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and he then collected an alphabet of the earliejl Greek. he found that all the various groups of characters. with a view to their elucidation. but he could only make . The following extracts are all that need be quoted : the object of the prejent work to direct the attention of the literati of England and of It is all " who feel interejled in the quejlion ' Which was the Primitive Alphabet of Man?' to a dijcovery made by the Author in the year 1848. Being an earnejl Jludent of Jubje&s tending to illujlrate or authenticate Holy Scripture. injcribed with records written in a dumb Semitic character.EDITOR'S PREFACE. tried to make it fpeak in that language . he firjl conviclion. HE it author's preface is very long. were refolvable into the Jimple of alphabets (vide Plate I. he formed an humble unit amongjl the many thousands who flocked to the Britifh Mujeum to gaze upon the exhumed remains of a mighty empire. of the Britijh Mujeum . Newton. It was then he perceived the Jtriking Jimilarity between Jbme of the early Greek letters and the cuneiform He obtained characters as exhibited on the Ajjyrian marbles. and much of of a purely perfonal character. principally from an Elian bronze tablet. and by comparing thefe with the cuneiform infcrip- tions. permijjion from the Mufeum authorities to copy the infcriptions. and having a Jlight knowledge of Greek. copied an inscription. Jubhibited in the firjl column Jequent Jludy and inveJHgation have only tended to confirm this As Jbon as he had formed the alphabet.). when nineteen letters exdijjefted. now under the care of Mr. Layard's ex- cavations. brought to light by Mr.

with particulars. Previoujly to his embarking for Aujlralia in he fubmitted his difcovery to the Editor's Preface. under very many difficulties.' Thinking next that it might be Hebrew. who told him that the only plan was Nothing then remained to publijh the difcovery to the world. when adverfe circumjtances compelled him to give up the jludy of Hebrew. Dublin. and not hearing of the publication of anything CERTAIN by the great European philologijls. He advertized feveral times in the principal paper. having fome leifure on hand. having appeared. Hollis. to bring it before the public in the Jhape of the fir/I edition of his work on the Primitive Alphabet. and kindly offered to get it publijhed in one of the quarterlies . he applied himfelf to get a knowledge of that tongue . while feeking his daily bread Jixteen thoufand miles from his native land. and Paris. and the cuneiform writings. but fcarcely had he ma/tered the Hebrew alphabet. * * out a few names. But. Jo as to make it he was induced to quite incontrovertible. Since the year 1859 he has been ufmg every means in his power. This appeared in Augujl. fuch as Aparavi. from its feemingly abjlrufe nature. to the difcovery. He fent copies of his fcholars But the alphabet. Jlating that he was willing to communicate all the particulars to any perfon who felt an interejl in Biblical make known Jludies. only anfwers he received were from two Hebrew who wanted employment. exprejjed quite a favourable opinion of it. and who would take the trouble of calling upon him. for the Jlern realities of life. About that time. to various learned focieties and gentlemen in London. from for Mr.' Babiloi. Greek. who He landed in Melbourne in of the manufcript for publication. no of any one record. but the hurry of departure from England prevented the preparation IJlington.' and the name ' of the god Bell. but he received only one anfwer. Layard. B. he directed his attention once more to the Jiibjecl. 1851. 1864. the fale him but . and was very favourably received by the Melbourne prefs. but the confufion of colonial life in thofe early gold-days put a Jlop to all literary purfuits. of 1850. and from that time until 1859 * ne P a P ers remained upon the Jhelf. other means of making known a difcovery fo imfeek fome literal or perfecl tranjlation portant to the literary world. January.

and and advice as long as it was in her power. or too idle to ! think for themfehes^ but are contented to take all for granted learned men in that has been put forth by three or four men but in this peculiar branch of philology in the Jbme refpecls In the following pages he has.' and declared dijcovery to * intended all bojh the learned knight to be an erudite exprejjion. vii Still. nearly and former friends were his return to his native to their lajl account.' which Jhown all analogy with extremely Jimple. in its He application has only further to by the philologijts of found to be the long-wanted defideratum for Europe. and the early alphabets. gone 1867. Jo that on land he found hirnfelf in the midjl of jlrangers. he had who felt certain as to the truth of bis theory. author of "Stones Crying Out. as Jbon as he reached his native land." and editor of Miffing Link. June. ! who and fortune awaited him. one to a Jo-called learned knight." &c. he thinks. all honour to her name helped with money At the time he left the Jhores of Aujlralia. was not adequate friends to the expenje of publication. he would be patronized. . and who advijed him to feek a more legitimate Jphere for his Jtudies. conveying the all bojh* Whether meaning that be was ASHAMED at not being able to judge or appreciate the merits of his book. feajible. or too much engaged with their own peculiar hobbies. and landed in abfent from England Jeventeen years. both as to the to be letters. and that 'fame kindly took him by the hand. grojfefl and darkejl ignorance. his who very Jbon gave him be ' * * the cold Jhoulder. in Jlricl clearly is exhibited the Jcheme of the * Primitive Alphabet. With this view he left Melbourne. his friends ajjured him that.' How The literati of London are has he been disappointed bitterly either too ignorant of the Jubjeft brought before them. the Author will not pretend to The other letter of introduction was to a literary lady 1 Jay. Ranyard. and to publijh an enlarged and a more correct edition of his work. all in England. E. He brought with him two letters of introduction. ancient and interejling records of rightly interpreting the mojl will be 1 "The Mrs. number and the form of the hope that this Jyjtem.Editor's Preface. Having been his relatives February.

of one fentiment and of one fpeech. from Mount Jame alphabetical characters in writing. he hopes. and what rivalry there was among the clue to great Oriental Jcholars of Europe to find out the key or Yet the elucidation of the inscriptions thus brought to light. Noah. all the Oriental nations. readers who book merely to glance through it but even Juch readers would find. that lip and the Jame words J or. indeed. It is not unreajbnable to Juppofe that this language was the Jame as * the whole earth was of one that Jpoken line from Adam. The French and 1 Academy." the From Mr. It is ages Ararat to the banks of the Nile. treats the Jo-called translations as Still it is merely ingenious conjecture. The Author may have feels that the apparent abjtrujenejs of the Jubjeft take up the the effeft of repelling many . in the way of decipherment) is unfatis- fattory.viii Editor's Preface. antiquity. . extremely vague^ and even contradictory. jbme of the mojl learned men of the prejent day ajjert that all that has been done (/. as Jbme would render. but especially by that of the Holy Scriptures themjelves . rejects all that has been done. jpoke the Jame language and ufed the of the a generally received opinion that in the early world. and from the Perjian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. King of AiTyria. date not known.*. This opinion is fully borne out by a vajl majs of concurrent tejlimony from ancient and modern writers.. by SUBJECT-MATTER. The abftrufenejs lies rather in the FORM : than in the " Introduction " we quote the following " It will be remembered what great excitement was caujed the learned world in the years 1848-49. by the throughout means of partial refufcitation of Nineveh's ancient greatnejs. on a little clojer examination. by the great ancejlor. that the records of a nation Jo intimately hope connected with the early hijlory of the world will not remain reajbnable to unknown. for we read in the nth chapter of Genejis. that the whole book is quite intelligible to any perjbn of average information. the tenth in a direct Both Adam and Noah converjed with God 1 From a " " newfpaper paragraph defcribing the Literary Inqueft on the tranflations of the cylinders of Tiglath Pilezer. Layard's discoveries.

that There cannot be a doubt. and ninety-five years before the building of He doubtlejs Jpoke the language he had been taught Babel. or Mitzraim. the father of Noah. If Jo. of communication between Abram and the Egyptians language. himjelf. " In an old Hebrew work. publijhed 150 years ago (Hutchin- . and would account for the facility of intercourse between the Patriarchs and the Egyptians. Ham. that wherever Abram. the Jon of made it the national tongue. this facl Jame. with this Thus the Jame primitive language as from father to Jon to Abram . and descended language it was that Abram travelled from Ur of the it Noah /poke Chaldees. and very probably by the Kings of Shinar and Ellajar. Profane hijlory informs us that Menes. ejlablijhed himjelf. in other The words. the eldejl Jon of Noah. as Jojephus tells us) into Canaan. there mujl have been an identity of primitive language Jeems aljb to have been underjlood by Melchizidek. ix Now. Adam lived many years contemporaneously with Lamech. King of Salem. and he mujl have had daily "interof courje with people. therefore.Editor's Preface. and Jacob wandered. we Noah. King of Goyim (nations). and reigned in Egypt twenty-Jix years after the flood. From this it appears that there could be no difficulty . Jacob communed freely with Pharaoh. moreover. in his childhood with Abram. where he dijputed with the priejls and learned men of that country. IJaac. The King Sodom find himjelf held a conference from the Jacred Further. King of Elam. they found the primitive language (or Hebrew) perjbns. for Lot dwelt its there. that the kings and their people jujl alluded to were writings dejcended from the five Jons of Shem. and from thence into Egypt. Jlill exijling. which we and it appears from the names of places and Jliall call Hebrew . grandjbn of Noah. and by many proofs. and Tidal. It is certain that the Egyptians then Jpoke the original language. It mujl. are in- We formed by the Jame author that he taught them arithmetic and the Jcience of ajlronomy. when he fled from their persecutions (for preaching and teaching the worjhip of the true God. by Chedorlaomer. Adam. and would prove that the language Jpoken was the by his father. have been a kindred tongue with that of the inhabitants of Sodom.

with the greatejl contempt . and the fame opinions hold the minds of men in thraldom in the It is a mojl difficult matter for men to prejent day.' which. from the teachings of thoje they have been taught to look upon as the oracles of There cannot be a doubt but that wifdom and knowledge. if not all. Jeldom mind things .) are the following observations. ? Why. tell It us but confufedly at firft? This quotation was written 150 years ago. is nothing more than a lift. give up opinions formed. certainly. the other.x c Editor's Preface. which words. already or examples. and in advance of It is really ajtonijhing to find Jo much lamentable ignorance among the literati of England on this peculiar branch of philology. in faff. and men who Jludy things feldom mind words. time unfolded ignorance. admires old knowledge and ridicules new. tend to bring discredit upon Scriptural truth. in early days. learn to tell us learnedly what we already know or have in uje . actions This age very unjujlly prizes the one and dejpijes or things. and yet they can give of what they call c 105 pages Dictionary of Reduplicated Words. learn to tell us anything we know not. and that which has not been learned. of Juch profundities as the . which is are majlers of. that all their knowledge was dark compared with the light of fclence dijplayed at the prejent day. learning to learn that which others have which comes by injlruclions from writings. Men who learn to mind words. and full of the one. A man may have vajl conceptions and little or none of words . But what has whom many. or which is not in ufe. dijcujjion room for A arranged alphabetically. Philosophical Works. and mojl people who fpend their time In dif- we have Jo few objervable. which are Jo appojite to the prejent inquiry that I * There are two Jhall not apologize for introducing them Jon's : Jbrts of human learned. Even the Jo-called l Philological Society ' (I am alluding to Jbme of the executive) treated the matter now under his age.' in 12 vols. of the perjecutors of GALILEO were conand firmly believed that the new doclrine would jcientious men. that men who the reajbn beneficial improvements. Mojl Jcholars Jeldom do any considerable thing in the other. is acquired by obfervations and comparijbns of opinions. and that GALILEO was right. And it is few covering anything we do not know.

" Of was bard to give up old opinions and take to new" And fo it with the majority of men. and Mr. but I do in it. by Noah. faith to the Jleeves of their teachers.. without troubling themfelves one moment to afcertain whether they are right or wrong * but no fooner is any new theory Jlarted antagonize to the blindly-received : men of the day. of acknow.. Dr.Editor's Preface. is one of the objects of the prefent work to endeavour to that the language here referred to was the Primitive prove language. Let them carefully perufe the following pages. for they are only calculated to mljlead. but worfe than ufelefs. to prevent further inquiry. that it was fpoken all over the Eajl up "It to a very late hijlorical period . and then pronounce their verdicl. that the works of thefe great men in this branch of philology are not only worthlefs. The author once waited upon a rev. than it is either treated with filent contempt or ridiculed as the effufions of a maniac. pokey. it all that could be got from him was.* &c. whanky Puttee po.g. gentleman to folicit when he faid. * Humpty Dumpty fat on a wall. and there will be not much doubt of their arriving at the conclufion. H. and to keep the world In Ignorance. and take all for granted that they propound. . It has been heard aid by gentlemen who have only taken a curfory c Can it be pojfible that the works of Sir glance at this work. viz. &c. that our prefent Roman alphabet is radically the fame as that which was ufed by Abram. culy cum. men theories of the great f R H T ledged learning." When is prefled to give his reafons. &c. . or Hebrew .. ribald chorufes of pot-boufe fongs * : xi fum. " I have heard of your work. Let them examine for mujl be fome mijlake. .' themfelves. and the puerile fubllmltles of the nurfery. and not improbably by Adam his patronnot believe 1 age.' &c. pe. Jhould go for nothing? it cannot be there The anfwer is. It is alfo fought to be in the Ajjyrian cuneiform characters are to be found jhown that the primitive alphabetical characters ufed by man. and that there is every proba- bility that the alphabetical characters ufed in the earliejl ages of the world were thofe here exhibited. It is to be regretted that we cannot get men to think for Mankind in general are too prone to pin their themfelves. e. Hokey. F.

nor does he agree in all the inferences drawn from theje fafts. ancient and modern" Now the Editor wijhes it to be diflinftly underjlood. Editor's Preface.." that the primitive lanLamech to Noah . many of his which he looks upon as imaginary. becaufe whatsoever is foreign to an ought argument. 39).. that " Both Adam and Noah himjelf. and the fource of all languages. though he prefers the knowledge popular tradition to the Jcientifk and true explanation of the correcl two chapters of the text . Such Jlatements as thofe. all came from that quarter. ajjumption that the mind of the propounder of the new theory or at leajl biajjed. he would have expunged a great number of pajjages. being So indeed are all the devoid of all critical or hijlorical value. Jince he endeavoured to make which ought to Jland on Scientific demonjlration . 128) " This work . and taught converged with God them arithmetic and ajlronomy Juch ajjertions are totally unworthy of a work devoted to Jcientifk invejligation. weakens it. this latter. that Abram difguage descended through puted with the priejls and learned men of Egypt." he aims at an object. 10).e. If the Jheets had come into hands in time. when the writer Jays (p.. which evidently is beyond the Jcope of the inquiry. and that the Affyrian language is the primitive tongue. or Jupporting the truth own Jyjlem. the true original Hebrew.xii himjelf . fanciful /peculations of ancient and modern writers reproduced in the firjl " Eajl." implying that meaning of Cadmus (p. but the author gives the myth. and does not Jlrengthen it. So again.. whence they have myfterioujly disappeared. i. Again. making Cadmus a merchant prince of Phoenicia. are calculated to lead Jcientifk thinkers to the but that of his was warped. Jaid to have been in the Briti/h Mujeum to (p. whatever may be the conjequences to any exifting Jyjlem or belief. the long account of the apocryphal two jlones.. which ought not of anything elje to tend to ejtablijhing.. it : with the Jincere prayer that it may tend to the further elucidation and confirmation of the Holy Scriptures. for which ajjertion there is no foundation. that he does not always Jubjcribe to his author's alleged facls. is not merely Juperfluous. have been omitted. Utterances like the above. has been carried on to completion .

oriental. triangular or pyramidal . alone. we may this dejerves investigation yet point out one or two reajbns. form is the primitive Jhape of the mojl ancient tree. . or Jides. its particles or molecules begin to depojlt themjelves as minute Jblids. and in Jpite of their certainly. unfettered by the ditta of men. which derive all their force from faith. viz./. e. letters and combinations Now aljb to letters : the primitive the Jimplejl. objerve the coincidence. ceived Jlowly evaporated the mojl Jimple procejs of Jblidifying the Jalt which remains behind. who. ourjelves to decide whether the forth in the following pages be true or not. with blind Jubmiflion. every mental procejs even has three conjlituents. if coincidence it be. the pine . Our objecl is neither to advocate nor condemn our author's it . and hijlorical Jcholars. In material nature the pyramidal or cone Deity as a Trinity. and Jupply a key to an as yet theory unknown language. have hitherto been accepted as the true expounders of cuneiform writing . author's rejearches into the nature of the primitive lead him to the conclujion that cuneiform writing is alphabet. and the thing con- univerjal law of nature. When a Jblution of common Jalt Jo it is of cedars and ferns. which ajjume at lajl And on examining vital the definite form of Jmall pyramids. it dejerves the attention of philologifls. whence the name. the conceiver. for as Juch we may conjider . Now our being all triangles in different the triangles being either equilateral . or fall by its defecls . positions or elongated into wedge-Jhapes. on very Jlight lamentable failures to extfaft any Jenfe from the Ajjyrian Jlone records. xiii and do&rines. why with an unprejudiced fpirit.Editor's Preface. and not the rejult of an its the primitive alphabet. action in the mind. at a certain Jlage of concentration is can no longer retain the liquid form . as editors theory put may reasonably be Juppojed to have Jbme Jheaking kindnejs for Without then taking upon works they edit. biblical. foundation. extending natural formations is Jhape of all hence the mojl primitive religious creed represents the . we find that it led men to give the Jame form to their earliejl conjlruftiens. mujt Jland by its merits. the conceiving. but as an attempt to elicit truth. mutually Jupport each other.

that . Jujlly the author may remark that "the force of this many argument all in favour of the new theory mujl be Jeen and felt " reflecting minds. and. wherefore if it tell anything in favour of his theory of the primitive alphabet. moreover. nothing of this Jlone was as yet known. is the of the letters have a greater likenejs in form to the primitive than any that are Jeen in later Phoenician documents. 1 As our author does not jeem to have been aware of this peculiarity of natural formation for there is no doubt that he would have Jeized upon a fa<3 Jo Jlrongly in favour of his Jyjlem. For the Jlone triangular. which was to be thus fymbolifed. unhaving expecled. he introduces the Moabitic type. and not by quadrilateral pyramids. and thus totally impartial evidence. Mexico. Now bear in mind. it mujl be looked upon as a perfectly independent witnejs. 72) to the pyramidal form of ancient temples. years before the Jlone was heard of. like the facl of all natural manifejlations being primarily when our author And Juch a witnejs it Jeems to be. had his attention been drawn to it the very circumjlance of his not been aware of it. contrajled with 1 The author does indeed refer (p. the hijlory of which is no doubt familiar to the reader. was written upon. what is worthy of particular attention. objerve that the author.xiv Editor s Preface. . and Jhowing have undergone in the courje of time. The letters. as the name indicates. between five and Jix hundred years before the final dejlru&ion of Nineveh. very valuable to the caufe he advocates. and other countries. are the earliejl that have been found in the Phoenician character facl. is taken from the now famous Moabite Jlone. by Great is the Jimplicity of our author's Jyjlem. had ajjigned Now nineteen letters to the primitive alphabet. This. and records events which tranjpired about the time of Homer and Hejiod. but attributes its adoption to the idea of the Trinity. that publijhed the firjl edition of his work at Melbourne in 1864. But this could have been done by trilateral. Again the : in changes letters enumerating the various alphabets. The record was written with an alphabet of about nineteen letters. the pyramids of Egypt. now renders this unjbught-for.

weapons that only hurt philological the owners. "I " whenever I " " this it . more occajions than one to abandon the Jludy altogether. and occajionally they turn againjl each other. I have omitted " I will " or.Editor's Preface. have met with any pajjage of particular diffi" Jbme "I . like Jlantly meet with admiQions loggerheads about Jo Jlmple a But in their own writings we contheje " : I entertain doubt " . in yet " their own confejjion. Jbme of the tranjlations given of the Ajfyrian texts look more like regular hoaxes . and whatever other weapons may have in their armoury of their modern Babel of confufed tongues. I have been tempted on : " cannot yet venture to decide . pajjing for when each expounder explanations. who . havoc among harmlefs inscriptions. we refer to Pilezer. Rawlinjbn. would have us know-nothings. determinatives. on our credulity. 148. think . or make them look as ridiculous and awkward as thefe expounders the giant Jlain by young Roland ? . interpretations upon them . for champions of AJJyrian exegejis produced nents have they overcome None as what refults have thefe ? what linguijlic oppoyet they have made fad . homophones. ideo- Fox graphs. with about five hundred variants." . whofe productions and whofe mode of working cannot be improved by criticifed. In injijls on his own abfurdities facl. polyphones. more hopekflly Jlill frankly confefs jectural that having majlered every Babylonian character to which any clue exijled in the trilingual tablets. The prefent writer was told by a gentleman. in an infcription on the cylinder of Tiglath 146 and top of p. bottom of p. than like the work of learned men ferioujly put utter defpair of arriving at any fatisfa&ory And be are not to accepted without quejlioning. interpretation is almojl conculty. whofe utterances ex cathedra are to refult. with an alphabet of Jbme three hundred letters. chiefly nonfenfe. Mejfrs. and others." by theje bow to them as our teachers. frequently totally fenfelefs. and indulge in a free fight among themfelves. Hincks Talbot. The former are latter and the Jhow the profejQional experts AJJyrian cryptography at thing as a proper name. putting the mojt ridiculous. the cumbrous machinery of Sir xv H. different tranjlations of To give but two instances. outfider. any and from whom no interference of any kind is to be tolerated.

