Divine Logos
yv TTpos rov @fov,
x<x,\

Truth."
effence."

cc

Truth

o Ei/ Aoyos, xal o Aoyog '/)&*? ?i/ cc @io? ?v o Aoyof." Thy Word is of the Divine is the perfonification
]

u

This Vide the cap on the mafonic fymbols. in its triple character, is the Star of the Eaft, figure alfo, worfhipped by the ancient Magi, and proves to be the
facred pentagram, or triple triangle, blending one into the other the grand arcanum of the Cabalifts, dif-

covered, according to tradition, to Mofes on Mount Sinai, and has been handed down from father to fon without interruption, without the ufe of letters, for they
this

were not permitted to write them down. The ftudy of pentagram leads all true Magi, or wife men, to the knowledge of the Ineffable Name, which is above every name, and to whom every knee mall bow. Again, in this figure we behold the element or foundation of See chapter on mafonic fymbols. Freemafonry.
Primitive.

Cadmean. Etrufcan.

Samaritan.

Phoenician.

Roman. M.H.

6.

ZAIN, ZETA, or ZED.
the character Zain,
r,

Some

Hebraifts contend that

is

fwordy amongft
1

whom

a reprefentation of a weapon or is Gefenius, who further adds,

John

i.

i.

with God, and

"In the beginning was God was the

the

Word, and the Word was

Primitive Alphabet.
cc

55

refembles in form in all the more ancient alphabets." Others, again, fay it is the picture of armour. Now, with refpect to the former likenefs, certainly the modern Zain bears a tolerable refemblance
this
letter

which

weapon of fome fort, but this will not hold good with any of the more ancient alphabets. The ancient Hebrew character appears to have been loft, unlefs we allow the Samaritan (No. 4) or the Phoenician (No. 5) to be the archaic form of the Hebrew letter Zain in
to a
;

thofe cafes

from the
I

fee that they are derived immediately I primitive (No. i) as to the fignification.

we can

know of no word under
;

the letter Zain in all the lexicons have confulted, that can give any fatisfactory meaning as to its figure but as the fibilants, Zain, Samech, and Sin, commute with TJadde, under the root py, znn (or zanain phonetically), <c to be fharp," <c to prick," I think
its original meaning. Again, as the (or Zain) interchanges with Gimel, we have <c we can fee how to protect." jn gnn, or ganain,

we

mall yet find

letter

Tfadde

Now

the primitive letter with its Jharp, prickly, chevaux-defrife figure has degenerated into a weapon of defence, or Jword. Again, as to its original figure refembling armour:

whether they mean by the ''original" the Samaritan or but this I know Phoenician, I am at a lofs to know for certain, that I have feen in a collection of ancient
;

armour, a cafque and cuirajs very much refembling in and this profile the primitive character Zain (No. i); we can trace to the original ganain cc to promeaning This point is not tect,'' /. e., a protection for the body. of very great confequence, yet fo far we think the

argument is on our fide. The Cadmean (No. 2) is formed from No. i by taking away the back and bottom outline and placing the remaining figure upThe Etrufcan (No. right, which forms our prefent Z. the Samaritan (No. 4), and Phoenician (No. 5), are 3), The Roman all derived from the primitive (No. i). is taken from the Cadmean. (No. 6)

56
Primitive.

Author's Opinion of the
Cadmean.
Etrufcan.
Pelafgic.

Anc. Heb.

Roman.

i.

2.

This letter is the n, CH, HETA, H, or E. of H, and it appears to me that the phonetic parent power of this primitive character was the long E, but the more modern Greeks were not contented that this letter mould retain both the long and fhort found of E, therefore they gave the long found the form of the ancient Hebrew Cheth (No. 5), which is alfo the form (with a flight modification) of the Samaritan, the Phoenician, and the Himyaritic (fee Dr. Adam Littleton's Latin " Lexicon," article E), and was copied by the Romans, from whom we have received it in the form of It H, all evidently derived from the primitive No. i. is, in fact, no other than a hard afpirate inverted with the phonetic power of the Hebrew Cheth, and the fame as the Greek ^, Chi, /. e ., a hard afpirate and in many Latin words borrowed from the Greek, it is plainly fub;

CHETH

ftituted for

it,

humi, &c.

And

as %<X'AW, for halo ; p^aw, for hio ; p^a^t, in Latin, michi, nichil for mihi, nihil.

Where he

Gefenius fays that rrn, Cheth, fignifies gets the word I know not.

"an
It is

enclofure."

not to be found in his "Lexicon," neither is it in " Buxtorf ;" but Parkhurfl has it with a very different meaning. He

fays that rpn chaith, fingular in regimine, a living creature,

'I III
*

an animal including birds, from the root TI cc to live" or " animal "life," alfo feems ufed for the appetite." A P. ^/. C. A YOD, IOTA, or I, T, which Po. XV. R. Et. E. " hand," as the fignifies hand of man is the chief organ or inftrument of
CJ.

his

power and operations.

very extenfive agency, pofleflion, dominion, and the like. Gefenius fays, " that it probably fignifies hand, and that it had refe-

ufed in

a

Hence the Hebrew Yod is manner for power, ability,

Primitive Alphabet.

cj

rence to the Samaritan Yod, a rude reprefentation of three fingers ftretched out." 1 fhould think it more probable that it had reference to the primitive figure i. The wedge was ufed, perhaps, as the fymbol of phyfical and intellectual power as the wedge is of great importance as a powerful mechanical agent, fo the hand appears to be the reprefentative of power, ability, and dominion. In ancient times pillars were erected with the Yod or hand cut or carved upon them to commemorate

We

:

particular event, or as a trophy or monument of victory, as can be feen in Gefenius' monuments of

fome

parts of the Old Teftament that it was cuftomary to erect fimilar find, Scriptures ftructures with the figure of the hand cut upon them,

Phoenicia

:

and

in various

we

emblematical of power and dominion. 2 And to this in the Eaft Indies the of a hand is the day picture emblem of power and authority. The Yod is alfo the initial of the Ineffable Name, the fource of all power,

This vowel is often majefty, and dominion. with e in the Latin ; in Arabic it is compounded
might,
alfo ufed

for
as

e>

i,

and

jy,

and

its

character

is

nearly

the fame

the

Hebrew Yod.

The

Samaritan

and

the Phoenician, with the Moabitic and ancient Hebrew Yods, are evident wanderings from the original, being the largeft in all the ancient alphabets ; and this is mown

by the
cc

allufion

to the

Yot

or

Yod, Matthew

v.

1

8

:

Verily, I fay
tittle

jot or one

be

fulfilled."

A

unto you, till heaven and earth pafs, one mall in no wife pafs from the law till all prefumptive proof that the Tod was or

had been the
it is

fmalleft letter in the

Hebrew

in the

Syriac,

Zend (which

is

alphabet, as the ancient Perfian),

and the Palmyrene, from which the modern Hebrew is derived. With the above-named exceptions, the form of the primitive letter Yod or I is carried through all
the ancient alphabets down to the prefent ancients frequently changed their I into

Roman.

The

U

to ftrengthen

1

2
viii.

See Samuel xv. 12. Literally, " the " to cut out or carve the hand ;" 3,

Very

far-fetched indeed.
pillar of the hand." 2 Samuel alfo I Chronicles xviii. 3.

are ufed as the Cadmean. or L." Gefenius fays that it alfo C anything crooked . where both numeral One (i).Heb. Ainfworth certainly muft have had an obliquity . Gr." or the acceptation of the word. L 7. &c. A. Primitive." fpit. KAPPA. Etruf. A." but whatever the word means. 2. for if we look at the Tablet of Alphabets we mall find that all the Kaphs are crooked only on one fide until we come to the primitive (No. according to the general " the hand. i. M. max#mus. optamus.& Pelafgic. Ainfworth modern Hebrew character fignifies which the figure refembles. for it is crooked on both fides. as feen on the Black Marble Obelifk. KAPH. LAMBDA.58 Author's Opinion of the the found. the The Latin C anfwers in phonetic power letter. This primitive letter often third Kaph fupplies the redundant Koph or Q. fays that the cc a goad or LMD. The AfTyrians alfo ufed their Yod or I. max/mus." it like {C the hand bent. i) . or K. fignifies hollow of the hand. our lexicon-makers feem to forget that the prefent Kaph is a modern invention. Gimel or C. It is commuted for Cheth or Ch. VLA 3 and 4. as well as their Vau or U. Cadmean. as for optimus. Pelafgic. Etrufcan. as to Kj Claudius Caefar (Klaudios Kaifar). QD. and that the farther we go back to the primitive age the Jefs is or " the hollow of the hand. frequently as the fame character. then we fee that it is crooked in the fuller! fenfe of the word. I. . LAMED. Primitive.Hebrew. 6." and this appears to be the fignifies right thing in the right place.

5) is beginning the Roman fhape." -roV. i). cc It c< fignifies. No. Cadmean. it of left handle." D-> the motion 1 feems to be derived from cc tumult or tumultuous Im.orEtruf. reprefenting an Arab driving a yoke of oxen with a fledge. . and vice it refembled fuch an article. it is evidently the letter a corruption of the primitive No. with the handle afTume The ancient Hebrew (No. and 4. 3 turned upfide down. vw. Sam. to Cadmus having given it a fort In the Etrufcan and Pelafgic. "^ax-mp*. and in his hand the long-pointed ftick or the ox-goad. 7 is the Roman L. 2) day. and forms. in confequence. with a flight departure from reprefents in Syria at the prefent its original fimplicity. and it is made to ftand upon them. Nos. LMD. for beating or thrafhing out the corn. the very counterpart of the primitive letter (No. as <c the teacher. or. Mu. with other letters upon the fame ftone. and proves to be the moft archaic form of hitherto found upon any ancient document . i." and I Aquila renders it. a little more verfdy to fay modeft. one or Em. root . overwhelming evidence of the truth of the primitive This 4th character eaft covered on the M alphabet. \ D^O." and with the prefix o . Moab.A. i. an inftrument for doing fo a goad. and is to be feen in ufe have now before The Cadmean (No. prefent Primitive. of vifion. he would have been nearer the mark. w. an ox-goad. Mem. The modern Greek (No. wv. fays. This weapon has been ufed from the earlieft ages of the world. If he had faid it had the likenefs of a reaping-hook. Gefenius. 59 rendering crooked things ftraight. only its legs are equal. is to be feen on the Moabitic Hone lately difof Jordan. Pelaf. Bardic. fignifies to teach perhaps.H. fignifying hence the fea is called Im. we fee elongated." me an engraving. or to train cattle. 6) is the fame as 3 and 4. 2. the fame figure.Primitive Alphabet.

driven to exert their ingenuity. and hence the wavy character of this letter M. As corroborative proof. 2) has The been deprived of its top and left fide outline.60 in Author's Opinion of the its liability to be ruffled and raifed tumultuous motion by the action of the wind upon its furface. the defcendants of Mitzraim feem to have had a faint recollection of the principle upon which the primitive alphabet had been constructed. This ^rd character I take to be a fair fpecimen of the Etrufcan and Pelafgic M. of A the primitive letter No. He thought fo." boles des Egyptiens compares wherein he clearly mows that the fignifications of the Egyptian figns are nearly the fame as the initial of the glance at the Table correfponding word in Hebrew. it is difficult to decide from whence they came but from the likenefs exifting between their alphabets. i. they reforted to the clumfy expedient of hieroglyphical writing to record the facls of their early This hypothecs is borne out by a work rehiftory. . I mould take them to have come originally from the Plains of Shinar at a very early period. from the non-refemblance nefs. original. and. ftill bearing the family likeBardic and Phoenician (fee Table of Alphathe three bets) ftill bear the primitive characteriftics The only one that does not mow any refemblance points. Frederick Portal a ceux des Hebreux. the knowledge of the primitive alphabet on their difperfion from the plains of Shinar.. differing . no doubt. 5 and 6) are alike. of the Etrufcan and Pelafgic people being loft in origin myth. to have fettled down for a time in the Peloponnefus about 1900 B. fomewhat from the The . will convince the moft fceptiof Comparative Alphabets cal that all the ancient and modern Ms are derived from : would fuppofe. and fubfequently to have fpread themfelves over Greece and Italy. to the primitive is the modern Hebrew o Gefenius that cc the fignification of the name is doubtful. for they have adopted precifely the Jame figure to repreIt is pofTible that the fons of Ham loft Jent Water. The Cadmean (No." fays. The Samaritan and ancient Hebrew (Nos. " Les Symcently publimed by M.C.

Roman. or Pelaf. again. but the character in the original alphabet (he cannot mean the primitive) was perhaps ftill more conformed to its name. Appendix. or Nun is found in Mem. " /'. as we can fee very plainly that Nun is taken from Mem ." as being the offspring of its mother. .. or perpetuated. take the primitive as the foundation. /. Nun is taken But this feems from Mem. Nu. y "a child or If we fon. i.. we fhall fee that the latter is taken from the former. Hebraifts) of calling it pi Nun. 2. 1 See chapter on Mafonic emblems. it is generally faid to fignify a fifh. has two forms of this letter the one ufed at the beand the middle of words (j). or a fifh is found in water or. 61 of the modern character to its name. This 1 character alfo forms the Aflyrian numeral as feen j. e. Gefenius to be too far-fetched to be the right meaning. Again. confequently it is the offspring. Mem. e. . upon the Black Marble Obelifk. e. drawn out. Moabitic. hence the reafon (according to fome j prolonged. we fhall find there is more truth in the latter fignification than the former." This is not the firft time that He Gefenius alludes darkly to an original alphabet. but what analogy there is between the modern character and a but if we take the fifh I am at a lofs to imagine primitive form of Mem and Nun. Nun. cc child or fon. The modern Hebrew alphabet pi.. Cadmean. or En." of Mem. Bardic. i. that the fignification "Fijh does not fuit the common fays fquare character. the other at ginning the end ( ) . viz. Primitive.Primitive Alphabet." Others. water. Etruf. fay it is called Nun from another fignification. or that one is found in the other. a fifh is taken from the water. . in plain terms.

Cadmean." and as evidently taken from the preceding one. The Cadmean (No. its circular figure. it The Romans (No. and this is precifely the cafe with Nos. I am cabaean princes inclined to believe that ifTue Nun is or offspring." Then.62 Author s Opinion of the feems to think there had been an earlier alphabet than the Samaritan or Phoenician. not appear even in the Phoenician alphabet. and in clofe relationfhip in from Nin pj . little 6) placed upright and gave it a ornamentation. and 5. SIGMA. and which bears a ftrong refemblance to the Phosnician letter. therefore it is its immediate iflue or offspring. or a bed for fupport at meals. 3. Prim. for he fays. or Ess. The Chaidee or fquare character is alfo derived from the Phoenician. Cadmean. e. Pelafgic. from Syriac fays cf In this inftance he perhaps the fame as the letter. called the Chaldee or fquare character. at an earlier period. in the early " Grammar/' that the Hebrew letters now in part of his ufe. only the characters are reverfed." Subfecc he fays The oldefl form of thefe letters does quently. as upon a . a fitting together. are not of the oldeft or original form. which. where can we look for this oldeft form but in the primitive before us? After all that has been faid. On the coins of the Macis found another character. according to the Eaftern fafhion of reclining. 4." /. 2) has its top and left fide outline (fame as Mem) taken away. Gefenius appears finding a be driven to great for the name of this to ftraits in meaning Samech is Semka. was probably in general ufe (alluding to the Samaritan). Etrufcan. Roman ^ DD ' ^AMECH. " immediate the form of the letter is form and found. Samaritan.

OMICRON. is called the Scythian bow. 2). is the fame reverfed. 5. 2. 2) Ainfworth fays that it is taken from the c< Phoenician alphabet without variation. i. can fee The Samaritan (No. to fuftain. 1 fignifying. year. fignifying them. we fee by the Phoenician character that." and by looking at i) we fee at once the true of a prop or fupport ufed to this day in all parts figure of the world.Primitive Alphabet. according to The Pelafgic is a corruption. true pofition. f 3." By looking at the Table of Alphabets. inftead of the Greek Sigma being taken from it. V4 i. OIN. as feen (No. The Moabitic is the fame as the Phoenician. Cadmean. frequently ufed upon the " initial for Shina. bed. 2. . and in that common and primitive plaftering. building the body. therefore they added the fupport or prop to make it like what the name fignified. but not in figure 1 . to uphold. 4. . 5) is what we Greco-Romaic. Phoenician. fupport evidently derived to " 63 The Syriac word Semka is from the Hebrew Samech. 6. fupport for X Greek Sigma (No. Etrufcan (No. Etrufcan. or O. the The bedftead or ftretcher. the primitive prop. and we fee the fame change of form in is what the Cadmean (No. but they could not reconcile it with its name. i)." Samaritan. The AfTyrians ufed another form or modification of the Samech. call a may we s. The alteration that Cadmus made in the primitive was the taking away of the right fide outline. 3) its The leaving the perfect Greek Sigma." or " Samech (No. there is every probability that the Phoenicians had retained fomewhat of its original figure. Roman. in the various arts of life rope-dancing. partaking of both forms but that it is gradually merging into the Roman is This primitive Samech Black Marble Obelifk as an Primitive.

and the Bardic (feen in (No. O ^ we cannot but imagine they were made perfect in every refpect for the primitive ufe of man. 4). and gave it the figure and power of double o (w). 3. 4. i) bears to its name than any other lefs am in the alphabet. TSADDE. leaving the refemblance to the Diamond. yet fome ages fubfequently they (the Greeks) added another letter to their alphabet. I will not pretend to fay. Omega. 5). and gave it the form of little o. No. commuted with Samech. I. round form refembles the human eye. Primitive. Etrufcan. The upper portion of the figure (No. and the lower fhort o But leaving this as outlines. The Etrufcan upper Phoenician part femi- The Cadmean circular. "an eye" to an eye in the modern nius its Where Hebrew is the refemblance ? Gefe"it has rewhich from character to ference I get out of the difficulty. 2. the Moabitic is and early Hebrew are circular. (o) an open queftion. 5). 5) growing in likenefs to the Roman." I confefs pleafed with the likenefs that the primitive character Oin (No.64 Author's Opinion of the the general rule. or great o. Although Cadmus at firft only took a part of this figure. Ancient Hebrew. HV. approximating to the Roman. the Samaritan (No. i) was meant to reprefent the long and fhort O. The Phoenician (No. to the Phoenician Oin (No. or Omicron. i) would form or Omicron. Whether the figure (No. but I think it not at all improbable for if we are to believe that letters are of Divine origin. i of its top and upper half right and left the long o (). fays. a much greater human eye than the (No. 2). Zain and . conjointly will bear a refemblance to the primitive ("). the diamond fhape. the Tablet) are alike. Ts. And thofe two figures letter . Moabitic. has the 2. we mall fee that Cadmus deprived No. and looking at the characters i and 2.

Gefenius." mation ? But How the objects reprefented by to harrow" fponding word Sadad. to break all to pieces." and fecondly. of the Britifh Mufeum. ancient Hebrew (No. and under the word rm> Sadady we find the " meaning to matter to pieces. in patent the exaft triple counterpart of the primitive Tfadde." And in Gefenius. it has no likenefs to the prop. 65 The Hebrew philologifts do not appear to have ftudied very deeply in order to arrive at the fignification of this letter. we find it to fignify and rrni. are modifications of the fame figure. In ParkhurnVs Lexicon. Etrufcan (No. The Greeks ufed the letter Z as an equivalent for the Hebrew letter Tfade. but it calls Some has a great refemblance to the harrow. 3). for he had previoufly ftated it to give that meaning. 2). letter u> Sin. at the beginning of the letter Tfadde. perhaps they faw fome refemblance in the modern character which induced them it hooks is it may." mentioned word appears to be a denominative noun. and 2 Moabitic (No. there is not phonetic power that will give it the above fignification. 2 the power an article perfon in London lately has patented " The Harrow'' and which is. . which can mean nothing elfe than the harrow itfelf. wifely abftains from faying anything as to the probable meaning of it. Sade. Deutch.Primitive Alphabet. in Be that as any word equal in his "Grammar. " to break or to matter to pieces the clods of dry ground. gives this charadler of Samech . formed from the primitive noun iu? Sad." that <c in many inftances the'letters exhibit no refemblance their to could they after their modern forlet us turn to the primitive. and the true 1 The figure of the primitive letter Tfadhe (No. i). c< a field or cultivated piece of ground that This laft had undergone the procefs of harrowing. and in its combination with other letters on the Moabitic Hone it forms Hebrew words which the Samech could not do. and fee what we can make of the letter. 4). cc 1 which he facl:. under the corre- names. Sin. or when it took the name of fifli- How impoflible to fay . Mr.

G. in Cauje reference to the primitive Awleph the Refh. *as Greeks had two characters had not in the reft of the (Rho). & Pn. u a head . 2. 5 reverfed). P and R into their alphabet for their P. will be the firft change from the . may ftrain all their mental and ocular powers to no purpofe to make the modern Hebrew letter Refh fignificant of its name. P As firft letter an in the primitive alphabet (Awleph) is in figure in the fame alfo. and ancient Hebrew Dawleth takes the fame form therefore Cadmus difplayed his the precifely the . M. diftinguifh of the two forms given to this fpeaking " It feems to early Greeks. to from the above-named letters. . R but the great German fcholar forgot that its moft archaic like the primitive in fhape. it feems to me. Rho wifdom in adding a right leg (as feen figure it No.. comes the Greek figure " P. according to RESH. Littleand a hoft of modern philoloton. from which. equilateral triangle. This letter. the great Firft the firft or higheft of its kind in figure." but its primitive form. viz. to the transformation it underwent by the hands fubject of Cadmus. which they : Ainfworth. with the head " turned back. took the former of them to its figure. . 2) was more fame form as the Alpha alfo the Phoenician. fo Rem being the fymbol of the triune Deity. Phoenician (No.66 The Ancient Ones of the c. E. gifts. Ainfworth. It will be feen (by referring to the Tablet) that the Phoenicians. 2). Dr. or . and fome of the early Greeks. fays Latins. 'Earth. Gefenius. judging this figure to be the moft fignificant of the modified power of the B. being : form obliqued to the right. Samaritan. ron. at once folves the difficulty for as the is" (fee article B). Rbo. obferving that the for one found. or R. A. RHO. denotes " M^ head" and has reference to the Gefenius. letter by the probable me that the alphabet. PC. gave form (No.

a). but in different pofitions. the Dawleth being the fecond. T. or A " I will" 2 (No. R. " Dawleth or D (No." beginning . -|> 'A. "to rule. 3). " ruler? or with the Aleph prefix. H we enter into life " or. 4). " I will rule" Rodah. Arodah. and He the third. it would feem to read. in taking the letters Jeriatim with their Ca" The baliftic meanings. the higheft or beginning (is) the door by which fmgular future. D. then collectively. for inftance : 2. it will be feen there are four characters in the primitive alphabet which we call equilateral triangles. N. n 4. " a door or entrance . fignifies the firft alfo the initial of 1 perfon AL. or E (No. Awleph.firfl or Mighty One. i). it will be " I will" and R D H. or one word (the Trinity in Unity). taking the laft three letters. " / will rule" See Appendix." Raefh or R (No.. it feems to be derived from mn. fignifying "to be" or "to exift" Therefore. 67 original. 3. (imply a contradion for "0. and let the reader judge for himfelf. I (am}. with a mutable yet or omiflible final n. " The " the head. I will not take in meaning will upon myfelf to fay there is any hidden the combination of thefe four characters. but and give the Cabaliftic meaning of each letter in order. . . Three in One! 1 3 (See Mafonic Emblems.) 2 N." ergo. "the myfterious . 2. -i. though of uncertain meaning. Mighty One. R D H. By a reference to the Tablet. H <] or E. and He. i. viz.Primitive Alphabet.A' A.