and their members to be conjidered as the patrons and fojlerers of Jcience. when at a recent meeting of the Palejline Exploration Fund. but dares to think for himjelf. takes considerable interejl in Oriental philology and archaeology. Jlyle only. firjl efforts Jcientific of genius towards the praclical Jblution of literary or difficulties. to find one proof that new difJearching coveries have proceeded from Juch ajjbciated bodies. have given them every True. if he meant to exprejs opinions running counter to thoje held by Sir H. to be the paramount But what Jo-called learned Jbciety ever really cared for that ? All Juch Jbcieties are Jlmply cliques. For Jmce no dijcuflion is to be allowed at the meetings. and refufes to bow to idols. ever to bow facility to and ignorance. glorifying there is but little chance of the difcovery of truth. when Jupprefs and crujh independent inquiry. he was warned beforehand that he would not be allowed to Jpeak. Let Juch men follow the example lately Jet by a dijlinguijhed .xvi Editor's Preface. how- a facl well known to their humble worfhippers ever popular the prejent writer was told by him that. and their readinejs pompous arrogance. ajjiiming authority to decide on the new difcoveries and inventions. encouraged. thus trying to cauje Jbme of the lujlre Jurroimding him to fall on themjelves. Rawlinfon. and the world to admit the value of his achievement. and making Jbme Jtiggejlions. On the contrary. then compelled in Jpite of this oppojition the theje Societies eagerly rujh forward to enrol him among their members. adulatory twaddle in the pojl-prandial Palejline the merits of the hojl. This is a Jignificant facl. it is a facl that ought to prove to them that whiljl Juppojmg they are contributing to the Exploration Fund. have in any way been fojlered. bent on upholding particular crotchets or hobbies of their Hence it would be difficult on ever Jo carefully the annals of Jcience. which ought objecl. he intended ajking a few quejlions. they are really Jupporting the Rawlinfon Exaltation Fund. being legitimate. which the Jubfcribers to the above fund ought to bear in mind . have ridiculed and oppojed everything not hatched and nurjed in their own by Jcientific value of their forcing-houjes. indolence to man of genius has Jucceeded. we Jhould Jee that they or Jujlained by them. whiljl the public. or that the leaders. offering him rewards and medals.

how can we be fure can we be fure of the accuracy of any of " b . Jon of Ummihzirriti [which mu|l have been a pojer to fpell. is that of the moon-god Akkad. the objection to it is Jlated on In the account from which thefe p. or fomething totally different. mojl of whofe infcriptions he deciphers quite readily. Jon of Abinam. Oppert. impofed upon in their own line by fome clever hoaxer. was firjl propounded by Sir H. and Sir H." True alfo. very fpeedily returned. forming the firjl part of another already name. xvii and rejeft all fuch tardy and felfijh acknowledgments. who tranjlates the full name. Jon of Agurabi. which was like looking for a needle in a Jtack of hay. Niniv-balufhat. The name of " Akkad. in return. who rejlored the temple of Bel. writer. how can we be ajked to believe in Tugultininip? of Tugulti We fee ? that How ninip" is doubtful. and that his name Agu." /. bringing him He has fmce then made a fecond and brought back a confiderable number of AJfyrian journey. Rawlinjbn. of the " Sugamuna. according to ! if in this injiance the Orientalijls cannot agree among them- felves whether the Ajjyrian fyllables read Ninip. as happened not long ago. when a gentleman fent to the Eajl to find a particular infcribed Jlone. that Mr. by " thefe would-be patrons of fcience are fometimes hoijl by their own petard. and his followers dutifully adopt it . and that the king describes himfelf on the tablet as the Jon of Tajjigurubar. that there are feven million hairs in a cat's tail. Bazanpalakura is to fay." Who Jhall difpute the No one ever disproved the ajjertion correclnejs of thefe names ? race of of the accurate naturalijl. while Mr. 5 of our author's work. Ninip-pal-ukin. details are taken may ." it is eafy to add that we have here half-adozen royal names heretofore unknown.Editor's Preface. to the delight of all Ajjyrian fcholars And when he tells them that one tablet contains " the name of the of the identical Jlone with ! ! very early King Babylon." occurring in the above quotation. Talbot makes it Now. e. Rawlinjbn. and is about as confounded a name for a king as that of Beerybinker in Wieland's fairy tale]. alfo be found the name of Tugulti-ninip. King of Ajjyria fame two is the latter half of the word reliable ? The fyllables occur on the cylinder of Tiglath Pilezer. referred to above. which they are to be " patronized. tablets.

while the vernacular names of the gods. though the firjl edition of the work appeared in 1864. Notwithjtanding the numerous alphabets and Jyllabaries that have been publijhed [our author's theory. has no difficulty in identifying names]. they would grateby any Juggejtions.xviii their Editor s Preface. recently held in London. " Early Babylonian Injcriptions ." with a whole hojl of other works on ancient Oriental injcriptions. " Sir H. other fouls will truft in you. an ^ the publications that treat of cuneiform injcriptions are not Jo numerous. are determined to ignore anything that may not proceed from their his followers own If Sir Henry Rawlinjbn and were honejl in their fully profit endeavours to arrive at the truth. does away with the necejQity of them]." with notes aljb by the fame author. there are Jlill many cuneiform characters of doubtful powers [in the prejent treatije they are reduced to nineteen." eulogium Sir Henry bejlowed on him at the of Orientalijls." Theje are admijjions made by Sir Henry. though the Congrejs " we eulogizer himjelf admits that [the profejjed Ajjyriologijls] are far from having overcome the elementary difficulties of phonetic reprejentation. of the on the " of . yet the in the Semitic Jeclion of the above referred-to Congress. George Smith's " Deluge Tablet. though made by an outjider. tranjlations ? Mejjrs. fication [Mr. as far as we under/land it. the chief authority on the mode of deciphering Jpeeches made Ajfyrian injcriptions . that . Babylonian and and are thus ejQfential to hijlorical identiAJJyrian proper names. and none of them doubtful]. prove that thofe who rightly or wrongly have taken the lead chojen Jet. are for the mojl part rendered conventionally and which enter Jb largely into the compojition of provifionally. What a mental feajl may we not expecl ? Mr. it would Jeem. Rawlinjbn's tranjlation injcriptions Cylinder Tiglath-Pilezer. Bagjler and Sons promije us Mr. that one of this extent could eajily be overlooked. in theje invejligations. Smith evidently : acls on the maxim laid down by Mephijlopheles " If you but Then e/pecially after the in yourfelf confide. Smith. in which not the mojl dijlant allujion is to be found to the Jyjtem propounded by our author.

and an impartial examination of the contents of this volume will jhow that the author's theory offers the prima facie evidence againjl the authorities hitherto acknowledged. them can ejlablijh his own cafe. as far as the progrejs of Oriental learning is concerned. and to fix. of learned Inaugural addrejjes and complimentary Jpeeches took the big-wigs more than half the time of the Congress up and mercilejjly rode their favourite hobbies . and having it tejled. will be more appreciable than thoje of the recent Congrejs of Orientalijls. while the rejl were coolly Jhelved.Editor's Preface. which in any court of law would rejult in the latter being committed for trial on the charges of incom- Whether the witnefs againjl petence and mifreprefentation. it was not heard of again. but after having mentioned in the president's addrejs. rendered himjelf remarkable chiefly by the comfortable naps he took during the inaugural addrejs and the reading of the papers. fully bearing out what we utility. at the expenfe of the Indian tax-payer. independent inquiry will meet with no rejponje from the Jelf-conflituted Lajl Court of Appeal of tablets. upon a uniform and univerjal alphabet to been exprejs the letters of Oriental alphabets . that take an interejl in the jubjecl . or rather inutility. Nineveh But The appeal then lies to that Jeclion of the public AJJyriology. we venture to ajjert that the rejults of Juch tejling. Jbme of leifurely the favoured few of the members were allowed ten minutes . who had been Jent by the Indian government all the way from India. One of the chief objecls. A . Hindoo. have even a Jemblance of furthering the pretended objeft the deciphering of the in xix view : as long as the real is objecl Jelf-glorincation. each to read a mutilated paper. farce. which was Jimply a muddle and a /rated above as to the Jbcieties. remains to be Jeen . but he And ought to have a chance of Jtating it. if pojjlble. was the tranjliteration of Oriental words. which were Jaid to have drawn the Congrejs together.


Moabitic Stone. and Solomon The two Mofes wrote in the Cuneiform Tables of Stone in the Britifh Mufeum. Cadmus. Pages 17 42 CHAPTER III.CONTENTS. Mofes. II. ETTERS the gift of God Hebrew the Original Contradictions of Sir H. but a merchant prince of Phoenicia An ideal picture of the triumphant pageant of Queen Ato/Ta.. CHAPTER Confufion of Sentiment at Babel the Eaft The Weftern Nations peopled from copied his Alphabet from the Aflyrians Hebrew the Univerfal language Samaritan Pentateuch Hebrew Job. . Rawlinfon Language throwing a doubt upon the Sacred Scriptures Various opinions of ancient authors as to the Fulfilment of the antiquity of the Alphabet Prophecy by Nahum Cadmus no mythological perfonage. Author's Opinion of the Primitive Alphabet Nimroud Palace the Earlieft Character Sir The Cuneiform of the H.. -The Alphabet Greek Manufcripts and Syftem of Change in the Form of the 70 Pages 43 . Poetry and Language Cadmus character Homer.. Rawlinfon's Opinion of the Character and Language Writing letters The Sigaean Infcription . CHAPTER I. David. or Semiramis the Second The Author's application of the Primitive Probable refults 16 Pages I Alphabet .

" Michaud's Syftem of Trichotomies throughout the Ancient World The true meaning of the "Golden Wedge of Ophir" Caillou" The fymbol of the Chaldeans' god Anu. and worfhipped by the The Logos The Ineffable Name. ... Rawlinfon's Alphabet fully explained Opinion of Darknefs it by Dr. Pages 127 144 tion to teft the primitive Alphabet &c... C. Rawlinfon's Nineveh The Author's tranflation Mr. Marble Obelifk ... Hinckes ." Author's Tranflation Queries refpeding Rawlinfon's Alphabet -Inconfiftencies and Errors in his Tranflations from the Black . The Sun worfhipped Tranflation in Aflyria under the form of a Bull of an infcription found on the back of a winged Bull Author^ difcovery of the Aflyrian Numerals on the Black Marble Obelifk Annals of Aalpharr.. CHAPTER VI.. Chaldeans at Babylon Pages 71 80 CHAPTER V.. RawAntagoniftic to all other theories fully defcribed Author's tranflation of an infcription found linfon's conjectures upon a brick A new hypothefis Sir H. Forfter's theory Pages 101 115 .. Wall calculated to myftify vifible Ideographs a term Rawlinfon's Theory more His Doubts Coincidences "Nineveh" Difcrepancy in the Hiftory of his Alphabets Rawlinfon's Tranflation of Temen Bar's brick White is Black and Black is White Pote's Bonomi's "Nineveh" Bunfen's opinion of the Syf- tem of Dr. CHAPTER VIII. Layard's Sargon The Author's Ancient infcriptions in fupport of the new hypotranflation thefis Remarkable coincidences between guefles and the Author's tranflations Pages 8 1 I^DO .xxii Contents. CHAPTER VII.. . Pages 1 1 6 126 No Contents of this Chapter Author's Motive for Brandis on " The Aflyrian Infcriptions and Mode of " I am Darius " Author's TranflaDecipherment" Rawlinfon's Apology for the Writing Rawlinfon's "This Phraortes. Rawlinfon's Temen Bar Rawlinfoi^s g errors in the Aflyrian numerals Singular coincidences betwe the Author's theory and the conjectures of Rawlinfon and others Critical notice of the Rev. Author's fyftem more Recapitulation of the four preceding chapters Sir H. CHAPTER IV....

13 from bottom." read 9 from top. 1. RawlinCylinder of Tiglath Pilezer Great inconfiftencies in the Tranflation. ]. from the Winged Figure Corroborative Fa&s Pages 145 1 60 ERRATA. . Muir. " Profeffor Bopp. Page 25." read " Fr. " Bilder und " Eilden und Sbriften" read Scbriften. for " Dr.Contents." . 10 from top. for for Kopp. Author's Anfwer fon & c> Sec. and alfo. 6 from top. Schlegel." Page 30. Fox Talbot's Defence of Sir H." Page 73. Rawlinfon's confidence in his own works Rawlinfon's Author's Tranflation of Rawanachronifm requiring explanation Author's Tranflation linfon's "Invocation to the AiTyrian gods" Conclufion. xxiii CHAPTER IX. dele "vignette. 1 Page 30. 1.1." " Ulrich Fr.


but without fufficient evidence. Scarcely any two writers agree upon the point. when the AfTyrian empire was its who power and B greatnefs. Many writers afcribe the invention of letters to the Phoenicians. or whether an art fo eminently ufeful to man is not rather to be attributed to a fpecial Divine revelation. Rawlinfon. with Mofes in the zenith of flourifhed nearly contemporaneoufly and Cadmus. afcribes the . God Hebrew the Original Language Contradicof Sir H. ERHAPS -in no fubject has been involved obfcurity.Ancient nines of CHAPTER Letters the gift of tions I. the Phoe- nician hiftorian. nicia or Semiramis the Second The Author's application' of the Primitive Alphabet Probable refults. but a merchant prince of PhoeAn ideal picture of the triumphant pageant of Queen AtoiTa. It has been a matter of much controverfy whether writing be really a human invention. Sanchoniatho. throwing a doubt upon the Sacred Various opinions of ancient authors as to the antiquity Scriptures of the Alphabet The fulfilment of the Prophecy by Nahum Cadmus no mythological perfonage. greater or has caufed a greater writers diversity of of both opinion amongft ancient and modern days. than the origin of the alphabet.

or Mitfraim of the Scriptures. invention to Taaut. and was loft everywhere in migration for want of con: <c . of the Hebrew letters does not appear even in the oldeftform his pofterity. Philo.D. and that Ifaac went to Shem's Other writers have attributed a knowledge of letters to Adam. whom they continued till the confufion now no Phoenician alphabet. fays Nothing appears fo probable as that it (the alphabet). by the immediate anceftors of his family. lefs in the fquare character many cafes the letters exhibit refemblance to the objects reprefented by their names. the Ton of Mifor. the Alexandrian Library. much Of courfe in in ufe. Seth learned letters from Adam. a learned Jew. fays " As for letters." " The truth feems to be that letters were an antediluvian invention preferved among the Aflyrians or Chaldeans. Pliny. I am of opinion that they were known in : There is a tradition amongft AJJyria time out of mind. after which. Gefenius. or at leaft. and where that patriarch This circumftance affords a ftrong afterwards refided. with new languages. that the ufe of letters was known before the prefumption and afterwards tranfmitted to the Aflyrians and Chaldeans by Noah. was derived from the antediluvian world. the editor of the famous Polyglot In his prolegomena to that work he fays " that Bible. who were the immediate defcendants of Noah." Mitford. fays. and inhabited thofe very regions in the neighbourhood where the ark refted. who no doubt had confulted that magazine of ancient knowledge." the Rabbins that Abraham was inftructed in literature and the fciences by Shem. yet the old were preferred among thoje who had the primitive tongue'' The <c That the greateft of modern authorities. in his " of Greece. who is faid to be the Menes of the Egyptians. Hiftory flood. when new characters in progrefs of time were invented. 40." fpeaking of the origin of letters.2 Letters the Gift of God. who lived about A. their progenitor. with at Babel. aflerts that the invention muft be referred to Abraham. and that from Seth they defcended with the original language to Noah and fchool. and amongft thefe may be mentioned Bryan Walton.

but elementary and compound founds. and to lead every devout mind to exclaim. fays that " thofe who then Mofes drew lived noted down with great accuracy the births and deaths of illuftrious men . muft deem it probable that He had provided early methods of fecuring the facred records which were to constitute that volume. nothing improbable in the invention of hieroglyphic writing. have only venient materials for We recorded a tradition that has for whilft there is its fource in hiftorical truth . feems an invention fo aftonifhing as to eclipfe all others. the AfTyrian empire had exifted for more than 700 years raffierS) ! . This muft be the ringer of God For the man who believes that our Maker intended to elevate the human fpecies by the ufe of a volume of revelation. The difcoveries of late years. Jofephus. fpeak plainly as to this fact. but preferved in Chaldea. who have. ftill the time may of alphabetical writing.Hebrew the Original its Language. from the nature of its contents. conclude. that there muft have been a vaft mafs of hiftorical matter written. like the modern Hindoos. . the difcovery of arbitrary chanot to denote words or the forms of things." and Whifton adds in a note. and hence communicated to Egypt and fuch other countries as had acquired a fettled government. anterior to the Exodus. it alfo prefuppofes. from which Mofes either directly or indirectly drew his materials. that the heathen writers of Egypt. then. attributed the difcovery of letters to the gods." The Pentateuch is generally acknowledged to be the moft ancient compofition extant and as that is held to have been written or compiled by Mofes. and Rome. 3 ufe. it is not reafonable to fuppofe fciences that a nation fo far advanced in the arts and art mould be ignorant of the and although we have at it. prefent no evidence to prove not be far diftant when it will be feen that largely from the documents and records D^DD (SEPHERIM). according to the primitive fafhion upon ftones. by Layard and As Nineveh and others. Greece. fpeaking of the early hiftory of man. preferved by the defendants of Shem in the AfTyrian archives.

the Armenian hiftorian informs us that Haicus. was the Creator and Governor of mankind. but aflifted him in the confolidation of his kingdom and the overthrow of his enemies. of the race of giants. conquered and killed the then reigning King of Babylon. and that Adam and Eve converfed in that language in Paradife. which I fuppofe to be a true account of that matter . Ibas.4 Opinion of the *almudifts. Arieus the fon of Aram? nation and people had been called Haics ftrict there is much conflicting teftimony refpecting the iden- . the mighty hunter). appeared unto them. affifted by an Arabian chief Ariceus. went forth with his family of 300 perfons exclufive of fervants. in defcent from Haicus was Aram. who not only permitted his reign. without form or order. and who frequently. and made himfelf mafter of his dominions. and from to pofterity . and the tyrant was killed upon the field of battle." The Talmudifts are of opinion that the Aramean was the primitive language. and perhaps all by the Meffiah him/elf . up to whofe time the . whom they conquered on the plains of Gortouk in AfTyria." This is partly confirmed by Diodorus Siculus. " Thefe ancient fet down by thofe genealogies were firft them were tranfmitted down who then lived. Thus Mars " Ibas. cc The Aflyrian King Ninus. The fifth Togarmah. and here he incorporated with his followers a number of individuals whom he found living in the moft primitive ftate. the chief of whom was Percham. the reigning king of Nineveh. guage of laid the foundation of the Armenian empire. for there is no reafon to fuppofe that men were not taught to read and write foon after they were taught to fpeak . being opprefTed by Belus king of Babylon (fuppofed to be Nimrod. who under the Father. the fon of the grandfon of Japhet. in thofe early days." May not this Ariceus be the fame as is mentioned by Mars Be that as it may. 'Thefe people Jpoke the original lanHere they eftablifhed themfelves and Noah. who fays. on Aram being terms of friend/hip with Ninus. and proceeded northward to the country round about Ararat.

and In another place {Affyrian of aftronomy in particular. Again. 5 tity of this Aram and Ninus. and to Paleftine. one thing feems certain. and all the arts and fciences. and the building of cities. He cc that the Chaldeans appear to have been a branch fays of the HAMITIC RACE OF AKKAD. Erech. This race. that it was Aram and his fon Arah who gave rife to the term Aramean. the tenth (x. which it is not necefTary for our purpofe to enter into here. 2500 the primitive popula(i. here contradicts himfelf.e. 156 years before the Flood). and Chronology) he ftates. Rehoboth. does not tell He us. neither do we find among the ancient progenitors of the race in way. a great city between Nineveh and Calah. and that that land (Babylonia) went forth Afshur. a name that fubfequently became fynonymous with Syrian and Aflyrian. c< The of Scripture informs us that.) chapter of Generis." But Sir H.Contradictions of Sir H. probably B. beginning Nimrod's kingdom was Babel. he adds. Babylonia from the with it originated the art of writing.C. by the this name who this Akkad was. inhabited fome period anterior to B." and that " out of that land went forth AJfhur and built Nineveh. Rawlinfon " fays. and Calnah in the land of Shinar. Sir H. Rawlinfon tells us differently. that at earlieft times. as the they fuperfeded. The prefumption is that the art of writing was equally Cf out of the Cities of the Plain. and throws at the fame time a doubt upon the Scripture narrative. thefe immigrant tribes bringing with them the ufe of letters. Accad. tion of Babylonia was to a certain extent difplaced by Turanian tribes from the neighbouring mountains. to the Euxine. and Refen. to the nations extending from the mouths of the Euphrates and The Tigris. " That which can be Hiftory eftablifhed without much chance of error is.C. When the Semitic . Rawlinfon. which he made known to the known to all inhabitants of the cities he fubfequently built." reader will obferve. the river Halys. Rawlinfon. and being otherwife far more civilized than the people whom Sir H." carrying with him the ufe of letters. and Calah. 2000.

2100. but concerning which we have no certain account. Dr. 13) ? ing " Behold the land of the Chaldeans. B. 900 years earlier. the For common the purpofes a running hand- writing. the This is furely proof fufficient that the took its name from the founder of its Aflyrian empire What can be the meancapital city. fome of which Origen tells us were found in Arabia Felix. does Sir H. the capital of and in the Hebrew copy the word rendered Aflyria cf cc Aflyrian" is written -num (ASHUR.6 Antiquity of the Alphabet. founded Babylon about A. one Chriftian era. was intro- . Rawlinfon mean to fay that the Aflyrian empire was not in exiftence until 200 years fubfequent to the time of Mofes ? The Sacred Writings plainly tell us that Afshur built Nineveh. nearly 100 years before the birth of Abraham. of the following paflage in Ifaiah (xxiii." up had the priority of the Chaldeans ? The Aflyrian Belus. Parfons. in which the Koran was originally written without points. The Sabians a book which they aflert to have been written produce by Adam. tribes eftablifhed an empire in Aflyria in the thirteenth adopted the Akkadian alphabet. traditionally from Ifhmael. The Arabians hold A(7(Tou|o). about the tenth They do not appear century to have of the had any Morrah alphabet until a fhort time before Mahomet." fuppofes letters to have been known to Adam. known under name of Nifkhi. c. : LXX. 1900. beyond queftion.. firft which were. this people was not. c. Ben Morrah is faid to have introduced an alphabet which was founded on the Syriac Eftrangelo character. no guide to direct us any more than we have concerning the fuppofed Books of Enoch. Cufic. they raifed unlefs it be that the Aflyrian the palaces thereof. or B. M." Now. in his " Remains of Japhet. that they received their original alphabet their prefent one being the invention of Ebn Muklah. in the dominions of the Queen of Saba. however. in Aflyria" and century they . added before the end of the This character is called century after the Hegira. till the AJJyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wildernefs they fet up the towers thereof.

" . and Japhet had their letters from the Phoenicians. to whom the honour is due. many ages prior to the birth and though we have no direct evidence of their being antediluvian arts. the arguments are fo ftrong. Mitford and others. the empire. and this is the chara&er ftill in When the Koran was firft publifhed.e.Antiquity of the Alphabet. the writing. before Mahomet there were two and the Idiots who lived in ignorant of both reading and Mecca. not a (ingle perfon in the whole kingdom of Yemen able to read or write Arabic. the people of the Book (i. the Jews and Chriftians who inhabited Medina. 2 From Hutchinfon's " They feem to forget Philosophical Works." The vanity of each nation induces them to pretend to the moft early civilization. who were defcended from Ham. the alphabet. The Arabian writers do not pretend to a very early alphabet. the capital of the Aflyrian before Tyre. there was ufe. The Chaldeans appear to have the greateft claim . Chaldea was peopled before Egypt or firft. all bordered upon each other. It is obfervable that the Chaldeans. and of courfe its characters. had flourimed for a period of 500 years ED. they all point to the Eaft. but that the conteft may be confined to the Egyptians. and Syrians. as the birth-place of letters. Phoenicians and Chaldees . and admit that they received it only a fhort time It is difficult to fay before the introduction of Iflamifm. and like the Phoenicians were among the greateft as well as the moft ancient of commercial nations. viz. Egyptians. 1 7 duced by Ebn Moklah. but this one fad is certain. and who were Hence. were known at a of period. 2 Thus we have elementary very early feen that writing. book-learned) who knew letters. and fo numerous in fupport of the view taken by Mr. Shareftan informs us that fects of people. becaufe and that many nations defcended from Shem Phoenicia. former called Mahomet cc The Illiterate Prophet. capital of Phoenicia. and the Eaft alone. that we are compelled to conclude Mofes .. was built. 1 that Nineveh.

This can be very plainly feen by the tablet of alphabets at the end of this volume. Pelafgic nians. contrafted with the perfect forms of the Primitive letters.8 *The Difcoveries of Layard that writing and the alphabet were. the Tyrians. does it happen that each early nation mould have ufed each a cannot fuppofe that the art of writing was different alphabet?" We generally to a few of the mo ft cultivated . the immediate gift of God to man. far back in the mifts of antiquity." the is perfion. the primal characters being in their beautiful perfect in form and eminently fuperior It to any of which we have now a knowledge. 6) more than 600 years 1 "And I will caft abominable "An- cient Egypt. fimplicity is this original alphabet which we are about to fubmit to the fcrutiny of the learned. Gliddon's ftrong analogy in tracing writing to Primeval Revelation may be found in afcending to the Divine origin of the belief in the Unity of the Godhead and of his ineffable attributes in the Trinity. There exifted. literally fulfil the prophecy uttered by B. and another tribe one or two more. and left behind them a lefs perfett knowledge of the primitive character. and fupplying the others from recollection and inventions of their own. the Orphic philofophers. if the art of writing was known to mankind at the dif- of which pure primeval fhown by the mythological fyilems of the Greeks. and expofed to the view of Thefe difcoveries of Layard the aftonifhed world. the exigence creed among the Gentiles. the Syrians." p. attributing art of writing to primary Revelation there arifes a difficulty from the query. Sido" In Chaldeans and Peruvians. a mighty empire and people. Only within the memory of the prefent generation have its long-hidden treafures been difcovered. as is evident from the uncouth and mifshapen letters of the Etrufcans and Pelafgics and other early nations. " Monotheifm Myftically Developed in Triads" "I would obferve that a 15. in fad. that in the wanderings of the early nations.C. There cannot be much doubt. yet fo far removed from all authentic records that even the fite of their immenfe capital (Nineveh) has remained unknown for upwards of twenty-four centuries. who were far advanced in civilization. and in the arts and fciences. how. : Nahum (iii. Hindoos. but only . each character bearing the 1 evident imprefs of its Divine Author. one tribe or nation retaining the perfect form of one or more of the original. known. but that the whole of the original alphabet can be reconftrufted from the alphabets of the various bodies of people that wandered from the Plains of Shinar. the few that had a firft and the moft perfecl knowledge of the primitive alphabet had died off.

There is great diverfity of opinion concerning this Cadmus fome contending that the letters introduced were was a native of Egyptian. and which. and of an high ftature and his top was among the His height was exalted above all the thick boughs.M. when he mot forth Thus was he fair in his greatdwelt all great nations. becaufe of the multitude of . and works of art dug from the ruins of her fplendid palaces.000 years fince.. . Nor any tree in the garden of God was " With like unto him in his beauty (chap. and his branches became long. whofe alphafor example. and will make thee vile. are placed in the mufeums of almoft all the civilized nations of the world Ezekiel of the mighty empire which rofe firft in the order fpeaks of time. formed the bafis " Behold the of kingly rule: Affyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches and with a fhadowing fhroud. and was in the zenith of its power and greatnefs. of Greece or Rome nation bets are demonftrably derived from the Aflyrian. when. about this time (A. can we conceive it poffible that it would be wanting in the very eflentials of civilization. ! . the cedars in the garden of God could not nefs. . engraved with a pen of iron." A grave-yard covered a portion of Nineveh's ancient greatnefs. . and whofe glorious literature enfhrines fome of the brighter! emanations of the human intellect ? AfTyria had exifted as an empire for more than 700 years. hide him. 4. to have introduced letters into Greece 2511) a mythological character named Cadmus is faid from Phoenicia. . . 9 upon thee. trees of the field. . and now flabs.fulfil the filth Prophecy of Nahum. Herodotus informs us Egypt. and that Cadmus himfelf and not of Phoenicia. and his boughs were multiplied. and foundation of every fcience ? Or. . and will fet thee as a gazing ftock. fuch a view of the greatnefs and glory of this mighty empire. xxxi. and under his fhadow waters.. 5-8). that its alphabet would fall in power or form. of that of any fubfequent fhort. that this Cadmus and the Phoenicians he brought with him " introduced many improvements among the Greeks and alphabetical writing too not known among them . .

" "priority. They confefTed that the art was of Phoenician origin. about the time of the Exodus. as the Samaritan.) that living amongft a mercantile community.M. and that thofe were the fame as the Hebraic. employed it with the alteration of fome few characters. he had imbibed a tafte for trade and travelling. what does the legend of Cadmus mean ? him of all his mythological Strip appendages. (Latin. the whole hiftory of the Cadmean alphabet fimply a myth or legend. Moft of the learned agree that Cadmus carried the Phoenician or Syrian letters into Greece. and were ufed by the Jews before the Babylonian captivity. endowed with feelings common to humanity. meaning eaftern. us 3 ) we have the " the ancient ones Is not. for by cutting Greek termination oc. he had vifited the great metropolis of the then known world (Nineveh) had feen it in all its glory and magnificence had been an eye-witnefs of the pomp and pageantry of a forming a Hebrew root (DTP). eaftward of Phoenicia and as alfo being the/r/?. before that time" (A. expreffive of the fact that the fixteen letters introduced into Greece were received from " The ancient ones of the Earth. being " "eanV' or : COM. . of the earth. 2511). Cadmus a Merchant Prince. and they having received from thence the art of alphabetical writing." (pWTOTp) a or indeed." or " cc and pointing evidently to the locality of antiquity his fuppofed invention. taking precedency of all others. in the Hebrew idiom. or. off the letters but his very name difproves the ftatement. and he will become a merchant prince of Some ancient writers call him an Egyptian. The Hebrews but a fmall nation were comprehended under the being name of Syrian." or from the Eaft ? But let it be taken for granted that Cadmus was a mere mortal." "precedency. or the fource of the alphabet. (but very much in advance of the age he lived in. Phoenicia. The Ionian Greeks inhabited at that time the parts adjacent to Phoenicia. and in the courfe of his commercial peregrinations. Jofeph Scaliger proves that the Greek letters and thofe of the later alphabets formed from them derive which are the fame their origin from the Ancient Phoenician.

remarkable by the dyed attire upon their heads. clothed in rich and gorgeous robes. It has been obferved above that. of them deferable young men.Ideal Pageant of Queen Atoffa. and invented new ones. ftately youths riding upon horfes. the rattling of the wheels. amongft that femi-barbarous race more refined manners. fome few letters were altered. and her father Belochus. and warriors. in introducing the alphabet into Phoenicia. vifits to the city of Nineveh he had feen the beautiful fimplicity and fuperiority of the primitive AfTyrian Alphabet over the rough and mifshapen characters of the Phoenicians and Pelafgi and he could only fee with true prophetic eye the power it would give him with the people of his own nation. made them feem like flaming in meteors noife . The tablet of alphabets (Plate 7). and beautifully embroidered in all their parts. edged with gold and filken fringe of moft exquifite colours. and thus accommodated his new alphabet to fome rude characters already in ufe. valiant in fcarlet. clothed in blue all moft gorgeoufly. chariots. if he were to introduce in ftyle. priefts. followed by captains and rulers. kings. ancient and . mighty men with mields. fymbolical of the nation's god that guarded in filent majefty the entrance of her magnificent palace. in all and pride of Oriental fplendour. as they welcomed the appearance of Semiramis the In the courfe of his Second. girded with girdles. lightning-like motion. might think of appropriating all the To this end he honour of an inventor to himfelf. emerge from between the coloflal winged bulls. the prancing of the horfes. all of them princely men and the the broadways of the city. will convince even the moft fceptical perfon that all alphabets. He had heard of the whip. On me came furrounded by her court. feeing adaptability to the wants of his own for the tranfmiflion of their records from generapeople tion to generation. and the wonderful art of alphabetical writing. and the fhouts of the multitude. and this is readily accounted for its by the fuppofition that the intro- ducer. altered fome letters. whofe fplendour of appearance. royal triumph the oftentation 1 1 had feen the (lately Queen AtofTa.

*f BG. forming and fentences. truth of the primitive alphabet is the fact that on the various flabs. lyllables. and notice the remarkable refemblance and early Cadmean. and the gradual deteriora'primitive tion until its final lofs in the Palmy rene. the letters of the primitive alphabet are feen to enter into combination with each other. in every probability. Sanchoniatho. it is by infcriptions alone we can trace its gradual improvement from its rude and primitive ftate to a more refined and perfect form as we find it at the And it is chiefly by infcriptions that an prefent day. bulls. But we know copied their letters from the early Greeks. For example that the Romans O A B with >. and other works of art. can be fuccefsfully profecuted. Herodotus tells us that the firft method of inftructing men and tranfmitting fcience was by infcriptions. who informs us in his that Pififtratus caufed to be engraved on ft one ufeful precepts in hufbandry for the benefit of his is by means of infcriptions that countrymen. >/. modern. c. d |> t IX and AB c '> With l^' B ." we perceive the various changes and modifications of language . is faid to have drawn from infcriptions which he found in temples and hiftory on columns. Let the reader turn to the tablet of alphabets (Plate between the 7). and the Greeks.12 Infer ipt ions on Stone." " by Plato. are derived either directly or indirectly from It the Aflyrian arrow-headed (or cuneiform) characters. words. copied One ftrong proof of the theirs from the Aflyrians. in Syria. the primitive and early Greek. A . ducks. both in his own country and in Paleftine. |>. and this cc who flourifhed about the time of the is confirmed Hippias. a Phoenician hiftorian born at Berytus moft of his Trojan War (1200 B.). is well known that the ancients engraved on temples and columns the principles of fcience as well as the events of hiflory. f \S^ alphabet. And it investigation into the ancient languages. .

Solomon faid." ! my ! the purport of to embrace the beauty of the True God. I Kouyunjik found it to contain a lift of phrafes or fhort prayers arranged fame letters. the myfte: O ! rious thofe movements of the True God. and alphabetically and precifely with the in the fame order. eight with G. eight verfes beginning with A. a chamber filled about months the Mufeum the 9x6 with fmall clay tablets inches and under. and what is remarkable. all proofs and one which will fet all controverfy." i. plainly that the Aflyrians were not fuch idolaters as they are generally reprefented. determinatives. I examined with great before the public gaze. All. but by the fimple application And as of nineteen letters. polyphones. not by 300 letters and 500 variants . all can be read.e. and fo on through the letters of the The prayers are deeply interesting. and ideographs. written upon clay . <c that I could adopt fome prayers as examples method of explaining the apparent changes." for we find that the original of Caxton's original is in the Britifh Mufeum. not by the cumbrous machinery of homophones. for ever. Being deeply care the tablets in fubject. placing them queftion. and upon examination of the fifth tablet in the fecond glafs cafe on the right of the gallery. 1 3 But the ftrongeft of reft. during the excavations at Nineveh or Nimroud and Kouyunjik.. eight with O B. as you will fee in my primitive alphabet. mowing us alphabet. and not break entirely with " Such is the fenfe the obligations of the people elicited. the excavators came acrofs what they called a f< Royal the matter at beyond Library. ff that there is nothing new under the fun. but alfo an earneft Take the two following defire to know more of him. authorities Within have thefe few brought them in glafs cafes in interefted in the Kouyunjik gallery.Application of Primitive Alphabet. is contained in the following facts. the firft fifteen phrafes are fhort prayers beginning with in the tranflation. but that they had not only a knowledge of the True God. juft as we have in our Hebrew copy of the 1 1 pth pfalm. viz. and " O it is defire mutations.

It was the Jones that the Primitive language was irrecoverably loft at the difperfion at Babel. thoujand and four years anterior to The language deduced. found upon the black marble obelifk. when the zeal of the archasologift and the philologift 1 See " Athenaeum'* of Dec. Teftament Scriptures as arranged in chronological order. and the/<z^7 elicited by means of the primitive alphabet. that nine out of every ten words. with the language. the fyftem of alphabetical writing which is ftill preferved intafl upon the multitudinous Jepherim lately difcovered by Layard." &c. there are juft fifteen fhort phrafes or prayers. Rich and others. in our opinion." In like manner. amongft the ruins of the Eaft. or upon any of the flabs excavated at Nineveh. that. Jones's Opinion. proves inconteftably that Hebrew was the primitive language. who Hebrew words.. proves The author in his application of the primitive form. This faff leaves little doubt when the prefent difcovery mail be followed up. viz. : "A .14 between three 1 Caxton. on the tablet above mentioned. opinion of Sir W. has given a clear. Hebrew language to the AfTyrian cuneiform writing. and alfo. 25th. we mail find that previous to the difperfion. that land went forth Amur " Out of and builded Nineveh. has been very much confirmed in his views by the fact that all that has been attempted by him in the way of tranfinfcribed lation. but others have difputed in favour of the Hebrew being the It does not feem primitive language of mankind. or prayers beginning with O. definite refult. to deftroy the primitive tongue in order to carry out the generally Juppofed miracle of the If we are to look upon the Old confufion of language. Sir W. 1869 notice of Caxton's Fifteen O's. This is a thrilling fa 51 as it ferves as a connecting link between the antediluvian world and the prefent day. neceflary. by means of the primitive on the flabs from the Nimroud alphabet to be no other than Hebrew in its moft Palace. Botta. are pure '. confequently would carry with him the language he had been taught by his father Shem.

on which were written the revelations and commands of God. And what may we not expect to refult in the way of difcovery when the language of this ancient people is Who can fay what treafures of knowfully developed ? not yet lie buried in Nineveh's ancient ruins. Thefe tablets. may not be found in the mounds of " Nebbe Allah Yunus" and Sheth. There another Eaftern tradition. preferved from the Deluge. when the ability of the great oriental fcholars of Europe fhall have been brought to bear on this highly interefting. . Hitherto the AfTyrian have been but groping in darknefs vifible. if they ever exifted. fhall 1 5 be awakened to purfue the clue given in thefe pages to its ultimate iffue." the tombs of Jonah and Seth.Probable Refult s. that have lain for more than forty centuries in doubt and gloom. may not ftill be difcoverable ? Who will . ledge may and long in the loft to the world mounds around ? What arts and fciences may not be brought to light from of her fplendid palaces hiftorical ? What precious truth of the Sacred the archives records. the baked tablets which had been expofed to heat would only become more hardened. . on both burnt and unburnt bricks or tablets. and handed down in the family of Shem to the firft rulers of this ancient empire. to the effect that behind him ten volumes or tablets. confirming the <c Nebbe Book. are now loft . fo for if water might deftroy that they might never perim the unburnt tablets. the prophets of God ? There is a tradition exifting to this the hiftory and the day amongft the orientals that Seth wrote wifdom of the ages preceding the Deluge. but who can tell whether they may not yet be found. the refult will be its complete and final elucidation as an hiftorical hypothefis. philologifts with juft fufficient light to mow them thofe dim and fhadowy outlines of ancient hiftories. the burnt ones might ftill remain and if a fire fhould occur. or fome trace of them. in the primitive Great Eaftern by Noah. amongft the ruins of the buried can tell what memorials of cities of the Eaft ? is Noah left Who the antediluvian world. but neceflarily occult fubject.

venture to fay what new light may not be thrown upon the hiftorical enigma of the loft ten tribes of Ifrael. and what influence this may have on the final reftoration of God's ancient people to their fatherland. . and felf-evident truthful nefs will fatisfy him of its cer. philofophy. we have (imply indicated here the courfe of hiftorical inveftigaLet all precontion and difcovery in our own day. he feels that it is entirely worthy of the deepeft refearch and attention of all who are interefted in the advancement of fcience. after all. their kingdom. tainty. and to the knowledge of the true Mefliah ? Thefe fpeculations may appear to fome perfons as merely the dreams of enthufiafm but. but the caufes of this will In fine.1 6 Probable Refults. aware of the importance of the learning required to cope fuccefsfully with the many difficulties infeparable from fo abftrufe and occult a fubject. He may naturally feel furprifed that the theory has hitherto efcaped the refearches and the learning of the fcholars of Europe . and we are perfuaded that its iimplicity. and let the reader difpaflionately examine the theory now fubmitted to his attention. ceived notions upon the fubjecT: be caft afide. and true religion. whilft the author is fully appear in the fequel.

CHAPTER LANGUAGE. cc Hebrew Lexicon. with intelligence vaftly fuperior to that of the favage. and afterwards became felf-civilized and invented language. and fully gifted with the capacity of holding communication This is the view of the learned Parkwith his fpecies. Moabitic Stone Homer. that language was the immediate gift of God to Adam. ftate in patting that we hold firmly by the Scriptural doctrine that man was created perfefl. or which comes to the fame thing. and Solomon Mofes wrote in the Cuneiform character The two Tables of Stone in the Britijb Mufeum. than THAT SPAKE. in his Preface to his "It appears evident from the Mofaic account of fays: the original formation of man. Cadmus copied E fhall not enter into a critical difquifition on the nature of language. Babel The Weftern his Nations peopled from Alphabet from the Aflyrians Hebrew the Univerfal Language Samaritan Pentateuch Hebrew Poetry and Language Cadmus. or attempt to combat the opinions of thofe who affert that man was created in a ftate of abfolute barbarifm. or that God either taught our firft parents to fpeak. infpired them with language and the language thus communicated to the firft man was no other hurft. Confufion of Sentiment the Eaft at II. We may." who." HEBREW IN WHICH MOSES WROTE AND . Mofes. David. however. . Job.

" verfed with Adam and Eve. Hebrew original of Generis. which neceflarily fuppofes that he was furniflied with a ftock of ideas. the gift of language." And God fpake unto Noah. Go forth tion. in the firft volume of his " Obfer1 Genefis xi. God converfed with Noah. Many critics language." and But he did not lofe the faculty of fpeech. : for thee have I feen righteous before me in this generafc And God fpake unto Noah. Enoch walked with God." out He fought fank morally and intellectually. thou and thy wife and thy fons. and defends this opinion." when He gave them the token in the heavens. Vitringa ftates. God conBut man fell from his original purity." we find this view fupported cc From the account given by Mofes of the primeval ftate of man. and to his fons with him. a fpecimen of which he gave. and held communion with Him. and thy Cf Tons' wives with thee. the bow in the cloud. faying. Ifaac. : ideas in the ordinary way. generally termed the conBy a careful ftudy of the' we find that will the word naw x (SAPHAH)J rendered fc confiderable modification. and Jacob . which would have been too tedious and flow as he was circumftanced . He addrefled to Adam what and the patriarchs before the is This brings us fufion of language at Babel. God fpake alfo to Abraham. it appears that he was not left to acquire In Dr. over a period of many years <c And the Lord faid during the building of the ark unto Noah. with Cain and Enoch. and there can fcarcely be a doubt that it was in the fame language as that in which flood. . in giving names to the inferior animals which were brought before him for that purpofe. I.1 8 Confufion of Sentiment at Babel. Come thou and all thine houfe into the ark." of the ark." undergo hold that it does not mean language but confejfion. but was at once furnimed with the knowledge which was then He was immediately endued with necefTary for him. many inventions. Leland's Cf Advantage and Neceffity of the Chriftian Revelation.

in Works" (vol. inftead of agreeing upon a new form for them all. and were beginning to frame another. (SHEMIM or SHEMAYIM). This confufion of Jentiment was in confequence of the Bible. (except the ftrongeft which it is likely Nimrod headed. and. iv. all men had the fame religious confeflion or creed and the fame words. "Gentleman's Magazine. cc that now (SAPHAH) is the lip. Before the. or religious opinion. formed itfelf into a feel. notwithstanding the tranflation of the : He fully into the fub- Jews ufe the word in that fenfe in their private and where it cannot be in any other fenfe. alfo enters ject. and when ufed for the voice. the writings.) his " Philofophical contends that the word now (SAPHAH) means literally lip. p. His tranflation of the pafTage is as cc follows Come. 17). the indication of the mind." only fay/' he adds. and each fetJ fet up a particular form of confeflion with regard to the object of its veneration. let us go down and confound their So Jehovah fcattered them abroad over the confejfion. (Vide Parkhurft's letter in The learned John Hutchinfon. and continued to be the univerfal language long after the event at Babel (noticed in the Introduction). . the heavens. 1797. This produced a feparation. and one common form . difagreed among themfelves about wording and the manner and degrees of the fervice.apoftafy at Babel. and fo produce a new object of worfhip . apoftates wifhing to fet up an altar to the names D^DU. and forced each. it is never once in the Bible ufed in any other fenfe than for confejjion." May. and each of thefe followed So each party the dictates of his refpective leader. Each principal gained adherents." and in the courfe of his difquifition he fhows that Hebrew was the language then fpoken. " I need face of all the earth. and mould be rendered confejfion^fent intent.Confiifion of Sentiment at EabeL 1 9 vationes Sacrae. According to this hypothecs the univerfal language in ufe before that event would not appear to have been afterwards confined to any particular family or tribe. fallen away from the true confejfion.) it. which was oppofed by the true The effect I think was that thofe who had believers.

ancient condition of language and confequently into the 1 Walker. certainly faulty in this place. realizes. and the difperfion of thofe who held them. therefpeech is by all limited to the country about Babel. of languages mows that races now feparated by vaft tracts of land are allied. And I may affert that there is fcarcely one eminent miracle performed in early times and recorded by Mofes. defcendants now form a new empire in the far weft. or at leaft the New Teftament. by the permanence of certain forms. 40-1." The " miracle" at Babel was. do not refer. to which the latter prophets. in fad. verfion This view of the fubjeft is partly fupported by a " Ancient in his Mythology. nay even the apocryphal books. and of the Covenanters of Scotland. or by the more or lefs advanced deftruction of the formative fyftem. the difperfion of the Albigenfes. the like of which has been feen even in modern times for inftance. by means of the more or lefs altered ftructure of the language. pp. and have migrated from one common Jeat> indicates the courfe of all migrations. inftead of "the language of the whole Earth" fubflitute the language of the whole country. We muft. is later writer. and whofe ." fore. which race has retained moft nearly the language common to all who had migrated from the common feat of " The larger! field for fuch investigations into the origin. of time and place will modify any language. By ywiVDnDW .2O The Wejlern Nations 1 to feek a feparate Jettlement and fo caufed a difperfion. a confufion (or rather diffufion) of religious fentiments. and in tracing the leading epochs of development. by a difference of opinion or fentiment. But I think I may fafely affirm that the pretended miracle of the confufion of tongues at Babel is never once recited or referred to. but conThis confufion of founded. iv. of the Huguenots of France. of the Puritans of England. numbers of whom were driven from their native lands. Changes and the fimple fact of the difperfion of mankind will fufficiently account for nearly all the alterations which The comparative ftudy language has fince undergone." vol. fays : " Our (Saphath kol ha Arets) is not here meant 'The language of the whole Earth/ but of the whole region or provinces which language was not changed.