3). letter . letters either in the have no double correfponding Cadmean. in the primitive alphabet. 2). Sin differed little or nothing from characters alike in in phonetic ( D ) Samech power ..&Moab. Again. u?." In the courfe of time. Shin w. Phoenician (No. fignifies tooth or cc is derived from the teeth. a meaning iignificant of its form and there cannot be feen. neither is it in accordance with the fimplicity of the primitive alphabets to have two letters with one found. and carried through the Samaritan (No. but ufe Sin inftead. Phoenician. The Arabians have no Samech. pronounced without doubt as Sh. A. or Pelafgic but . Samaritan. the Hebrews thought it neceflary to adopt Sin into their alphabet. 5).H. Etrufcan. it muft be evident that Sin is a and confequently was not to be found redundant. as I have fhow. We we have a clofe refemblance to it in the ancient Hebrew (No. endeavoured to mud or mire.68 Primitive. SHIN or SH.form in the modern Hebrew alphabet viz. diftinguifhed only by the diacritic point. " is confidered the greateft authority in thefe matters) fays. when the " Hebrew alphabet underwent fome confiderable change from the ancient Hebrew form to the prefent modern figure.. and Palmyrene There are two (No. I." viz. and in unpointed Hebrew this is ftill the fame. that Shin and Sin were originally the fame letter. and . every primitive letter has. The Ancient Ones of the Earth. it would feem. 4). fays Gefenius. Sh. and the Syrians ufe their Semka for both. Shin. with all the arbitrary ftraining poffible. for no other reafon. than that the Arabians ufed it as well as the Syrians. Palmy rene. which. and u>. Gefenius (who the meaning its name gives us. Sin. the leaft affinity or likenefs between the character u>. to the modern Hebrew. and in the Moabitic. form of the letter in all the Shemitim alphapronged From thefe premifes. pu>. 2. Sin.

69 bets. the name of the letter Tauv or T. or Te. which was 6. & Moab. 5. the ancient : Hebrew is alfo ufed finifli. Primitive. the illiterate who cannot fign their name. Hence. mark X May letter be a type or fign prepared and defigned by God .Primitive Alphabet. and Phoenician. Samaritan. three upper and two lower. by of their letter T from the fountain-head the Aflyrian The word TatfV or primitive (fee figures i and 2). fig- nifying "a mark or fign" or in Arabic." in or Being the letter the "bound Hebrew and it was ufed as a fubfcription or even to the preto writings or documents. 2. Etruf. not this crofs. & Pelaf. and as the Latins from the Greeks. i). as feen upon the Black Marble Obelifk. the early final Greek alphabets. fo the Greeks from or more properly fpeaking. Tau. the hieroglyphical reprefentation of five teeth. I. Heb. Cadmean. has the form of a crofs in fact. Samaritan. throughout the whole of the ancient alphabets. the means of Cadmus. probably (fays Gefenius).. alfo^ufed confiding of four elements. which in the ancient Hebrew." and which can be feen from the five ancient letters at the head of this article (from 2 to 5). Phoenician. clofely locked in each other. Tauv. An." in a final fenfe. This character is as the Aflyrian or primitive numeral IV. a mark in the form of a crofs. and from which the Greeks and Romans took the form of their T. with the exception of the Palmyrene and the modern Hebrew. branded upon the flanks and necks of horfes and camels. fent day. make their mark or fign. all evidently derived from the primitive (No. in. as laft "extremity. borrowed the form early Greek.

. Is it too much to fay that many. may not this letter. or " // is Crofs. laft: " the fignifying beginning and fini/h" which latter fenfe is not conveyed in the Greek Omega.70 Paul The Ancient Ones of the Earth. to mow that every primitive letter has a fignificant or fymbolical meaning. the myfterious Word. "a Jhadow of things to come ?" It is generally fays. John we have our character? Lord and the I am faying. Alpha cc the beginning and Omega and the laft. when we find its Divine Author. the Lord of Light and Glory. allowed. as St." I am Again. that the whole of the Mofaic ceremonial law was a typical inftitution. or to be. language. the letters of the primitive alphabet partake of this typical In the Revelation by St. the mighty God. the redemption of man. to prefigure fome future thing or event. and exclaiming with his expiring breath : finijhed!" . and proved by the New Teftament Scriptures. be typical of the completion of that great and glorious work. if not all. upon the Tauv. If it had been addrefled to the when Hebrew was the almoft univerfal Jewifh nation. I am Awlefh and Tauv the firft and the the firft and laft letters of the Hebrew alphabet. figning the Divine compact between God and man with his own precious blood. which means and as I have endeavoured nothing more than great O firft ." This was addrefled to the Greek Church and in that age Omega was the laft letter in the Greek alphabet. Alpha and Omega fc the ending. I fay. there would have been much more fignificance in the words.

in India in Brahma. in their Chronos. therefore. The 4. but all writers afcribe to antiquity. and hence the number three has become religious rites. the fame great and holy name. IV. or (as fome call it) a trichotemy. a facred number. but this was relinquifhed in confequence of Chriftians having ufed it in demonftrating the doctrine The Cabalifts ufe a of the Trinity. it is obfervable alfo in their temples and tombs. the EJfence exifting (Plate of fig. . 5 and 6). 4). and alfo in the form Neoplatonifts afTerted that triadi. in The involved in the greateft The moft ancient fymbol ufed by the Jews writing the myfteriotis Ineffable name was by three Yods in a circle (Plate i.CHAPTER TRIADISM. Vifhnu and Belus. fig. or triadifm. A " Michaud's Syftem of Trichotomies throughout the Ancient World " Caillou The Logos The Ineffable Name. races of men. It ifm was a theology given by Divine Revelation. in Phoenicia and Apollo . and ever will be. Jupiter. to have been adopted by the earlieft feems. and almoft every its is it nation retains the idea of a triadifm in origin of this idea great obfcurity. Nor is the idea confined to thefe fyftems of Seeva. and is. religion . ROM | the human mind the earlieft ages there has been in an idea of a triplicity. fig. applitriangular form of cable to that Being who was.

1 If M. about the rule of the fun by day and the moon by night. Faber's Mjfteries. Thus. but : . on the afTumption of a primeval revelation. give to the antiquary an idea of a common origin with them. the equilateral triangle. It is probable that the worfhip of the heavenly bodies originated partly in an indiftincl: tradition of a primitive revelation. and which originally came from Ur of the Chaldees. Zaba. would be very likely to incline them to afcribe divinity to thofe creatures whofe majefty appeared fo glorious. i where their worfhip was firft eftablifhed " " Myfteries of the Cabiri appears from Faber's <c that it took its rife in Babylonia. and about the fun being the "greater light'' and the moon "a The tradition of fuch a power and influence being given letter light. and thence carried into Greece. moon. The inhabitants of Thebes. Macedonia. which confifted in the worfhip of the fun. . "Lettre a M. the Pyramids of Egypt 1 and the tombs of Etruria.J2 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. It requires no ftretch of faith to believe that. but more particularly the (lands of Samothracia and Imbros. and liars. The term Sabeanifm is derived from the Hebrew word buy. therefore. boft" and is employed to exprefs what was probably the earlieft form of Polytheifm." 2 et Precis du Syfteme Hieroglyphique. Dacier. and that their form. and who rejected with horror the profane reveries of Sabeanifm 2 the ark It is uncertain it . firil arofe in Chaldea. was foon introduced into Egypt. the pyramidal ftructures of the Eaft. He fays The of Nimrod to force his abominations upon the attempt reluctant confciences of mankind produced a war between his followers and thofe who ftill perfevered in commemorating the event of the deluge. when it came to work upon the fervid and corrupt imaginations of Oriental people. Sabeanifm." to the fun and moon. Lemnos. and it is well known that pagan nations in all parts of the world ufed the fame form in their facred buildings for inftance. called the hoft of heaven. from their refemblance to . Champolion it Champolion. they brought with From them. worfhipped a trinity of deities under the name of the Cabiri. Paris.e. fome broken traditions would be "a handed down by the antediluvian patriarchs. Even the architectural remains of Mexico. Herodotus informs us that the temple of Belus at Babylon was pyramidal. and partly in a kind of rude natural theology of the human mind. and by the immediate defcendants of Noah. i. is right in his reading of the Egyptian hierowill appear that the Pyramids were built by the Ifraelites. and whofe influence was fb extenfive and benign. glyphs.

and alfo 2nd figure of the From this altar it is mafonic fymbols. for he fays in a note (" Nineveh and its Remains") " It would not be difficult for thofe who are apt at inveft the arrow-head or of ancient fymbols to difcovering the hidden meaning of the AfTyrian charadters. and now preferved in the Bibliotheque Nationale 1 a Paris. that the language of the myfteries was the language of the gods. the ftrongeft of all arguments will be found in perhaps the remarkable ftone altar found amongft the ruins of Babylon. and they will be found throughout to refer at once to the cataftrophe of the deluge.) feen that the figure had been worfhipped in Chaldea as a facred object. nothing more than a mythological account of thefe events ." there are alfo in the Britifh 1 Called Mufeum two conical ftones. either as the bafis or element of the or of fome emblematical primitive written character. Appendix. Chaldee or Hebrew" to Sanchoniatho. the firft and moft ancient language that was . and that this language was the myfteries According were adopted by the Phoenicians. " Michaud's Caillou . . (See vignette. Mr. 73 was was converted into a fuperftitious idolatry. with the fame figure (referred to above) engraven upon them. but of Egypt and AfTyria . called landmarks. wedge the form of an equilateral arTuming. and for ever united with the worfhip of the heavenly bodies. in fact. Layard feems to have anticipated the employment of this interefting relic as an argument in favour of fome new theory of this kind." the Samothracians had a peculiar dialect of their own which prevailed in their facred rites and Jamblichus. The myfteries of the Cabiri are.Micbaud's feftival Caillou. the meaning attached to its form. as it frequently does. whence But they were carried into Greece by the Pelafgi. and to the impious rites of that Sabeanifm which was united by Nimrod with the Diodorus Siculus informs us that Arkite fuperftition. fpoken upon earth. in " his work on the Myfteries of the Egyptians." tells us that "the language ufed in the Myfteries of the plainly Cabiri was not that of Greece.

collateral evidences of the truth of theory. to diftinguifh between one and the other. Whenever the MefTrs. that this fingle figure had been worfhipped by the Chaldeans in the days of remote antiquity. or of another wellknown Eaftern object of worfhip (the Phallus). as being the reprethe firft of the Chaldean fentative of the god Anu facred triad. but through the many employment of cuneiform groups with or without any adjuncts. or powers.74 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and as it is well known that numbers amongft the early Chaldeans were fuppofed to be inverted with myftic powers. 1 of Rawlinfon my Rawlinfon have recourfe to the cuneiform. fome of them borne on carriages. and the laxity of the ancients. &c. from which they can only efcape by attributing all the difficulties to the For inftance. carved. or reprefentations of ideas or powers of their various gods . they feem to get into a maze. There is an infcription upon this interefting relic of antiquity. 1 triangle. but they add. Again. they think they have determined the name of the god Anu as the firft of the triad . Bil Niprit. fome by engraved The We . which make it moft difficult inconfiftencies in the for Bil. and as the things are mentioned we have only to guefs at their ideas as to how thofe figns were like the things. as well as its From this we infer that the mythological mode of expreffion. molten. ignorance. "The phonetic reading of the fecond god of the triad is a matter of fpeculation. the careleffnefs.. was to the laft degree lax and fluctuating. viz. and to find of the facred triad. might throw great light upon this myfterious object. or fented. images." . mythic properties.. and this idea is darkly fhadowed forth in the writings and doctrines taught by the philofophers of ancient days. if properly deciphered. with facred and in it a direct illuftration Babylonians worfhipped figns. this numeral One (i) comes into immediate contact with the Chaldean mythology. as my own with I do not adopt the opinions refpeft I mention them as fingular coincidences and ftrong to the god Anu. One thing feems certain. the fingle wedge is the true figure of the numeral One(i\ as difcovered by the author on the Black Marble Obelifk. or actions they imagined thofe figns reprefind they ufed images. the ban's of Chaldean worfhip and theogony. fyftem itfelf. which.

" There was in the century (A. (See article Vau in the Another fingular coincidence Hiftory of the Alphabet. or of the Divine word." " " often occurs in the Scriptures to denote tongue and the peculiar appearance of language or fpeech cloven tongues on the day of Pentecoft was emblematical of the diverfity of languages which the Apoftles were about to be able to utter. who called them 6fwt> yAwn-a*' or tongues of the gods. the There is an .) that the figure in its horizontal pofition is the Lamed is and. a Grecian who lived in the early part of the third philofopher. and there were four golden wedge-fhaped I^yyts or charms hanging down from the roof. fays: royal room vaulted like a heaven. the firft. 214). The king was wont to givejudgment there. the true figure of the numeral One (i). In the monument of antiquity before us we have the fymbol of the Chaldean's god. 75 . and alfo the emblem of the tongue. with of gods placed aloft. or the Word . I is to be found in the Britifh Mufeum. beafts. initial ! upon that tranfcript . the copy of the myfterious fubject. prepared by the magicians or wife men. that it would be only wafte of time to placed in this .The Logos. Tome by men. and by means of thofe tongues of gold the judgments of the king would become Divine oracles. it is the Vau in the primithe initial letter of " The Word" in feveral tive alphabet. the Logos. and fome fmall images which were and portable in a fmall compafs and fometimes light they made the creatures themfelves figns of the things or powers they worfhipped. the Alpha. and appearing as it reprefentations were in the air. what is more remarkable. of the primitive languages. The word and be fo efteemed by their fubjects. palace at Babylon a ' . the new theory propounded volume is fo diametrically oppofed to the Rawlinfonian fyftem. the organ ofjpeech. this altar of which I infcription upon I have not been able to obtain a copy from the regret no doubt it would tend to enlighten this original Some will fay. infcription anfwer Yes but there is not the leaft dependence to be Lambda. Anu . Philoftratus. D.

. and the All that deftroyer of the firft-born of their oppreflbrs. and as the Agent in the creation of the Philo ufed many more expreflions with regard world. each of which truths was a refutation of part of the Gnoftic fcheme of doctrine. John feems to gather up in the opening paflage of his Gofpel. is we may c whatever worth feeing. and to apply to Chrift the Saviour.y6 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. more ancient and general than all creatures. juft fo is it where the Divine Word Another Alexandrian Jew likeilluminates the foul.' thing wife fpeaks of the f All-powerful Word as the agent in the world's creation. the Alexandrian Jew. is reprefented as the Phyfician of our difeafes. attempt a tranllation are non-effentialS) fhall what are according to that fyftem I moft ejfential. his Angel. there was a Word. and everyis enlightened. and the Ineffable name. like the viceroy of a great king. and that all things were made by Him. fpeaks of the moft ject c holy Word' (Logos) as the image of the abfolutelyexifting light throw additional : upon this Being. As the darknefs vanimes at the rifing of the light. and that very naturally. who.' to the c Word. which may deeply interefting fubcc Philo. but to affirm that this Word was in the beginning. and mingled 4 with notions borrowed from the Platonic philofophy. immortal and incorruptible. as the firft begotten Son. refulgent or more radiant than the by whom What is more Word of God ? ' The Word of God is alfo fuperior to the univerfal But world. St. that the Word was God. In this paflage he feems to fay to the Gnoftics that true it was. was to be charged with the government of the whole creation . The Divine Word difcerns moft ' acutely. here add fome extracts from various authors on to the new theory the Divine Logos. Thus. And laftly. who fee is fufficient to fee into all things. as the guide and healer of the children of Ifrael in their wildernefs journey. but yet fuch as we cannot read without fomething even of wonder. as they aflerted.' often dark and myftical. this paffage of . as the Man of God. who is the Word.' there was of truth in this remarkable language of the Alexandrians.

that. with no lefs truth than beauty. and to carry along with it the moft folemn veneration for His facred name. and Lucan fays.' and of its bards and philofophers it has been c little children faid. Name. to be fuppofed that St. 18.'The Ineffable St. fometimes as the Spirit and Barnes on St. as and tell of heaven. convey to the mind fome idea of that Great Being who is the fole author of our existence. in which they fometimes as the Supreme had fpoken of a Word reafon and Guide of Man. Meffiah. in this indirect way. us that they did not dare to only two. Cicero tells mention the names of their gods . John wrote what he did So without fome knowledge of and reference to Philo. not only amongft Chriftians and The Word meant to be clearly Jews. as well as the moft clear and perfect elucidation of His power and attributes that the human mind is capable of receiving. Amongft the and awful veneration Jews. ibid. believe that to pronounce the Word would be fufficient to work wonders and remove mountains. it is faid: to WORD . And that this is the light in which the Name and Word hath always been considered from the remoteft ages. but alfo in the heathen world. fo thoughts beyond their thoughts lifp to thofe high bards were given/ Again. we may with great probability regard the language of the Greeks about the Word as of the New Teftament in which illustrating the paflage that epithet is applied to Chrift. Thus. Ruler of the World. 77 John feems to challenge and appropriate to the defpifed and crucified Jew all thefe dark and half-underftood fayings of the Grecian philofophers. 17. we all know with what a juft of them carry fo far as which many they look upon it . that to name the Name would make the earth. we think. may but to mention underftood from numberlefs writers ." <c Heathendom was not without its ' unconfcious prophecies. in their Targum on applicable to the " Ye have apDeuteronomy xxvi. was To the ftoical writers the name of the the Deity or all-pervading Soul very familiar to exprefs This term was alfo ufed by the Jews as of the World. it is fcarcely. John." is Barnes.

. and is. feems bewildered and loft in contemplating the greatnefs of that Being whofe very name is wrapped up in impenetrable myftery. for which reafon the Jews call it SHEM EMMURETH the Philo tells us not only that the Unutterable Word. and have fubftituted for it various devices and . namely. but only for the true delivery or pronunciation.78 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Jofephus fays that the God told it to felf did name was never known till the time that Mofes in the wildernefs. that the NAME or WORD is expreflive of SELF-EXISTENCE AND ETERNITY. He wickednefs of opinion import delivery not afk and hence has arifen a difference of fome fuppofing the word itfelf loft. that it was loft through the day of expiation. and that this title can be applicable only to that Great Being who WAS. that none of them except a few of the very learned underftood anything of it. unlefs upon very particular occafions. The Jews are averfe to mention the name of mrr (Jehovah). when he appeared before the mercy-feat on the adds. one thing is lofs. by the high-prieft alone. man brethren. The term MIMRA. and 2ndly. and efpecially thofe who were converfant with the Greek philofophy. which points were not extant in the days of Mofes . pointed the Word of God as king over you this day. but alfo the time and the reafon for the But amidft all thefe learned difputes. or even to write it." was ufed by the Jews who were {battered among WORD. except once in the year. indeed. becaufe the language now in ufe among that in which the Jews is fo corrupt and altered from Mofes wrote. It is certain that the true mode of delivery cannot now be proved from any written record ift. or THE that he may be your God. and EVER WILL BE. and many the manner of and the latter contend that Mofes did only the Almighty for His name to carry to his . not dare to mention for that it was forbidden to be ufed. and that he himit. word was loft. the Gentiles. The mind of man. becaufe it is : capable of fo many variations from the manner of annex- ing the Maforetic points. clear. others the or meaning only.

The
abbreviations, to

Ineffable

Name.

79

fome of which high
Thus,

have been afligned.

myftical qualities for inftance, the myfterious
3

name

is

fometimes written with two

an<^

Sometimes

with 3 Yodsenclofed within a circle

I

9^

I

;

but

this laft

very ancient form has been relinquifhed, and one of the Yods is often expunged in old examples in confequence of fome refort having been made to it by Chriftians, in demonftrating the doctrine of the Trinity.

The Jews are quite aware that the true pronunciation of the word is loft, and regard it as one of the myfteries to be unveiled in the days of the Meffiah. They hold, however, that the knowledge of the name does exift on earth, and he by whom the fecret is acquired has, by virtue of it, the powers of the world at his command and they account for the miracles of Jefus by telling us that He had got porleflion of the Ineffable name. In this word forms the famous fhort, tetra-grammaton, or of which every one has heard. quadriliteral name, Some imagine that this was the fame T* Tpot* TU?, which the Pythagoreans knew, and by which they fwore and that a knowledge was abroad in the world that the true name of the True God bore fome fuch form as Jehovah may be traced from Jah, Jao, Jevo, Jove of the heathen. The Jews were afraid the heathens would get pofleflion of the name of Jehovah, and therefore in their copies of the Scriptures they wrote it in the Samaritan character, inftead of in the ancient Hebrew or Chaldee. They believed it, moreover, capable of working miracles, and they held that the wonders in Egypt were performed by Mofes in virtue of this name being infcribed on his rod ; and
;
;

that

any perfon
to

who
do
all

knew
that

the

true
did.

pronunciation
It

would be able

Mofes

was com-

manded in the Jewifh law that tures mould be infcribed on
dwellings,

fentences from the Scripthe doorpofts of their

and therefore the Jews had a cuftom of

8o

The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

writing the Decalogue on a fquare piece of parchment, which they rolled up and put into a cafe, and after infcribing the name of God within a circle on the outfide, they affixed it to the doorpofts of their houfes or apartments, and confidered it a talifman of fafety.

CHAPTER

V.

SPECIMEN TRANSLATIONS.
Author's fyftem more Recapitulation of the four preceding chapters Sir H. Rawlinfully defcribed Antagoniftic to all other theories
fon's conjectures,

and Author's

tranflation of

upon

a brick

A new

an infcription found

hypothecs

Sir

H. Rawlinfon's Nineveh

The

Author's tranflation Mr. Layard's Sargon The Author's Ancient infcriptions in fupport of the new hypothefis Remarkable coincidences between guefles and the Author's tranflatranflation
tions.

|N the

preceding chapters I have endeavoured to fhow that letters were the gift of God, and that the primitive lan-

guage
tial

is

the

Hebrew tongue
I

in all its eflen-

have ftated my reaions for fuppofing letters to have been copied by Cadmus from Nineveh ; that the moft ancient written documents have been handed down to us in an alphabet remarkable for its brevity that Mofes wrote in the cuneiform character ; and that this character is the earlieft of all. I have given the hiftory of the alphabet, and have fhown that its formation is in ftricl: accordance not only with the fymbols ufed for the Divine Trinity, but alfo with a fyftem of triads in ufe throughout the
points.
;

ancient world.

I

mail

now proceed

to enter a

little

more

fully into the ancient lyftem of writing. " Thofe who have ftudied the fubject with moft care

have arrived

at the conviction, that all the infcriptions in

82

The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

the complicated cuneiform character, which are feverally found upon rocks, upon bricks, upon flabs, and upon cylinders, from the Chinefe Mountains to the ftiores of

Mediterranean, do in reality belong to one fingle alphabetical Jyftem, and they further believe the variations
the

which are perceptible in the different modes of writing to be analogous in a general meafure to the varieties of hand and text which characterize the Graphic and
of the prefent day." acknowledged by all the Affyrian philologifts The that the cuneiform writing is from left to right. groups of characters which Rawlinfon calls letters are but aceach compofed of from two to five elements cording to my fyftem each element is a letter, and has Glyphic
It is

arts

;

elements change themfelves into two primitive letters, L and M, L being placed over M, Lm, or Lam, which word in the Perfian language fignifies "reft, or mercy." Again, Rawlinfon's fecond letter B (No. 21) is compofed of three elements (and the primitive alphabet has alfo three), but it is two letters, B and Vau (Nos. 2 and 6 in the primitive alphabet) Vau with the phonetic

own individual phonetic power. Thus, referring to Rawlinfon's Perfian Alphabet Plates, we find that the firft letter is compofed of four elements, one placed horizontally over three perpendicular ones ; but on looking at the primitive alphabet we fee that the four
its

power of ou-Bou, fignifying, "to go in and out." And fo on through the whole alphabet, every Rawlinfonian
or
refolving itfelf generally into a Perfian, Arabic, Some may object to this fyftem as too complicated, for many of the groups have from being two to nine elements, and the numerals have even more ;
letter

Hebrew word.

but then many of our own Englifh words are compofed of fourteen or fixteen letters. Then, to account for fome of the letters being placed one over the other (fee Plate V., figure 2, No. 6, and figure 3, No. 5), we muft recollect that in the very earlieft times ftone was the only material ufed to write upon, and confequently the fcribes We find this to would be very economical of fpace.