1576. Ethiopians called themfelves Chaldeans. and enclofed in one of the ufual cartouches. and eftablimed himfelf in the region of Ararat. 471. ii." Out of that land. in hiftorical language. went forth Mitzraim with his fons and followers and founded the Egyptian Empire. he went to the north with his followers.M. went forth Hycus." vol. when ^ Manetho alfo notices the fa<5b that the firft man who ruled in North Eaft and founded the city of MemThis in itfelf is a ftrong argument phis. and his name is feen on one of the walls of the Palace of Luxor at Thebes. It is written U. that it is almoft impoflible to tell what to but what we can gather from believe refpe<5ling them the moft authentic fources is that Cham or Ham arrived in Egypt about A. Diodorus Siculus ftates that the Egyptians were a colony of Ethiopians and Scaliger informs us that the . Out of that land (Babylonia) went forth Afshur. tyranny of the Aflyrian Belus (or Nimrod). And his fon Mitzraim began to reign as the firft monarch of Egypt A. A. the fon of TogarTo efcape from the mah. and founded the cities of Nineveh. prefents itfelf in the long chain of Indo-Germanic languages. period ftricT: 21 the whole family of mankind was in the of the word. the grandfon of Japhet. M. and the . and Refen. According to Manetho this firft king was called Menes. in their the Perfian. fenfe . 1 About one hundred years prior to the confufion at Babel. M. to be regarded as one living whole.PeopledJrom the Raft. and founded the kingdom of Armenia.) So Cape. Rehoboth. extending from the Ganges to the Iberian extremity of Europe. 1662. in favour Egypt came from the from the of the migration of the firft fettlers plains of Shinar. p." (Humboldt's cc we read that. 1 The (hepherd " Till the beginning of the fifth writings.N > Menei. 1662. and from Sicily to the North " Cofmos. The early ages of Egypt are fo enveloped in the mifts of antiquity. Greek. ufed various foreign alphabets century the Armenians. Calah.

were alfo called Phoenicians. Canaan. and to the boundary line of Egypt on the fouth. but as the number of chara&ers in thefe alphabets was inefficient to exprefs all the founds in the Armenian language. thefe fhepherds were Arabians . that the facred characters of the Egyptians were Chaldaic. is considered to The country be the founder of the Perfian empire. Elam. was the of the Phoenicians. Scaliger alfo tells us that the moft elegant and moft beautiful of their facred and profane books are written Chaldean or Affyrian. who built Tyre. their firft fettlement being named Sidon after Canaan's eldeft fon. written from left to right. particularly the latter .D. Mifrob invented for the ufe of his countrymen a particular alphabet. . Hebrew. are now admitted by all Manetho fays have been of Semitic origin. and that people always progenitor aflerted that they had formerly dwelt upon the Red Sea. which was introduced in the year A." to the Refer Addenda on Penny Cyclopedia. ftationed themfelves on the coaft of Syria. a term extended in antiquity to all Arabian races. is that which the Armenians J ftill ufe. It was alfo called Paleftine (from Pali a cc fhepherd. called hiftorians to The Wejiern Nations 1 Hykfos. or Phoenician origin. The Sidonians. c. may be traced to a Chaldaic. where the defcendants of Elam fettled was denominated Elymais y fo late as the beginning of the Chriftian era . other authorities call that them Phoenicians. Now." and Sthan " country. and that names of perfons and places are for the moft Egyptian A ftill ftronger proof of part reducible to the Hebrew. the fon of Shem and brother of Afshur. a term fuppofed to be derived from the number of palm trees (powxoj) which grew in the country. and migrating from thence.22 warriors. 406. the Shepherd Kings. B. All the nations and ftates which arofe afterwards and fpread over the regions of Syria (the land of Canaan) fpread outwards from Sidon to the Euphrates on the eaft. and moft of the Perfian names which are to be found in the Grecian hiftories. the origin of the Egyptian language is. This alphabet. and originally confifting of thirty-fix characters. to which fubfequently two more were added. again. kingdom of Egypt who put an end to the old 2200.") Out of that in a ftyle refembling the Syriac.

are to be found upon the Nineveh flabs . My God. p.C. Antochthones. was common to all mankind." " When the Hykfos were expelled from Egypt they went under different denominations. being ftyled and Cadmeans. Pelafgus Areas was meant Pelafgus the Afkite. in his "Philofophical Works." the many ifles of the Grecian Archipelago. Danaidas. iii. have been named from Areas. Beli Beli libi chu aluf. Inachidae. but there is fufficient hiftorical evidence to fhow that they fprang from the barbarian Pelafgi who wandered from the fliores of the Red Sea and arrived in the " Peloponnefus about B. many of the expreflions on the flabs. 174. Elifhah.Peopledfrom the Eaft. The Pelafgi were fubfedriven out of ThefTaly by Deucalion. before being called it is plain that Areas was a title. mixed up with the errors of the Aflyrians. the ifles of the MediterThe Greeks believed themfelves to be ranean Sea." vol. "Oh that I could adopt fome method to mow the myfterious movements of the True God. From tranflations given in a fubfequent part of this work. and for many ages after there was but one language Pelafgians in the world. alfo. captivity) may yet It is my opinion that many of the doctrines. by thefe were the ifles of the Gentiles divided in their lands. and that by ." Pelafgii. Heraclidae. " I am not without Hutchinfon. and much of the religion of the ancient Jews. land cc 23 went the fons of Javan. favour this opinion. Lalagees. as well as about their language .) 2nd." fays that fome of the works of the ancient or real Jews (before the hopes be found preferved by the heathen . Kittim and Dodamin. M. or to have fprung from the earth . going far to fettle thofe long-difputed problems of the Pelafgic and primitive languages. : One or two examples will be deeply interefting. &c. The Semitic language of Eber. even Herodotus is at a lofs to determine whether " The Arcadians are faid to they mould not be efteemed barbarians." ! " . 1760. it will be feen that if the characters had changed. O. we read Tarmifh. the language Hill remained the fame. king of quently ' 1 Many have been the inquiries about this ancient people. tranflated by means of the Primitive Alphabet. The Pelafgian alphabet con1 fided of only fixteen letters. and the purport of thefe changes. the fon of Zeuth. oh that thou wouldft mow me the True GodT (See tranllation from the B. the great grandfon of Shem. My God.

and its characters were the firft letters introduced into Italy. beginnings of the hiftory of India. may notice here the ftrong refemblance exifting between the Etrufcan and the Cadmean alphabets. they knew none older than Pelafgic the Ionic.C. I mention this becaufe the Cadmean letters. This fact rather militates againft the theory of the Phoenician origin of the Cadmean 1 The Romans would never acknowledge the alphabet. like thofe of and Greece. alphabet is. as we know from the Bouftrophedon infcription. they may be called the fame country. in B. and we may reafonably conclude that they would both ufe the fame alphabet. The Etrufcan alphabet is certainly Pelafgic. for we read in the loth chap. whereas the We Cadmean was written both ways. the Alexandrian.24 Cadmus copied his Alphabet that country. a mount of the eaft. as appears from the Farnefe infcriptions of Herodes Atticus.g. as mown copied from Eolian in the fubfequent table. There is every probability that the Pelafgic letters had fufrered great deterioration from the time of the difperfion." Dr. e. . 30 of Genefis. letters as Grecian . of the New Teftament. fo in many of the old MSS. that it was written from left to right. of the Cf that their dwelling was from Mefha as fons of Joktan. thou goeft unto Sephar. the original peopling of India. but it feems probable that it was firft colonized by the defcendants of Joktan. are principally tablets or columns. when they parted into Italy and fettled in that part called Etruria. ver. 1529. Ionia and Eolia being colonized by refugees driven by where Cadmus firft introthe Heraclidae from Bceotia duced the art of writing and lying adjacent to each other. a period of 750 years having elapfed fince they had been taken from the oriOne remarkable fact connected with the Pelafgic ginal. are loft in the mifts of remote anEgypt We have no records that can be relied on of tiquity. Muir from which fays there is in the Rig Veda an expreffion 1 The to right Both Greek and Latin were anciently written alternately from left and right to left in confecutive lines.

have made it more than probable that the material elements with which they 1 There are many both ftarted were originally the fame. the anceftors of the Homeric poets and of the poets of the Veda muft have lived together as members of one and the fame race. Muir and others). which now no longer exifts." 1 " Hiftory of Antient Sanfcrit Literature. Zend. and their anceftors at a very remote period lived together in fome country (out of Hindoftan) fpeaking one language. at a very remote but a very real period in the hiftory of the world." . precifely the fame number that Cadmus introduced into Greece. fixteen rock-infcription letters. and the furviving reprefentatives of one older language.from it the AJJyrians. the daughters of one mother. Manu. as fpeakers of one and the fame language. or derivations from. the races of men who fpoke thofe feveral languages all defcended from one common ftock. but afterwards feparated to wander from their primitive abodes at various times and in different The comparifons that have been made bedirections. and the roots of the Arian languages. tween the Semitic roots. and Latin are all fifters. and that Sanfcrit. Moreover. defcended from the northern mountain after a deluge. Max Miiller) " who cannot perfons" (fays ProfefTor realize the fact that. bringing with them their own dialect. 25 would appear that the ancient inhabitants of India always retained fome recollection of having previoufly lived in a colder country . and in all probability formed the Thefe brought with them the origin of the Arian race. with which the language of the firft inhabitants gradually blended. ftrong affinity exifting others of the fame region lifhed between (fince It appears from the this language and conclusively eftab- by Dr. In after ages a people of Japhetic origin certainly fettled in India. that thofe forms of fpeech have all one common origin. reduced to their fimpleft form. and ultimately became what we call the Sanfcrit. Greek. and he adds that in one of the Bramanas there is a tradition that the progenitor of the Hindus.

had either been brought up wholly ignorant of letters. Mr. during a period of 800 years. Rawlinfon. as no other fet of letters known to have been in exiftence and within reach of Perfian obfervation were written from left to In another place. the Egyptians.26 Cadmus copied his Alphabet all Thus we have feen that countries. had been peopled by tribes wandering from one common centre the plains of Shinar carrying with them the alphabet and the art of writing in more or lefs perfection. gotten them were obliged to have recourfe to the clumfy expedient of pictures to reprefent letters. for in their alphabet we have many traces The Etrufcan and Pelafgi. words. . being the firft to emigrate from the land of his fathers. draws an inference which. which the Greeks adopted. The Phoenicians appear to be the next in order of time and literature. muft have left the plains of Shinar with a perfect knowledge of letters but from their wandering life. Layard is of opinion that the Aflyrian writing <c the (cuneiform) is from left to right and he fays that . that Cadmus copied his alphabet from fo refined a people Sir ? H. and weft. fouth. many of the characters had furTered great deterioration. with fome improvement. north. Still. he ftates that cc with regard right. . fays He powers of its elements (the Perfepolitan cuneiform) were chiefly borrowed from the Greek alphabet. and fentences. while he holds this view of the direction of the writing. or elfe from the nature of his purfuits in after life had entirely for. there are fome points of ftriking likenefs in thefe characters to the letters of the primitive alphabet." to the cuneiform characters it is important to obferve. according to the period that had elapfed fince their firft departure from the land of their birth and thus I conclude that Mitzraim. he cannot fupport. may judge from their alphabet. eaft. in their moft claflic monuments" (alluding Is it any wonder to the familiar honeyfuckle ornament). as it that cc the feems to me. AfTyrians pofTefTed a highly refined tafte in inventing and ornamenting. fo that his defendants. if we of the original letters. .

" column of alphabets. Egypt. borrowed How I introducing his alphabet into phonetic powers from the Greek ! is this to be reconciled ? mail enter more fully into the character of this alphabet fubfequently . with imperfections. one and the fame. and Armenia. in a recently publifhed work.from of homophones. up to 1 A " Britannia the colonial author. as well as the Gaelic. as a proof. or even the clafs of language to which it was required to be applied. from its period probably of Cyrus the Great. J. J. quently . Aflyrian or Hebrew. and of Elymais are fo far as eflentials are concerned. which Hebrew. Sufiana. but my object at prefent is to mow that the earlieft languages. when the Ifraelites returned with the Egyptians notwithftanding their intercourfe during feveral hundred years." contends that and all alphabets from the Bardic or Welfti alphabet. Phoenicia. and many ages fubfeto Canaan. Mr. Nearly all writers on the fubject are agreed that Hebrew was fpoken all over Arabia. and even to the CafTiterides or Britifh Ifles. were eflentially one and the fame. cumbrous array its moft when it Egyptian model up to the Armenia. appears that one common language was fpoken all over the 1 the days of Mofes. and inconvenient laxity. . Thomas. is derived. to be the one fole type of writing employed by all the nations of Weftern Afia. from Syria to the heart of Perfia . all its 27 that the Aflyrian alphabet. its the AJJyrians. and what is ftill more remarkable. and their fojourning in eaft. (See 5th Cimmerian. Babylonia. whether called Adamic. amongft the various colonies planted by the Phoenicians to CarIt thage. from the primitive Welm." And yet this Aflyrian alphabet. " the he pompoufly calls mathematically conceived and divinely-formed for its angular uniquenefs of defign and flyle. like the Bardic alphabet. all languages are derived from Antiquiffima. There is therefore no doubt but that the alphabets of Aflyria. Noachian. along the coafts of Africa. which muft have exifted at leaft 700 years prior to Cadmus its Greece.) There is but little doubt that the Welfh. the Aflyrian alphabet was thus adopted without reference to the language. continued from the time many was firft organized.

Heathen faid be gathered What is thine occupathey unto him. and moft part of their time with a mixed multitude. the wildernefs forty years.). his nobles. When Mofes lived. Joppa. ftrangers. Bochart. 4 and Numbers xxii. &c. fled to the firft feaport. or The Hebrew very near it. evidence that Hebrew was the is ftrong prefumptive language fpoken by the AfTyrians at the time of the preaching of Jonah. which went out with them from Egypt. who made a league with them nations they and Spies. who was commanded by God to preach repentance to the effeminate and luxurious King Sardanapalus. but that they were fhipmafter and mariners belonged. ? and whence comeft thou ? What is thy country. xxiii. c. . by the deceit practifed upon them. and even with the Gibeonites. may from their language to Jonah. thus be traced as a native tongue of the eaft all may round the coafts of the Mediterranean. . Tell us. Rahab Balaam lived at Pethor of Deut.28 Hebrew the univerfal Language. and took fhip for Tar/him or We are not informed to what country the Tarfus. <c Then . it appears to have been the only medium of communication throughout the known world. Jofhua ii. might have come feveral hundred miles. and it feems There to have continued fo up to a very late period. tion and of what people art thou ? And he faid unto them. Jonah difobeyed the command. fpeaking the Hebrew tongue. who they fuppofed." Book n. . as the Ifraelites did too freely and when the Ifraelites entered with the Moabites Canaan they converfed with the Canaanites. and fo did many others. proves that in Mofes' time and many ages after. . 5 the meflengers of Mefopotamia the King of Moab. and afterwards he and his princes converfed freely with him. and had no fufpicion from their language. (Jomua ix. but took it for granted that people at that diftance (poke the fame lancc guage as they did. they fpoke the very fame language as all the met with in their travels. and the people of Nineveh. in his Canaan de Colonis and Sermone Phcenicium. all fpoke Hebrew. And when he had entered a I am an Hebrew. paid his fare.

29 day's journey into the Great City. What that was there is no mention. the it is not fit ! fhould live earth. then a rifing colony. by the Maccabean coins dug out of the ruins of Jerufalem. Thefe coins clearly fhow that the characters in queftion Phoenician. had confiderable trade with all parts of the coaft of the Mediterranean. being almoft the fame as thofe feen in the Samaritan copies of the Pen- . 3142. Jonah's flight took place in the reign of Jehoafh. retained nearly their ancient fhape. and about the time of Sardanapalus." ftone him ? did they imprifon him ? did cc Away upon faid with him. he cried and faid. but the ftory on which this refts. Ezra borrowed the fquare character with which the Hebrew text is now written from the Chaldee. the Great nearly loft his life.Hebrew the univerfal Language. forty days and Nineveh fhall be overthrown. M. through the mouth of his Up away to the period when the ten tribes were carried captive into AfTyria. king of Ifrael. and was a free It was here that Alexander city of Greece and Rome. totally different from writing The Samaritan thofe now in ufe among the Jews. letters (as they are called) are clofely allied to the and appear originally to have been emIt is ftated that ployed by the whole Jewim nation. proves to be utterly unfounded. fituated on the banks of the Cydnus. efpecially with Tarfus. and fubftituted it for that which they had previoufly ufed. and hence he ftyles himfelf a city free-born Roman. Hazael king of Syria. Joppa. Here alfo Cleopatra paid her celebrated vifit to Mark Antony. It was alfo the native of the Apoftle Paul. however. c. or B. and fubfeIt was quently the moft celebrated city of Cilicia. A. king of AiTyria that is. "Yet Did they cry out. Samaria. being the only feaport pofTefled by the Jews. They did not require an interpreter. through bathing while heated in the waters of the Cydnus. in all the pomp of eaftern fplendour. Hebrew was the language of The characters employed by the ten tribes in Hebrew were." No they fuch a fellow They believed what God prophet Jonah. 862.

We mention two more facts. 1 This is a Phoenician to the Palmyrene. . mowing a different language or dialect. more than three centuries from the time to have undergone a of Simon Maccabeus. as we have done. then we have on this tablet of Afhmanazer. are the infcriptions found amongft the ruins of Palmyra. the very alphabet that God employed to preferve and tranfmit to us the pricelefs 1 Hebrew modern Hebrew Gefenius. if not their actual identity. Many of the of our own alphabet that one Still more origin of the Greek alphabet. truth of this . Thomfon's remarks upon a Phoenician infcription found upon a will juft Sarcophagus terefted at Sidon. in the laft edition of his Grammar. interefting is the fact that the characters on this ftone are fo like the old as to eftablifh their clofe relationship. which the prefent Hebrew character mows any likenefs of figure. mowing the Babylonian new theory for if ProferTor Bopp had known anything of the AfTyrian cuneiform. the The Babylonian character is efTenAfTyrian cuneiform. this accords with and confirms the ancient tradition in regard to the me much in this tablet. and fo traced the modern Hebrew to its fountain head. ProfefTor cc Bilden (in his he traces the Bopp. death when this ftory reprefents complete change. the celebrated German philologift und Shriften der Vorzeit"). but they enter into different combinations. one of which is dated as early as the fortyninth year of our era. ftates that modern Hebrew letters down from the character through the early Greek. tially the fame as the Aflyrian. ftrongly corroborative of the truth of the primitive alphabet. admits the fquare or to be defcended from the Palmyrene. c. he could have gone one ftep further. until the them The oldeft writings in Hebrew to about B. Etrufcan. 1859: "Another thing in- very letters^ clofely rejemble thqfe can fcarcely be miftaken in tracing ours up through the Roman and the Greek to that of Phoenicia .30 tateuch Hebrew for the univerfal Language. the elements or wedges are nearly the fame. Dr. 130. If this be fo. remarkable coincidence or corroboration.

making it read from right to left. and in all nations of the myfterious 'Three in One.Hebrew gift the univerfal Language. are evidently derived from the Phoenician and Palmyrene . but with regard to the details of the origin of this character. in a paper of bet. which accompanied a number of ancient infcriptions in an undeciphered character found in the Eaft of the Hauran. called the Chaldee or fquare character. which has analogies with the oldeft Greek and racter. horfes. Efq. read before the Afiatic Society in September 1857.. 3 1 his Divine Law. known to the Hebrews as the land of Bafhan. upon gazelles. in which they found a vaft (tones number of were reprefentations of camels. only becaufe the If there be any truth in this Samaritans ufed them. the Triune Deity. let any one look at the primitive. and no doubt he will recognize the one original in all its beautiful ftmplicily. there are that the Jews rejected great doubts. Again. and horfemen always accompanied " The infcriptions are in a rude chaby infcriptions. gradually deteriorating and blending with the and mifshapen letters of the early Greek and Phoerough nician alphabets. but now Again. Phoenician alphabets. it is alfo very probable that they reverfed the order of writing. but this expreffion tf one original" conveys the idea that loft. by Cyril C. The firft intimation we have of a foreign language Rabfhakeh was before being fpoken in the eaft is when own . many ages prior to the fettlement of the Phoenicians as a people ." <c One " original ! What can this mean ? Many writers. apes. there mutt have been one of an earlier date. no doubt. aflertion. every letter of which forms a perfect geometrical figure fymbolical from the earlieft ages. Therefore we conclude that the Hebrew letters now in ufe. Graham." Look at the primitive alphaformed. and it is not improbable that they may have been old enough for a time when the Greek and Phoenician alphabets were nearer to the one original which than we find in any other cafe. philofophers and hiftorians point to Phoenicia as the birthplace of letters. It has been afferted their divinely-formed letters. and the time of its introduction.

brought themfelves the anger of God . and made them molten images. and worshipped all The new the hoft of heaven. and the people were by them taught the laws and the holy worfhip of God. to thy fervants : in the Syrian (Arameari) language for we under ftand it. and there they primitive or cuneiform. or cared for any facred records expelled Jews (the Pentateuch and other facred books were kept in Jerufalem). I pray thee. : the conquering king of Affyria. this very day. and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the '.32 The Samaritan Pentateuch. and the plague ceafed immediately ." Again. they alfo brought with them the manners and cuftoms of thofe cities. they wormipped him in a refpedlful manner. when Shalmanezer. and Jofephus upon informs us that Cf plague feized upon them by which they were deftroyed they learned by an oracle which they confulted that they ought to worfhip the Almighty God as the method for their deliverance. . people that are on the wall. faid cc unto Rabfhakeh Speak. brought men from various cities of AfTyria and placed them in the cities of Samaria. and without doubt their fyftem of writing alfo." 1 2 Kings xviii. and indeed they continue to make ufe of the very fame cuftoms to them their A . We are nowhere told that the had any. and made a grove. for they were funk into the loweft (late of cc heathenifm They fet up groves and images on every hill and under every high green tree. and when he fent them. even two calves.andShebna. fo they fent ambafladors to the king of AfTyria. and wrought wicked things to provoke the Lord to anger. 26. Eliakim. and they left all the commandments of the Lord their God." colonifts from the five cities of AfTyria brought with own gods. and. by worfhipping them. and defired him to fend fome of thofe priefts of the Ifraelites whom he had taken captive . and ferved Baal. which could not be any other than the burnt incenfe in all the high places as did the heathen. 1 Jerufalem.and Joahjasweread.

with which the prefent Hebrew has no Modern Samaritans. 33 The date and origin of the Samaritan Pentateuch have been hitherto wrapped in myftery but I think it may be traced to about this time. affinity. N. provement 1 this time. p. or " Stones crying independently framed by him under Divine influence." Mills' s . there can be no From doubt." by L. or at leaft Arabians of the adjacent country. either modified from character previoujly exifting.The Samaritan Pentateuch. fo that any Hebrew fcholar. and of its being fpoken by the colonifts from the five cities of ArTyria. from (as before a fpirit of oppofition to the Samaritans. it was. 85. alfo. " is pure the race of Abram" Hebrew. but written in the Samaritan character. between which confiderlater AfTyrian the great charafteriftic element is the able modification was effefted Mr. J. ch. 9. having their intellectual and fpiritual imat heart. procured for them a copy of the Pentateuch from the original. the priefts. obferved) But to return. making began to them ap- proximate more to the Phoenician. p. which. cc Lectures on the Sacred Poetry Bifhop Lowth.. having a knowledge of that character.. have here a ftrong confirmation We of the identity of the Hebrew language. for it is not improbable that all the pofterity The Rev. he adds. "concludes that the old written Samaritan alphabet muft have been given by Mofes. I think. " That in the earlieft had fpecimens previoufly ftated. R. after infpefting the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch." ftates his opinion that tc Job was an inhabitant of Idumea. that the Jews change their alphabetical characters." But the author forgot to mention what out. in his of the Hebrews. who refided fome time at Nablous in the years 1855 and 1856. Mills. was written in the primitive character. all originally of The language. nearly word for word. although the author appears to have been an Idumean 1 . is able to read that ancient document. Mills of Chaldean writing and the wedge form. that when the new colonifts had . 288. viz. for it feems to be the moft probable conjecture. and wiflied to imitate their neighbours in every refpect in letters and religious polity. the Samaritan Pentateuch being in pure Hebrew. become fufficiently enlightened refpecling the laws and religion of the Hebrews. together with his friends.

we find that the earlieft literary compofition we have is the fublime poem of Job.C." It has thus been mown that the Hebrew tongue muft have been the language by which God at the creation communicated his will to Adam that the fame language was fpoken by Seth. the greater! of modern philologifts. With all thefe facts before us. mould be fo little known a nation the firft and greateft of ancient days. excepting an occafional mention of them in the Holy Scriptures. and that it continued to be the one preeaft. called the Pentateuch. has been handed . If we take a retrofpective glance at the early literature of the world. fouth. and Arabians. 2180. Idumeans. whether of the family of Keturah or Immael fpoke for a confiderable time one common language. . and was with them transferred to Egypt and brought back. which had flourimed for a : a people who muft have been period of 1500 years well acquainted with the patriarchs of old. and who muft have received all the know. Gefenius. It was eflentially the language of the Canaanitim or Phoenician race by whom Paleftine was inhabited before the immigration of Abraham's pofterity. Job is fuppofed to have lived 184 years before Abram. to Canaan. and weft vailing tongue down to the deftruction of Nineveh.Hebrew the Original Language. or B. Noah and his immediate defcendants . was originally written in the ancient down to us by means of nineHebrew. ledge they pofferTed from the patriarchs who furvived the Flood. Canaan was its home. and with the Hebrew nation fubfequently to the time of Mofes and yet of whom there is not one authentic hiftorical record known to us. The next in order of time are the writings of Mofes. 34 of Abraham Ifraelites. that it was fpread by them north. which muft alfo have been written and tranfmitted down to the prefent age by the aid of the fame nineteen letters. Enoch. it does feem aftoniming that a people fo far advanced in the arts and fciences as the Affyrians. fays in his " Grammar" " As far as we can trace the Hebrew language." Finally. if it This poem. teen alphabetical letters only.

ftyles of architecture. to make known their wants or to exprefs their ences. more overwhelming evidence as to the truth of the new fyftem propounded in this work. and with the fame number Solomon has handed down to pofterity his invaluable proverbs and lefTons of wifdom. and records events which tranfpired about the time of Homer and Hefiod. 35 period Cadmus introduced letters into Greece to cultivate literature. Egypt muft 1 And now we have. the rubbings of the Moabite ftone. ment in favour of thp new theory muft be feen and felt by all reflecting upon this ftone is the earliefl . character minds. the infcription that has been found in the Phoenician and what is worthy of particular notice is the facl. whofe immortal works required only an alphabet of fixteen letters to immortalize them in the world's literature. with 500 variants to thofe letters. zenith of its power and greatnefs. and yet the record contained upon this ftone was written with an alphabet of about 19 letters s and." gave forth his infpired poems.C. . juft arrived in this country. who reigned B. the fweet finger of Ifrael. This ftone was written upon. fhould be fo far behind all others in literature as to require no lefs than 300 letters in their alphabet. when the empire of AfTyria was in the Moab was the adjoining kingdom. what is remarkable. from whom the elegant Greeks copied and adopted manners and cuftoms. will mine forth clear as the noonday fun. 896. between five and fix hundred years before the final deftrudion of Nineveh. the ArTyrians. the forerunners of all nations. David. The truth doubt. ideas ? No ! When the veil that has hitherto concealed is removed there will be no more AfTyria's brightnefs no further conjecture on this fubject. Homer and Hefiod. king of Moab. that many of the letters have a greater likenefs in form to the primitive than any The force of this arguthat are feen in later Phoenician documents.About this Hebrew Poetry and Language. and the Greeks began About cc 450 years fubfequent to Mofes. weapons of war. arts and fci- modes of warfare. viz. and even their fyftems of religion. About 150 years later Greece gave birth to the fathers of heathen poetry. and relates fome of the works and doings of one Mefa. 1 With thefe facts before us. and thofe muft have been written with the fame nineteen letters. is it to be imagined for an inftant that the great and mighty people. and its people muft have had frequent intercourfe with the AfTyrians.

in the earlieft . down. however. by way of mention of the fact that there are at this moment in the Britifh Mufeum (or ought to be) two ftones anfwering in every refpect to the defcription given of the two ftones delivered to Mofes at Sinai. They are written upon cuneiform character. they were transferred with the ark to Samaria both fides." that at the facking of the temple by Jehoafh. THE ART OF ALPHA- BETICAL WRITING. refined. fo that both fides could be feen and read. is it not reafonable to afTume that Mofes wrote with the character then prevalent. of the firft temple built by Solomon (2 Chron. v. as being the cradle of the arts and fciences and the preferver of the greateft of all arts and the foundation of every fcience. called the cunei- form It ? not be amifs to introduce here. at leaft. when the Lord made a covenant with the children of Ifrael when they think it probable. king of Samaria. From the many facts and arguments brought forward to prove the famenefs of the language originally fpoken all over the Eaft. evidently for the purpofe of fixing them upon a rod of metal. came out of Egypt.36 yield the fitter The Two Tables of Stone palm to her ancient. their may epifode. beautifully cut. They are flightly convex. AfTyria. and that that character was no other than the primitive or ancient Hebrew. and magnificent kingdom. a fize being about 12x15 inches. " There was nothing in the ark fave the two tables which Mofes put therein at Horeb. one under each arm. the edges of the letters being well defined and looking frem as from the chifel and they have in fact every appearance of being The facred record does not ftate miraculoufly preferred. 10). They are fuch ftones as a man of ordinary ftrength could take. what became of the two tables of the law and the coveread of them in the account of the dedication nant. and carry a confiderable diftance. to the time of Mofes. We We . with holes drilled in the thicknefs of the ftone in the lower part. and that God himfelf wrote upon the tables of ftone in a character underftood by the people for whom they were efpecially intended.

3) the treafures of God. and when Jehoafh made his triumphant entry into Samaria he was no doubt prefTed upon by eager thoufands. in the " Journal of the Royal Afiatic Society" (vol. copies of them were exhibited in the churches chained to the defk. there yet exift two archaic the Britijh Mufeum. f< 37 (sKingsxiv. invaded Samaria. and carried off all the took away gold and filver that was in the king's palace. xv. 14). but free for all who chofe If fuch was the cafe. or even Sepharim." This is con" He firmed by Jofephus (book ix. The Jewifh population he diftributed into the various cities of his empire . the great king of AfTyria. fee. independently of its facred contents." It is not Jikely that Jehoafh would overlook fuch precious booty : as the ark of the covenant. he caufed the ftones to be fet up in the temple or fome other public place. anxious even to get a glimpfe of the precious articles. and all the vejfels that were found in the houfe of the Lord. ix. chap. mufl be difcovered" Let us look at the pofition in which thefe two ftones were found. and endeavour to form : . trace the ftones into the capital of the AfTyrian empire. and returned to Samaria. and to read for themfelves the laws of God and his covenant with his ancient people. and carried away everything of value into AfTyria. Nineveh: for. but the riches and precious part of the booty he carried with him to Nineveh. may fuppofe that the We Samaritans had heard and read in their copy of the Pentateuch of the awful wonders of Sinai at the giving of the law.. Juft as. "And he" (Jehoafh) took all the gold and filver. in the early days of the Reformation. page 305) are " Beneath thefe eminences thefe remarkable words (alluding to the mounds of Nimroud). Now. when the Scriptures were firft tranflated from the original. we can eafily to come and read. Shalmanezer. from the original To fatisfy their natural curiofity. and after a fiege of three years conquered and facked the capital. which. covered with gold. 117 years fubfequent to the facking of Jerufalem by Jehoafh. from fome higher motive. if excavations are continued. fo that all might read for themfelves.

of Ifaac. and his dens with ravin. forgiving iniquity. and of the many miracles performed by the God of the Hebrews not the in their tranfit God in through the defert. and that will by no means clear the guilty. from the prey. faith the Lord of Hofts." They had heard of his terrible doings. I am againft thee." the prophet his enemies. and the voice of thy meflengers mall no more be heard." conjecture was confirmed by fubfequent difLet us aflume thefe two tablets to be the and it is eafy to account for their Tradition had told the AfTyrians of fingular pofition. the Scriptures fpeak of the lion of the tribe of Judah. who mall roufe 1 Nahum. and the fword mall devour thy young lions. the inhabitants : him up. to me and this coveries. keeping mercy and for thoufands." And . he couched as a lion. and " Judah is a lion's whelp. and fin. and of Jacob. and the feeding-place of the young lions ? The lion did tear in pieces enough for his whelps. As the ark of the Lord had always ftone . and truth. 7). long-fuffering. They of Abram. of their pafTage through the Red Sea. Behold. and their hearts fainted The nations around worfhipped gods of within them. army in Egypt. and filled his holes with prey. Layard fays <c It is difficult to determine the original fite of the fmall tablets they appear : : to have been built up infide the walls above the flabs. fays dwelling of the lions (the monarchs). and from fculptures found at Nineveh had been cuftomary for the AfTyrians it their gods in proceflion upon the (houlders of to carry men (Ifaiah xlvi. as goodnefs knew <c the Lord God. thou art gone up : he Hooped down. my fon. and (his children) ftrangled for his lionefles (wives and concubines). Similarly.38 The Two Tables of Stone fome reafonable conjecture for their being placed in fuch an extraordinary fituation. the wonders performed by the leader of the Ifraelitim original Sinaitic ftones. and I will cut off thy prey from the earth. or to have been placed behind the Jlals themfehes . merciful and abundant gracious. They were difcovered behind one of the human-headed lions * which formed the enin the fouth-weft palace of trance to the chamber D Nimroud. Mr. tranfgrefllon. proclaiming God's feverity againft " Where is the of Nineveh. as an old lion . wood and appears that it The lion appears to be a type of the reigning monarchs of Aflyria.

39 been borne upon the fhoulders of the Levites in all their wanderings. with the acts of his predeceflbr. Woe unto us heretofore. or undergoing fome extenfive repairs. . that the Ekronites cried out. Woe for there hath not been fuch a thing mall deliver us out unto us ! Who of the hands of thefe mighty Gods ? 'Thefe are the Gods that fmote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wildernefs. frefh in his "Hath any of the gods of the nations memory: delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Aflyria? Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad ? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim ? and have they delivered SAMARIA OUT OF MY HAND ? Who are they among all the gods of thefe lands. years fubfequently to this period we hear the infolent and blafphemous language of Sennacherib before the walls of Jerufalem. They have brought about the ark of the God of Ifrael to us to flay us and our people. what more reafonable than that in the pride and blafphemy of his heart. And they faid." The Affyrians we may fuppofe had hitherto looked upon the ark with awe and dread. there can be no wonder if they afcribed all the miracles to the ark or to the objects contained in it. 7 and 8) they faid. what he had done to the furrounding the Britijh Mufeum. for (i Samuel iv. God ! is come into the camp. but it may perhaps ere long be found that the palace was either being built. or the king may have removed for the exprefs purpofe of hiding what he imaFourteen gined to be the actual God of the Israelites. that have delivered their land . as in fact the Ekronites did: "And it came to pass as the ark of God came to Ekron. . he refolved upon placing them where they would be as loft for ever ? At prefent we have no dates. but when the God of taken at Samaria its glory had departed Ifrael had given up his ancient people to their own hearts' defire and when Shalmanezer found nothing in the ark fave the two ftones containing the laws which denounced his own practices and the cuftoms of his nation." And cc the Philiftines were afraid. about the time of the Samaritan caufed the flab to be conqueft. faying.

but. wall on the right as you enter the Nimroud of them. thanks to Dr. I believe in affifting me in all my arduous inveftigations. I found they could not be the ftones I had feen in 1 849." He thought. . fingularly enough. in two ftones I had feen nineteen years previoufly . After many earneft inquiries. which bore a great reiemblance to the two I had defcribed above. What has become of them at my excitement I really believed them gallery. to be compared with the infcription on the two ftones found at to my leaving the colony of Victoria for had looked moft anxioufly for every monthly mail to bring me fome news from the gentleman to whom I configned my manufcript of the Decalogue but I looked in vain. nor any one that could remember fuch ftones as I defcribed. . The author has not had any opportunity of learning what may be the nature of the infcriptions upon thefe two remarkable ftones for. and gentlemanly demeanour. the genius of his race Of courfe. for they were double the fize. I loft no time in vifiting the Mufeum . in the ignorance of his heart. Of this particular / am quite confident. 1 author fent to England a manufcript copy of the Decalogue. On my arrival in England in June. this is but hypothecs. that the Lord fhould deliver Jerufalem my hand. Birch allured me that they had no boles in the bottom. to be the On my rirft fight Here I think it my duty to record my fincere prefent is a myftery. common But the drain ! to fet this matter at reft and to teft this difcovery. two ftones were found. 1867. but. but in the cuneiform character according to the primitive alphabet.40 out of out of The Two Tables of Stone hand. kindnefs. Birch for his unwearied attention. that the mighty God of Ifrael was imbedded in the ftone walls of his palace. No fuch Hones could be found. They were enclofed in glafs cafes. alas! in vain. and Dr. and guarded by the human- my headed lion." But is it likely they would have been buried in the wall if they contained any of the records of the empire ? As well might we expect to find a genealogical lift of kings built up in the wall of a ! . " Afiatic Journal" where it is dated that they contain the cc Standard Infcription. though he thinks me a little cracked. upon mature reflection. written in Hebrew. there is no mention of them in the folio volume of inscriptions publifhed at the expenfe of the Imperial Government under the fuperintendence of Sir Henry There is fome allufion to them in the Rawlinfon. and placed on a ledge of the 1 For three years previous I England.

and be there. In the new alphabet." contained in the twentieth. Again. another formidable obftacle will appear in the comparifon. But ftill the comparifon might be worked out. Come up unto me into the mount. and I will give thee tables of ftone. The If we take it for granted that the Decalogue alone was written upon the ftones which would take up but it will be difficult to a very fmall portion of them account for the fact that the originals were written upon I think. for fign for each phonetic power. that the two ftones contained a law "And and commandments. 41 Nineveh. being the fame. that it will be found. Thefe are evidently that thou mayeft teach them. Should they not agree. q (or p ) and laftly. as b is but a harder />. and a law and commandments which I have written. . 26) is in precifely . The Arabic has but one letter to exprefs both founds. verfe one. there is no D probable that when the alphabet was given as concife as poffible. and an epitome of what was contained in the paflage juft cited. It is to man it was by ^ (vau). it will be obferved. Mofes. The ancients frequently ufe one for the other. Exod. the B (or pfi) will very likely have to be fupplied (p). the Deca- logue containing all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. In any cafe the might experiment would be attended with many difficulties. twenty-firft. the author's for they theory would not necefTarily be difproved be infcriptions of another kind. and p a fofter b. The clofe of this epitome (v. namely. on a both fides. Greek Digamma/*. 12: the Lord faid unto Mofes. Thus. xxiv. careful examination of the Hebrew copy and from many texts of Scripture. twenty-fecond the nineteenth verfe of the chapters. example. and continued unto as we know. having only one the fign for b and />. however. But turn to the thirty-fourth note that there follows chapter of Exodus. equivalent to the ancient will be wanting. but fupplied by k (or n). and the Greeks were often doubtful which letter to ufe. twenty-third chapter of Exodus. broke the firft two tables. however. the voluminous nature of the the Eritlfli Mufeum.