. fee what large fpace is required (Plate III. a to dwell or abide." my fyftem. and form the word GLL. figure 2). I think. .. underftand my method of reading the infcriptions. and the fucceeding letters following on to the right (as in Plate Sometimes double L will be preceded III.Sir H. There is an infcription upon a brick (fee Plate IV. but fome- times the word begins with L. but it alfo appears very frequently to reprefent one of thefe founds. and whether this curtailment may be the effecl: of that refolution of the fyllable into its component : . with the Lameds (or Ls). beginning at the top where there is more than one Lamed (or L) . I mall proceed to give the refults of the application of my alphabet to the Cuneiatic writing. form is one. and the lower will have a letter above on the left if there are more than one or. the name of a city. L-V. the I word generally take the elements or letters in order. from its peculiar by a letter." As the reader will now. and in that cafe I take the upper L to be the prepofition "to. I hope. it will . Rawlmfon's Conjeffiures. in AfTyrian R-M or. " to roll over and over. and then the next or fecond letter will be over the L to the left. as LEVEKH." Sometimes the upper L ftands (Plate III. them by placing them one above another. regarding which I entertain fome doubt . the other. if only one. embrace both the upper and lower L. which he fuppofes to be the Calneh He fays " The of Genefis. or Gimel. buy back. and then. fay G figure. figure 3.. Rawlinfon reads doubtfully.) alone. 83 be the cafe. For inftance. for example. according to " to redeem or GAALL. The group we juft referred to forms. its complete fyllabic power is. figure 4) . if we take the eighth letter in Rawlinfon's Perfian and place the elements in that clufter one after alphabet. it will be or at the end of the lower L (Plate either in the centre III." and the lower. which would be the fame thing.. and the confequent neceflity for condenfing figure i). which are fometimes double and fometimes treble. or the Halah of Kings.) which Sir H. the word LN. unfortunately.

84

The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

natural powers to which I have alluded, or whether it and V, is a may be owing to the homogeneity of the

L

Such, indeed, point which / cannot yet venture to decide. is the laxity of expreflion in Afiyrian, that even if the true power of No. 3, Plate IV., were proved to be L-V, I could ftill underftand Nos. 3 and 4, Plate IV., being pronounced Halukh." This was the conclufion that Sir

Henry came to twenty years ago ; with all his letters (at that time his alphabet confifted of only 150 letters, fince increafed to 300) and variants he could make nothing
of the inscription but a rigmarole of nonfenfe but now, after the lapfe of twenty years, when this alphabet has increafed to 300 letters or figns, he has arrived at an equally Jenfible and intelligent meaning, viz., the nominative and genitive of the city of Calah y cc Calah, of Calah" I (hall make no comment upon the above but as this was the firft infcription I attempted after I fufpecled the language to be Hebrew, I fhall fubmit it to the opinion of thofe who may poffibly be better
certain
; ;

Hebrew language than myfelf. The fcholar will perceive that there is, in my interpretation, no arbitrary diftorting of the meaning, no
acquainted with the

Hebrew

fubftitution

of ideas for founds, no myftical homophones or ideographs, but a fimple following out of the principle fubfequently (though imperfectly) adopted by the Rev.
C. Forfter, the principle, namely, of giving to

known

alphabetical forms the fame known alphabetical powers. With this key I found the infcription to read thus:

Thy fon will be built (up) like rock." By referring to Plate IV. the reader will find the groups in the Hebrew,
AiTyrian, and Cadmean numbered comparing the Aflyrian with the
i, 2, 3,

"

4; and by
the

Cadmean, or

fecond and third line of groups, he will fee the principle " carried out. I will of " like forms with like powers this infcription to a critical analyfis, in order to fubject I will convince the reader of its truth and fimplicity. n BN, the root of run, Ba Na H, take the groups in order with a radical, but mutable or omirlible n H, c< to build
:

alfo " the young," as the fon up/' &c., and

is

built

up

Tr(inflation of an
Of

Inscription upon a Brick.

85

by his father, and the Ton alfo builds up and continues his father's houfe. inanimate things it denotes what

comes or

produced from another for inftance, a twig from the tree is called in the Hebrew language growing " <c the fon of a tree the arrow (hot from the bow is " the fon of the bow called ;" and in this cafe a brick is is the material to be built produced from clay clay up or made into a brick, and as clay cannot be a brick until it has undergone certain changes of form, and is Subjected
is
;

;

;

to baking, burning, or expofure to the fun, therefore p c< " (group i ft), sn with the fuffix D, K thy/' will be thy

Aleph, or A, denotes the firft perfon but as I have ufed it in the third per " it will," a few words are necefTary by way of exJon, There is no doubt but that planation of this change. this brick infcription was written many centuries before the formation of any fyftem of Hebrew Grammar.
fon."

Group

2
;

:

Singular future

Now, we

find that

Grammar grew up
;

in

the fchools

of the Greek philofophers Plato had only two parts of fpeech (the noun and verb), and Ariftotle added conjunctions and articles, but in his time there were not About 250 years any fuch terms as Singular and plural. and even fo B. c. all pronouns were clafled as articles late as in our own day Gefenius, the greateft of Hebrew cc greateft difficulty is found grammarians, fays that the From all this in the explanation of the third perfon." I infer, that in the earlieft ages, before any of the nice distinctions of grammar were known, and before any attention was paid to fyntactical arrangement, the firft To proceed and third perfons were fynonymous. cc third perf. fing. future, //," D> (is) from HUP Aleph, a root frequently ufed in the O. T. Hebrew Scriptures, and found very widely fpread in ancient languages, whence " to the verb UP (eSTe), " being," and hence be," future " built " will be" made, or become.'" 3 (K,) a up, (p BN) " <c nv of fimilitude, " like (TSR), rock
;
:

prefix particle

or

flint,"

= " Thy fon
is

;

will be built
in

up

like rock."

And

accordance with what Heroquite rendering dotus tells us in his defcription of Babylon, that the
this

86

The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

fon of Canfh built (this) fortrefs to be the moft likely.

"

bricks, foon after they were made, became as hard as ftone or flint. friend has fuggefted another reading:

A

A

;"

which he thinks

The Rawlinfons, Layard, and others, imagine that moft, if not all of the infcriptions found on bricks confift either of the names of cities or of kings, and it fo that the majority of the names actually thus happens
discovered are thofe of well-known perfons in facred or

Now, fyftems of decipherment which profane hiftory. to recover names of kings, cities, and events preprofefs vioufly known from Scripture or from ancient authors,
for, as Mr. Forfter naturally give rife to much doubt remarks, the natural bent of moft men engaged in juftly
;

fuch purfuits
look for.

is

to find

what

they fee k,

and to fee what they

ancient

From the experience I have had in deciphering the Hebrew infcriptions found upon bricks, I venture

to ftart the hypothefis, that the majority of the infcripOons found upon bricks are not the names of kings or
cities, but are merely the paffing thoughts of the brickmaker, ftamped or marked down at a moment of leifure while the clay was foft. This could very eafily be done with two fticks, the ends being made of a wedge fhape (fee Plate V., fig. i), and with three fticks of this kind 1 The every combination or group could be formed. translations from various bricks, by means of the new

alphabet, ftrongly favour this opinion. Take, for inftance, " the brick figured on Plate IV. Thy fon will be built up (made or become) like (to, or as folid as, a) rock." What can be conceived more natural than for the brick:

maker, while thinking of the durable nature of the materials he was working up, to mark down at the moment his thoughts with 'the tools he had by him for
In Rawlinfon's " Five Ancient Monarchies," vol. i. I find the " Tools following remarkable ftatement corroborative of this fuggeftion with a triangular point made in ivory, apparently for cuneiform writing, have been found at Babylon;" mowing plainly that they were ufed to
1
:

mark

the letters Jinglj, and

NOT

IN GROUPS

!

Sir

H. Rawtinfon's Nineveh.

87

There is no doubt marking fome important order? but that fome bricks have been or will be found with names of kings or cities written upon them but it is
;

hardly reafonable to expect to find bricks infcribed with a genealogical lift of kings. There is another infcription " read by Sir H. Rawlinfon as " Nineveh (fee Plate V.,
fig. 2)

whether from a brick or not
fact that the fenfe eliminated

I

from the
the

is

cannot fay ; but confirmatory of

was fo. This inof characters, confcription compofed of five groups fifting of twenty-one letters, forming ten words, according to the new theory; whereas Sir H. Rawlinfon has but one word of feven letters, which he calls "Nineveh" I will give the Englifh with the Hebrew juft as it occurs in the infcription, word for word, and letter for letter, fo that any Hebrew fcholar can teft its accuracy bearing in mind that this infcription is in Hebrew of the moft archaic form. The translation may not pleafe the modern
hypothefis, I
is

new

mould

infer

it

:

Hebraift, either in
;

its

orthography or

arrangement was written probably 1500 or 2000 years previous to any Hebrew grammar being formed, confequently the language itfelf muft have undergone confiderable For inftance, look changes during fo long a period.

but

let

him

in its fyntactical recollect that this infcription

change the Englifh language has gone through orthography fince A. D. 1349, only a period of 500 years. Take the following for an example, cc But whenne thoufchalt preye, Matt. vi. 6, 7, and 8 enter into thi couche and whenne the dore is fchet, preye thi'fadir in hidils, and thi fadir that feeth in hidils.Jchal
at the
its

in

:

zelde to thee.

hethene

men

mychefpeche. zour fadir woot what

But in preying nyle zee Jpeke myche, as doon, for thel gejjen that thei ben herd in her 'Therefor nyle ze be maad lich to hem, for
is

him."
as

I

queftion

very

nede to zou, bifore that ze axen much whether the ancient
fo great a

Hebrew had undergone
the

change up to

A. D.

i

,

Englifh language from 1349 period of little more than 500 years.

up

to

1870, a

10.2. the fame as V " Hebrew Gefenius' Hebrew. Group. ^Vn 6." 1 There not being a word exaft meaning of the above word. lodge.1. : " The feat of my kingdom in the city which did not In all my dominions I did not build a heart. dom / did not lay up. Logf a Jewifh meafnre of capacity containing three-quarters of a pint.2. "To nothing nV. In Babylon buildings for myfelf and for the honour of my kingdom / did not lay out. fVV i. (fo) deferable." and to ftay. 2. 3. LE. VD 7. to take in." Deut. 2. but I queftion whether it will not contraft favourably with thofe of Sir Henry's.3. 8." " 2. i. and that find on them names well known in facred and profane hiftory. 7. i IN 3. Buxtorf's "Hebrew and Latin. that inveft every brick with an air of majefty." and Parkhurft's " Hebrew and Englifh Lexicon. 1 in 8." : in "oV 9. in. 5- fV?.2. nV 2. in the Englifh language to exprefs the " " I have retained the original. i. always VD. L. juft a nice draught for a thirfty man. Lexicon. 2 f^ LLN. . 1. going out. 4. reft. " reflr 2. Heb.<J nV. " nothing Chaldee. or in The recording works and events that a king never did> viz. or abide. D 5. " ^3r. IN. 4. n. a particle prefix "to. 10." Whoever heard or read in the whole courfe of ancient or modern hiftory of a king recording what he never did ? The Ajjyrian i. refremment jVn. my 1 log 9. I.88 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and i. r> r^dil3- 1. rejoice my The precious treafures of my kinghigh place of power. 3. iii. 6. 3. coming in or -oV. reft. foregoing tranflation may appear to fome Hebraifts as very puerile. at the 1 time (of) 3. i. to pV. with the Hebrew equivalents and Englifh meaning. . infcription. LN.1. 2.

" nearly. and reading ." root m. Prov. 4. Layard's Sargon. and now in the It is the earlieft fpecimen of glafs Britim Mufeum. that beautiful and interefting relic of antiquity. K. " coming going out." Vau.Mr." in or Chaldee. to be read as Aim the fame as nw. " "W. the name of a king well known in facred hiftory. Rawlinfon and Layard as Sargon. Bou.. every. to. viV. and out. comfort. my. " ^Y STABLE inclination. and the infcription on it (fee Plate V. AO. whilft in By Layard's deciphered name there are only fix letters. -|rds city." b." Another highly interefting infcription. figure 3) is read by MefTrs." y " 3." it. fupporting my hypothefis." in " i. Another deftination : Now. c( or BLG. Layard. or rBLK KL. VD. containing about meafure of capaof an Englifh pint. xxxi. the Hebrew the commuted for the G." " with Yod fuffix. always. or to take one's reft " refrefhment." infcription is expreflive of the quality and " of the object it is written upon Thy gravelly and earthy matter will repair the roof and turrets. 89 JT7 w." LGI. ware in exiftence. to obtain or " to take. cc to ftrengthen. and make them fmooth as ftone. difcovered by Mr. cc nor for Princes to defire ftrong drink. is found on the Glafs Vaje." */ about." M jfc. a prepofition. the application of the primitive alphabet we find it to confift of ten words and nineteen letters. " my log. in this infcription there are feven groups." V (*/) i. "according almoft. or aou. to /'. Bou. " LG. u. <c K all. refrefh. go e." alfo to come at anything.

that true bleffing whereby their fouls may be filled with heavenly light j and at the letting of the fun.not." lib. " At the rifing of the fun fpeaking of the Therapeutic Effences. as well as thofe of many kings.. orrjv a." Plato. The names of the gods being ' ' ' commonly written with a monogram. " hide (or cover) the fecret within 1 What can be the meaning of this myfterious legend ? " to cover the myftery within!'" It appears to me that this glafs fpherical vafe or bottle has been made ufe of in religious rites to fymbolize the pure.' Abimelech.90 " 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth. ethereal foul of man. fuch as {lave of. the firft ftep in deciphering is to know which god this particular fign denotes. in the name Sennacherib we have the determinative of God. In "Mark Ant. they pray that God would give His bleffing upon the day. that is by letters having a certain alphabetical value. may in their retirements into themfelves find out truth. pyrei taw ffvvrpeKtj pyre a\\a /. we read. nothing interfofmg (to) thus. &c. whether royal or . It is this fa6l which it fo difficult to determine with any degree of certainty or con- . I will give his explanation verbatim: "As the name of Sennacherib. e. and were commanded to endow us with all the perfections of which we are fufceptible.. Thus. whilft the fecond character denotes an AfTyrian god.' is of/ protected by. it is the fame with many (this names in the Holy Scriptures) like the Theodofius and Theodorus of the Greeks (and he might have faid like the Ifrael. countries. and cities. names with which we are acquainted.' ' beloved deities and of a fecond word. Layard difcovers the names upon bricks.\r\Q(. And we find this idea embodied in the writings of the ancients.' and < Daniel ' of the Hebrews) and Abd-ullah and ' Abld-ur-rahman ' of the Mahommedan nations. fphere of the foul is luminous when nothing external has contact with the foul itfelf. a few words by way of explanation may be The greater number of AfTyrian proper acceptable to my readers. method is not very intelligible. and they have ordained that the blind and grois portions of our fouls Jhould be en- KCU rrjv tv avr/. and the truth centred in itfelf" Philo Judasus. in " <j)d)ri XajUTrrfT-cu The lightened by a ray of light" As the reader may feel fomewhat curious to know by what means and as the Mr.iav opa rr]v TravTuv.' &c. but when lit by its own light. that their /0#/r. fays. " vtyatpa yotE^r)Q orav /Lir^re fKreivrjTai STTL TI. appear to have been made up of the name. are not written phonetically. it fees the truth of all things. in his Doftrine of the Origin of the World. or title of one of the national * ' fervant of." . but by monograms. ] Made round and expanfive. ii.' The firfl component part of the name Eflaris is haddon renders the monogram for the god Afshur.' to which no phonetic ' value attached . and the deciphering of them is a peculiar procefs which may fometimes feem fufpicious to thofe not acquainted with the fubjecl. epithet. whofe name was 'San. being wholly difburdened of their fenfes andallfenfible things. fays. " The inferior gods formed a mortal foul. nothing new .

folid. .Mr. Raz. as Sargon." or had known anything of the difcovery beyond the fact that there was a glafs vafe found. " within. empty. intermitting." fecret." fome reference to what Mr. from :nn. and Efarhaddon." or in the to be 5th conjugation. Arabic. " " and. 91 U P> r " to u CHUA. vi. " interpofing. nothing/' " no. That upon the idea of engraving the thoughts of the maker articles of manufacture is quite in accordance with fidence moft of the Aflyrian names. root> nn> Kin. the interpretation of all thofe which are found upon the monuments of Nineveh is liable to very confiderable doubt ? LA YARD'S Nineveh." with. a vacuum. top. (Chald." " ' ' Arabic. " Layard fays in defcribing the vafe ? That it was originally caft in a folid piece." " LE. GG. according to Gefenius. hollow Perfian. a dome. page 147. Roof." This tranflation was made before I had feen " Nineveh and its Remains. gather. cap. Layard's Sargon. cover and expanfe." Has not the fecond word in this infcription. " e. u CHUa (in). " Y i. collected in itfelf. and afterwards drilled out. not." /. round. .) "a a particle. compact. i. a circle/' and alfo from in. Vau. Chaldee." n. a bottle ftill denotes the hut of a Bedouin Arab from its r<?##^ " form. Sennatainty? no!) cherib. " to collect. and which leads me to warn my readers. nV." GG. cupola. Vau. " to cover or hide. collected in i&\fParkhurft. n." ^/ AL . chevi. " Perfian. that with the exception of fuch as can be with certainty identi" name with cerfied (have the AfTyrian Philologiits identified a fingle "with well-known hiftorical kings. Chug. for the marks of the tools are plainly vifible upon it. means round. failing." " hiding. which.

where Silenus is reprefented gloating over his wine. on which the conteft of Heracles and Cyenus is depicted. What a " Great Houfe has to do with the name of Sargon I am at a Jofs to know." (See Plate IV. I am ready" On another. What a very convenient.) Thefe were the firft words I conftrued by means of the Hebrew language. 3. conjectured very erroneous fyitem ! What man in his fenfes could believe in fuch ? . Again. and which they call. fig. the cuftom of the ancients. A How infcribed " d'ye do ? " TON A0ENE0EN A0AON. vafes in the mufeums of Europe with fentences antique and often colloquies written on them. the hero and his opponent are made refpectively to exclaim. Layard." the two " groups mean Palace or great houfe . lie down" and "KEOMAI. Amongft them all there is none fo ftriking as the firft five groups of characters of an infcription found upon nearly all the flabs from the earlieft palace at Nimrod. and hence Sir H. Thus. on a prize vafe at Athens was I am a prize from Athens. can be proved from infcriptions fictile many upon Greek and Etrufcan vafes. and the difcovery encouraged me to proceed with the ftudy of It is particularly gratifying to find coincidences that tongue. Beth Rab^ and which in Englifh means 1 Obferve that the above groups which they call Beth Rab> or "great boufe" are precifely the fame as theory? two groups they ufe in " the name of S argon (p." fome remarkable between the conjectures of fome of the AfTyrian philologifts and words I have found by means of the new alphabet. 1 09).92 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. "KA0IE. and other evidently copied from their more There are many ancient neighbours the AfTyrians. he exclaims. but ! fays. Mr. with the infcription " nPOSAFOPETO. the act of crowing.. but I fuppofe thofe two groups come under the category of Polypbones. in his cc Nineveh and its " It has been that in a note. " HATS-CINQS. firft Remains. or CC KAAE COOS niES0E. on a vafe ornaments. Rawlinfon and others call it cc The ftandard infcription. or to anything that it cock is reprefented in might be fuppofed to contain. the wine isjweet" it is Jo good that you may drink it" Another vafe has an inscription which bears no immediate reference to the vafe itfelf.

or pa> lace. AASHOIK. namely. Thefe are {ignificant and 5 as Nineveh. n Binin. 93 worthy of note that the arrive at the meaning of Aflyrian philologifts thefe two words by the application of any letters of their multitudinous alphabet they cannot find any to fuit their purpofe out of the whole 300 letters and 500 Now.'' The coincidence here is the more remarkable as the application of the new alphabet was made before I had feen Layard's book. which read AASHOIK.Mr. will juft fuit their The firft purpofe. it is do not . groups 4 coincidences. therefore they {imply content themfelves with and give them the meaning that calling them Ideographs. Layard's Sargon. Now. Hinckes is convinced that it is either that name. T7 . "Proclamation Palace" The next character is the primitive Vau. which means great building." Therefore it reads. is group. and [3=^7 ln (Chaldee). fourth group (or Aafh) Sir H. mark the coincidence. " There . Then V follow the laft three groups. He alfo admits that group 4 (Aafli) {lands for the name of the city of which the hiftorical name is But let us add group 5 to it. Hinckes alfo imagines that the fame group has the Sir H. immediately adjoining Nimroud with the prefix B and termination ah in addition. or an abbreviation of the name Athur. power of Sa. in the orthography of the word. neighbourhood of Nineveh. what appears to be the true Solomon truly fays. which is the modern Again. Rawlinfon identifies the phonetic power of Sha. which means " and" " together with. "to mow. The whole infcription is thus " Proclamation Palace and Aafhoik. all pointing to name of ancient Nineveh. variants. or knew anything of the for I find that the locality of the mounds of Nimroud : declare or proclaim. the country of In another place he afligns to it the value of Aflyria. and to the latter portion of it he gives the fyllabic tha. Rawlinfon gives it -2&AJshur y and Dr." &c. according to the primitive alphabet. and we have at Nineveh* once the name which is {till preferved in the fuppofed Dr. name <c " Aaflioik is preferved to this day in the mound BAASHOIKah. Great Houfe.