} to be written on both fpace afllgned them fides of the ftones and in this particular the refemblance would be at once feen between the two ftones found at Nineveh and the actual two tables delivered to Mofes .) thou (this epitome) thefe words. the fame words as the clofeofthe commandments (19 v.42 : "The Two Tables of Stone. . e. Write 23 chap. amidft thunderings and lightnings at Sinai. Then the Lord faid unto Mofes. for after the tenor of theje words." all the /. I have made a covenant with thee and with This <c law and commandments" would require Ifrael.

found in the fource. that letters are the direct to man. there have not yet been difcovered two alphabets effentially different alphabets The progrefs of learned inveftiifolated and unrelated. viz. we cannot imagine an alphabet planned by Infinite Wifdom fall fhort of the utmoft It perfection. who fays that cc thefe characters long preceded thofe of Korfabad and KouyunThis is an important fact. as it proves that the jik. moft Jimple were the ear Heft. Rawlinfon's Opinion of the Charafter and Language Greek Manufcripts and The Sigaean Infcription Change in the Form Syftem of Writing of the Letters The Alphabet. all H. and that there was a gradual It was from progreflion towards the moft intricate. Author's Opinion of the Primitive Alphabet The Cuneiform of the Nimroud Palace the Earlieft Charafter Sir H." one of the flabs from the Nimroud Palace the author to : formed the alphabet feen Sir in the tablet which follows. Layard. [SSUMING. Nimroud Palace by Mr. muft be an alphabet free from all defects and redundancies at leaft as perfect as the Greek or Roman.CHAPTER III. Now. PRIMITIVE ALPHABET. after exprefllng an opinion that . gift of God then. Rawlinfon. gation leads rather to the conclufion that the moft diffimilar alphabets muft all be traced to one common The Aflyrian cuneiform.

a headland of the Syrian coaft. but alfo the ancient mode of writing from the left hand to the right.000 years ago. The infcription begins on the left hand fide of the tablet and proceeds to the right. and thus it is carried on. and is contained on a tablet which was difinterred upon the promontory of Sigaeum. and to notice the change that took place as time advanced. or at leaft 3. we mould ftill be very far from a connected hiftory of the AfTyrian Empire.44 Author's Opinion of the alphabets in the Eaft (cuneiform alphabets) were origicc there are nally one and the fame." But what can this mean ? How can Sir H. according to his own account. except through the imperfect key of the Behuftan infcriptions and the faint analogies of other Semitic but that even if all the tablets tongues (mark this) hitherto difcovered were as certainly to be understood as the memorials of Greece or Rome. a limitation of ufage. goes on to fay that peculiarities of form. (See Plate I. language. is unintelligible and in the laft degree obfcure ? The earlieft Greek infcriptions we pofTefs mow not only many of the forms of the primitive Hebrew alphabet. The moft ancient of them that has come down to us exhibits both methods. This infcription muft have been engraved as early as the time of Solomon. Rawlinfon undertake to aflert this of a people whofe . In tracing the Greek characters up to the time of Cadmus. it is highly interefting and convincing to fee the ftrong likenefs exifting between the two. and the language in which the writing is exprefled unintelligible. but the next line begins at the right hand and proceeds to the left. and comparing them with the primitive or cuneiform. an affection for certain characters incidental to the localities. that not only is the fyftem of AfTyrian writing in the laft degree obfcure.) Figure i reprefents the . near the fite of ancient Troy. but un- queftionably the alphabets are in the main point identical. but it muft be remembered. each fucceeding line beginning where the preceding one finifhed a mode of writing which was fhortly after fuperfeded by the prefent one of writing from left to right.

we find that the Awleph or Alpha has a right leg or fupport added to it the Gimel or Gamma has a perpendicular line given. Primitive Alphabet. points. Figure 3 gives name of the Spartan king in the character of his own time. when once loft. Several of the ancient alphabets will mow that they were formed from recollection or conjecture and it feems that. and the Lamed or Lambda is turned upon its two . from the form of the Pelafgic or Etrufcan fome of which are erect. fome oblique. Now. : proper application in the formation of an alphabet. the fame name in the early Greek or Cadmean the dotted lines mow the alterations fuppofed to be made by Cadmus the Awleph or Alpha having its right point obliqued to the right. 500 years fubfequent to the introduction of letters by Cadmus. fcendants of Shem. . God had taught man it as our opinion And though very an alphabetic fyftem of writing. retained not only the original principle upon which an alphabet was con- land. .' 45 name of Agefilaus the Spartan king. that they would be fcarcely recognizable as That this in fact took place is the fame characters. a few ages after the Confufion. widely diffufed. and altered from an obtufe to an acute angle. and fettled for a time at various diftances from their native There might be fome among thefe emigrants who would retain a knowledge of writing. and fome to the left. writing man never again recovers. is an art which. Figure 2. emigrated in large bodies. evident. and a the left leg or fupport given to it. which forms the k . however. No tribe or race of man its ftructed (the triangle). in order to efcape from the tyranny and oppreiTion of the great ones of the earth. in the primitive or ancient Hebrew charafter. They took up their dwellingplace not far from the locality of the fuppofed miracle have already given of the Confufion of tongues. that long before. fome letters turned to the right. but all alike The deplainly derived from the primitive alphabet. the multitudes. as that part of the earth became over-peopled. but We . but the common people would in time fo confufe the form of the letters.

. that this principle will be clearly traceable in the primitive alphabet in nearly every one of the nineteen letters . with but a fingle exception of one.. the form of a phyfical object was made the fign of the found with which its name commenced. which is a compound of Samaritan and Phoenician and fometimes to eke out their theories. .. . has ever fucceeded in regaining the art when loft. letter head or chief of a family or tribe (Judges vi. and in the pages that will immediately follow. two or three triangles. not from any or tribe of letters. each with a name fignificant of its figure this principle is . It will be feen. they bring in the modern Hebrew. which are alfo Hebrew names of vifible objects. is called aleph.46 Author s Opinion of the with which we in modern times have become acquainted. There are fome philologifts who aflert that the letters of the ancient alphabets are pictorial reprefentations of the founds or names of the letters . 1 5) as the and in this fenfe may be taken as the head of a family It alfo fignifies an Ox. the nail or hook-pin. "> fuppofed . refemblance between the letter and the figure of an ox. ALEPH. the vau y which has is any refemblance to the object which its found to reprefent. ALPHA. they go only to the ancient Hebrew. we mall fee that all the letters are compofed. or head. In treating of the primitive alphabet. The the Hebrews and ancient alphabets in ufe among the whole race of Shem appear to have been conftructed upon this principle. or A. while in the prefent or modern Hebrew there is but one. viz. as we proceed through the alphabet. we mall endeavour to fhow that only true with refpect to the primitive Thefe theorifers do not go back far enough alphabet. viz. The firft which fignifies the chief. The names of the letters commence with the founds they feverally fignify.

So that the very name of the firft letter is expreflive of its meaning. but flightly inclined it to the right. and Samaritan. not only becaufe that pofition cc C{ be joined to any one.Primitive Alphabet. and alfo in its forming the principal article of food to man when dead. laus the we find the . nation of the firft letter (fee the Tablet of Alphabets) of the Pelafgic." and rnV (LUFH). ." to accompany. which is nothing more than an equilateral triangle with its apex of letters into in the reign Greece by Cadmus." from a natural of precedence. The firft breath is to be accompanied and joined with others to communicating and making known our wants to our fellow-men. This is the firft letter that Cadmus took the liberty of altering he retained the original figure. &c. but from the latter 47 being the chief or leading animal of the brute creation in its general utility when alive. and gave it the addition of a left leg (as feen in No. ancient Hebrew. the modern Hebrews have evidently copied their firft to letter. defire. Alpha afluming or to its prefent figure by the addition of a approximating and finally. The Phoenicians began to be a little the right." " to adhere to any one. 2).. Bardic. We corroborative proof of its origin. of AgefiSpartan king. which is only a tranfpofition of the About 500 years fubfequent to the introduction letters. Awleph. or wifti ing. 4). but from its having been the firft right articulate found uttered by Adam. 3) little ornamentation. the Palmyrenes a little more fo." &c. and launched it forth to the world From an examito be ufed in its prefent form (No. Aleph it alfo is denotes in " beginning or origin. imperial Rome gave it a right leg (No. the Greeks gave it the name of Alpha. find this form of the letter upon the earlieft Greek monuments . proceeding from the heart or foul. and. as in . compofed of nit* (AUE). from whom fanciful. it will be clearly feen that they are deteriorations or departures from the primitive fimple Awleph. being a mere breathcc a breath.

living in proximity to the Phoenicians. and myth as to the origin of obfcurity the Etrufcans and Pelafgii. the fact appears to be. and Gefenius. we have the exact reprefentation of the primitive houfe or tent. which fignifies Houfe. 3). 4). as reprefented on the Aflyrian flabs or he would not have faid that the Phoenician ing at the Tablet of Alphabets it will be perceived that the Phoenician and ancient Hebrew are both alike. and . and gave the Hebrew alphabet its In the Etrufcan B (No. in his Lexicon. It is evident Gefenius never faw the B. or B. as Dawleth look at it did a tent door. as they wandered from the plains of Shinar. BETA. and there is every probability that the Hebrews." Primitive (No. until fome individual. i). we obferve prefent form. i.Author's Opinion of the Pn. but from their alphabet (rude as it is). had adopted in fome meafure the form of their letters. and that it more properly reprefented a tent. By look. blended the Palmyrene and the Phoenician. who wandered from the plains of Shinar to the eaftern part of the Red Sea. and fo continued for ages. BETH. with Dawleth the door. Gradually they merged from the primitive character into the Samaritan. that was its primitive figure there was a gradual departure from the original fimplicity of the primitive alphabet by the Hamitic tribes. cc from one point of view. fays that "its original figure was the Phoenician B (No. or northern part of Arabia. . clofe from the primitive form. whofe name has not come down to us." In the modern Hebrew character there is not any refemblance to its name but if we take the Primitive No. at fome prea flill further departure There is much . Afia muft claim them as her own and I take them to be an offshoot of fome Hamitic tribe. and Moabitic. S.

as language and ideas fhall became more refined. but whether Cadmus or not. and with fome flight alterations (which be noticed in their proper places). C or Roman G. and thofe were the firft letters introduced into Italy and the Etrufcan and Pelafgic are both characterise of a wandering. in the infancy of days. and P a harder B. about 1700 B. 3 or 4. for B is only a fofter P. illitealphabets fettled in that part called Etruria. are nearly the fame as the Pelafgic. or v y and in the Hebrew lan- / guage the n or b is frequently founded as i>. and which I take to be the one which was introduced by Cadmus into Greece. B. alfo B. In ancient times B and P were frequently written one for the other. like our I conclude that. both.. from the remarkable refemblance between the Cadmean and the primitive. one thing appears certain. 5. febum. they gave the fofter found. E or G. a.Primitive Alphabet. c. 2). b was ufed for />. In progrefs of time. E or P. . until driven out by Deucalion. and as we find from ancient words from bofco. that the one was taken from the Affyrian or primitive. as is the cafe in Arabic and Moabitic. C. comes lapfus fcribo. 1529. GIMEL. either in form or phonetic power. G. adopted by the Greeks. P. The and unfettled people. 49 as a and firft became known wandering people who inhabited a country fince called Argolis. which forms our prefent P. . There. or early Greek B (No. comes pafco from labor. 6. The name of . is precifely the fame in figure as the primitive No. fore. GAMMA. i. when they pafled into Italy. The Cadmean. king of Theflaly. was alfo fupplied by Vau. fevum. c. fcripfi alfo.. . as I have not been able to find in the primitive writing any character. and if we look down the fecond column of letters in the Tablet of Alphabets which I have rate named the Cadmean. hiftoric period. Ph. and Etrufcan letters both clearly derived from one common origin. half The Pb the form of B.

with many VD:J. 3).50 Author s Opinion of the is this letter (according to Gefenius) to be feen from its Phoenician figure (No. &c. or in a ftate This letter is the forerunner of the Greek of puberty. then.. who is reprefented breafts. when the breaft of the female is fully developed. or the great mother. the agent that returns in a life-giving ftream the nourimment me had previoufly received. alfo means "mature or ripe" and of woman is in this fenfe alfo the breaft the emblem or fymbol of maturity. ufed as a verb active in this fenfe. It will primitive (No. the mother or the nurfe it is always applied to If who fuckles the child. it for G or K. 4). &c. or Cybele. and the Cadmean (No. In our more probable to be a peror fymbolical reprefentation of VQJ (GML)." and in this fenfe applied to the breaft of the mother that yields or returns the nourimment me has received to her infant. here we have. then is me confidered mature. is a proof of its derivation from the gimel of the Hebrew. the true profile of the breaft of a woman. gamma and the Latin C. which fignified the earth. Parkhurft fays. that the earth gives or returns nourimment to intimating every living creature for the labour beftowed upon her. GML. writing Tuioq alfo ufed . for Cajus. " earners neck" (very rude and opinion the primitive letter is fonification a rude reprefentation of a far-fetched indeed). as alfo the ancient Hebrew and Samaritan gimel (fee the Tablet of Alphabets) from the Aflyrian or primitive. anfwering to that of Gamma in the Greek. The Greeks. 5). are alike . and Bardic (No. wherever they found the letter C changed . This idea appears to have been adopted and carried out by the Greeks in the worfhip given by them to Diana of the Ephefians." we are to believe that the founds of the letters reprefent vifible objects. the Roman (No. in tranflating from the Latin. The Romans C and Casfar. " to " retribution or return. as the magna mater. be obferved that the 2). for. 5) has degenerated into a femicircle. No. in- G ." yield or return the fruits. and who continues to fupply it until the child is of cc when fufficient ftrength to be weaned. Etrufcan (reverfed pofition it holds in the Roman alphabet. i).

). Dawleth. for the greater find in two Subfequently they placed it upright.. Primitive. forming our prefent D. pillar of Duillius. 2).. Cadmean. which are to be feen on Eolian tablets in the Britifh Mufeum. This character is alfo the primitive numeral ten (X. 3) the modern Delta (No. the Samaritan is the fame as the Modern Greek. differently. by leaving the left angle as it was and circumeafe in writing. converting the into a femicircle. the Phoenician. 5). Delta." The ancient Hebrew and the Phoenician gimel are both alike . Roman. and in the famous Bouftrophedon infcription. Appendix. and the Samaritan are all like the brew. i) than The Etrufcan (No. reprefents what its name fignifies. All evidently derived from only turned to the left. Gnosus. See alfo the Chapter of the Mafonic Symbols. memorate the And on the Cnoeus or Gajus. the angles of this letter are unequal and come nearer to the primitive (No. for Legio pugnando effugiunt. &c. as we the celebrated Farnefe infcriptions by Herodes Atticus.Primitive Alphabet. as Cajus. we read.C. 51 firft naval victory gained by the Romans over the Carthaginians." In the earlieft Greek characters (No. angles . flecting the other two. erefted to com- the AfTyrian or primitive. Etrufcan. primitive. as feen upon the Black Marble Obelifk and the Bull infcription. which is found fometimes to the right and fometimes to the left. accordThe Latins began ing to the direction of the writing. acnom. Greek.&Phce. or D. with the addition of a leg. Sam.. " Lecio pucnando ex" fociont" &c. A The ancient Henearly preferves its original figure. agnom. Mod. " door of a primitive houfe or tent. 6. to change the form of this letter about 100 B.

and of which all the Hebrew grammarians fail to give any meaning to its name. viz. It is our opinion that in the primitive times the Aflyrians ufed both long and fhort E or f n and Cheth n ). anfwering to the Cheth of the Hebrew. being uttered feebly in fome words and more ftrongly in others. i is the Greek Digamma: the Etrufname. Bardic. and Phoenician (fee Tablet). Cad mean. EPSILON. : Prim. fome ages fubfequent. only one was ufed (the 8th). which is partly corroborated by ( what Gefenius fays in fpeaking of Cheth (which is no other cc than the long E or nra of the Greeks): While the Hebrew was a living language. or hook. * * This is one of the letters of which there is fome doubt. or 6. anfwering to the Hebrews. (the 5th) was ufed both long and fhort among the ancient Greeks. and this is the only letter' in the of its modern Hebrew alphabet whofe form is fignificant No. It is wanting in the Etrufcan and Pelafgic alphabets the nearer! approach to it in form is the Palmyrene. Etrufcan & Phoenician. this letter had two grades of found. VFVVA I. and for which. the Greeks had the character 6 to diftinguifh it from their Ainfworth tells us that this letter long E or yjra. 2. peg. We think it anfwers to the power and form of {lender E or E<7r<nAoi/. anfwers to the modern Hebrew in form and meaning. E^iAo* of the Greeks. or flender E. can and Pelafgic (3 and 4) are precifely the fame as the .." This opinion of a duality of found as well as of form is greatly ftrengthened by the clofe refemblance exifting between the letters He and Cheth in the ancient and modern Hebrew. Samaritan. At the time of the introduction of letters into Greece by Cadmus. DIGAMMA. nail.52 Author's Opinion of the n of the E. F or V. The primitive Vau VAU.

. i). Old Canarefe.Primitive Alphabet. V. down. wanting the top outline. viz. : the 2nd. as the numeral One (i). VV. but corrupted in and was no doubt copied from it . U U threefold fymbolical reprefentation ift. the Latins fequently to the primitive (No. praife. where the author Vide Appendix. and man alphabet. The Eolians ufed it the latter way. and fometimes turned it into V. Vide the in all its article in of it various phafes. the firft or the beginning this character forming the primitive numeral One (i) y as feen on the Black Marble Obelifk. and jrdly. as the element of that God-like gift to man for through it God fpeaks to man. fpeaks to God in prayer. made it their twentieth (2Oth) letter. received this . The Hebrews alfo thus we . inftead of OFIS writing ovis thereby mowing its relationfhip to the Hebrew Vau. 1 ^-kyamu firft each language. Sanfcrit. and conIn fad. gave this character the phonetic power of fee whence our double is derived. the worfhip of the departed true and living God. Mafonic emblems. and the name of the character of men. they retained this character as a jj. in fhape as the Greek Digamma. or V. Ainfworth tells us that the old Latins letter from the Eolians. of notation had fome reference to the mythology of the 1 This (ingle character alfo is the primitive Vau ancients. It " <c the ancient ones of the earth had appears that when from their primeval faith. the Greeks turned it firft to the right and then to the left. retained in Tulugu. Hebrew alphabets is a moft myfterious character. the initial of Cf The Word" in feveral of the earlieft Oriental languages. and the Bull infcriptions from Nineveh. " Ann? the chief of the Chaldean triad . ^z-kyam. Among the primitive races numbers were confidered to have myftic And with this view it was thought the fyftem powers. as the emblem of the Deity. and meditation. /^-keavem . New . fame 53 The Bardic is the primitive. The (W) characters in all the remaining alphabets have a ftrong This fixth letter of the primitive and family likenefs. treats . but turned it upfide pofition.




Opinion of the

Canarefe, ^z-kiavu ; and Tamul, ^z-rtie. Laftly, the in its horizontal portion (as feen upon Michaud's figure Caillou, fee figure 2, plate i, Appendix) is the primi-

Lamed, the initial of the Logos, the emblem of the Invifible God by whom all things were created. Therefore, I think we may reafonably conclude that the early Chaldeans worfhipped darkly under this The fymbolical reprefentation of form



the Divine Logos
yv TTpos rov @fov,




o Ei/ Aoyos, xal o Aoyog '/)&*? ?i/ cc @io? ?v o Aoyof." Thy Word is of the Divine is the perfonification


This Vide the cap on the mafonic fymbols. in its triple character, is the Star of the Eaft, figure alfo, worfhipped by the ancient Magi, and proves to be the
facred pentagram, or triple triangle, blending one into the other the grand arcanum of the Cabalifts, dif-

covered, according to tradition, to Mofes on Mount Sinai, and has been handed down from father to fon without interruption, without the ufe of letters, for they

were not permitted to write them down. The ftudy of pentagram leads all true Magi, or wife men, to the knowledge of the Ineffable Name, which is above every name, and to whom every knee mall bow. Again, in this figure we behold the element or foundation of See chapter on mafonic fymbols. Freemafonry.

Cadmean. Etrufcan.



Roman. M.H.


the character Zain,


Hebraifts contend that


fwordy amongft


a reprefentation of a weapon or is Gefenius, who further adds,




with God, and

"In the beginning was God was the


Word, and the Word was

Primitive Alphabet.


refembles in form in all the more ancient alphabets." Others, again, fay it is the picture of armour. Now, with refpect to the former likenefs, certainly the modern Zain bears a tolerable refemblance


weapon of fome fort, but this will not hold good with any of the more ancient alphabets. The ancient Hebrew character appears to have been loft, unlefs we allow the Samaritan (No. 4) or the Phoenician (No. 5) to be the archaic form of the Hebrew letter Zain in
to a

thofe cafes

from the

fee that they are derived immediately I primitive (No. i) as to the fignification.

we can

know of no word under

the letter Zain in all the lexicons have confulted, that can give any fatisfactory meaning as to its figure but as the fibilants, Zain, Samech, and Sin, commute with TJadde, under the root py, znn (or zanain phonetically), <c to be fharp," <c to prick," I think
its original meaning. Again, as the (or Zain) interchanges with Gimel, we have <c we can fee how to protect." jn gnn, or ganain,


mall yet find




the primitive letter with its Jharp, prickly, chevaux-defrife figure has degenerated into a weapon of defence, or Jword. Again, as to its original figure refembling armour:

whether they mean by the ''original" the Samaritan or but this I know Phoenician, I am at a lofs to know for certain, that I have feen in a collection of ancient

armour, a cafque and cuirajs very much refembling in and this profile the primitive character Zain (No. i); we can trace to the original ganain cc to promeaning This point is not tect,'' /. e., a protection for the body. of very great confequence, yet fo far we think the

argument is on our fide. The Cadmean (No. 2) is formed from No. i by taking away the back and bottom outline and placing the remaining figure upThe Etrufcan (No. right, which forms our prefent Z. the Samaritan (No. 4), and Phoenician (No. 5), are 3), The Roman all derived from the primitive (No. i). is taken from the Cadmean. (No. 6)


Author's Opinion of the

Anc. Heb.




This letter is the n, CH, HETA, H, or E. of H, and it appears to me that the phonetic parent power of this primitive character was the long E, but the more modern Greeks were not contented that this letter mould retain both the long and fhort found of E, therefore they gave the long found the form of the ancient Hebrew Cheth (No. 5), which is alfo the form (with a flight modification) of the Samaritan, the Phoenician, and the Himyaritic (fee Dr. Adam Littleton's Latin " Lexicon," article E), and was copied by the Romans, from whom we have received it in the form of It H, all evidently derived from the primitive No. i. is, in fact, no other than a hard afpirate inverted with the phonetic power of the Hebrew Cheth, and the fame as the Greek ^, Chi, /. e ., a hard afpirate and in many Latin words borrowed from the Greek, it is plainly fub;


ftituted for


humi, &c.


as %<X'AW, for halo ; p^aw, for hio ; p^a^t, in Latin, michi, nichil for mihi, nihil.

Where he

Gefenius fays that rrn, Cheth, fignifies gets the word I know not.

It is


not to be found in his "Lexicon," neither is it in " Buxtorf ;" but Parkhurfl has it with a very different meaning. He

fays that rpn chaith, fingular in regimine, a living creature,


an animal including birds, from the root TI cc to live" or " animal "life," alfo feems ufed for the appetite." A P. ^/. C. A YOD, IOTA, or I, T, which Po. XV. R. Et. E. " hand," as the fignifies hand of man is the chief organ or inftrument of


power and operations.

very extenfive agency, pofleflion, dominion, and the like. Gefenius fays, " that it probably fignifies hand, and that it had refe-

ufed in


Hence the Hebrew Yod is manner for power, ability,

Primitive Alphabet.


rence to the Samaritan Yod, a rude reprefentation of three fingers ftretched out." 1 fhould think it more probable that it had reference to the primitive figure i. The wedge was ufed, perhaps, as the fymbol of phyfical and intellectual power as the wedge is of great importance as a powerful mechanical agent, fo the hand appears to be the reprefentative of power, ability, and dominion. In ancient times pillars were erected with the Yod or hand cut or carved upon them to commemorate



particular event, or as a trophy or monument of victory, as can be feen in Gefenius' monuments of


parts of the Old Teftament that it was cuftomary to erect fimilar find, Scriptures ftructures with the figure of the hand cut upon them,




in various


emblematical of power and dominion. 2 And to this in the Eaft Indies the of a hand is the day picture emblem of power and authority. The Yod is alfo the initial of the Ineffable Name, the fource of all power,

This vowel is often majefty, and dominion. with e in the Latin ; in Arabic it is compounded
alfo ufed











the fame


Hebrew Yod.




the Phoenician, with the Moabitic and ancient Hebrew Yods, are evident wanderings from the original, being the largeft in all the ancient alphabets ; and this is mown

by the


to the



Yod, Matthew





Verily, I fay

jot or one




unto you, till heaven and earth pafs, one mall in no wife pafs from the law till all prefumptive proof that the Tod was or

had been the
it is

fmalleft letter in the


in the


Zend (which


alphabet, as the ancient Perfian),

and the Palmyrene, from which the modern Hebrew is derived. With the above-named exceptions, the form of the primitive letter Yod or I is carried through all
the ancient alphabets down to the prefent ancients frequently changed their I into




to ftrengthen



See Samuel xv. 12. Literally, " the " to cut out or carve the hand ;" 3,


far-fetched indeed.
pillar of the hand." 2 Samuel alfo I Chronicles xviii. 3.