James's Palace. : a kid of the Capr<e Egagrus. or Aflyrian in his right handj held up. chu alu " ! My ! 20. goat and the figure evidently a refemblance to an ear of corn The fubject appears to be about offering a facrifice. <c 'The Temple of that follows the ftandard infcription. containing more than 200 words. li bi. much abridged).000 feraphim already difcovered. that the fact that thefe five groups of characters commencing every infcription in this particular faloon. in words like thefe Li. my god. or laws emanating from this particular palace of Aafhoik. and that which hath been now. though equal in fplendour This is the fubftance of the firft four lines to Aafhoik. I mall now endeavour to give almoft a literal tranf! . nothing new under the fun. carrying on his left ." mation Buckingham Palace. that a beginning had only been made. with the more than probable meaning elicited by means of the new alphabet. or Aa/hoik? appears to be a prophecy of the deftruction of the city. Beli. viz. (how gods me the true god " There is alfo an allufion to the deftruction of the city of Baalbeg. deftroyed through its crimes and grofs depravity. that thou aloud and fcatter the multitude of rock wouldft cry god. Rawlinfon declare." for we find our own beloved Queen adhering to the very fame kind of formula as that ufed 4000 years ago ! : " Proclaby Aflyria's early monarchs. riz ou eeber . and an earneft prayer to the god Bel for enlight" enment of mind. or an AfTyrian prieft. What is the inference to be drawn from this ftriking coincidence and the fimpler tranflation ? Clearly." or or cc Windfor Caftle. The flab from which the above infcription was taken bears a reprefentation of a winged figure. that after all that has been done. and that Aflyrian decipherment is only in its infancy. oh that thou wouldft.94 is is he Ancient Ones of the Earth. Beli. (very What volumes of ancient lore are yet locked up in the rib tfr alu . waiting for the true key to unlock this vaft ftore of primitive literature Well may Sir H. amounts almoft to abfolute proof that the fubject matter of each flab contains proclamations. edicts." as the cafe may be. <c St. is fomething that bears arm <c Oh.

or proclaim." or " Rawlinfon by guejs. flab 95 the Aflyrian lation of the infcription with the Hebrew and on the above tions meaning on the Hebrew language which follow the analyfis of the " Brick Infcription." "together with . with the as follows (fubject to the obferva- Roman Tranjlation of an Infcription on a Jlab with wingedfigure. I cannot think thofe two characters no. Binn.." in." a connective particle. or dwell." Rawlinfon by guefs. 2." but it is my opinion not. 4 preceding groups. future. alfo. after. " to mow. &c. " Pabuilding. as. (i." but. fince. midft of. >. "in." me more trouble than this one. 2. 3. ftay. to lodge. "will "a/h" foundation. " declare. ^ rTTO pVa. among. firft perf.) among all No that character the infcriptions has it I given cannot arrive at any other conclufion but It moftly occurs muft be " disjunctive fign. " according to.) A. B. N. into the Bmal. prefix. " Great lace. Chu. y. Houfe.a. and." and hV.'The Author s Tr(inflation." like the Greek that they will act with a feparate meaning as V ^ u ancV' and 3L almoft. fing. about. TI 6. yet. <. " |> Ppft- into." page 105) Englifh : equivalents.) and (3. a. nearly." &c. Lun. a prep. are intended to anfwer the negative fign " oux. abide. A after the I." And (2. " V7 $7 y V Ouk." Y7 Y i." . " Great. be. &c.

a flute or paragoge ufed as (milel). i and 2.. 4-3-2-I. N. ^ I. " " of L.2. " .3. alfo. Lun "lodgings. . "among. 3. f?. 1??Nn HALou. HRRou. RB. 6. ^ . a pre. or V^Vn." 2. nV. a knife. or HRRI. i. Rze. The Ancient Ones of the Earth.2.96 I. cc A fe- cret." np. i." . ce " it will be. a particle.3. future. to become light. to inftrucV' 2. the. 3. 4 to enlighten. or myftery. 10. lodging. cc far be it. 16.. to mine. 1 8. __ 3. Y7 <\ 2. the true God. I. ill pVn. BLun or Bmal.' 3 " " if. am. . a pre." 1. chief head or capaffliction. Llin. 1.3. Light. The fame No. ^ ALF." and " fVV." or 2." 12. prep. I. 2.3. diftrefs." Dan. God c< forbid. AR. <c to lodge. chali n." " Chief.^ m. 'J an interpofer and mediator. 2. " nin 4.4. Third perf. "a 2. 8. Great. J 4- ^ Nl>*X7 i. or Rza. OUK.1. Ln." and ALF. 20. " Of iV. for." the eftablifhment." mountain. an ad.3. 13." I." O that. mighty. B. 17. 1. AA iv> TSR. Rzou. V." ^j^^^ Pv^" v T. pipe with or chalil. ^^ 19. N. ' or nnn V " mountaineer. or Mp." God.2. LF. u and ~ narrow. 2. <e and. ^^-i i. i. cc The fame as as No." and 4. prep.4." Leader." T7 V. a ftone.

<c to naufeate. the fame as 24." 31."or it maybe vau fuffix. cc . RU." cc " de" ftrudion. >^T7 ^*> ALF. r^ry >Vn. " and. . The fame as Nos. cc as Nos." |>l^|^_ ^nn. fplendour. chalu. Therefore I <c Extreme Jpkndour." to wafte away. hence a prophet. KLch. as The fame Ct No. chu " to fhow. or beauty." I^^^r7 V. doubtful ?. |^^\7 in. lam. 97 rna " 2I * ^^ may 1-2-3. "fmoothnefs." &c. to be. alfo V to cry out. "afpect. 32.2. """' """' /^A. 15. a feer. to fuit the context. n^J^\7xLxL>l uVfVrM c< Y*^^^ I nnn<l> we have mn. Lch. honour. or glory. appearance. and 22. to l^j^P^ AA Y7 n>" RZou. The fame from D^Vn. 22. 29." a vifionary. and TH. 1 1 and 23." as to vegetables." cc /z/V. chu. Figure." oppofed to riVs. tc j^^24. declare. pomp. M/ n. n. or proclaim. p^v TV W^ ^" 3 " FulL " iV. 19. as the cafe be. to fee. L 30. if fo. L kled." &c. 26." am inclined to think that this is the H . '/Sk deteft. EDR> EDR ' " Atl rrient." Vi. molu y ALF.. to dream. majefty. glory.Tr (inflation of the Winged 1. intensifies the meaning of either of the above words. ^ BChl. to loathe. cc from nV. him" " his His Jeer et> or myftery. Rou. n." Chaldee. give it as. 25. chalum.. as applied to man. a prefix conjunct:." The word being repeated.3. and iVo. " rough and wringreennefs.

SGG. the firft would be " roof. which converts it into the letter L. top. forming ALSH." or n. u." to expand/' and Parkhurft fays that the was given to the Amalakitifh kings on In but he calls it an Ideograph for " King. compound word of 'V. as No. AGG. " x> Arabic. above. to prefs. V A(C The fame n-V. B. dee. have nothing nearer than SGN. mod archaic character for the Great I am. cover. clofe. 3. Bou. 2 in having the fecond character carried through the third. 15. 6. thy fon. the Shin being commuted for ^sadde^ making . GG 3. n. top. n. " fuffix." fing. I am very doubtful as to the true 1." pa." and Vau. urge. account of the comparative extent of their dominions. " roof. This group differs from No.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. term " WN." " to be fhut up. decc noting failing or defe6t.3.2. "him. SGG. 2. 2. Rawlinfon gives this " character the power of King" not by means of his alphabet. lieutenant. Chalto go in or out. future.4." I muft leave this to the judgment of the Oriental Jc hoiar.5." It is a fingular fact that Sir H. T. or RZ. The other letters." &c. efpecially 98 is as it repeated. LI. 5." cVc. expanfive. 2. // i. 3. with K. denotes prefixed fecond perfon " 4. prepofition fuffix i. third perfon fing. or SGR in inftance it would be C Deputy. The fame as No. the I firft " to fhut or overfeer. cover. J J GG. prefix. A "/#.4. ALTS. . . i. LIBou. ^^J wwJVvAvs. Bnk.5. meaning of this word GG." and n. i." . 2." in the fecond it will be. I.

particle "if. or the young fuffix grafs after mowing. a forefather. V TO GZK. a word. " \^ /v ^n> in." Figure. BRTS. r> A^ Y-Q. " to wander. fVV. from.. * "to hedge in." or "the foundation." *." before. 1 ' . fpeech. &c." 99 LV that. " to move quickly or cheerfully. prefix "to. to run> a runner ^ to rum u P n J to aflail. to perim. GGSGG. a thing. to lodge. or opprefs. at that time. as before. . &c. that. by word. D." 1 "a L. negative "O "perhaps. Same as No. "perplexity. LLN. AB. the "The With fhearing. as in the infcription. "The fire." referring to paft or future time "therefore. as a conjunction. As before. "then. fpeak. pa. after . on this account.""to proverb.Tranjtation of the . Bouk." GG. A tor. adv. GG. 3 V. "fpeak. V fleece. 31. Same as before. or to hedge round. to fhow. Winged "not." or F." // u. wool morn off." . 187 Y7 y V V V TW> Shuk. to be loft or miffing. or abide. a maker. mowing of meadows. by. a benefacbut with the A 1. or be fruftrated. AZ." and prefix B. with. As _^ A or A/\ /\ ' ?. dwell. go aftray. K. Same V. Chu." ML. in. father." n ol"der to protect. fail." "confufion. LML.

" The true God." "appearance. a place walled round." mediator. LIALRou. open court or building. LAAL. with." hence. or word of LA. . Vt*NV. " My God." Rou. The Ancient Ones of the Earth." nyn." . or hold faft. or alluding to the Aflyrian god " Court of a temple. Chu. as before.." or "to interpofe. into the midft of." &c. not." &c. " To bind up. by. To fhow. from." and fee. among. "God. . . to embrace. en- fe^A7 Pt^Hr Belt. "to " either with a prefix." and AL. out of. of. or together. <|1?ra> " an viron. &c. prep. confine. afpecl." &c." V. B. &c." "failAL. and A V i. denoting "defect. but open at the top. " to furround. iy. Chaldee. LI.ioo in. " interpofer." *' CHTSR. This appears to be a compound no. ing. ZR TSR. " and. into." &c. " in. nothing. as before.

the Aflyrians the fun. body or of Omnipotence. C. as being the moft worfhipped . HERE is no doubt that the gods of the heathen were the heavenly bodies but it is equally certain that they worfhipped thefe bodies in conjunction with certain mortal creations.CHAPTER The Sun worfhipped VI. or of Omnifcience . RawRawlinfon's errors in his numerals linfon's Temen Bar Singular coincidences between the Author's theory and the conjectures of Critical notice of the Rev. the type of intellect of the bull was the fymbol of ftrength and power. Forfter's Sir H. attributes. Rawlinfon and others theory. no mere images of fancy. glorious body God of in the vifible creation : " That with furpaffing glory this crown'd look'd from his fole dominion. As the new world. and the wings of the eagle were Thofe winged or Omniprefence. have inftrucled races of men that have parted They . Thus. THE NUMERALS. fymbolical of ubiquity bulls are thus no idle creations." Under the fymbolic form of the winged human-headed his bull they gave expreflion to tradition had fpoken darkly. of which the The human head was and knowledge. in Aflyria under the form of a Bull Infcriptian Author's difcovery of the found on the back of a winged Bull Numerals on the Black Marble Obelifk Annals of Aalpharr.

. is compofed of five Now. I was inclined at firft to give the group the phonetic power of cc Min" but I did not I next came record it as a word.IO2 again in Ifaiah. The Ancient Ones of the Earth. I obferved that thefe two groups were preceded by a fingle character or element. this work a certain group of characters or elements would it obtrude themfelves. to reprefent the fupreme God. myfterious his fires." There has been in the courfe allufions to the AfTyrian numerals I naturally afk by what means this work frequent the reader will very . This led me I to think that there was more meaning in them than was aware of at that time. with its its Arabic and : have made the letter N. 1863. C. I began forming a vocabulary or lexicon of every them ? The word found upon the monument (from the folio volume of the infcriptions publifhed by the authorities of the Britifh Mufeum. and the two lower elements would fimilarly Rawlinfon). arrive at a knowledge of of anfwer to this queftion will lead me to the relation of what I deem an important difcovery in connection with the infcriptions on the Black Marble In the month of October.000 : the vaft expanfe in. correfponding word in Hebrew or Whilft profecuting Englifh meaning. joined together they would have formed the primitive letter M. which. revolving and re-revolving away more than 3. and in order to facilitate the work." dwelling in heaven's circle. and now they fpeak to us language equalled only by the infpired voice of The following is a tranflation from an infcrip" Made tion on the back of one of thefe winged bulls cc I am Almighty. had the three upper ones been feparate elements.). not in illuminating heaven's (whofe) going out is nothing to equal fails who coming return. years. of which I could make nothing was the fifth in confecutive order of the numerals (Plate IX. I formed the Obelifk. upon the fixth group in the plate. with the fix elements all diftincl:. refolution of giving my verfion of the infcriptions on the Black Marble Obelifk. under the fuperintendence of Sir H. as will be perceived.

the initial of AL. after giving the annals and the numerals in confecutive order (with the exception of the IV. the Lamed or L. "/'. year) up to the XX. in the total II. I made it A. from 6 to 15. and he does not tell us there is any other matter between the invocation and the firft year's annals of Temen Bar. &c. over 1 This Awleph. Rawlinfon could not have known the groups referred to were numerals. he gives the XI. Now may be ftated confidently that the annals of the king (whoever he may be) do not commence until nearly the clofe of the twenty-fixth line.) Again. and XXIII. 103 the At the time I made this difcovery I was not aware that Sir H. Hinckes fays they commence on the twenty-fecond line.. Rawlinfon. it Ideograph. Then it read. XXII. of years Temen Bar Sir : king commence on the it fifteenth or fixteenth line.) of the primitive alphabet. Sir H. Rawlinfon had difcovered any numerals. Hebrew copy. but upon comparing it with the original the Awleph turns out to be a Lamed or L. but immediately following " In the the invocation he goes on to interpret thus firft year of my reign I crofled the Upper Euphrates. but upon fubfequently perufing fome of the Afiatic journals I faw that he had either difcovered them. But in adopting the right character. with the former I was to make it fuit the interpreobliged to give it rather an arbitrary twift " The firft." and fo on.." tation . (Dr. But in Sir Henry's fyftem it is an be long or Jbort. Look Numbers L. was copied from the Folio Volume of Infcriptions. but alike in both cafes." " O/the fecond." graphs to make BLACK WHITE How very convenient this fyftem of Ideo- ! . and Plate IX. it fuited admirably. for he tells us that the firft fourteen lines are taken up with an invocation to the Aflyrian gods.Annals of Aalpharr. will (how the refult of my dif- fome fingular coincidence. " O/the firft." thus leaving us to infer that the annals of the &c. and followed by a group of fix elements. Rawlinfon's Temen Bar. and XIII. inftead of giving the XXI. it was the right thing in the right place. or. "the fecond. it matters not whether the character has the fame meaning. XII. by covery." &c. AwlefW (as feen in Plate IX. "the" (Arabic). Now. year. had given the exact number of the reign of his fuppofititious H. as feen in Plate IX. I followed up the clue thus obtained.

Rawlinfon did not certainly know thofe particular groups to be numerals. and XXIII. Rawlinfon calls his " Simple B. It appears to me that he has made his imperfect knowledge of the numerals the fole foundation that Sir H. and there he gives the numeral XXVI. ments. We clufion ignorant of thefe or was very carelejs in particular groups being numerals." &c. XXII. To rals.104 again." or " fo many cities taken or burnt. elfe he could have eafily fupplied the proper can only come to the conones." or <c the beginning of a thing. "of. A. as I have done. the firft numeral followed by a group reprefenting AS (or) S 1 which in Arabic means "principium rei. read by the primitive 1 There is a very curious and laughable coincidence in what Sir H. Rawlinfon proceeds rightly again until he comes to the XXIX. Rawlinfon was of his tranflations from the Black Marble Obelifk . on referring to Layard's Monuments of Nineveh. Cf *The Ancient Ones of the Earth. The numerals are the ikeleton upon which he builds up the body of his tranflation and the very fact of the numerals being compofed of from one to nine elements.) Now." inftead of Awleph. . they fhould be (XXI. year. But more of this anon." Then the group of fix elements. each element having its own individual value. proceed with I my difcoveries refpecting the nume- found that the numerals were preceded by a fingle character^ which I fubfequently found to be Lamed." or " fo many captives taken or killed. (Vide Plate IX. in its place . find upon c< Monureferring to Layard's that there is no numeral at all to be found. fc^ X " if y u * k at the P rimi ~ . his fupervifion. muft be fubverfive of his fanciful alphabet." we find them in the order Sir H. L. in which there are from one to nine elements to form an individual letter.). for wherever he finds a numeral he reads it as " fo many times crofled the Euphrates." we but. the edge of the obelifk being fo broken that the numeral is quite obliterated. The laft three errors I look upon as almoft proof pofitive that Sir H.

with the modern prefix B and the Greek termination. that Alorus of reigned Babylon was the birth a Chaldean." Read fecond of thy reign. Sari of 3600 years each. the CH commuted for K. with fuffix K. The three names are very fimilar in found and in ortho- We name graphy. within a year and a few months of the read alfo reign of the Obelifk king. that Rawlinfon's fimple live alphabet you will find forms Smith's (ftupid) firft or beginning." by right of birth." Then follows a group which means " fupreme king.Rawlinfons Errors in bis Numerals. him Alaparus^ and who reigned 3 Sari.). 105 " AALF or VRR and the . which means ^ thine The fecond year's annals begin with. ceeding year Who is this Aalpharr ? I think he is to be identified as the Ballipares of profane hiftory Alliparr or Aalpharr." alphabet. fupreme king. and and then the group it is. Temen Bar. Aalpharr. thine by right of birth. collectively. Aalpharr. are following group tefted by the fame means will give BCHU. thirty-one. and laftly to Shalmanezer II. and the prefumption is that the Obelifk is the one> Aalpharr. vol. as read by the primitive right alphabet. firft who was by and after page king that He reigned iv. From what has been faid I infer that the annals on this interefting monument ARE NOT the annals of any of the fuppofititious kings afcribed to it by Sir H. "es" -who was contemporaneous with Gideon." Then follow the annals of the year. but the annals of Aalpharr. 125. And the annals of every fucare preceded by the words tranflated above." But in Arabic AS(a)S means - me . Rawlinfon (during the laft 20 years it has been afcribed to Ninus. by right of birth" " Of the fecond (year fupplied) of thy reign.. viz. Selimarim. or BKU. Reckoning a year for a day it would be equal to twenty-nine years feven months and five days." "ASS. We 10 read in Walker's Ancient Mythology. in Polt's Nineveh of a king whofe name was Ballipar-es. (( thine "Of the whofe name occurs frequently (or one very much like it) on the monument.

" Ai" the female power of the fun tive particle." . medley of nonfenfe." feems certain of their renderings. " doubled again.' " any one whatever.A. a phonetic fyllable in a long name. in the height . The fame tially figure (3). ( y 9 A. Rawlinfon and Dr. Mr." and it is the nega- alfo doubled. giving the vertical primitive Vau) the power of 5. and when (the fig. Norris tells us Even where he is nothing more than a " Any one among them and its X ftoration not its fite ^ 2 V 3 touched. (Plate VI. And after giving us a number of readings where this group is found. that <c thefe readings are doubtful.S. queftion the pronunciation of 'pal. Norris in his Affyrian Lexicon gives us a few more meanings to this Indianrubber (caoutchouc) character (fig. to be a difference of opinion There appears between H. only differently grouped. be it not. wedge 3) for his numeral VII. vol. fingly it is " water" and fuffixed " My" then doubled it is. Rawlinfon " Awleph. but it is fays. it : For example not Mr. and the digging of its water not we muft at -" have fix characters VZVSV^) laboured Again: "Any of one its among them (4) to the palace therein. muft in that capacity. But this is not all. an ideograph for a word. placed to the In left all of a decade ( <^ ) the power of 50 other refpects their numerals are effen(fig. re- U 3?\jf V (here undertook.io6 Sir The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Hinckes with refpecl to the The latter takes Rawlinfon's " Bar and Pal" numerals. 3) viz. N. Here we have a fimple group of two xii. and laftly the numeral VII. all as oppofite to a letter. " let it not. the fame. / think be founded the name of Sardanapalus we muft give the fign in (R. each other as poffible a phonograph for the fame word and of the fame meaning. page 405). 4). alfo the certainly reprefents c ideograph for an afon.' and bar] and in elements with five different powers.J.

who. owing to the doubtful form of the fifth Phoenician letter and the many-found value (nonfenfe) of the cuneiform equivalent. into it ventured not" (4). in fine. GN. 9) " an enclofure of one of the earlieft gods worfhipped in the country. are compelled to give forth from time to time wild rhapJodies of uncertain and equivocal meanings. zi or M. zirat. flayed not (4). EDN. 1870. of arbitrary of inconfiftent poftuof what appears to be a rigmarole of lates. as its name imports 1 full c< of every " tree that is pleafant to the fight and good for food (Gen. and." And it is by fuch uncertain means that he arrives at the name of the flave into Again. Let the thoughtful ftudent carefully and critically examine into his works. The Garden of Eden. intoxicated with the fumes arifing fromfelf-love. ftrainings." lovelincfs. tion." See Rawlinfon's cc Notes on the Site of the Terreftrial Paradife. ii. fuch as the above. " "pleafure. " a garden. and not the fceptical distortion of Gana Duniyas.) " This name of the of a Jlave named Ar-ba-hil-khi-rat. flave he is uncertain about (as ufual). the wild conjecture of the Garden of Eden. to pleafe their thoughtlefs admirers. 1 07 power." and pp. or thirat (or any other to the letter kh its normal power of khi or adopt one give of its fecondary values. of the Aflyrian philologifts are only to be compared with the ravings of the Delphic Pythia. or the Jale R." which he (Sir H. and he will foon find them to be a mafs of unintelligible contradictions. was a garden fair and beautiful. and laftly. adulation and praife. call the Bilingual infcriptions as a proof of what I affert. tranfpofed into would make us believe " the faffing over.Rawlinfon's Errors in his Numerals. of bafelefs conjectures. Let him look at what they philological Barnumifms. the feat of its buildings knew not In fatl> the tranflations (4). y 1 p." . there he will fee (on the firft Bilingual tablet) the word " " Tadani " Danat." read at the Britifh AfTociaj . I tell him for his information. the word Tadaniy which he tranfpofes girl. But the pronunciation of the word might be khirat y or " " " according as we at").

The Ancient Ones of the Earth." " this over or giving up is always reprefented in paffing thefe legal documents by fome derivative from the AfTyrian A " root Nadan. pafling over or the Jale of a flave. and 3jrd verfe: cc They give 1 But how can a (Nathan) GIFTS (Nadan) to all. root find Nadan ? I He fays- it anfwers to the Hebrew Nadan. a word of very different meaning . for thy protecting care." &C." What Sir H. calls the correfponding Phoenician letters cannot by any pqffibility have any reference to the firft line of cuneiatic writing any more than it can to the nineteenth : A The whole infcription may contain a or twentieth line. be ijale? gift I have taken the firft line of cuneiatic writing that Sir will fee You Scriptures in H. of the Britifh given a number of Greek infcriptions." In the firft place. not at obfcene and impure cha- Nathan is " applicable to the prefent cafe. R. anointed of God." it is an unmiftakeable Vau i. " The e. from word Nadan has reference to " uncleannefs In all its bearings the and impurity. Newton. Hebrew means " all deny it moft emphatically. to her god for protection. R. 1 by C. of an racter. fru. O Arial. thus In humble fup: plication (cuneiform)." both terms ufed in the original copy of the Ezekiel xvi. preferve (me) under the fhadow of thy The Phoenician on the margin reads " wings.io8 . a gift" certainly. root in Nathan. and by the application of the fimple primitive alphabet it reads letter cc for letter. and it would read " But he tells us that fad. this AfTyrian root Hebrew H. while " to to offer" to ftretch forth the hand. " to give anfwering to the In what language does Sir Nathan. gives us in the plate of the tablet. which the firft line prayer In the hiftories of the difcoveries made feems to favour. give." fad unhappy woman waiting for her enemy. at Halicarnaflus is Mufeum. he is wrong in giving the fecond Phoenician letter the power of cc TV. but a gift of a peculiar defcription. it is feminine." . unhappy (woman). confequently it would be DVT. T. and word for word.

Old Series (fame " On the is a Orthography of the (Tynan paper work)." and may be or perhaps even as Iddin. 109 which a certain female whofe name is not given. " Nadan. i) numeral 52. When will the literati of England awake from their culpable apathy. or give. In vol." art. gives us groups as " Tadan? which he then is (he fays) derived from the Aflyrian root Nadan. and of the perfon who receives Nakon.\YI) . line 13. Cuneiform Names/' where he fays that the following A groups the gift " >< I- ^ % 2 - ni fy is "giver of an AfTyrian then he Now mark. me alfo in like manner is elicited that weights. he gives as Nadin. and Jcience. give a Adin. religion. the wife of Nakon." H. the firft group (No. Niddina (which he gives elfewhere as Mo). i. of the perfon who feduces her hufband away from her and her two children. to give? and the AfTyrian cuneiform equivalents he gives as above. and for the caufe of little more literature. xv. " A fad. " to tranfpofes into alfo <c DaNaT." devotes any one who has defrauded her with falfe Another is &c.Rawlinforfs Errors in his Numerals. to " . dedicates to the infernal deities the perfon who ftole her bracelet (<TT<X.TO(. But let us look a vol. unhappy woman. Sir "Bilingual Tablets." in pronounced Again. fame vol. Now mark the difference. and enter heart and foul into this deeply interefting Subject. So uncertain is this fyftem that not one group or name can be depended upon. little clofer into Tablets." This ftrikingly illuftrates the tranflation of the firft tablet given above. which to give? equivalent Nathan. which he very well knows." Nadin. of thefe Bilingual the Royal Afiatic Society's "Journal. In New two Series. And goes on to fay in a note that reprefents the root " page 400. R. made by one " Profochan.

1 10 "The Ancient Ones of the Earth. DAVID'S. New Among Series. thereas of any ejjential fore. B. David's. of a chief who figured wars againft . The Lord Bifhop of ST. Rawlinfon. I. Rawlinfon has been one of the moft important phi* lological achievements of the In reality. tire ignorance There Sir is another fingular coincidence worth mention- certain groups of ing. Prefident of the Royal Society of Literature. Rawlinfon. but his enof the matter. Afiatic Wednefday. 1866. Plate VI. Sir " H. and capable of judging of the matter if they will but give their attention to it. (at attention to the ? prefent) occult fcience of Afly- rian philology Why mould thoufands of gentlemen highly gifted by nature and education." found a very curious collection of bilingual tablets." H. K. 1866. I will now give the reader the opinion of a learned dignitary of the Church. AfTyrian and Phoenician. fpeaking of but he cannot depend on this diftinctive epithet I its phonetic power. "Bilingual Tablets. the deciphering of which by Sir H. April 25th. according to his fyftem of variants. the fo-called Phoenician key had added but very little to our knowledge either of the Aflyrian alphabet or language. or B C. the Lord Bifhop very of St. c< in the ordinary characters. little that you the know very matter. c thefe will be ' C.C. on the fame work.) Chaldean titles it feems to conftitute a diftinfiUve epithet . fays that (fig. Journal. tablets. of Jpice of truth in this. would be one and the fame? So much for the Bilingual A BLACK WHITE. 2. cc pafl year :' A clear proof] value" There is fome little my Lord Bifhop." Vol. and I cannot regard it. but in the other my Lord Bifhop difplays not only his ful- fome flattery. or whether (hall be which. RAWLINSON. and the opinion of Sir H. Now the find to be the in the name (Auz(i)ts) Gillirri. pin their faith to half-a-dozen men who are always disagreeing among themfelves whether fhall be B.

2. to prevent the entering of 1. at the obferved a word the Jecond as read by me. application of known alphabetic powers to known alphabetic forms. but the evidence fupplied by one of the words (the firft deciphered) outweighs volumes of learned conjecture. but it is well known " that the name of "Aram is given to many parts in the Eaft. Sir H. 2)." infcription I Over it : there a fhort infcription firft (Plate II. fupreme king. or Dabab. He " fays On my glance fig." But why not give the firft he deciphered? On his firft Plate II. i) occurs many times on the Black Marble Obelifk. Aram (figure i). and this name (as feen in Plate VI. reader look at Mr.4. or Dabab. and which I He goes on to ftate that " the read as Dab." &c. any unprejudiced and fay whether there is the leaft likenefs between the and the characters he has picked out Himyaritic B or infcription over D . face A. i). marked glance he takes two letters (see with an afterifk) from two different groups. Forfter's book was publifhed. On the fecond ftep from the top. fays that the name of AfTyria does not occur in any of the infcriptions . in the preceding chapters. 1 1 1 This name (Auz(i)ts) occurs three times in the four gradines of the Black Marble Obelifk. one or two fpecimens of his tranflations to fee how far " like known forms with like known his principle of words only] " The by the powers" can be "A flab.. it is brief. Mr. is The that approach to principle (in Rev. fig. containing only five words.Singular Coincidences. whofe theory is. caftle ift. fubject is carried out. Forfter. &c. Forfter's alphabet. From what has been faid already the reader will perceive that the theory now fubmitted to the public in this work." (Plate II. occurs this expreffion " (according to the primitive alphabet:) Auz(i)ts fought fearfully. Forfter finds a taken by atfault. which he Let renders according to the Arabic Dab. Rawlinfon I confined him fecurely.3.2. fig. fig. C." This was precifely the principle I adopted ten years Let us take before Mr. hitherto is entirely antagoniftic to this all theories nearer! propounded upon its fubject.

&c. The Rev." I drank. Norris "of its flowing naufeous waters. does not Mr. they marked As A. B. "The remaining words are equally clear. and with a battering-ram. . and there are five feries of figures between the AfTyrian philologifts -Mr. Forfter confiftently follow it out ? Let us take another fpecimen of this gentleman's abilities as He then coma decipherer of the Aflyrian cuneiform. Mr. Sir H." are 1 own views upon it. and he finds the following definition "Dababat. . an engine of war a kind of battering-ram." but he does not give us the words.1 12 as The Ancient Ones of the Earth. this and. and given them an arbitrary meaning to fuit the device. c. D. Would it not have been more fatisfactory for Mr." a fpecimen of the agreement take the following example. than to have cut out a part of two different words. and then to fum up all in this grandilocc It would be difficult to find a legend quent ftyle fo comprehenfively explanatory of its device as this 1 : I perfectly word. "like known alphabetical forms with like known next looks into Golius for alphabetical powers." agree in the principle laid but why and believe it to be the only fafe rule down. Rawlinfon's claffification. in his fpecimen meet of his " Affyrian Dictionary. C. and like powers and like Now. he proceeds to give us his the fubjecl. the fame group in each cafe. Forfter to have taken the infcription word by word^ and to have given fomething like a connected and reafonable interpretation. grounded on the principle device. filled with armed foldiers." has the following. Sir H. I drank. Rawlinfon and Layard to be. and finds pictured before him the whole definition the murculus or rolling tower. Forfter is clearly as much at fea as he aflerts the Meflrs. in the way of deciphering and of " legend forms. Hinckes "its clear waters were abundant. Dr. Rawlinfon has done commenting upon fingle . mences with that highly interesting monument of antiand after freely quity. Norris. the Black Marble Obelifk what Sir H. C. Rawlinfon." the root.'* I drank." Then he : He turns to the flab (which he had forgotten to examine). according to monument or obelifk has four fides. He goes on to fay."the muddy overflow of its waters.

which is called an epigraph. and immediately fecond feries. in the under figure in the fifth feries. ing what appear to be fruits of the earth or fomething very much like them . . he applies it to the firft paunch. excepting at the conclufion of each epigraph. Mr. minerals. Mr. Forfter cafts about him to find a word is no word that will fuit the figures of his choice. of the earth. another tray with articles refembling our modern carrying 1 There is alfo another one-pound bundles of cigars. Mr. is figures feen a figure bearing on his head a kind of tray. the right in i). vafes. for the information of thofe who of antiquity.Mr. In the fourth epigraph to the left of face c he finds a word that feems to anfwer his purpofe (fee Plate III. and calls that " Dar In the fifth epigraph alfo honeycomb tripe/' the word occurs three times. that no reafonable being could fuppofe there ever was any connection between them. precious woods. but in no inftance is the group or legend under the device. or third epigraphs. fide A. that the five feries of 1 It may be have not feen as well to this interefting relic illuftrate the tribute or conciliatory gifts from the king figures appear to or chief of fome diftant country. firft feries. in the right-hand corner. conto the opinions of all the Aflyrian trary philologifts. this figure. Indeed. Forfters men and each animals feries Theory. who is feen in the I firft and fecond feries. 1 1 3 running round the four fides. is a fimilar object. but there that will fuit the device in the firft. which he applies to the firft figure to the " Dar from the Arabic. reads the cuneiform from right to left. contain- water-melons. the legend is fo far from the device. which are borne by fixty attendants and to be the produds their officers to the king. textile fabrics. for they confift of animals (tame and and what appear wild). fig. ct Forfter fays that the fecond figure is carrying honeythis obferve here. which occurs on the laft fide D. fecond. it feems. fide A. Forfter. bearing a fimilar tray to thofe on fide c." figure to the right in the fecond feries. In the firft feries of on fide c. Under of figures there is an infcription in the cuneiform character. A. This he tranflates a Then With arbitrary fyftem of deciphering them. confequently there are five epigraphs.

Forfter's works with an extract from his own book : "It was /. in profecuting inquiries on the principle in queftion. i D " Alphabet to fee how far or B and the Hamyaritic Plate II. He finds it under a figure carrying fomething on his moulder like an elephant's tufk.'* finds under a figure bearing a bag on his moulder. under a baboon." He has alfo found dar ." If he had ftrictly followed out his own principle. In the example before us it will be feen at a glance that there is not the flighteft refemblance between No. 5. med teeth." Then he which. and fig. and milii genus. it . and the one behind him has an open veflel. tripe. means (fig. us now look at Mr. unclean different meanings. as oppofite in idea as black to white. the word would have had many more names equally oppofite to each other. Forfter's the principle of " like forms with like powers will act. at the Again. under a figure bearing a bundle of (ticks." comb and the ! firft cc He alfo gives this word five confequently. alphabetical that I found its alphabet limited to ten (10) letters. . it occurs under a camel. with the rendering by means of the Hebrew language. but very different from the fig. like alphabetical forms with like powers. fig. the thing feems to be a mafs Plate II. or between the D'S of In fact. end of each epigraph and from its frequent repetition he gives it the fignification of <c quod frequenter penditur tributum frequently paid tribute. But I think apparently to dip out of occasionally. bearing paunches uncut. cc dharoo the fame word is found. " med teeth. 7 is the four concluding words of each epigraph.1 14 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. the laft but three. ." he gives it the name of grain. has been faid of the <f Legend and Device" prinenough Let ciple to fatisfy all candid readers of its ufeleflhefs. is the tranflation by means of the primitive alphabet. In Plate III. and alfo under a figure for the carrying a fkin of wine or fome kind of liquor of that feries holds in his hands a glafs or leading figure tumbler. dentes defflui three other groups. and III. 6. e. and he calls it " Dar. he fays 2). Thus. I mall clofe this notice of Mr. of inconfiftencies.

as demonftrating the invariable application in all thefe primitive pictorial monuments of the prinall the refults hereafter to was by means of ciple of Legend and Device. and to which I have here alluded only by anticipation. 115 this alphabet that I obtained be mentioned. najcitur ridiculus mus." . Parturiunt was mofl difappointing. Former's while it Theory. and the refult ' It was literally.' fatisfactory. Yet fo far it proved monies .Mr.

Rawlinfon confefTes himfelf to fequel. it is quite inconceivable that they could. Sir VII. . in the firft inftance. and Black is White Pote's Nineveh Bonor- Darknefs vifible mi's Nineveh " Bunfen's opinion of the Syftem of Dr. |T muft be clear to every perfon who has made the prefent fubject in any degree a ftudy. Wall Rawlinfon's Method more fully exHis Doubts plained Difcrepancy in the Hiftory of his Alphabets Rawlinfon's Tranflation ofTemen Bar's Brick Coincidences: " " White is black. of Trinity College. want of fomething more tangible than conjecture. Sir H. Dublin. : the fcience of AfTyrian decipherment is yet in its a commencement has been made> and that is all!' infancy that : Dr. be in a ftate of doubt from firft to laft. that the fyftems hitherto fent forth to the world in this particular branch of philology are far from conclusive or fatiThere feems to be a void. RAWLINSON'S ALPHABET. applied to the exprefling the fimple elements of articulate founds.. fays: "Surely fuch comcharacters. and this opinion is largely fhared in by fome of the moft learned men of the prefent day. a factory. could not have been.CHAPTER SIR H. Hinckes. in his efTay on the Rawlinfonian Alphabet. Rawlinfon's Ideographs A (Tynan Opinion of it by Dr. Alphabet H. for he fays cc It would be difingenuous to flur over the broad fact. Wall. as will be feen in the Indeed. confifting of fo many and fuch variplicated ous ingredients.

inftead of Cf This appears to be the meaning accordfather. but to conclude that it is mere wafte of time and labour to attempt to analyze them by methods in accordance with notions hitherto in Sir vogue upon the fubject." Rawlinfon. at any rate. . will be an " ox houfe. and 500 varicc The alphabet is partly ideographic " (we ants." therefore IN. I conjecture that the fyllable in queftion may have been the fpecific name of the object which the fign or letter was fuppofed to depict. that certain characters reprefent two entirely difllmilar founds founds fo diffimilar that neither can they be brought into relation with each other. cc neareft approach to the firft cafe is DO. " and fome myftify the fubject fyllabic . any definite one of which is indeed I can only remotely conjecture the explanation." and in the fecond inftance we have n.) that the phonetic portion of the alphabet is altogether that every phonetic fign reprefents a comfyllabic." mim. water. able to account for the anomalous condition of many of the AfTyrian figns which fometimes reprefent phonetically a complete fyllable. is therefore the only better calculated left to alone). fince augmented to 300. Awleph. alone." or letter reprefents a fyllable. cc Whilft in cafes where a ing to the above fyftem !) fingle alphabetical power appertains to the fign. pae. it to A ftill more formidable difficulty. and D. ftructure is thus mown to be in fo rude and elementary a ftate as to defy the attempt to reduce fyftem. nor will the other ." &c. reprefents an where a fign : " pofed. / think. A B. and n. it would Jeem as if that power had been the dominant found in In this way." (Thus if N. as applied to written ideographic. fays are not quite fure what Rawlinfon can mean by this term think the term. or " The entire phonetic plete and uniform articulation. We characters. a " houfe. are we the name of the object. : H. A. again. B. (The It certainly cannot be maintained hae. and fometimes one only of the founds of which the fyllable is comox. in fpeaking of his alphabet of 150 letters.Sir H. Beth. Rawlinforis AJfyrian Alphabet. 117 no alternative therefore Teems left to us." or a ftall for cattle.

. have been then fupplied the means of determining with more or lefs certainty the value of about 100 Babylonian characters. . repeated of instances fo as to reduce almoft infinitely the chance of error. we neither know the object. Pafaegadae triliteral. of triple publication are we indebted for our knowledge of the Aflyrian infcriptions. each confonant being^ .1 1 8 "The Ancient Ones of the Earth. nor. In the latter. and to this acquaintance with l the phonetic value of 1 5o figns is. alphabet) be made out than the Egyptian. in By mere comparifon. By careful comparifon of thefe duplicate forms of writing the fame name. To this fafhion. a multitude ! : 1 Since augmented to 300. if we Jhould we be able to ajcertain its AJjyrian The infcriptions at Perfepolis and .capable of two combinations. and the Coptic object depicted name of the object will ufually give in its initial form the phonetic power of the hieroglyph . and each combination having a different character. the can always be recognized. " as. whereas in Aflyrian the machinery by which the power is evolved is altogether obfcure: did know it. then. Rawlinfon's (/'. Sir H. but in their whole the object of courfe being to render phonetic ftructure them generally intelligible. limited my prefent knowledge of the Babylonian and AfTyrian Limited How many would Sir Henry alphabets. name I ." Rawlinfon have ? But this is not all the confonant founds recognized in the AfTyrian language are only fixteen. not only in their elemental figns. power be found articulation. every inftance trilingual and They engraved not only in three different but the alphabets varying from each other languages. and a very excellent bafis has been obtained for a complete arrangement of are almoft are in the alphabets. to enter at all into the full and original " In fome refpects the AfTyrian alphabet cc is more difficult to e. and other appreciation of the phonetic diftinctions peculiar to the two languages. I have added nearly fifty characters to the 100 which were previoufly known through the Perfian key . I believe. however.

Difcrepancy

in the Hiftory

of his Alphabets.

1

19

ap, ip, up, pa, pi, pu." Confequently, this would give It then proceeds into different characters. ninety-fix
it

frefh combinations, and if carried out to its fulleft extent would give a lift of between eight and nine hundred

But certain phonetic laws (not to be arrived at) intervene to check this exuberant growth, and even then the known Aflyrian alphabet is thus raifed
different characters!

to between
fifty

two hundred and
!

forty and
all.

characters

Nor

is

this

two hundred and There are other

" determinatives," to be characters, which are called of words in order to determine prefixed to certain claffes

wedge placed name of a the vertical wedge preceded by two horizontal man, and wedges tells us to expect the name of a god. (It is a
before a

their character.

Thus, the

fingle vertical

word

tells

us that that

word

is

the

fingular coincidence that the three characters juft defcribed, according to the primitive alphabet, mean " chief" and alfo " Then, again, there are ideo-

god.")

graphs and monograms to fwell the number nearly to three hundred, befides many more whofe phonetic power conis wholly unknown yet they make this important that the Aflyrian language is unmiftakeably feffion, Semitic and bears the clofefl relation/hip to Hebrew. " Five Ancient MoProfeflbr Rawlinfon, in his narchies," afTigns the original invention of letters to a race had broken up and period before the Hamite He fays: " They adopted a fyftem of picdivided. at the communication of ideas ture-writing which aimed the rude reprefentation of natural objects, and through not only to the tribes who belonged, as it would feem, defcended the Nile from Ethiopia, but to thofe alfo who, perhaps diverging from the fame focus, parTed eaftThe original ward to the valley of the Euphrates. characters for in procefs of time to pictures were reduced the convenience of fculpture, and thefe characters being which correfponded with the phonetic values,
;
',

There is fufficient the objects reprefented. of alphabetical formaevidence to fhow that the procefs tion was nearly fimilar to that which prevailed in Egypt.

afligned

names of

The Ancient Ones of the Earth. In particular it is true there is a marked difference

120

in

the refpective employment of hieroglyphic and cuneiform characters : in the former alphabet each character has but one fingle value, while in the latter the variety of

founds which the fame

ufed to exprefs is of alphabetic emquite perplexing. does not argue a diverfity of origin for the ployment fyftem of writing, it merely indicates a difference of ethnological clarification in the nations among whom the fcience of writing was developed, as the inhabitants of the valley of the Nile were effentially but one nation and ufed but one vocabulary. The objects which the
letter

may be

But

this difcrepancy

hieroglyphics reprefented were each known to the people of the country by one fingle name, and each hieroglyphic

had thus one

fingle value

;

but in

the valley of the

Euphrates the Hamite nation feems to have been broken up into a multitude of diftinct tribes, who fpoke languages identical or nearly identical in organization and grammatical ftructure, but varying to a very great extent in vocabulary and the confequence of this, that as there was but one picture alphabet common to the whole aggregate of tribes, each character had necefTarily' as many phonetic values as there were diftinct names for the object which it reprefented among the different fections of the nations." But is not this latter paragraph " the wifh which is father to the thought" of the Rawlinfonian theory;

purely conjectural?
Scriptural facts.

Certain

it

is

that

it is

contrary to

The Books of Mofes

are the only

we can
from

refer to for events in thofe pre-hiftoric times, them we learn that Abram went out from

works and Ur of

the Chaldees into Mefopotamia, dwelling amongft the Semitic and Hamitic tribes that fubfequently he went
;

into

Egypt, and from thence into Canaan, and dwelt amongft the Oaks of Mamre in the midft of the Hamite race, who, as we are told, were broken up into a multitude of diftinct tribes, but who all fpoke languages nearly identical in grammatical ftructure, having but one alphabet

common

to the whole, but each individual

letter or cha-

Tranjlation of *Temen Bar's Brick.
rafter

i

2

1

many phonetic values as there were difa multitude of values is it poffible that Abram, Ifaac, or Jacob, in their travels to and
having
as tinct tribes,
/. e.
!

How

fro in the Eaft, could underftand fuch a It jargon ? does not appear that there was any bar to that free intercourfe of fpeech which we naturally expect to find

who fpoke the fame language. In the of this work I have fpoken on the univerfality early part of the primitive language, and of the non- difperfion of tongues, therefore I need not fay any more upon that
among
a people

point here.

Rawlinfon's hiftory to fee cleared up. In the Behuftan or Perfian alphabet he has forty letters (vide Plate VIIL), and fpeaking of the Behuftan infcripis

There

a difcrepancy in Sir

H.

of

his alphabet

which

I

mould

like

tions he fays

They are engraved in three different and each language has its peculiar alphabet-^ the languages, alphabets indeed varying from each other not merely in the characters being formed by a different aflbrtment of the elemental figns which we are accuftomed to term the arrow-head or wedge, but in their whole phonetic Further on he fays ftru6lure and organization." C There is, therefore, no doubt but that the alphabets of Aflyria, of Armenia, of Babylonia, of Sufiana, and of Elymais are, as far as ejfentials are concerned, one and cc eflentials" Sir H. Rawlinfon the fame." Now, by cannot here mean the letters of his alphabet; he muft mean the wedges or elements of which his letters are compofed and yet in fome inftances, where one or more of thefe wedges obtrude themfelves uninvitedly, they
: :

cc

;

are called

"

non- ejfentials /"

According to
in

his

own account

the Aflyrian alphabet, he had (in 1850) 150 but his brother the proferTor, in the with 500 variants <c Five Ancient Monarchies," doubles the number, and
letters
;

with this multitudinous alphabet they could not tranflate a very fimple infcription on a brick (fee Plate IV. fig. 2), and only within thefe laft few years have they come to the miferable fhift of adopting the infcription on the

above-named brick

as

"

Calneth, in the nominative and

122

genitive the Aflyrian cuneiform reached that point of perfection to juftify the affertion, beyond difpute, that the name of

The Ancient Ones of the Earth. I would afk, Has the cafes." development of

any particular king or city has been ftamped on a brick ? I anfwer moft emphatically No all has been doubt hear from him, the greateft of and conjecture. " I conAflyrian philologifts, fuch expreflions as thefe "I "I read the two names doubtfully," think," jecture," cc I cannot depend on its phonetic power/' and laftly, <c I will frankly confefs, indeed, that having mattered character and every Babylonian word every Babylonian
!

We

:

which any clue exifted in the trilingual tablets, either by direct evidence or by induction, I have been tempted on more occafions than one, in ftriving to apply the key thus obtained, to abandon the ftudy altogether, in utter What defpair of arriving at any fatisfactory refult." would be thought of a king in our day who would give
to

utterance to fuch a tautological rigmarole as Sir H. Rawlinfon afcribes to Temen Bar, the great grandfire of cc Temen Bar the great king, fupreme and powerful Pul
:

king, king of AfTyria, fon of AfTaradanapal the great king, fupreme and powerful king, king of ArTyria, fon of Abedbar, powerful king, king of the land of Aflyria,

of the

city

of Halah."