" and this appears to be the fignifies right thing in the right place. i) . VLA 3 and 4. as feen on the Black Marble Obelifk. the The Latin C anfwers in phonetic power letter. frequently as the fame character. as well as their Vau or U. A. fays that the cc a goad or LMD. A. KAPH. where both numeral One (i)." it like {C the hand bent. I." fpit. Etruf. Primitive. as to Kj Claudius Caefar (Klaudios Kaifar). for if we look at the Tablet of Alphabets we mall find that all the Kaphs are crooked only on one fide until we come to the primitive (No. Gr. The AfTyrians alfo ufed their Yod or I. Etrufcan.58 Author's Opinion of the the found. M. This primitive letter often third Kaph fupplies the redundant Koph or Q. QD. or K." or the acceptation of the word. then we fee that it is crooked in the fuller! fenfe of the word. optamus." Gefenius fays that it alfo C anything crooked . It is commuted for Cheth or Ch." but whatever the word means. our lexicon-makers feem to forget that the prefent Kaph is a modern invention. 2.Hebrew. . are ufed as the Cadmean. Primitive. L 7. Gimel or C. KAPPA. max/mus. fignifies hollow of the hand. as for optimus. Cadmean. for it is crooked on both fides.Heb. or L. and that the farther we go back to the primitive age the Jefs is or " the hollow of the hand. Ainfworth certainly muft have had an obliquity .& Pelafgic. Pelafgic. according to the general " the hand. &c. LAMBDA. Ainfworth modern Hebrew character fignifies which the figure refembles. max#mus. i. LAMED. 6.

" -roV. Moab. it of left handle. If he had faid it had the likenefs of a reaping-hook." me an engraving. and vice it refembled fuch an article. 5) is beginning the Roman fhape. a little more verfdy to fay modeft. and forms. Bardic. and 4." and I Aquila renders it. one or Em. or. or to train cattle. Sam. fignifying hence the fea is called Im. cc It c< fignifies. \ D^O. fignifies to teach perhaps. . Mu. Mem. and in his hand the long-pointed ftick or the ox-goad. i). 59 rendering crooked things ftraight. 7 is the Roman L. the fame figure. he would have been nearer the mark.orEtruf. 6) is the fame as 3 and 4. to Cadmus having given it a fort In the Etrufcan and Pelafgic. and is to be feen in ufe have now before The Cadmean (No. wv." D-> the motion 1 feems to be derived from cc tumult or tumultuous Im. of vifion. and proves to be the moft archaic form of hitherto found upon any ancient document . is to be feen on the Moabitic Hone lately difof Jordan. and it is made to ftand upon them. "^ax-mp*. Pelaf. as <c the teacher. with other letters upon the fame ftone. prefent Primitive. w. 2. for beating or thrafhing out the corn. This weapon has been ufed from the earlieft ages of the world. LMD. an inftrument for doing fo a goad. Cadmean. The modern Greek (No. the very counterpart of the primitive letter (No. Gefenius. No. in confequence. it is evidently the letter a corruption of the primitive No. fays. only its legs are equal." and with the prefix o .H. an ox-goad. with the handle afTume The ancient Hebrew (No. we fee elongated. 2) day. i. Nos. i. vw. root . overwhelming evidence of the truth of the primitive This 4th character eaft covered on the M alphabet.A.Primitive Alphabet. reprefenting an Arab driving a yoke of oxen with a fledge. 3 turned upfide down. with a flight departure from reprefents in Syria at the prefent its original fimplicity.

it is difficult to decide from whence they came but from the likenefs exifting between their alphabets. to the primitive is the modern Hebrew o Gefenius that cc the fignification of the name is doubtful. He thought fo. of the Etrufcan and Pelafgic people being loft in origin myth. the defcendants of Mitzraim feem to have had a faint recollection of the principle upon which the primitive alphabet had been constructed. fomewhat from the The . to have fettled down for a time in the Peloponnefus about 1900 B. 2) has The been deprived of its top and left fide outline. for they have adopted precifely the Jame figure to repreIt is pofTible that the fons of Ham loft Jent Water. " Les Symcently publimed by M. .C. will convince the moft fceptiof Comparative Alphabets cal that all the ancient and modern Ms are derived from : would fuppofe. This ^rd character I take to be a fair fpecimen of the Etrufcan and Pelafgic M. Frederick Portal a ceux des Hebreux." fays. original. The Samaritan and ancient Hebrew (Nos. and. differing . I mould take them to have come originally from the Plains of Shinar at a very early period.60 in Author's Opinion of the its liability to be ruffled and raifed tumultuous motion by the action of the wind upon its furface. 5 and 6) are alike. they reforted to the clumfy expedient of hieroglyphical writing to record the facls of their early This hypothecs is borne out by a work rehiftory. and hence the wavy character of this letter M. driven to exert their ingenuity.." boles des Egyptiens compares wherein he clearly mows that the fignifications of the Egyptian figns are nearly the fame as the initial of the glance at the Table correfponding word in Hebrew. and fubfequently to have fpread themfelves over Greece and Italy. i. from the non-refemblance nefs. The Cadmean (No. of A the primitive letter No. As corroborative proof. ftill bearing the family likeBardic and Phoenician (fee Table of Alphathe three bets) ftill bear the primitive characteriftics The only one that does not mow any refemblance points. the knowledge of the primitive alphabet on their difperfion from the plains of Shinar. no doubt.

Appendix. Nun. cc child or fon.. 61 of the modern character to its name. This 1 character alfo forms the Aflyrian numeral as feen j." of Mem. that the fignification "Fijh does not fuit the common fays fquare character. take the primitive as the foundation. Bardic. or that one is found in the other. 1 See chapter on Mafonic emblems. viz.. but what analogy there is between the modern character and a but if we take the fifh I am at a lofs to imagine primitive form of Mem and Nun. or perpetuated. or En. fay it is called Nun from another fignification. e. or Nun is found in Mem. Hebraifts) of calling it pi Nun. or Pelaf. /. Cadmean. upon the Black Marble Obelifk. y "a child or If we fon. we fhall fee that the latter is taken from the former.Primitive Alphabet. i. 2. in plain terms. hence the reafon (according to fome j prolonged. Nun is taken But this feems from Mem. the other at ginning the end ( ) . Mem. Nu. Roman. drawn out." This is not the firft time that He Gefenius alludes darkly to an original alphabet. .. again. . e. . as we can fee very plainly that Nun is taken from Mem . Again. it is generally faid to fignify a fifh. Gefenius to be too far-fetched to be the right meaning. e." Others." as being the offspring of its mother. water. a fifh is taken from the water. The modern Hebrew alphabet pi. i. Primitive. but the character in the original alphabet (he cannot mean the primitive) was perhaps ftill more conformed to its name. " /'. confequently it is the offspring. Etruf. Moabitic. has two forms of this letter the one ufed at the beand the middle of words (j). or a fifh is found in water or. we fhall find there is more truth in the latter fignification than the former.

for he fays. Gefenius appears finding a be driven to great for the name of this to ftraits in meaning Samech is Semka. its circular figure. from Syriac fays cf In this inftance he perhaps the fame as the letter." Then. only the characters are reverfed. are not of the oldeft or original form. it The Romans (No. Prim. a fitting together. and in clofe relationfhip in from Nin pj . 3.62 Author s Opinion of the feems to think there had been an earlier alphabet than the Samaritan or Phoenician. or a bed for fupport at meals. as upon a . in the early " Grammar/' that the Hebrew letters now in part of his ufe. I am cabaean princes inclined to believe that ifTue Nun is or offspring. or Ess. 2) has its top and left fide outline (fame as Mem) taken away." and as evidently taken from the preceding one. The Chaidee or fquare character is alfo derived from the Phoenician. Cadmean. and which bears a ftrong refemblance to the Phosnician letter. therefore it is its immediate iflue or offspring. not appear even in the Phoenician alphabet. The Cadmean (No. where can we look for this oldeft form but in the primitive before us? After all that has been faid. was probably in general ufe (alluding to the Samaritan). " immediate the form of the letter is form and found. On the coins of the Macis found another character. which. little 6) placed upright and gave it a ornamentation. according to the Eaftern fafhion of reclining. e. Roman ^ DD ' ^AMECH. Cadmean. Pelafgic." /. and 5. 4." Subfecc he fays The oldefl form of thefe letters does quently. Samaritan. at an earlier period. SIGMA. and this is precifely the cafe with Nos. Etrufcan. called the Chaldee or fquare character.

and we fee the fame change of form in is what the Cadmean (No. inftead of the Greek Sigma being taken from it. or O." By looking at the Table of Alphabets. to fuftain. 2). 2. can fee The Samaritan (No. . 5." and by looking at i) we fee at once the true of a prop or fupport ufed to this day in all parts figure of the world. but they could not reconcile it with its name. 4. OIN. 2) Ainfworth fays that it is taken from the c< Phoenician alphabet without variation. year. in the various arts of life rope-dancing. OMICRON. 2. fupport evidently derived to " 63 The Syriac word Semka is from the Hebrew Samech. there is every probability that the Phoenicians had retained fomewhat of its original figure. The alteration that Cadmus made in the primitive was the taking away of the right fide outline.Primitive Alphabet. we fee by the Phoenician character that. fupport for X Greek Sigma (No. f 3. frequently ufed upon the " initial for Shina. true pofition. 6. 5) is what we Greco-Romaic. 1 fignifying. 3) its The leaving the perfect Greek Sigma. V4 i. Phoenician. Etrufcan. the primitive prop." or " Samech (No. Etrufcan (No. according to The Pelafgic is a corruption. Roman. as feen (No. building the body. to uphold. the The bedftead or ftretcher. is the fame reverfed. Cadmean. The Moabitic is the fame as the Phoenician. bed." Samaritan. partaking of both forms but that it is gradually merging into the Roman is This primitive Samech Black Marble Obelifk as an Primitive. i. The AfTyrians ufed another form or modification of the Samech. therefore they added the fupport or prop to make it like what the name fignified. call a may we s. but not in figure 1 . i). fignifying them. . is called the Scythian bow. and in that common and primitive plaftering.

the diamond fhape. Ts. Zain and . and looking at the characters i and 2. I. or Omicron. i of its top and upper half right and left the long o (). to the Phoenician Oin (No. or great o. the Tablet) are alike. and gave it the form of little o. 3. conjointly will bear a refemblance to the primitive ("). The upper portion of the figure (No. TSADDE. the Samaritan (No. 5). 5) growing in likenefs to the Roman. and gave it the figure and power of double o (w). (o) an open queftion. No. fays. we mall fee that Cadmus deprived No. 2)." I confefs pleafed with the likenefs that the primitive character Oin (No. has the 2. HV. 4. And thofe two figures letter . and the lower fhort o But leaving this as outlines. Moabitic. Whether the figure (No. 2. round form refembles the human eye. I will not pretend to fay. the Moabitic is and early Hebrew are circular. approximating to the Roman. 4). i) bears to its name than any other lefs am in the alphabet. but I think it not at all improbable for if we are to believe that letters are of Divine origin. yet fome ages fubfequently they (the Greeks) added another letter to their alphabet. a much greater human eye than the (No. The Phoenician (No. Primitive.64 Author's Opinion of the the general rule. The Etrufcan upper Phoenician part femi- The Cadmean circular. i) was meant to reprefent the long and fhort O. Although Cadmus at firft only took a part of this figure. 5). i) would form or Omicron. and the Bardic (feen in (No. leaving the refemblance to the Diamond. "an eye" to an eye in the modern nius its Where Hebrew is the refemblance ? Gefe"it has rewhich from character to ference I get out of the difficulty. O ^ we cannot but imagine they were made perfect in every refpect for the primitive ufe of man. Omega. Ancient Hebrew. commuted with Samech. Etrufcan.

formed from the primitive noun iu? Sad. at the beginning of the letter Tfadde. 4). to break all to pieces. . Sade. ancient Hebrew (No. under the corre- names. it has no likenefs to the prop." mation ? But How the objects reprefented by to harrow" fponding word Sadad. we find it to fignify and rrni. cc 1 which he facl:. for he had previoufly ftated it to give that meaning. which can mean nothing elfe than the harrow itfelf. In ParkhurnVs Lexicon. i). 3). but it calls Some has a great refemblance to the harrow. c< a field or cultivated piece of ground that This laft had undergone the procefs of harrowing. there is not phonetic power that will give it the above fignification. The Greeks ufed the letter Z as an equivalent for the Hebrew letter Tfade. and fee what we can make of the letter. 2 the power an article perfon in London lately has patented " The Harrow'' and which is. gives this charadler of Samech ." mentioned word appears to be a denominative noun. and 2 Moabitic (No. and under the word rm> Sadady we find the " meaning to matter to pieces. wifely abftains from faying anything as to the probable meaning of it. Deutch. Gefenius. perhaps they faw fome refemblance in the modern character which induced them it hooks is it may." And in Gefenius. Sin. of the Britifh Mufeum. and in its combination with other letters on the Moabitic Hone it forms Hebrew words which the Samech could not do. Mr. " to break or to matter to pieces the clods of dry ground. or when it took the name of fifli- How impoflible to fay . 2).Primitive Alphabet. are modifications of the fame figure. 65 The Hebrew philologifts do not appear to have ftudied very deeply in order to arrive at the fignification of this letter. letter u> Sin. Etrufcan (No." that <c in many inftances the'letters exhibit no refemblance their to could they after their modern forlet us turn to the primitive. in patent the exaft triple counterpart of the primitive Tfadde." and fecondly. in Be that as any word equal in his "Grammar. and the true 1 The figure of the primitive letter Tfadhe (No.

Phoenician (No. or . 'Earth. This letter. PC. letter by the probable me that the alphabet. or R. ron. at once folves the difficulty for as the is" (fee article B). . 2. viz. fays Latins. gave form (No.66 The Ancient Ones of the c. obferving that the for one found. P As firft letter an in the primitive alphabet (Awleph) is in figure in the fame alfo. Dr. according to RESH. took the former of them to its figure. and fome of the early Greeks. Gefenius. Littleand a hoft of modern philoloton. E. & Pn. may ftrain all their mental and ocular powers to no purpofe to make the modern Hebrew letter Refh fignificant of its name. with the head " turned back. It will be feen (by referring to the Tablet) that the Phoenicians.. equilateral triangle. to from the above-named letters. Ainfworth. fo Rem being the fymbol of the triune Deity. gifts. it feems to me. M. . G. comes the Greek figure " P. being : form obliqued to the right. A. to the transformation it underwent by the hands fubject of Cadmus. from which. P and R into their alphabet for their P." but its primitive form. denotes " M^ head" and has reference to the Gefenius. diftinguifh of the two forms given to this fpeaking " It feems to early Greeks. 2) was more fame form as the Alpha alfo the Phoenician. in Cauje reference to the primitive Awleph the Refh. 5 reverfed). *as Greeks had two characters had not in the reft of the (Rho). will be the firft change from the . RHO. Rho wifdom in adding a right leg (as feen figure it No. Rbo. the great Firft the firft or higheft of its kind in figure. judging this figure to be the moft fignificant of the modified power of the B. which they : Ainfworth. Samaritan. u a head . 2). R but the great German fcholar forgot that its moft archaic like the primitive in fhape. and ancient Hebrew Dawleth takes the fame form therefore Cadmus difplayed his the precifely the .

i. or one word (the Trinity in Unity). it will be feen there are four characters in the primitive alphabet which we call equilateral triangles. or A " I will" 2 (No. fignifying "to be" or "to exift" Therefore. " I will rule" Rodah. H <] or E. fignifies the firft alfo the initial of 1 perfon AL. Three in One! 1 3 (See Mafonic Emblems." beginning . D. 3). H we enter into life " or. it feems to be derived from mn. or E (No. Arodah." Raefh or R (No. the higheft or beginning (is) the door by which fmgular future. and let the reader judge for himfelf..) 2 N. and He the third. and He. it will be " I will" and R D H. (imply a contradion for "0. a). " a door or entrance . -|> 'A. i). 2. but in different pofitions. -i. " The " the head. it would feem to read. Mighty One. . 67 original. though of uncertain meaning. "the myfterious . viz. N. Awleph. R. R D H. " ruler? or with the Aleph prefix. "to rule. " Dawleth or D (No. By a reference to the Tablet. in taking the letters Jeriatim with their Ca" The baliftic meanings. 4). taking the laft three letters.A' A. then collectively. but and give the Cabaliftic meaning of each letter in order. I will not take in meaning will upon myfelf to fay there is any hidden the combination of thefe four characters. the Dawleth being the fecond. for inftance : 2.Primitive Alphabet. " / will rule" See Appendix. n 4. with a mutable yet or omiflible final n. 3. I (am}." ergo. .firfl or Mighty One. T.

form in the modern Hebrew alphabet viz. as I have fhow. for no other reafon. letters either in the have no double correfponding Cadmean. when the " Hebrew alphabet underwent fome confiderable change from the ancient Hebrew form to the prefent modern figure. SHIN or SH.H. " is confidered the greateft authority in thefe matters) fays." In the courfe of time. pu>. or Pelafgic but . that Shin and Sin were originally the fame letter.. Gefenius (who the meaning its name gives us. but ufe Sin inftead. every primitive letter has. 2). form of the letter in all the Shemitim alphapronged From thefe premifes. Sin. and Palmyrene There are two (No.&Moab. The Arabians have no Samech. and in unpointed Hebrew this is ftill the fame. pronounced without doubt as Sh. it muft be evident that Sin is a and confequently was not to be found redundant. it would feem. than that the Arabians ufed it as well as the Syrians. 5). and . a meaning iignificant of its form and there cannot be feen. Sin. The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Again. We we have a clofe refemblance to it in the ancient Hebrew (No. Sh. Etrufcan. fays Gefenius. Shin w. in the primitive alphabet. diftinguifhed only by the diacritic point. and the Syrians ufe their Semka for both. the Hebrews thought it neceflary to adopt Sin into their alphabet. which. Phoenician (No.." viz. A. endeavoured to mud or mire. and u>.68 Primitive. Samaritan. neither is it in accordance with the fimplicity of the primitive alphabets to have two letters with one found. u?. the leaft affinity or likenefs between the character u>. letter . Sin differed little or nothing from characters alike in in phonetic ( D ) Samech power . 3). I. 4). and carried through the Samaritan (No. and in the Moabitic. 2. fignifies tooth or cc is derived from the teeth. to the modern Hebrew. Phoenician. Shin. Palmy rene. with all the arbitrary ftraining poffible.

Phoenician. alfo^ufed confiding of four elements. by of their letter T from the fountain-head the Aflyrian The word TatfV or primitive (fee figures i and 2). and as the Latins from the Greeks. the ancient : Hebrew is alfo ufed finifli. the early final Greek alphabets. the name of the letter Tauv or T. Tauv. and Phoenician. Heb. fig- nifying "a mark or fign" or in Arabic. Tau. three upper and two lower. mark X May letter be a type or fign prepared and defigned by God . not this crofs. throughout the whole of the ancient alphabets. or Te. as feen upon the Black Marble Obelifk. fo the Greeks from or more properly fpeaking. 5. clofely locked in each other. has the form of a crofs in fact. 2. Samaritan. & Moab." and which can be feen from the five ancient letters at the head of this article (from 2 to 5). with the exception of the Palmyrene and the modern Hebrew. Primitive. I. Cadmean. Etruf. make their mark or fign. the hieroglyphical reprefentation of five teeth. which was 6.. which in the ancient Hebrew. This character is as the Aflyrian or primitive numeral IV. 69 bets. Samaritan. the means of Cadmus." in or Being the letter the "bound Hebrew and it was ufed as a fubfcription or even to the preto writings or documents. probably (fays Gefenius). borrowed the form early Greek. as laft "extremity. and from which the Greeks and Romans took the form of their T. in. fent day.Primitive Alphabet. branded upon the flanks and necks of horfes and camels. a mark in the form of a crofs." in a final fenfe. i). Hence. the illiterate who cannot fign their name. An. & Pelaf. all evidently derived from the primitive (No.

to prefigure fome future thing or event. that the whole of the Mofaic ceremonial law was a typical inftitution. the mighty God. the redemption of man. be typical of the completion of that great and glorious work.70 Paul The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Alpha cc the beginning and Omega and the laft. to mow that every primitive letter has a fignificant or fymbolical meaning. and exclaiming with his expiring breath : finijhed!" . "a Jhadow of things to come ?" It is generally fays. if not all. there would have been much more fignificance in the words. or to be. laft: " the fignifying beginning and fini/h" which latter fenfe is not conveyed in the Greek Omega. upon the Tauv. the myfterious Word. If it had been addrefled to the when Hebrew was the almoft univerfal Jewifh nation. ." I am Again. figning the Divine compact between God and man with his own precious blood. Alpha and Omega fc the ending. may not this letter. I fay. as St. or " // is Crofs. the letters of the primitive alphabet partake of this typical In the Revelation by St. allowed. and proved by the New Teftament Scriptures. language. when we find its Divine Author. the Lord of Light and Glory." This was addrefled to the Greek Church and in that age Omega was the laft letter in the Greek alphabet. John we have our character? Lord and the I am faying. I am Awlefh and Tauv the firft and the the firft and laft letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Is it too much to fay that many. which means and as I have endeavoured nothing more than great O firft .

or (as fome call it) a trichotemy. 4). a facred number. 5 and 6). or triadifm. fig. the EJfence exifting (Plate of fig. the fame great and holy name. in India in Brahma. and hence the number three has become religious rites. Vifhnu and Belus. and almoft every its is it nation retains the idea of a triadifm in origin of this idea great obfcurity. to have been adopted by the earlieft feems. It ifm was a theology given by Divine Revelation. therefore. The 4. fig. Nor is the idea confined to thefe fyftems of Seeva. but all writers afcribe to antiquity. in The involved in the greateft The moft ancient fymbol ufed by the Jews writing the myfteriotis Ineffable name was by three Yods in a circle (Plate i. and ever will be. and alfo in the form Neoplatonifts afTerted that triadi. IV. in Phoenicia and Apollo . religion . applitriangular form of cable to that Being who was. ROM | the human mind the earlieft ages there has been in an idea of a triplicity.CHAPTER TRIADISM. it is obfervable alfo in their temples and tombs. but this was relinquifhed in confequence of Chriftians having ufed it in demonftrating the doctrine The Cabalifts ufe a of the Trinity. . in their Chronos. Jupiter. races of men. A " Michaud's Syftem of Trichotomies throughout the Ancient World " Caillou The Logos The Ineffable Name. and is.