Is

it

to be

fuppofed for

a

that the king of a nation which had flourished which had advanced in for more than a thoufand years all the arts and fciences, and even in literature (as the

moment

fuch a

voluminous nature of its records teftify) would adopt method of perpetuating the genealogy of his In this family, and that only for three generations ?
tranflation the

word king occurs eight times, but the which I fuppofe to be taken to mean "king" group occurs ten times. Why I fuppofe (Plate VI. fig. 7)
group
to be fo taken
Sir
is

this particular

becaufe in the
fays
:

"

" The monogram (Plate VI. fig. 7) which has the full of c MenJ may alfo poflibly ftand for c MelekJ power
c
'

Afiatic Journal,"

vol. xii.

H. Rawlinfon

King.'

Now,

according to the primitive alphabet,
:u,

we

fee this

group reprefenting the Hebrew word

G G,

" he interprets at another time as being part of <c King of the land of AfTyria. again. extent. by allowing W . " above. in their phonetic powers. according to his own cc to this root A theory. or expanfe. the groups which he at one time king. that we might the better teft it ? In fact. would unacquainted never fufpect the two were in faff thejame" Upon the fame principle we can prove that BLACK is very to be a "variant" of B WHITE. Why does not Sir H. fupreme." and where the ftem letter is repeated. G G." Numerals variants of words ! they are But a word or two here on this fyftem of variants. ff top. There are in this infcription forty-fix of cuneiatic characters. This fhows a fingular coincidence . 123 which means. we find it ftated that G G. Layardfays already alluded to the laxity conftruction and orthography of the prevailing in the language of the AfTyrian infcriptions." Probably he would fay " variants. Rawlinfon give us the language by which he tranflates.Coincidences. H . that a perfon changed till at laft the with the procefs it has undergone. each containing from one groups to fix elements or wedges. e. of ways . roof. article jj. above all. there is fcarcely a name upon any of the bricks that is twice given alike. and evibet. cover. which may be referred JJN. The groups ce upon one brick which he interprets as Son of Abedbar. in which every group is a letter or monogram and allowing four letters to be the average of a word. to be the common name of the Kings of the appears Amalekites. " I have Mr." /. are dently the moft oppofite : The fhorteft name may be written interchangeable. for in Parkhurft's Lexicon. or even allowing only one-half to be monograms or words there would be far too few characters to warrant the above tranflation." on another he interprets as "fupreme and powerful Then. every character in it may be in a variety word is fo altered." <c M. and to the number of diftinct chara&ers which appear to make up its alphaLetters differing widely in their forms. from the comparatively large extent of their dominions. Now." and the numacknowledges to be the numeral <c ber 8.

L I of A T of C I . the primitive lapidary writing of the fame races. the words without founds (ideographs) we muft either denounce as a monftrous dottrine. the only ground on which this Jtarfling " Ninetheory can be accepted for a moment.124 of one <c ^ . that whilft all the Semitic alphabetical fyftems with which we are acquainted are diftinguifhed for their rigour and compadtnefs. Mr. or the want of a definite language. " From our limited knowledge of prefent Layard fays the character ufed in the infcriptions. the developments confequently too incomplete in themfelves. Sir H. Layard goes on to fay of infcriptions more than once comparifon repeated. are only varieties or variants of the fame letter. ie Ancient Ones of the Earth. and E of K . and to all alphabetical quite oppofite to fenfe and reafon : Indeed. it would be hazardous to aflign any pofitive date to the Palaces. we can come fubject deciphering the character" And accordingly this felfevident uncertainty muft extend itfelf to the profefTed interpretations of the language by means of their alphabet ! upon the monarch. ergo. for he fays ! : anomaly which cannot fail at firft to attract the attention and excite the aftonifhment of Orientalifts is." (POTE'S veh.'* would indeed be an extraordinary thing if it were fo.") Again: "The recoveries are too few." very convenient method And it is by fuch improthis of folving difficulties A ! bable means thefe high authorities arrive at conclufions. they are : and the fame thing a careful By Mr. occupying the fame feats. . expofing diftinctly that the reading or decipherment is yet in its infancy. or to : afcribe their erection to any jecture clufion may be allowed. it will be found that many characters^ greatly or altogether differing in form. Rawlinfon fyftems ancient or modern cc The himfelf feems to be aware of this . It is evident from the writings of thefe gentlemen that they are dubious as to the truth of their own theory. although a conto no pofitive conmore frogrejs is required in But to proceed. " Our readers will fee on what foundation reft the hiftorical difcoveries . . mould be conftructed on It a fcale of fuch extraordinary amplitude and laxity.

after a partial elucidation of fuch infcriptions as have been found. conceals the features that curiofity afks learning to trace in their truth. clear. but where is the charm that mall compel its voice to reveal the buried fecrets of the paft ? If the original fyftem is incomplete and contradictory IT CANNOT <f But if a new principle. and warm them into expreffion with the magic arts of divination. it arranges and Amplifies all that we pofTefs or can obtain of myth. even now. obvious. while courting the fterneft fcrutiny of the wideft refearch.BONORMI'S her Palaces/' . the figured veil of an unknown rite or myftic ceremonial. in fact. concordant with and even eftablifhing fome earlier portions of Holy Writ. Rawlinfon has accomplifhed mould not be fuffered to blind us to the faft that our materials for Aflyrian hiftory. or hiftory. we muft perforce give it creThis effort of reafon will be duly recompenfed dence. indeed. : will then poiTefs a calculus for every problem of antiquity . while culties all ALL BE TRUE/' it Ibid. " The man as Sir H. The fyftem of Aflyrian writing is extremely obfcure. univerfal fyftem. a mythic form or monftrous combination. and all that has hitherto lain unknown or for me obfcure in the general hiftory of the world will combine into a fingle channel. 125 unfortunately." great feats of interpretation which fuch a Ibid. reconciles and explains alfo the contradictions we fancy or find in the original if. and in their prefent ftate convey tive in its rejults. bright. are extremely limited and fragmenlittle that is pofttary. and the language which it records is of only partially intelligible through the imperfect key " Nineveh and the Behuftan infcriptions.Bonormfs Nineveh. tradition. and demonftrative to the leaft reflective mind. and can combine thefe into a general and. The world gazes on the disjected members and bones of AfTyrian antiquity.". diffi- folves all the of the confequences. writers. to fatisfy the importunities of knowledge . and calls vainly for fcience to array the fcattered fragments into fhape. at leaft fo far as chronological narrative is concerned. foflil The made has been evoked from its tomb .

126 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and I believe few of them which were not already arrived at by Rawlinfon will be found to be word. may He make fome lucky then by means of his ideographs. in others. Mr. neither one name^ can he authenticate in the whole of his renderings. not one Jenconclusive. " In one of the fyftem of Hinckes. This I fhall be able to prove in the courfe of this work (if I have hot done fo already). at once fimple. fays: fpeaking may be admitted as one means of but Dr. And what has been already faid will apply equally to the fyftem of Dr. what has been done hitherto in the way of elucidating thofe dark and myfterious writings is extremely doubtful and unfatisfactory. The refults of his own ingenious guefles have indeed confiderably varied. In fact. . Rawlinfon in his cuneiform tranflations. clear. that it fhould be recognized as a fcientific method. and Bunfen. who work on the fame principle. and homophones but ftrip him of thefe auxiliaries. is wanted. Hinckes. polyphones. Fox Talbot. I mean to fay moft emthat from the fyftem hitherto adopted by Sir phatically H. now and that fome and new principle felf-evident." Showing guefTes . from the foregoing extracts. Hinckes will not expect fubjeftive gueffing. fuch a fyftem Thus we fee." that tence. and what becomes of his fyftem vanimed like the cc bafelefs fabric of a vifion.

truth. who have confidently put forth ftatements on this calculated to fap the very foundations of Biblical fubjecl: ftatements founded only on bajelefs conjecture? Thefe pages have not been written for the mere fake of not from difTenfion. repudiates the authority of Scripture and gives us his of the Garden of Eden. for the various works that have been written DO upon this occult fubjecl: are now before the world. Rawlinfon on the fite of the Terreftrial Paradife. fceptical diftortion . VARIOUS TRANSLATIONS. . impofed upon by the rank and talent of literary men. but to correct error. not think it neceflary to make any apology for the contents of this chapter. The fubjecl:. befides. Apology for the Contents of this Chapter Author's Motive for " Brandis " on the Writing Aflyrian Infcriptions and Mode of Decipherment Rawlinfon's "I am Darius" Author's Tranfla" tion Forfter's Tranflation of the fame Rawlinfon's " Phraortes Author's Tranflation fiftencies and Errors in InconQueries refpefting his Alphabet Rawlinfon's Tranflation of the Black Marble Obeliik. and have become public property. and are therefore open to fair criticifm. at a recent meeting of the Britifli Aflbciation.CHAPTER No VIII. where Sir H. The world has been. 1 Look at the paper read by Sir H. in my opinion. R. 1 870. is of too much importance to require an apology from me for fpeaking plainly my thoughts on the fubjecl:. but from a fincere love of truth love of antagonifm.

If after ages might appear in the different infcriptions. and with the fincere prayer that it may tend to the further elucidation and confirmation of the Holy Scriptures. in his " In" AfTyrian Decipherment. which rendered it neceffary for them to be So when he met with two groups fimilar in claffified. I mall now proceed to give the opinions of feveral learned men on the fchemes of interpretation adopted in And firft. that certain groups formed the name of Darywujh (Darius). we have about 160 different characters. which he has found partly in AfTyrian and partly in Babylonian records. form. It is certain that this number might be increafed (ad infinitum) by a comparifon of all the Ninevite infcripThis variety becomes ftill greater in confequence of the multitude of variations in which thefe characters tions. commiflerate the Babylonians and Affyrians for being obliged to ufe this multitude (as it would feem) of arbitrary forms. this pity muft give place to fpeechlefs aflonifhment at the declaration of fuch men as Rawlinfon taking thofe feven groups for the foundation of his gigantic ftructure of the AfTyrian alphabet." fays: the remains of the Babylonian text of the Behuftan inwork on cc fcriptions. it has been carried on to completion with much patient ftudy. in any cafe. but with a fincere and fervent hope that it may meet the eye and awaken the zeal of Oriental fcholars. which have unfortunately fuffered from time and weather. If it mail happen to be accepted. . cc Palmam qui meruit ferat " but. not with any pecuniary motive. and induce them to give this new theory a fair and candid trial. This work has been written at leifure moments." account for the multitude of letters in the Rawlinfonian It is evident that after his firft afTumption alphabet. the works of Rawlinfon and others. but differing only in a fmall element which he .ia8 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and Hinckes. Brandis. " That thefcholars of Mefopotamia may have ujed perhaps a fourth part of thofejigures for feveral founds Let us endeavour to entirely different from each other. he went on but as he proceeded new and ever varying groups met his eye. Rawlinfon gives a lift of 246 arrow-headed forms.

for example.3. or ground. primitive fyftem. to his alphabet and variants. beneath an obelifk which ftood there till within a few years. 2. As ject. n Rawlinfon's fyftem. that the body in the centre of their fquare. c the Earth. ideodeterminatives. improbable inclined to enough. but very In ftrict analogy with different in meaning through a little character at the end of each fecond word. which they call in Aflyrian non-ejfentials y but with the primitive fyftem moft he proceeded with his investigations he effential. polyphones. other. . words very much alike in found and orthography. we are think that beneath this fpot not improbably moulder' . if we take a number of groups of letters in our native tongue (a word is a group of letters) on any fimple fub. mu. 2. 3. as.' &c. fmafh or crafh. every element 1 is a letter. firft The likelihood of as fuch a fact ftrikes us. different i. called a non-effentialy meaning.' and AA f>^2* LRTS. as : 2 3 < ARTS. and yet. fuch as c Formerly there exifted a favourite tradition among the inhabitants of Red Lion Square and its of Oliver Cromwell was buried vicinity. fuch as variants.which he called c The Accadian? And if he mould continue his erroneous fyftem there is every probability that the variety of groups will double the number . to break. but according to the I. homophones and he found the variety of ftill as he graphs proceeded groups fo numerous that he was obliged to invent a language and alphabet that never exifted. Mat and Mate. on confideration. K* mu. two words of very our Englifh words meaning. and claffifying kept adding them under various fufpidous names. Fat and Fate. Hat and Hate. or one a variant of the 2. at thought. he claffed them as 129 of the fame i.'The Accadian Alphabet..

Again. We read that Sir plorations. feafons. making a total of 132 words or groups. a feries of words refifted all attempts to bring them into connection with any known language . and if we went on through all the ologies of man/ and tions. 2nd. when the anapasft is allowed which licenfe is alfo conceded to the fourth foot. on which were written . and the plant firft breaks its mell to the period of death explaining the functions which the : various organs are deftined to perform the changes they undergo. in health or ficknefs. That the 6th But the 7th foot muft foot even admits of an anapaeft. it differs in two ift. be an iambus. The iambic tetrameter catalectic is almoft peculiar to the comic writers . from the moment when the vital principle is imparted to the feed. C. if fo. the of the AfTyrian kings. our obliged not merely to wonder at the boldnefs of the AfTyrians in daring to tolerate them. . Next. finally. it will take him ftrated. and great variety of variations in the names in feveral other proper names. and under all the in.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. accident. and fee how many words there are 130 c not in the firft. zz 70 words. or the In this jrd paragraph there are 42 words that are not in the firft or fecond zz 174 different groups of elements or letters.' There are 62 words in this laft paragraph which are not in the firft. vain. of 69 words from Phyfiological Botany c To which belongs all that concerns the hiftory of vegetable life. and we efforts to decipher fhall be them muft certainly be in and. fo long as the phonetic value of the figns was adhered to. Rawlinfon. in the courfe of his excame acrofs a royal library of terra-cotta treatifes H. tablets. the number would be legion. of all the arts and fciences ages to arrange them into different languages (like the Accadian) and form If fuch variations can be demonalphabets for each. now we will take 70 words on another in it that are fubjedl. foot muft be an iambus or tribrach . if we take another paragraph . but more at their ability to read their own writing. that the fourth refpects from the comic fenarius. except in the cafe of a proper name. fluences exercifed art by climate.

countries. and the abbreviated form was in ufe only among the people. in Mefopotamia. it was not proappears to have loft this property. ftriking inftance is furnifhed us in the treatment of the name of ' a king. in this manner. becaufe in no other way can the ufe of generic figns before the names of the like be accounted for . writing was originally derived the phonetic part of the letter mutt have been although at the time confiderably developed. Even in various names is oppofed to all Egypt each figure retained always . But the laft of the three characters which compofe the name is but the fame as the c firft. may admit. at Behuftan to fign exprefs the land of AfTyria .. e. ' ! of the name perhaps Don Judteus Afella.Erandis's Mode of Decipherment . to that theory. rivers and but that. being the AfTarhaddon. 131 Once in pofleflion appeared to confirm his hypothecs. of fuch a principle. Lord of AfTyria. We employed its diftinct it for all its probability. without fcruple. the thing is Jo utterly Happily we are able to mow mode oj Johing difficulties Neither hieroglyphics nor alphabetic preferable writing furnifhes the leaft analogy to fuch lawlejfnejs. perfons. /'/ was natural that the work of deciphering Jhould go rapidly forwards. in the end The initial character to read A/far. From this difficulty is Hinckes Credat that no eafily efcapes. and in the Ninevite infcriptions both this and the god AfTar. for the full name of the AfTyrian was AfTar-don-ArTar. that the cuneiform from the hieroglyphic. it runs diretlly counter. Be this as it may. phonetic value and where. who Ruler of Affyria* and fon ftyles himfelf of Sennacherib. . we believe ber Of ARROW GROUPS A DEFINITE CONVENTIONAL LAW If this difcovery be OF FORMATION MAY BE TRACED. no difficulty was Jo great as not to be. Accordingly. i. the figure of an object was incredible as to render any other to this. who confequently can be no other than A The firft fign agrees with this. Nor is the manner in which Rawlinfon feeks to explain the origin of the alleged poly thong at all fatisfaclory. as a generic fign. that in a large numnounced. verified. AfTar. fuch violence was neceflary. eafily folved. it is plain.

Hinckes have completely deceived. fome writers have not hefitated to come forward in print and boldly aver their belief that the whole thing is a delujien. very root and foundation of the whole fyftem. have formed an alphabet of thirty-nine letters. but extends to the Indeed. firft themfelves and then the world. and with what he calls a making a total of forty characters. "disjunctive fign" Each of thefe befides a great number of variants. and arbitrary {trainings he has had recourfe to in his tranflations. characters (as I have faid before) is compofed of from. Rawlinfon. . with himfelf. with regard to a long feries of ftatements of the higheft hiftorical and literary importance which they And I have confidently and repeatedly put forward. in a letter from Mr. inferted " Journal of Sacred Literature/' and in which he " There defends the Rawlinfonian fyftem." Can anything be more prophetic of the theory mown in this work ? One would almoft imagine that M." would afk. Fox Talbot. Secondly. Rawlinfon and Dr. This fcepticifm does not apply to the details merely.132 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. can any one who has entered thoughtfully into the works of Sir H. two to five elements but not one of the various groups of elements is anything fimilar in figure to any ancient or modern letter confequently a Rawlinfonian letter . our diftruft of this lawleflhefs is ftill more increafed by the fad: that fo many important parts of the Ninevite infcriptions can be deciphered without affigning to the individual cuneiform characters more than one found which each has been proved to reprefent. who. and has feen the numberlefs errors. Finally. Brandis had been gifted with the power of foreknowledge. he fays exifts at the fame time in the minds of many a very confiderable degree of doubt and hefitation with refpect in the : to the reality of the alleged difcoveries. inconfiftencies. refufe to join in Rawlinfon attempts his the fentiments juft expreffed ? Behuftan tranflations by means of an alphabet compofed of the joint difcoveries of Grotefend and other German and French fcholars. . and that Sir H.

") ufed in this inftance of five elements.) compofed (fig. I refolved to teft my The beginning of alphabet by means of thefe writings.) forming Rawlinfon's the primitive A. dark night.) linfon's W. 133 forms a primitive word. is compofed of three horizontal wedges (two long and one fhort) and one long vertical wedge. according to Rawlinfon. but or LM Lam (meaning in emphatic negative.) is compofed of four elements one horizontal over three wedges (Plate VI." plural. me. it. "they. 10. The fourth letter is com- tranquillity." &c. The fecond group with two LN it D. Awiou. the article. " night. vagabond. mercy.") The third letter. vain. offprimitive Aoul (Perfian Awl. A. mail not be that. " . and the primi- "No! pofed of one fhort horizontal wedge and three vertical ones (two long and one fhort. fame . ou i ou (Perfian Awi. "They mall not (find) The fixth letter. is fupplied.) primitive A." Rawlinfon's R. forming the primitive LALU (Perfian.) and fpring." primitive.. A.") The feventh letter (fig." The as eighth does. the firft letter in this fhort fentence. fig. LILI. or foolifh fellow that knows not what he " foolifh.The Cuneatic Alphabets. (The brick and glafs vafe. wu/h"I vertical " the infcription. and reft. pofterity. progeny. in Rawlinfon's alphabet (Plate VIII. forgivenefs. and that the Perfians were the laft to ufe it. but the primitive Yaja. 8.") vertical wedges Rawlinfon's (fig. " Al" descendants. or time of affliction and forrow :" Hebrew.) Believing that at one period of time there was only one cuneatic alphabet in ufe all over the Eaft. Now. as I have mown by examples in a former part of this work. race." "certainly never. 15.) tive or Lan (in Perfian an (vide Tablet of Alphabets) Perfian " mercy. V?. 9.) forming Rawlinfon's M (fig. (" foolifh words. forms Rawletter. is Adam Daryam Darius. equal to Awlal "the race" (and this form The ninth ufed only when the race or family is noble. fingular. "a long. 14) is Raw- linfon's Y. as before.") Collectively Rawlinfon's "I AM D. "he.

of to fupply one to each to : . I am Xathrites. I felected the infcription cut upon the drefs of the third ftanding figure to the right of the king. Jan (" life. is in the race/') right place. letter is cc Rawlinfon's compofed of three elements. (fig.134 is The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and the very attitude of the king (as reprefented on the Behuftan of rock. by engraving many captives faflened by I mall let the reader cutting andftriking with a mallet" between the three tranflations . trouble. whereas in the original (according to his own lym frwrtifh alphabet) there are only feventy-one. or Lkk (Perfian. viz. or an addrefs to certain individuals.) fpirit. by the Rev. which is only applied to noblemen." This appears to be the middle a fpeech. the latter is cerjudge tainly beneath criticifm." was an impoftor. foul. awtha athh adm khfhthrit amiy uwkhmtrhy adhurujhiy " This Phraortes tumaya adm khfhaythiy amiy madiy. I determined to teft another fmall infcription from the Behuftan rock. in the inftance before us. mind." &c. (but) imprifonment for life. He thus declared. imprifonment. pain. and continued on the rock befide it.) Rawlinfon's U. Encouraged by my apparent fuccefs with the above ten groups. out of place here to notice the (to fay the leaft of it) very curious tranflation. which the fame in Perfian. the foolifti race. wind." &c. or. but the primitive Lgg. 16. with his hand uplifted to the prifoners before him) And the word Awlal. Rawlinfon fays that thefe infcriptions are in almoft every : A inftance trilateral . felf. In the whole he fupplies thirty-four letters. primitive Gan. vital The tenth and laft the mouth. making a total infcription of 105. letter. (fig. 17. Forfter. there are only three words that are triliteral. if the prifoners are the nobles that confpired It will not be againft the throne and life of Darius. but. C.) Therefore the tranflation by means of the primitive alphabet will c< read thus They mall not (find) mercy nor reft : (during) a long time of adverfity. forrow. (" the is indicative of the fact.) forming SH. of the c< cut fhort man fame ten groups treated of above a fingle rope. and he is obliged make fenfe of it.

Why in the forty-firft letter. it was thrown off as I found it. fpirit of the king and his race is To increafe profperity vanity (I) forgivenefs is not to be expected no mercy will ever be mown to us . governing well the Yaja a long troublous time I faw not province through affliction a babbling.." 2 The Perfian word "Yaja" is fynonymous with "fool." . it feems a remarkable coincidence that it mould give forth juft fuch language as we might naturally expect from a dif" Behold I appointed and unfuccefsful confpirator ." is am Yaja ! fon's my experimental teft of Rawlingroups of Perfian cuneiform. I am king of Media. Lo! mercy I our land in trouble. I am forgivenefs Yaja. vainly I ad- tranquillity and never expect (and) I I in malice grew triumphant (literally. . defiring reft. and two r's in his alphafor D. and kh Sir ? 3rdly. why fupply : Dh and for Mu for M . and of feventy-one groups cut on the drefs of Rawlinfon's ConPhraortes. inflaming the mind miniftered juftice and mercy. In his tranflation. I am a fool. by means of the primitive alphabet. three k's." "I am 1 H. in is . why ufe fupply five letters in the ninth K " that the language of Herodotus is in full fays with that of the Behuftan infcriptions. defire life it is Lo ! I folly to expect mercy . 2 vince to province. without any labour or ftudy but I muft fay.The Behuftan Rock Inferipf ion. odour and Yaja. nearly verbatim." I think this fhould agreement be reverfed." i. our land in trouble. " the language of Rawlinfon is in full agreement with that of Herodotus. . forgivenefs in vain. mifchievous flew from profpirit in captivity . /#/). the efTence of misfortune. 1 the race of Cyaxares . ." the following tranflation. What occafion is there for two g's. with refpect to the Behuftan alphabet. the die is caft. viz. I may afk for an anfwer to be given firft Such the refult of ten to the following queries ift. will never be. I have to 135 In giving fay in its nothing favour. bet ? andly. two h's. cluding this part of the fubject. trouble. . forrow. am The tranquillity like a ftagnant pool.e. : and misfortune. and I in fetters. Rawlinfon Yaja. our water in affliction.

the Englifh. the neareft approach to it would be DOGE. another in Latin. . that text from 1 839 and Q. muft have obferved that there is a marked difference in the combination of the various groups of elements or wedges. the fame meaning. and SH and R. and apply the adopt Englifh group. Nineveh. If he means Laffen's. or word of the fame meaning in French. and Babylon. and that the fyftem of Rawlinfon. thefe would be all different But if I combinations. in making an individual group of fuch elements in the Perfian language a letter. DOG another group characters. CANIS .) J How very necefTary it is he mould recollect every ftep taken in this important inquiry But let us return and look a little further into Rawlinfon's tranflation of the Black Marble Obelifk. French. to a correfponding group in French. why is he not content with his ? own in- alphabet Why ufe one of Laffen's letters in two Rawlinfon fays he His own ^ a ^> whofe text ? follows the text of 1839. which belonged to a much earlier To illuftrate this we know that age and nation. he attempts the tranflation by means of his felf-acknowledged imperfeft Behuftan key of forty letters. and Latin languages are compofed of the fame elemental figns or letters. the Rawlinfonian imperfeft Jyftem. Nakfhi-Ruftam. is dated 1 844. As I have faid before. and ? laftly. CHIEN and ftances in this fhort infcription A ! : . viz. to 1844 differs very materially. DOG. which we have juft fpoken of. Any one at all acquainted with the various cuneiform infcriptions from Perfepolis. cannot hold good with fimilar groups of Nineveh or Babylonia. commenced in the preceding chapter. 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth. if I apply the . that a DOGE is a DOG. or one word in Englifli. with the addition of what I imagine Rawlinfon would call a Now. Behuftan. (Vide Rawlinfon's Alphabet. but to produce a word of the fame meaning they enter into different comFor inftance.136 word . if I take a group of elemental binations. yet precifely one meaning. becaufe the groups are fimilar in form ? Again. would it be right to fay that it had non-eflential. as widely as and Z.

e. think and error ? If we compare the Perfian groups forms Rawlinfon's alphabet with the groups on which even groups. proving. and of which they can give no certain account as to the pho- netic power of each it letter. One Sir Henry's ArTyrian alphabet has forty. viz. let us look a little at the remarkable anachronifms. the neareft combination to it would be DOGMA. Spanim. Arabic. Then is compofed of three hun- dred letters or figns. fonian letter has either a Perfian." the fame thing ? Yet the Aflyrian philologifts are ftill farther afield in their variants of the fame letter. to the Latin language. is gifts beyond my powers of imagination. and which has to their fcarcely any or but few correfponding groups Is it any wonder they are full of doubt. or Hebrew meanas has been noticed ing attached to each feparate group. it will be obferved /'. French. Q.we (hall find on\yf or letters. beyond doubt. Neither does Sir Henry of any confequence. which Sir H. if I apply the French group CHIEN tials. I think. confequently in that light it ftands for SUT. 1 37 fame group. in modern alphabet days. that one was common all over the Eaft.) have formed alphabets differing greatly The in philolo- number of figns. another eighty. "a to the Latin I mould have CHIA fig of delicious Would it be proper to fay the two words meant quality. with two non-effenOnce more. and if we take the various groups of which F.The Black Marble Obeli/k. that figure 5 is the primitive S. Rawlinfon tells figures 5 us have the fame meaning. KH. But before we proceed with the Black Marble Obelifk. unalphabet. H . what procefs or what authority he has for ftating that 6 has the fame meaning as 5. Latin. (Look at and 6. Plate VI. and teft them by we mall find that each individual Rawlinthe certainty. &c. and contradictions refpefting this monu- before . K. as. primitive. DOG. inconfiftencies. and the Rawlinfonian alphabet is formed. that will at all correfpond. T. B. &c. with five hundred variants. Sut. as . But as for figure 6.. one alphabet for Englim. another ninety. They apply this imagithat had exifted between nary alphabet to a language two and three thoufand years earlier.. the Black Marble Obelifk..

at all agree with the reign of Selima Rim. and that it reprefents the chief ambaflador of the Israelites proftrating himfelf before the king (Shal1 manezer). which has attracted moft attention in this country. 647. but the ProfefTbr objects attributes the monument to Shalmanezer II. conNeither fequently there is a difcrepancy of 255 years. c. in his " Five Ancient king. The monument Monarchies. and the infcriptions record the names of the donors. fides. will the reign of Jehu. who flourifhed from B. fays of Shalmanezer //. the ft. Is he the fame individual as Sir H. this king (Temen Bar) did not reign until B. Rawlinfon calls elfewhere Temen Bar. and Hazael. twenty compartments." vol. leaving alone the faff that Jehu was never fubject to tribute by any Affyrian 2nd. . between and below them. the Ifraelitim King. difcovered in a proftrate pofition. xii.. being covered with cuneiform writing.. who fucceeded : his father Sardanapalus the Great. Raw- Printed by order of the Truftees of the Britifh Mufeum. five on each of its four.C. Profeflbr Rawlinfon. i Mufeum authorities. page 430. Sir H. fon of Sardanapalus ? If fo. the King of Ifrael. 902. 824. c. fharply infcribed in a minute There cannot be a doubt but that both character. c. it contains the annals of the reign of Selima Ri/h. Rawlinfon and Dr. ment perpetrated by and others.138 linfon The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Hinckes. ii. 859 to B. in page 365. under the debris which covered It contained bas-reliefs in up Shalmanezer *s palace. of the Houfe of Omri. B. Sir H. a period of cc : thirty-five years. the Who is Selima Rim ? contemporary King of Syria. and the fpace above. amongft whom are Jehu. is an object of black marble." vol. In contradiction to which. Rawlinfon " Thefe epigraphs contain a fort of regifter of the fays : 1 " Royal Afiatic Journal." mentioned above are the fame. accordBlack Marble Obelifk ing to Sir H. The bas- reliefs illuftrate the offerings and prefentations to the King by his numerous tributaries. page 367. reprefent Jews bringing tribute to Shalmanezer. The " that the figures Profeflbr alfo ftates.

Shalmanezer III. now in the linfon calls Britifh " Mufeum. viz. of time of more than eleven centuries muft be bridged of his reign A over before we can bring thefe two contradictory ftatements into contact at all. of the fame object. Amongft th6fe kings was one whofe name reads Jehu. But again. 859. 1 " The god Aflarac. commenced his reign about the fame year that Jehu died. Ani. what Sir H. 2000. the conqueror of Samaria. B. confequently Jehu could not have brought tribute to any of the Shalmanezers. the Great Lord." Then follows AfTyrian . as different and gap oppofite to each other as two accounts can be. 138 years fubfequent to the death of Jehu." contains the annals of the Son of Ninus. King of IJraeL Can here are two accounts by anything be more prepofterous ? the fame writer. King of all the great gods . and Shalmanezer IV. to placed on fuch conflicting ftatements? with the Black Marble Obelifk. 139 by five different nations to the A/Tynan The firft epigraph records the king (Temen Bar). reigned eighty-nine years after Jehu. c.The Black Marble tribute fent in Obelijk.C. and Jehu 880. and according to his account it contains about fifteen royal names. many are duly recorded on the obelifk^ in fome inftances with fculptured reprefentations of the various objects fent. which takes up fourteen lines of writing 1 I think I perceive the following names. the fon of Kunvri (Omri) and who has been identified by Sir H. for the Son of Ninus flourifhed Can any dependence be B. but cation. . Rawlinfon with Jehu. infcribing upon it the principal events he was a great conqueror. . the ProfefTor ftates that " can this be ? Shalmanezer II. Again. Raw- manezer. Rawlinfon fays proceed that " the infcription on it opens with an invocation to the gods." How Jehu fent tribute to Shal- The Nimroud Monument. and fubdued The names of the fubject kings diftant nations." and here he makes the remarkable u I cannot follow the fenfe of the whole invoconfeffion. He built the centre Palace of Nimroud and raifed the obelifk. receipt of the tribute from Shehua of Ladfam" Again.

as Gillirri the fupreme zaallini. but Sir H. but on the original it is ^> L. "are 'very But why cannot he follow the fenfe ? doubtful indeed'' He has given us twenty-fix lines of cuneatic groups forming this invocation. Achligrou. jrd. year by year. I afk. and yet he cannot follow the fenfe of racters. R. Belt. he candidly tells us fubfequently. or Pitt in the annals of William the Fourth. well-defined cha- which I can make intelligible fenfe. the powerful. there are fome and complicated groups in the firft twentyvery peculiar fix lines which he cannot find in any other infcription. and " if Rawlinfon cannot make fenfe of thofe king. 2nd. a lift of names taken from the Aflyrian mythology. pafTed away. &c.. Cf on the Jecond year of is my" ^ . A (crofling the Euphrates) . moft of which. Nit. and 4th groups in an horizontal direction to the right (Plate 9). groups. having diftinguifhed themfelves during the reign of the Obelifk king. I would notice that Rawlinfon's tranflation of the Jecond year. makes them fynonymous. Ninus.) and fubhe gives us page after page of letter-prefs fequently of defcriptive of battles and fieges. of thofe names is the conjectural diftinctive epithet " Bitalready noticed. firft With my fyftem the character. is the prote&or. &c. all in clear. (of . the character for "an" according to the primitive.) mow(and the opening invocation ! ing the probability of their being diftinctive appellatives of certain individuals who. is his alphabet of 300 letters and 500 variants? He then goes on to detail the annals of his ideographical Temen Bar. the fupreme god of the provinces. are the i ft." . Selima Rim.140 The Ancient Ones of the 'Earth. and prifoners taken thoufands upon thoufands {lain cities and pillaged burnt.. the mother of the gods. But before we proceed any farther. and laftly Shalmanefer. of what ufe. the fe^ L. . which I find to be names of individuals. will be the king. juft as in modern days we do not find the names of Marl borough. (Aufzits. and Artenk. Ligirr. The fact is. WaiOne pole. and we hear of them no more.) and many others.

G. of but is more in accordance with his own fyftem courfe. L. I afk again. account of the year's tranfactions. A. we have only feven and a-half of letter-prefs. in fuch tranflations ? Again. I pafs over many minor errors until I come to the tenth year. for Sir H. Rawlinfon. it was what they called an ideograph. Now. but about twenty words . fo that it appears plainly that wherever they find an awkward group that they cannot analyze by means of their 300 letters and 500 variants. and if we Sargon allow four groups to be the average of. containing 120 words! what combination of to letters be Can there be any truth. for he has given us twelve lines of letter -prejs for the year's annals. indeed. the eleventh year has two and a-half lines of cuneatic writing. the transactions of which are reprefented by two lines of groups. This. and to defcribe them. annals of the twenty-fifth. are compofed of feven groups each. if two and a-half lines of characters cannot be defcribed with lefs than one hundred and feventy-five . which would give but a very brief too fhort. according to his fyftem. F. the names of Darius and' fifty-four letters. " in the 141 in he made that particular he anfwered that there were no "year. the fecond I group from the numeral W." afked Mr. we mail not have quite fourteen words to record the events of the tenth year. . (2) will be "year. Smith (who transcribes for Sir H. in words in the contraft with the two laft-mentioned cafes Henry makes up lines for it of ! . R. Where does it all come from ? And then.the right thing cafe right place of" thefecondy my fuppofed." group letters in it. R.) by (year) The Black Marble Obelijk. year there are fixteen lines of cuneatic character. of whom I have fpoken before. Sir by giving us feventeen and a-half containing at leaft 175 letter-prefs. containing eighty-two letters or not very prolific in events. a word. containing. but with Rawlinfon. they give it a mean" ideoing to fuit their own purpofe. A. and call it an graph" but with my fimple fyftem it refolves itfelf into the name of an individual king. viz. Aalfarr.

inftead of the one hundred and Jeventy -five words which he has given us. it The Ancient Ones of the Earth. anfwer can be given to thefe glaring inconfiftenleaving alone the extreme abjurdity of fuppofing a to keep a regifter of the number of times he crofted king a river in the immediate vicinity of his home? What would be faid of our beloved Queen. I regifter (of events) ingly undertake to give an explanation. in their journeys we fhould think them to and from Windfor to London ? more fit for Bedlam or Hanwell. indeed. he might time I crofled the Euphrates. What cies . he fays that Euphrates is written XMtA/ > or $4 / or optionally. Perat. : I do not affect to confider my reading of the obelifk infcription in the light ever. " Of this I will now accordfays : accounts for his omitting obfcurity I have omitted it: (this " and the the invocation. be founded Berat or out of nine. than to govern a civilized people.) interpretation even which I have of many of the ftandard expreflions is almofl conjecgiven critical tranflation whenhave met with a pafTage of any particular " of a . is either of the each of thefe forms muft. And in the twenty-four years he fays "I crofled the river Zab" and he has given us precifely the fame groups for Zab. as he has all through for Euphrates. or any other of our Englifh monarchs. Once " the name of the more. That might be. with a final T. who kept an account of the number of times they crofTed the river Thames. think.142 words. " the twentieth for them. merely premifing that although confiderable difficulty ftill attaches tural" The following words will mow the confidence with which he views his own tranflation of the events contained He in the infcription on the Black Marble Obelifk. cc I will give the reply in his own words ." have miffed a year. follows that we muft have upwards of eleven hundred for the fixteen lines." But in no one inflame above five groups to be found in the place he has affigned In the twenty-firft year he has.

the double back. which I regret I cannot follow. and although the meaning of particular paffages is ftill unknown to me. he fays Gold. leaving no room for the affigned for " cc Forfter's Honey-comb tripe. 143 to the pronunciation of the proper names. Then follow his conjectures refpecting the epigraphs. may be made out pearls with more or lefs accuracy. filver. fig. courfe the variants will be brought in to fupply their But what can be faid of fuch a fyftem. Again.The Black Marble Obelijk. but I cannot conjeclure (woncamels I derful!} the nature of many of the offerings c the dejert with find under the designation of beafts of : . ebony and ivory. Britifh firft ment Nimroud lines there are no lefs gentlemen as a committee. and gems. of ! . fpeaking of the various articles which compofe " the five tributary offerings. befides an interpolation of fome three or four groups. in the than one hundred and forty forty-four errors in the tranfcription. or much . rendering the folio volume of infcriptions which has been fent to all no more value than wajle 'paper. that fcriptions pieafe in ? But before I authorized copy in the Truftees of the Britifh Mufeum. according to his as own fyftem." Very pofTible but ftill they are very doubtful.' this " Why. fpace as is defignation would occupy whole epigraph. I hold the accurate afcertainment of the general purport of the legend to be no more fubjecl to controverfy than my decipherment of the Perfian Behuftan infcriptions. parts of the world of And this I am ready to confirm before any number of Gallery.) but not one <c Adan" in the epigraph. where place. not having a knowledge of his alphabet or of the variants . that in the fourth epigraph he ftates that the tribute is that of <c Sut pal adan" There is not any group (that he has previoufly ftated) that ftands for "Sut" in the there are many " Pals'' (fee Plate whole epigraph IV. or paunches uncut . with the original monuin the comparing the inpublifhed by the Mufeum. but this I know. i. the interpreters can pick and choofe from a Jot of eight hundred and make juft what they go any further I muft ftate.

And laftly.144 Tfie Ancient Ones of the Earth. commuted for n. the t. Z. which are Is it for the elephant. and other animals. c< a young camel. The word is group of Face D. R. we have the word AKKG. at all probable or rea- fonable to fuppofe that the ancients. feen in the left-hand corner of the fourth . and as fuch an acceptable offering or tribute the exact figure is feen on Face B." or Aflyrian goat. behind the rhinoceros. AALMZ. would adopt fuch a round-about way of naming an animal when one word would fuffice ? And that one word (according to the primitive alphabet) we have in each epigraph under where the camels are found. yoV. which appears to be a favourite oblation to their gods. the Eaft. there are feveral figures bearing bundles of wood (it muft be precious wood to be brought as tribute to a king) . known in j. again. which is quite legitimate im. and no more tm (BKN) the i. and here we have the name of the moft coftly wood that was N . to fuit modern orthography the almug. BKR. mentation in palaces. monkeys. which is near to the "capra aegagra. commuted for G. and for mufical inftruments." Then. who were obliged to record the annals of their kings and their literature upon (tones. and this almug wood was ufed for ornafigures. to be feen with the camels.

Rawlinfon Cylinder of Tiglath Pilezer Author's anfwer to it Great inconfiftencies in the tranflation. be led by his fancy in fuch an inquiry but it is quite impof. as it were. and almoft from the firft difcovery of the Aflyrian inrival fcholars have been feparately fcriptions. of a long and totally forgotten language. difcoveries are due to their fagacity : . Rawlinfon's anachronifm requiring explanation Author's tranflation of the three Gradines of the Black Marble Obelifk Author's tranflation from the winged figure Conclufion. &c. FIGURE. fenfe. been a fubftantial agreement as to the nature. fible that inquiring independently fhould agree refpedling the fyllabic value of one or two intelligent two men . An individual fcholar might. Rawlinfon. Fox Talbot " For feveral fays years. In fupport of the theory of Sir H. perhaps. has always mown a difpofition to criticize and examine them narrowly. ET us now look a little into the celebrated tranflation from the fuppofed cylinder of Tiglath Pilezer. Mr. however. and meaning of the infcriptions.CHAPTER THE WINGED IX. and the almoft complete revivification.. the pronunciation of the words. far from acquiefcing indolently in the other's opinion. two engaged in the work of interpretation. The refult of their long and careful examination has. Fox Talbot's defence of Sir H. and fome of the chief and each of them. Rawlinfon's confidence in his own works &c.

that this agreement is no doubt to be attributed to their names of thirty-nine with one or two doubtful excepthe having adopted the values propofed previously by RawlinOut fon and Hinckes" And here the agreement ends. Burnouf. copy of the infcription is fent to a profefTor of languages in each of the Englifh Should we be furprifed." In anfwer to thefe Statements. or nearly fo. hundred crabbed and complicated fymbols. I contend that there is nothing extraordinary in the apparent agreement of the AfTyrian philologifts (even fuppofing they were all agreed. " at the Jame time. It is true in that Meflrs.146 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. if there were no real bafis of truth on which they had each feparately reared their edifice. which is far from being the cafe). a few of (euphemistically called which I fhall enumerate. but differ in fome of their letters as they lean to fome of the Let earlier fyftems of Grotefend. extenfive domination of the fore part of my guage (that <c ." not. of fifty-four paragraphs there are more than thirty that and there are many extraordinary variations flrange varieties"}. think it anything remarkable. when they all by means of the fame alphabet ? There might be fome trifling variations. but they would certainly But not fo with this cylinder of agree in the main. is]. in the fourth paracf Having committed to my graph. Rawlinfon. grafped in And the fame battle their mighty weapons in my hand. or univeHities for tranflation. Talbot and Oppert agree countries. and alfo as to the true intent and meaning of long hiftoric ftatements in thofe phrafes of a nearly unknown language. flab is found with an ancient us fuppofe a cafe: Greek infcription on it. general tranflated Tiglath Pilezer. if there happened to be a A A agreement in the tranflations. < do : they Jpoke to me their langroups Dr. however. and LafTen. Thus. Oppert renders. and a vaft number of words formed out of fuch fyllables. when we know that they work with the fame alphabet. Rawlinfon fays hand their valued and warlike Jervants" Of the fame cc I have groups of characters Talbot makes. it is to be remarked tions .

" " wild buffaloes. and fay 120 ?) Of the fame paflage Mr. really believe in their own contradictions are to be of the fame paffage ? cannot even agree in the names of they the gods. for Rawlinfon has . we have." Inconfiftencies in the Tranjlation. but they all difagree " Vul in the fecond. were not very abundant." Talbot. two fofs of lions fell before me. Rawlinfon has." Now in Profeflbr Rawlinfon's "Five Ancient Monuments " (p. and only to be met with in the outlying diftricls of the empire. and in the country about Haran. ? 147 is Is not this laft quite unintelligible the agreement ? Again. in my exploratory journeys I laid low." The fame fentence rendered by Talbot is : " their paragraph. wealth. while Rawlinfon has flain lions in his chariots in his exploratory journeys are in direct oppofi- 120 I lions. abundantly I carried off. Hinckes place Rawlinfon has " wild elephants. Fox Talbot makes. the firft of the facred Triad. and their . 120 buffaloes in the conflict of the chafe on rny lands." (Why does he fay "two fofs?" Why cannot he keep to the text. . when fuch palpable this all . cc Under the aufpices of my guardian deity Hercules. in the thirtyfixth paragraph Rawlinfon has." They agree in the name of the great Anu. and 800 of them in my 1 In another chariots." and Dr. in the fifth Where ing to Rawlinfon." . accord" their movables. and 800 of them in my " the wild bull or buf133). he ftates faloe to be a rare animal." Once more. in enclofed parks I deftroyed. " In the Ninev my guardian deity." Nimroud the mighty hunter muft man fink into utter infignificance after fuch a royal fportfCan it be poffible that three gentlemen of fuch ! acknowledged learning can fyftem." Fox Talbot has by means of his god Ninev 120 wild bulls or buffaloes. and their . and 800 lions. on the borders of Syria. in my chariots. I flew. . " The " gods Hercules and Nergal. to a countlefs amount. their WOMAN. "in the conflict of the chafe on my lands I flew. in their various tranflations found Nor is 1 Here we fee that Rawlinfon and Fox Talbot " tion to each other. . . and their valuables I plundered." and Talbot has The gods Niniv and Sidu. in one inftance. Thus. and then in fuch fmall'numbers as to imply that even there they chariots in enclofed parks I deftroyed.Great Jhips. laid and 800 low.

. London : 1 864. all the land of Napthali. by Jofephus (Book IX. King of AfTyria.) this Pekah held the government twenty years. Cornwallis. xi. moreover.fourth laftly. But the King of Aflyria. Hinckes upon B. i. and proved a wicked man and a tranfgrefTor. and Abel Beth Maachah. King of Ifrael. of any Aflyrian king invading the country of Judea at the The Bible is very time fpecified in their tranflation. when 1 Extract from a letter by Mrs. and Kedefh. c. depend on Major Rawlinfon's readings of the cuneiform infcriptions ? My faith is not very firm in his interpretations. mod eflential points." And to names.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. but perhaps your treaty with the Egyptian king may give a : little more infpiration. . and Janoah. "Iv." 1 " The fifth defcendant of Ninip-pal-ukin" Oppert Thefe are only a few out of a multitude of examples that could be cited. "Yem. Efq. and carried clear upon this point (2 . certainty to his conjectures. we have in the forty." And this is ftrongly corro: borated Now. " and twenty-ninth verfe (and reigned) twenty years " In the of Pekah. whofe name was Tiglath Pilezer. am troubled with a certain feeling that I 's plenary know nothing about the matter. chap. but that when names are expreffed. it is poffible that they may be imagined rather than deciphered" Correfpondence of C. with refpect 148 paragraph the following varying interpretations Rawlinfon " The beloved child of Bazanpalakura. 27-29): of Azariah." and Oppert. "Ao. the chronological and hiftoriftate for both Sir H.. Rawlinfon and Dr." Hinckes. F." Talbot: cc The/0rM defcendant of Ninivbalu/hat. and took Ijon. King of Judah. <c ln the Kings xv. 1 1 that the principal events recorded the above-men- tioned cylinder took place and yet there is or in Jofephus. I Not having Mr. Pekah the fifty-fecond year fon of Remaliah began to reign over Ifrael in Samaria. and Gilead and Galilee. : them " captive to AfTyria. The two are at direct variance in principal philologifts. Caroline Frances Cornwallis to " Can we Samuel Birch. 20 no mention in Biblical hiftory. fee. mowing indifputably that their : : : agreement the cal : in any cafe is purely conjectural. came Tiglath days Pilezer. and Hazor.

. after viewing all thofe glaring di crepancies and contradictions. that the countries Juppofed to be to the north-eaft of Korfabad. who will be bold enough to fay there is any dependence to be placed on the or as fome call it. their armies I This interpretation deftroyed.C. who fays that Tiglath Pilezer invaded Paleftine and conquered all before him. 740 B.e." own place. and the region beyond Jordan.." It is evident from what the doctor fays here. fays. But Dr. Hinckes. and Kadefh. "/ am Jatisfied.called Galilee. 149 he had made an expedition againft the Ifraelites. lower Egypt) I ravaged. "The final "Literary Inqueft. from the infcription that the invafion of the aforefaid Thefe events took Egypt. and tranfplanted them into his Not a word is here faid about kingdom. that he thinks that Rawlinfon's and Talbot's tranflations are moftly imaginary or Now. does Sir H." conjectural. Fox Talbot reads crepancy of nearly 400 years.Great Inconjiftencies in the Tranflation. according to Biblical chronology. in point of upon this point ? He is it of any confequence. the three moft celebrated of Aflyrian be in direct antagonifm to philologifts are thus found to each other ? It is much to be wimed that thefe three eminent fcholars ordeal/' when fhould give us a plain explanation of the means by which they have arrived at the phonetic power of each particular letter or fyllable. "All the provinces king was into Syria and Egypt: of Mufri (i. fact. which is . and confequently there is a difMr. Rawlinfon fay " / am neither able. and Hazor. in flat contradiction to this. from beyond the Euphrates to the " Upper is Jea of the Jetting Jun" (the Mediterranean). and that the lay fuppofed expedition into Syria and the Mediterranean was notes to my Egypt one into Armenia and the Black Sea. Rawlinfon. and the adjoining country. fo that their readers might be put in a pofition to judge for themfelves. nor fays : But what. and had overrun all the land of Gilead. he made the inhabitants prifoners. and I burnt their cities." partly Supported by Sir H. and I exprerTed my conviction moft decidedly in tranflation.

but has even ventured to employ his affumed knowledge of that language to the criticifm of other cognate dialects. or to determine the refpective dates of the difcoveries. which have been known and ftudied ever fince they have ceafed to be fpoken. the more ample we naturally defire their teftimony to be. of fo after the lapfe many years. to fay the leaft of it. let us take what he publifhed in the year 1847. is a very off-hand and^ afcertained the power of each Does unfatisfactory method of getting over difficulties." But as a ftrong proof of the confidence Sir Henry Rawlinfon had in his own works. he there fays then. The firft is the confidence which the difcoverers evidently repofe in their conclufions . as having put forth to the world a literal and. Hinckes) has not only prefented us with the firft of a feries of Affyrian Grammar. Sir H. that we may be put as much as in a pofition to form an poffible opinion for ourfelves. to defcribe the means by particular letter." Now. . 13). and of witneffes (at prefent not much above the Mofaic minimum) by which the foundnefs of more that refult is attefted. a memorial of Darius : In the prefent cafe. in the "Royal Afiatic Journal" (vol. Hyftafpes. as I believe. a correct grammatical tranflation of nearly two hundred lines of cuneiform writing (fince augmented to four hundred). x. Speaking of the Behuftan c< infcription.150 which I The Ancient Ones of the Earth. the greater part of which ftate as to afford is in fo perfect a ample and certain grounds for a minute and the purorthographical and etymological analyfis port of which to the hiftorian muft. be of fully . this. or who are competent to give evidence in regard to it. Rawlinfon imagine that we are to take all that he choofes to put into print without examination or " There are two confiderations which feem to queftion ? us in expecting fome more minute information juftify on this head. The fecond is that without venturing for a moment to queftion the profound learning and acute fagacity of the difcoverers the more tentative the procefs the the fmaller the number conjectural the refult. p. which is fuch that one of them (Dr. I do put forth a claim to originality. I think.

he fays (1846 or 1847) I took the precaution of forwarding to the Royal Afiatic Society a literal tranflation of every portion of the Perfian writing at Behuftan." Again. what authority has he for the aflertion certain that Nineveh's palaces had been deftroyed many years before the birth of Darius." : Now be underftood that the foregoing extract was written at leaft two years previous to the difcovery of the Black Marble Obelifk by Layard. Rawlinfon goes on to fay " : It was indeed the difcovery of known pafTages of this fort IN THE OBELISK. and it was only in the palaces of Nineveh that any records were fince it is found ? Sir H. when the Obelifk was not part known pletion the Perfian infcription in the early part of the year 1846 or but he did not fee the Obelifk until his arrival 5 in to exift for feveral years fubfequent to the comof the Behuftan legend ? Sir Henry had jini/hed middle of the year 1849 1 inconfiftency which requires explanation. and of thus placing beyond the power of difpute the claim of the fociety at date (February 1846 or 1847) to tne refults which are publimed in the following memoir. I fought with them. 151 equal intereft with the peculiarities of its language to the philologift. which in epigraphy. 1 a man of .e. former of his ftatement. fuch as the rebels having ajjembled their forces. This antiquary convifts the readings of Rawlinfon. This is an Inftitute. in the of the French 1847 London. Yet we find in the year 1 850 <c or 1851 Sir Henry fpeaking in this ftyle Many of the ftandard expreflions at Behuftan. and defeated them PROVE TO HAVE let it : ' ' BEEN ADOPTED VERBATIM FROM THE ASSYRIAN ANNALS.9 Rawlinfon s Confidence in his own Works." This requires a paufe. Monfieur de Saulcy. the Behuftan But how is this to be reconciled with the infcription). an extenfive traveller in the Baft. Does Sir H. came againft me offering battle. in the fixteenth page of the fame (C In February of the prefent year volume. INSCRIPTION that firft gave me an infight into the general purport of the legend" (i. a member and a real difcoverer himfelf fcience. Rawlinfon mean to fay that Darius Hyftafpes copied from the Aflyrian infcriptions ? If fo.

where the difcoverer pretends alone to have the key to the exploration of the cuneiform writings. enabled to copy from the originals in the Britifh Mufeum." It is alfo the advice I would convey to your Britifh readers. The fubject I confider to be one of great and vital importance. while I firmly previous fyftems. of being improbable in tbemf He fubftantiates this triple charge againft variance with each other. I my fyftem it is think that founded upon truth and reafubject to many modifications. taking the principal divinities. and is that it can only be brought to perfection by gentlemen of profound abilities as Oriental fcholars. the fubftitution of one group for another. and . and this. to fay the truth. alfo to mow the errors and inconfiftencies of At the fame time. appear themfelves to have tacitly taken a fimilar courfe. noife they And make about fo ftartling a publication. incumbent even is indifpenfable in all fcience. if one may judge from the little in religion. In pointing out thefe obvious difcrepancies. parenthetically. or at being left deftitute of proof. believe that fon. my fole defign is to exhibit the refults of a fyftem which I firmly believe will ultimately prove to be wholly erroneous. Rawlinfon's Pantheon. but merely waits until Rawlinfon gives fome proofs of his revelations . and was imperative in the prefent fubje6t. and as I claim to be the difcoverer of a new fyftem. Having faid this much. the publication feems to merit the fever eft treat- ment. to the number of over a fcore. I am compelled. in conclufion. indeed. I mall proceed to fhow that while in the colony of Victoria it was next to an impoffibility for me to give anything like a correct tranflation of any of the infcripBut fince my return to England I have been tions. however. the printed copies of which are fo full of errors that it would have been labour in vain to have attempted any more from fuch a fource errors which Sir H.152 The Ancient Ones of the "Earth. and then I hope that the great problem of the primitive language will be folved. adds the editor of the "Journal of Sacred Literature. reveal to us the loft names of certain kings of the Aflyrian dynafties. Rawlinfon. of elves. who. he fays. Hinckes and Layard would only call non-effentials3 fuch as the omiflion of elements or wedges from fome groups." . with farcaflic deference. in proving the truth of my own theory. that he " denies nothing. perfonage by perfonage. Athenteum Franqais.

fubjecl. who will 1 In the third volume of the " Journal of Sacred Literature. and has the appearand again. "And Ifaac dwelt by the well LAHAIROI. or vice verfa. Now. all thefe changes are looked upon as non-eflentials. or chief of the Gimir. It begins with a proclamation from the fupreme king Gillirri. L Tfadde (or TS) gets placed upright. or it becomes the or elongated. confequently Lamed. there is a paper by Mr. interfere with the truth of the tranflation. only think this I will not fay anything in its favour. that I can follow the Jenje. can perceive any of the names of the AfTyrian I 1 mythology. 1 1. 2 Can this be the name mentioned in Genefis It is well alteration in the orthography ? as well as in modern days congregate and known xvi. wherein the writer ftates that. attempt of the firft three gradines. For inftance. therefore Gillirri might have M become Gimmirri. difadvantages. appointing one Tfaallni to be governor over the conquered people of Lailirou..Author s Tr'(inflation of the three Grammes.and ftating cc that their king will be cared for Gillirri entered the and took captive the king . or chief bowman. the Awleph (or A) I find in fome cafes is drawn out. 14. and I do not much. but with the primitive fyftem. Therefore. or Gimir. but fearful and myftic city cries found favour with or pleafed the feeble monarch. Ormfby. with a flight that people in ancient take up their dwelling-place near a fpring or well of water (as is proved in Genefis xxv. and may be tolerated on the imperfecJ Eehuflan Jyftem ." page 476. the Zain. H. had fettled in Shinar and founded a Scythic kingdom/' May not this be the fame individual as the one mentioned above? We know that the liquids L and interchange one with the other. W. and. although it was at firft my intention to make a tranflation of the whole of the infcription on the Black Marble Obelifk. vice verfd. the Lamed gets fhortened and becomes A. I mall be I have made an obliged to defer it for the prefent. or Z. (fee Table of Alphabets). : Gillirri appoints the friend of Tfaallni chief. if not fatally." and poffibly became the founder of a townfhip or city afterwards called LAILIROU). "Gimirad. it would greatly. or Sometimes Awleph. 153 the alteration of the figure of an element. where every element is a letter. . to the above ance of CH . will aflume the perpendicular and become the Beth or B.

There is another fubject alluded . &c. and in this laft cafe a continuous narrative. which I muft fay fomething about. Gillirri the triumphant!" during " Third gradine (Obliteration. a a flab with a reprefentation of a winged figure.*' as its name imports. The chief Tfaallni will the governor by the fourteenth day of the month compel Zou to abide (his word).. or about the time of Jofhua? 1 Has this name any connexion with the Leleges we read of in ancient hiftory. bearing on his left arm a kid of the capra as <egagra (a goat inhabiting the European Alps as well the Afiatic ranges).M. Thus it will be feen that. whatever I attempt. an EgypXt'yw. 2650. a colle&ion of people of different nations. will fubmit as well as) the city. the fupreme king. and approved thou Tfaallni preferve from trouble Lalagees. to in page 73. Aufzits. whom if the people had affifted him (no) trouble would have entered Proclaim Lailirou. it will be obferved. Ligirr. will authority. like as a) friend they feen in the time of trouble. tian who came with a colony to Megara. rebellious to my them to accept the new governor. known unto all that the chief governor of the people Lailirou will will of ! rebuild the walls or fortifications. or AfTyrian pried. viz." Second gradine known I will not fail and felected Lien. Aufzits fought fearfully to prevent the entering of Aram. Proclamation to the brought ! : town) and the imprifon all city ! And I.154 not fail The Ancient Ones of the Earth. about A. fo named from Lelex. and compel Afluredly the towns it Be (obliteration. and. What remains it for me to fay at preferit is but I mall be impoffible moft anxious to refume my ftudies when I know I can do fo with certainty. by firmnefs of mind " And make : to collect the it tribute. derived from ." &c. I will confine him fecurely with Blaal. 1 who the intercefTion of Tfaallni that through to fave fome in the tribute. Nothing mall diftrefs the land the fojourn of the king. an animal of the fame fpecies as is feen on the Black Marble " to gather. and lo behold them (obliteration. I can elicit fenfe. where he reigned 200 years before the Trojan war. and Ahhligron their chief. and the chief.

with the glory of Him who is that thou wouldft attend to my prayer.Tranjlat ion from the Winged Figure. O ! eternal mall be covered with that which covereth the top (i. but having fome refemblance to a large ear of corn . with their wings. 23. which made fome portions of the infcription very difficult to copy. and a fimilar underdrefs reaching to the knees. 14-15: "And the Lord thundered from heaven. and a preferved. through the interfaces and finuofities of the fringe. together with Aafhoik. will deftroy them that thou wouldft cry aloud and fcatter (or break to pieces) the multitude of ftone gods (II. in the palace of which this flab formed Samaria.e. if thou art He that dwelleth above. the wrath of God abideth in and around. from above p art : And upon mercy-feat Or has it above the mercy-feat. 2 Does not this appear to be an allufion to the altar and mercy-feat of the Ifraelites. above all). Deut. and with bracelets on the wrifts with rofette clafps. with large taflels hanging from the waift. from between the two cherubim. 17. and truth). his word]. xxii." " And thou (halt put the covering the mercy-feat the ark. in all probability at the facking of perhaps. The infcription begins with the <f ufual formula Proclamation Palace. bleffings of Him who is above and mercy. and the manifeftations of His glory. and but I will dwell among my kindred. the cherubim mail ftretch forth their wings on high. 2 if thy wrath covereth with confufion. many of thy unhappy ones will thine altar " and unchangeable Supreme. he wearing a robe reaching down to the heels. Light : ! . and fcattered them. 6." Ixxvii. Pfalms vii. 23 and 1 7th). 155 The figure bears fomething in his right hand not clearly defined. and that fpreadeth around the the heavens (goodnefs. Chron. The infcription of fixteen lines is cut or engraven acrofs the lower part of the drefs. taken by the Aflyrians. And he fent out arrows (i. xxxii.. 13. and cxliv.e. mine (forth) and fpread around the defires. Obelifk." Second line : And O 1 2 Samuel. beautifully embroidered and fringed." rather reference to a remarkable imitation of the Divine prefence mentioned by Philoftratus ? . and mow me the extreme beauty of the true 1 Haften my God. and the moil High uttered his voice. and there I will meet with thee.

and the to the device. that the theory fubmitted in the prefent work is at once fimple. without egotifm. of cuneiform character imprifons a captive and dumb " and may alfo be able to anfwer an imSemitic Jpeech ." is of two lines only. but I think I have faid enough to convince the candid reader that the fyftems hitherto propounded can- which not be true . in our opinion. All that we know leads us to believe in one primitive Semitic Jpeech" This fact has. on fome Armenian hill. whofe paflions feem exhauftlefs. it lies concealed from human eyes by marge of fome brook. by fome Mefopotamian watercourfe. and fo it is in every legend applicable inftance. and her intellect fcarcely appreciable. viz. ideographs. par excelLike the grave of her lence.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. the great philologifts throw it afide as unworthy of notice. who is too earned to fmile. 500 variants. too : cc confiding to reafon. without the cumbrous machinery of This the fubftance homophones. Thofe determinatives.. theory with the fame zeal that they have fhown with their felf-acknowledged imperfect key. cometh Repent 156 ! quickly. and inconfiftencies and contradictions I have pointed out might be multiplied ad infinitum. and I may add. too impaflioned to argue. and will afluredly curfe and deftroy the rock. polyphones. been brought full into the light of day by the indefatigable refearches of the . Where portant queftion put by an eminent writer may lie the tomb of the mother of the Semitic family. or with the feeling that no good can come out of Let them rather condefcend to teft this new Nazareth. fo unfophifticated in her ways. and poffibly they may find that the conjectures of many fcholars will turn out cc That the earlieft of the three orders to be true. on application of the nineteen letters of the primitive alphabet. who utters no word but burns with life. my god. and carries on it the face of truth. the woman. Let not practicable. fo foft and artlefs in her expreflions. the wrath of Him. the eternal. of human languages ? greatest prophet. be fwiftly taken away (by him) who covereth the top.

Norris has informed me that this figure has been long known to him . was difcovered in 1848. . which feems the notice of AfTyrian fcholars. Plate III. Fox Talbot take the trouble of looking into the catalogue of the Library of the " True Key to the Britifh Mufeum for a book. out of fixty of the letter A. in the adjoining column." in printing this paper a new type had to will If Mr. but philologift to ftill Winged Figure. I have noticed in a former part of this work that I difcovered the numerals while forming a lexicon for facilitating the tranflating the whole of the infcription on the Black Marble Obelifk. in Mr. preters have been trying their various fyftems now for more than fixty years. the reader will fee nine fimple words from the lexicon. a few of which I mall notice. but I believe it is not in any of the publifhed alphabets. Fox Talbot's tranflation of the Bellino cylinder..Tranjlation from the Layard. 157 awaits the magic wand of the true The modern interbring it into life. mows the truth-fpeaking Jimplicity of the fyftem. and they are as far off from any certain and definite refult as when they began.. he fays : " We . has caufed me to give it up until a more favourable opportunity. Science. In Plate III. and the fubfequent dif- covery that through the inaccuracy of the authorized copy. and the method of reading the more complicated groups This diagram. I could not depend upon any one word. AfTyrian Hiftory. be cut for and it. viz. and in a note Mr. Smith. Firft. TSIB. and Religion. A he will find that his . There are many ftrong corroborative facts and coincidences which fpeak loudly in favour of the truth of the primitive alphabet. It is furely high time they eflayed a trial of fome other fyftem." by D. or Awleph. find employed a very important cuneito have efcaped hitherto form ^jT TSIB. I had completed the fixtieth when the numerals put a flop for a word of the letter A time to my lexicon-making .

fc "to cram. LRTS. to bind remarkable up clofe.C. In the firft line he fays " that . ground. with a caret. immediately undery juft as we now do in A. &c. "to oppofe. either above or below. " Another fingular coincidence is found in a tranflation of Mr.158 under the The Ancient Ones of the Earth." hence. not much difference in the found. at the end of the 38th line. overwhelming evidence TSR Now > rock." a battle. ftone comes a moft as to the truth of the new theory. fact. 1873. I have never feen the above character ftand alone." is * Why afked that the third element tranfcriber . If we look at the Black Marble Obelifk. to fmafh to pieces . Face c. name of " tjadde" (Ts) there is . Smith. G. "a bar of fiher . Rawlinfon. and for fear of chipping away any of the fecond or fourth elements." ^_A^.AA flint. . "the earth. but always in conjunction with fome other letter or element. y > " to ACT RTSou. or " > to run. When we omit a letter we infert s it. break." or <c The Foundation of Freemafonry"). but the coincidence is fingular. the tell for Sir H. or dafli. but he could not me he had But now I never feen the group in that ftate before. below the line ? I Mr. " In 'A command of Tyre. >^A\ ARTS. 1249) had omitted the third element . and fmafh ." &c.' . and . we /hall i a 4 5 find two groups &||^7 ^'L P"*^" I **TS R is it CH ^ meaning.D. can tell him that the fculptor (B. rufh upon violently. FoxTalbot's from Michaudi's "Caillon" (which I call " The Altar of the Word. asi ^> RTS." &c. or the R. he engraved the third. as that each individual element " had Jam A fhowing plainly its own peculiar power." alfo.

of 4." can there be a doubt that Nineveh was the recipient of the primitive alphabet and the art of writing from the patriarch Shem. w. fouth. and . and crowned him with glory and honour.). SH. ? fpired narrative in the Old Teftament that the fubjecVmatter of the prefent treatife I hope be apology fufficient for any errors that may be found in it. what" = <c 'The king primitive alphabet. and all numeral coincidences. it often ufed fo but The king who" certainly does. fee Plate IX. and the W who" according to the the primitive. eaft. "who.Conclufion. in his turn. nifies 24 (which . who. and which radiated to north. H. Fox Talbot and Mr. received it from his father Noah. may not fubject. is SH. fha" exprefs Now. In conclufion. Lamech. Nothing could have induced the author to have written this work. Mr. Thefe are fingular to the truth of the pointing primitive What is the conclufion. ancient alfo the Hinckes'sy^. all nations. and weft. King of the Amalekites). that we muft alphabet. what bring out of thefe ancient infcriptions new and important hiftorical to ? Who can tell truths may be light refpecting the early hiftory of the brought in corroboration and full elucidation of the inworld. concentrating their abilities upon this interefting and with the aid of this new alphabet. of which Nineveh formed the centre. it direftly years contemporaneoufly with Adam. and whofe grandfather. which Parkhurft of his alfo renders " king. this is precifely what I render GAG. but a deep conviction of the will . lived many ries. Norris. all perforce come to ? ages." on dominions (alluding to Agag. account of the extent ^S which. and is " it is alfo ufed to Sar. fciences and literature which has made man <c a little lower than the angels. all the knowledge of the arts. who received from God? In this age of marvellous difcoveif what may we expect men of fuch profound learning as Sir Rawlinfon. point to the Eaft. then. When and modern.

carried on through difficulties almoft unparalleled its . but faith in the truth refults. and from an almofl It has been overwhelming Jenje of its great importance. truth of the fyftem he propounds.160 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. of his theory. . and hope in its final have cheered him on to completion.

2. 3.M. . From A. A Fy. AK fiy.5. .Fiy.4.

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" to dwell or abide. or proclaim." or Bou. REV. "to in or out. 2. Over a caftle taken by ftorm. Hamyaritic B or D AG. " Shew > Greek E Greek Hamyaritic declare." Vor N CHU." ." P or AI. Hamyaritic " Thofe dwelling laden in filth I and B or D with crimes fcattered with the ftone.PLATE II." or " to reign.' Greek K Greek OUg or " Jg. or dabab." Ethiopia lou." Hamyaritic Ethiopia H or LN. Fig. FORSTER'S ALPHABET. The Greek or U Primitive Syftem. "to bind. C. pained. Cf O! that thou wouldft.' Dab. go Country.

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II.S u c OrCL) "8 1 C (U 1 K Q w~ r GROUPS AA CO .A t3 1 fd I s N 4-1 3 3 " h _Q 5 o u <u 3 4-1 TJ (U T3 c o -C 4^ co .

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w <. >J o <& o <fc o< o o I* "8 c CU *" 4-1 OQ U ffl MH CO .

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o AA n s AA A >- - AA n A CO c \/ v A V *" r^O h r< AA < .

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y eo .5 *n Q CTJ [XI : s I .

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Zain. Beth. Tauv. w A/V nr v\ V VA A /V V\ Y Ain. Nun. F Y V X armour. crofs. J^ He Awleph. Dawleth. A A Gimel. head. V Refti. Lamed. He. an ox or leader. Bardic. Shin. prop. Pelafgic. eye. Yod. Etrufcan. Cheth. . water. tent door. camel. Mem. houfe or tent. fim. T . Vau. . . Kaph and koph. tooth. Cadmean. Epfi n. . Samech.PLATE Primitive. hook pin. or ox goad.

Samaritan. Palmyrene. Phoenician. FL ii i Modern Hebrew _ Roman A7TT VII r>!| A .

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Martin. St.1836-39-44. Bernouf. Grotefend. 1 I . Laflen.

Martin.IHJ6-39-44Grotefend. LafTen. ^^ . Rawlinfon. St. Bernouf.

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ac ra 35 D ale ac A 7. as f Occurs.PL ASSYRIAN NUMERALS. Numerals. 10 1 1 v VI I C V 16 .

Numerals.i on the black marble Obelifk. Y The numerals marked above. Rawlinfon's copy. . are as Teen in Sir H.

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