He fays The of Nimrod to force his abominations upon the attempt reluctant confciences of mankind produced a war between his followers and thofe who ftill perfevered in commemorating the event of the deluge. would be very likely to incline them to afcribe divinity to thofe creatures whofe majefty appeared fo glorious. The inhabitants of Thebes. and thence carried into Greece. when it came to work upon the fervid and corrupt imaginations of Oriental people. Even the architectural remains of Mexico." 2 et Precis du Syfteme Hieroglyphique. was foon introduced into Egypt. . the pyramidal ftructures of the Eaft. and which originally came from Ur of the Chaldees. and it is well known that pagan nations in all parts of the world ufed the fame form in their facred buildings for inftance. the equilateral triangle. Thus. Dacier. It is probable that the worfhip of the heavenly bodies originated partly in an indiftincl: tradition of a primitive revelation. which confifted in the worfhip of the fun. give to the antiquary an idea of a common origin with them. The term Sabeanifm is derived from the Hebrew word buy. firil arofe in Chaldea. and partly in a kind of rude natural theology of the human mind. Lemnos. 1 If M. Paris. therefore. It requires no ftretch of faith to believe that. Herodotus informs us that the temple of Belus at Babylon was pyramidal. moon. "Lettre a M." to the fun and moon. worfhipped a trinity of deities under the name of the Cabiri. called the hoft of heaven. the Pyramids of Egypt 1 and the tombs of Etruria. Faber's Mjfteries. and about the fun being the "greater light'' and the moon "a The tradition of fuch a power and influence being given letter light.J2 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Champolion it Champolion. on the afTumption of a primeval revelation. Zaba. Macedonia. and by the immediate defcendants of Noah. and who rejected with horror the profane reveries of Sabeanifm 2 the ark It is uncertain it . about the rule of the fun by day and the moon by night.e. and that their form. they brought with From them. and whofe influence was fb extenfive and benign. is right in his reading of the Egyptian hierowill appear that the Pyramids were built by the Ifraelites. boft" and is employed to exprefs what was probably the earlieft form of Polytheifm. glyphs. i. and liars. but more particularly the (lands of Samothracia and Imbros. fome broken traditions would be "a handed down by the antediluvian patriarchs. i where their worfhip was firft eftablifhed " " Myfteries of the Cabiri appears from Faber's <c that it took its rife in Babylonia. from their refemblance to . Sabeanifm. but : .

" there are alfo in the Britifh 1 Called Mufeum two conical ftones. " Michaud's Caillou . wedge the form of an equilateral arTuming. 73 was was converted into a fuperftitious idolatry. either as the bafis or element of the or of fome emblematical primitive written character. the firft and moft ancient language that was .Micbaud's feftival Caillou." the Samothracians had a peculiar dialect of their own which prevailed in their facred rites and Jamblichus. called landmarks. with the fame figure (referred to above) engraven upon them. the ftrongeft of all arguments will be found in perhaps the remarkable ftone altar found amongft the ruins of Babylon. that the language of the myfteries was the language of the gods. and that this language was the myfteries According were adopted by the Phoenicians. for he fays in a note (" Nineveh and its Remains") " It would not be difficult for thofe who are apt at inveft the arrow-head or of ancient fymbols to difcovering the hidden meaning of the AfTyrian charadters.) feen that the figure had been worfhipped in Chaldea as a facred object. and they will be found throughout to refer at once to the cataftrophe of the deluge. Appendix. Mr. but of Egypt and AfTyria . and for ever united with the worfhip of the heavenly bodies. and now preferved in the Bibliotheque Nationale 1 a Paris. in fact. in " his work on the Myfteries of the Egyptians. the meaning attached to its form. whence But they were carried into Greece by the Pelafgi. The myfteries of the Cabiri are. as it frequently does. and alfo 2nd figure of the From this altar it is mafonic fymbols." tells us that "the language ufed in the Myfteries of the plainly Cabiri was not that of Greece. Layard feems to have anticipated the employment of this interefting relic as an argument in favour of fome new theory of this kind. fpoken upon earth. nothing more than a mythological account of thefe events . Chaldee or Hebrew" to Sanchoniatho. and to the impious rites of that Sabeanifm which was united by Nimrod with the Diodorus Siculus informs us that Arkite fuperftition. . (See vignette.

or powers. and this idea is darkly fhadowed forth in the writings and doctrines taught by the philofophers of ancient days. mythic properties. which make it moft difficult inconfiftencies in the for Bil. they feem to get into a maze. to diftinguifh between one and the other.74 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth. might throw great light upon this myfterious object. 1 triangle. or actions they imagined thofe figns reprefind they ufed images. ignorance. and to find of the facred triad. Again. as well as its From this we infer that the mythological mode of expreffion. as my own with I do not adopt the opinions refpeft I mention them as fingular coincidences and ftrong to the god Anu." . "The phonetic reading of the fecond god of the triad is a matter of fpeculation. fyftem itfelf. One thing feems certain. There is an infcription upon this interefting relic of antiquity. the careleffnefs. &c. they think they have determined the name of the god Anu as the firft of the triad . or of another wellknown Eaftern object of worfhip (the Phallus).. this numeral One (i) comes into immediate contact with the Chaldean mythology. the ban's of Chaldean worfhip and theogony. Whenever the MefTrs. the fingle wedge is the true figure of the numeral One(i\ as difcovered by the author on the Black Marble Obelifk. and as it is well known that numbers amongft the early Chaldeans were fuppofed to be inverted with myftic powers. and the laxity of the ancients. but they add. if properly deciphered. viz. Bil Niprit. but through the many employment of cuneiform groups with or without any adjuncts. with facred and in it a direct illuftration Babylonians worfhipped figns. from which they can only efcape by attributing all the difficulties to the For inftance. was to the laft degree lax and fluctuating. molten. and as the things are mentioned we have only to guefs at their ideas as to how thofe figns were like the things. carved. as being the reprethe firft of the Chaldean fentative of the god Anu facred triad. or fented. images.. that this fingle figure had been worfhipped by the Chaldeans in the days of remote antiquity. collateral evidences of the truth of theory. which. 1 of Rawlinfon my Rawlinfon have recourfe to the cuneiform. fome of them borne on carriages. fome by engraved The We . or reprefentations of ideas or powers of their various gods .

(See article Vau in the Another fingular coincidence Hiftory of the Alphabet. Anu . and alfo the emblem of the tongue. 75 . or of the Divine word. fays: royal room vaulted like a heaven. it is the Vau in the primithe initial letter of " The Word" in feveral tive alphabet. of the primitive languages. the organ ofjpeech. a Grecian who lived in the early part of the third philofopher.The Logos. the copy of the myfterious fubject. the There is an . I is to be found in the Britifh Mufeum. and appearing as it reprefentations were in the air. initial ! upon that tranfcript . and fome fmall images which were and portable in a fmall compafs and fometimes light they made the creatures themfelves figns of the things or powers they worfhipped. the Alpha. The king was wont to givejudgment there. who called them 6fwt> yAwn-a*' or tongues of the gods. what is more remarkable. " There was in the century (A. prepared by the magicians or wife men. that it would be only wafte of time to placed in this . this altar of which I infcription upon I have not been able to obtain a copy from the regret no doubt it would tend to enlighten this original Some will fay. the Logos. or the Word . the new theory propounded volume is fo diametrically oppofed to the Rawlinfonian fyftem. and by means of thofe tongues of gold the judgments of the king would become Divine oracles. palace at Babylon a ' . beafts. In the monument of antiquity before us we have the fymbol of the Chaldean's god.) that the figure in its horizontal pofition is the Lamed is and. and there were four golden wedge-fhaped I^yyts or charms hanging down from the roof. the true figure of the numeral One (i). with of gods placed aloft." " " often occurs in the Scriptures to denote tongue and the peculiar appearance of language or fpeech cloven tongues on the day of Pentecoft was emblematical of the diverfity of languages which the Apoftles were about to be able to utter. Tome by men. Philoftratus. 214). infcription anfwer Yes but there is not the leaft dependence to be Lambda. the firft. The word and be fo efteemed by their fubjects. D.

attempt a tranllation are non-effentialS) fhall what are according to that fyftem I moft ejfential. and everyis enlightened. this paffage of .' thing wife fpeaks of the f All-powerful Word as the agent in the world's creation. his Angel.' often dark and myftical. as the Man of God. refulgent or more radiant than the by whom What is more Word of God ? ' The Word of God is alfo fuperior to the univerfal But world. who. each of which truths was a refutation of part of the Gnoftic fcheme of doctrine. and the Ineffable name. as they aflerted. Thus. there was a Word. is we may c whatever worth feeing. In this paflage he feems to fay to the Gnoftics that true it was. And laftly. like the viceroy of a great king. and the All that deftroyer of the firft-born of their oppreflbrs. but yet fuch as we cannot read without fomething even of wonder. and to apply to Chrift the Saviour. juft fo is it where the Divine Word Another Alexandrian Jew likeilluminates the foul. and as the Agent in the creation of the Philo ufed many more expreflions with regard world. was to be charged with the government of the whole creation . and that very naturally. which may deeply interefting fubcc Philo. As the darknefs vanimes at the rifing of the light. as the guide and healer of the children of Ifrael in their wildernefs journey. the Alexandrian Jew. who fee is fufficient to fee into all things. that the Word was God.' to the c Word. here add fome extracts from various authors on to the new theory the Divine Logos. and that all things were made by Him. and mingled 4 with notions borrowed from the Platonic philofophy. fpeaks of the moft ject c holy Word' (Logos) as the image of the abfolutelyexifting light throw additional : upon this Being. . more ancient and general than all creatures. immortal and incorruptible. The Divine Word difcerns moft ' acutely. who is the Word. John feems to gather up in the opening paflage of his Gofpel. is reprefented as the Phyfician of our difeafes. St.' there was of truth in this remarkable language of the Alexandrians. but to affirm that this Word was in the beginning.y6 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. as the firft begotten Son.

we all know with what a juft of them carry fo far as which many they look upon it . believe that to pronounce the Word would be fufficient to work wonders and remove mountains. may but to mention underftood from numberlefs writers . in their Targum on applicable to the " Ye have apDeuteronomy xxvi. as and tell of heaven. Thus. in this indirect way. Ruler of the World. 77 John feems to challenge and appropriate to the defpifed and crucified Jew all thefe dark and half-underftood fayings of the Grecian philofophers. 18." <c Heathendom was not without its ' unconfcious prophecies. 17. Meffiah. John. ibid. it is fcarcely. but alfo in the heathen world. we may with great probability regard the language of the Greeks about the Word as of the New Teftament in which illustrating the paflage that epithet is applied to Chrift. Amongft the and awful veneration Jews. convey to the mind fome idea of that Great Being who is the fole author of our existence. was To the ftoical writers the name of the the Deity or all-pervading Soul very familiar to exprefs This term was alfo ufed by the Jews as of the World. fometimes as the Spirit and Barnes on St. that to name the Name would make the earth. fo thoughts beyond their thoughts lifp to thofe high bards were given/ Again. and Lucan fays.' and of its bards and philofophers it has been c little children faid. to be fuppofed that St.'The Ineffable St. Name. with no lefs truth than beauty." is Barnes. And that this is the light in which the Name and Word hath always been considered from the remoteft ages. John wrote what he did So without fome knowledge of and reference to Philo. and to carry along with it the moft folemn veneration for His facred name. it is faid: to WORD . we think. us that they did not dare to only two. not only amongft Chriftians and The Word meant to be clearly Jews. Cicero tells mention the names of their gods . that. as well as the moft clear and perfect elucidation of His power and attributes that the human mind is capable of receiving. in which they fometimes as the Supreme had fpoken of a Word reafon and Guide of Man.

. becaufe it is : capable of fo many variations from the manner of annex- ing the Maforetic points. He wickednefs of opinion import delivery not afk and hence has arifen a difference of fome fuppofing the word itfelf loft. The mind of man. unlefs upon very particular occafions. but alfo the time and the reafon for the But amidft all thefe learned difputes. or even to write it. word was loft. for which reafon the Jews call it SHEM EMMURETH the Philo tells us not only that the Unutterable Word. and that he himit. one thing is lofs. and many the manner of and the latter contend that Mofes did only the Almighty for His name to carry to his . or THE that he may be your God. indeed. but only for the true delivery or pronunciation. man brethren. The term MIMRA.78 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. when he appeared before the mercy-feat on the adds. except once in the year. by the high-prieft alone. The Jews are averfe to mention the name of mrr (Jehovah). the Gentiles. becaufe the language now in ufe among that in which the Jews is fo corrupt and altered from Mofes wrote. namely. Jofephus fays that the God told it to felf did name was never known till the time that Mofes in the wildernefs. clear. that it was loft through the day of expiation. feems bewildered and loft in contemplating the greatnefs of that Being whofe very name is wrapped up in impenetrable myftery. which points were not extant in the days of Mofes . and have fubftituted for it various devices and . and efpecially thofe who were converfant with the Greek philofophy. and that this title can be applicable only to that Great Being who WAS. pointed the Word of God as king over you this day. not dare to mention for that it was forbidden to be ufed. others the or meaning only. and is. It is certain that the true mode of delivery cannot now be proved from any written record ift. that none of them except a few of the very learned underftood anything of it. and EVER WILL BE. and 2ndly." was ufed by the Jews who were {battered among WORD. that the NAME or WORD is expreflive of SELF-EXISTENCE AND ETERNITY.

abbreviations, to




fome of which high

have been afligned.

myftical qualities for inftance, the myfterious



fometimes written with two



with 3 Yodsenclofed within a circle






this laft

very ancient form has been relinquifhed, and one of the Yods is often expunged in old examples in confequence of fome refort having been made to it by Chriftians, in demonftrating the doctrine of the Trinity.

The Jews are quite aware that the true pronunciation of the word is loft, and regard it as one of the myfteries to be unveiled in the days of the Meffiah. They hold, however, that the knowledge of the name does exift on earth, and he by whom the fecret is acquired has, by virtue of it, the powers of the world at his command and they account for the miracles of Jefus by telling us that He had got porleflion of the Ineffable name. In this word forms the famous fhort, tetra-grammaton, or of which every one has heard. quadriliteral name, Some imagine that this was the fame T* Tpot* TU?, which the Pythagoreans knew, and by which they fwore and that a knowledge was abroad in the world that the true name of the True God bore fome fuch form as Jehovah may be traced from Jah, Jao, Jevo, Jove of the heathen. The Jews were afraid the heathens would get pofleflion of the name of Jehovah, and therefore in their copies of the Scriptures they wrote it in the Samaritan character, inftead of in the ancient Hebrew or Chaldee. They believed it, moreover, capable of working miracles, and they held that the wonders in Egypt were performed by Mofes in virtue of this name being infcribed on his rod ; and


any perfon






would be able


was com-

manded in the Jewifh law that tures mould be infcribed on

fentences from the Scripthe doorpofts of their

and therefore the Jews had a cuftom of


The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

writing the Decalogue on a fquare piece of parchment, which they rolled up and put into a cafe, and after infcribing the name of God within a circle on the outfide, they affixed it to the doorpofts of their houfes or apartments, and confidered it a talifman of fafety.



Author's fyftem more Recapitulation of the four preceding chapters Sir H. Rawlinfully defcribed Antagoniftic to all other theories
fon's conjectures,

and Author's

tranflation of


a brick

A new

an infcription found



H. Rawlinfon's Nineveh


Author's tranflation Mr. Layard's Sargon The Author's Ancient infcriptions in fupport of the new hypothefis Remarkable coincidences between guefles and the Author's tranflatranflation

|N the

preceding chapters I have endeavoured to fhow that letters were the gift of God, and that the primitive lan-




Hebrew tongue

in all its eflen-

have ftated my reaions for fuppofing letters to have been copied by Cadmus from Nineveh ; that the moft ancient written documents have been handed down to us in an alphabet remarkable for its brevity that Mofes wrote in the cuneiform character ; and that this character is the earlieft of all. I have given the hiftory of the alphabet, and have fhown that its formation is in ftricl: accordance not only with the fymbols ufed for the Divine Trinity, but alfo with a fyftem of triads in ufe throughout the

ancient world.



now proceed

to enter a



fully into the ancient lyftem of writing. " Thofe who have ftudied the fubject with moft care

have arrived

at the conviction, that all the infcriptions in


The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

the complicated cuneiform character, which are feverally found upon rocks, upon bricks, upon flabs, and upon cylinders, from the Chinefe Mountains to the ftiores of

Mediterranean, do in reality belong to one fingle alphabetical Jyftem, and they further believe the variations

which are perceptible in the different modes of writing to be analogous in a general meafure to the varieties of hand and text which characterize the Graphic and
of the prefent day." acknowledged by all the Affyrian philologifts The that the cuneiform writing is from left to right. groups of characters which Rawlinfon calls letters are but aceach compofed of from two to five elements cording to my fyftem each element is a letter, and has Glyphic
It is



elements change themfelves into two primitive letters, L and M, L being placed over M, Lm, or Lam, which word in the Perfian language fignifies "reft, or mercy." Again, Rawlinfon's fecond letter B (No. 21) is compofed of three elements (and the primitive alphabet has alfo three), but it is two letters, B and Vau (Nos. 2 and 6 in the primitive alphabet) Vau with the phonetic

own individual phonetic power. Thus, referring to Rawlinfon's Perfian Alphabet Plates, we find that the firft letter is compofed of four elements, one placed horizontally over three perpendicular ones ; but on looking at the primitive alphabet we fee that the four

power of ou-Bou, fignifying, "to go in and out." And fo on through the whole alphabet, every Rawlinfonian
refolving itfelf generally into a Perfian, Arabic, Some may object to this fyftem as too complicated, for many of the groups have from being two to nine elements, and the numerals have even more ;

Hebrew word.

but then many of our own Englifh words are compofed of fourteen or fixteen letters. Then, to account for fome of the letters being placed one over the other (fee Plate V., figure 2, No. 6, and figure 3, No. 5), we muft recollect that in the very earlieft times ftone was the only material ufed to write upon, and confequently the fcribes We find this to would be very economical of fpace.

and whether this curtailment may be the effecl: of that refolution of the fyllable into its component : . the name of a city. regarding which I entertain fome doubt . if only one.) alone. and in that cafe I take the upper L to be the prepofition "to." Sometimes the upper L ftands (Plate III. beginning at the top where there is more than one Lamed (or L) . figure 2). I hope." As the reader will now. embrace both the upper and lower L. the I word generally take the elements or letters in order. 83 be the cafe. I mall proceed to give the refults of the application of my alphabet to the Cuneiatic writing. underftand my method of reading the infcriptions. . them by placing them one above another. and then. its complete fyllabic power is.. or the Halah of Kings.) which Sir H. according to " to redeem or GAALL. with the Lameds (or Ls). There is an infcription upon a brick (fee Plate IV. " to roll over and over." my fyftem. Rawlinfon reads doubtfully. and form the word GLL. figure 4) . fee what large fpace is required (Plate III. Rawlmfon's Conjeffiures. The group we juft referred to forms. or Gimel. and the lower will have a letter above on the left if there are more than one or.. unfortunately. which he fuppofes to be the Calneh He fays " The of Genefis.. form is one. for example. the other. as LEVEKH. it will . a to dwell or abide. from its peculiar by a letter. if we take the eighth letter in Rawlinfon's Perfian and place the elements in that clufter one after alphabet. but it alfo appears very frequently to reprefent one of thefe founds. figure 3. which would be the fame thing. For inftance. it will be or at the end of the lower L (Plate either in the centre III." and the lower. I think. and then the next or fecond letter will be over the L to the left. and the fucceeding letters following on to the right (as in Plate Sometimes double L will be preceded III. and the confequent neceflity for condenfing figure i). in AfTyrian R-M or. but fome- times the word begins with L. fay G figure. which are fometimes double and fometimes treble..Sir H. buy back. the word LN. L-V.


The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

natural powers to which I have alluded, or whether it and V, is a may be owing to the homogeneity of the


Such, indeed, point which / cannot yet venture to decide. is the laxity of expreflion in Afiyrian, that even if the true power of No. 3, Plate IV., were proved to be L-V, I could ftill underftand Nos. 3 and 4, Plate IV., being pronounced Halukh." This was the conclufion that Sir

Henry came to twenty years ago ; with all his letters (at that time his alphabet confifted of only 150 letters, fince increafed to 300) and variants he could make nothing
of the inscription but a rigmarole of nonfenfe but now, after the lapfe of twenty years, when this alphabet has increafed to 300 letters or figns, he has arrived at an equally Jenfible and intelligent meaning, viz., the nominative and genitive of the city of Calah y cc Calah, of Calah" I (hall make no comment upon the above but as this was the firft infcription I attempted after I fufpecled the language to be Hebrew, I fhall fubmit it to the opinion of thofe who may poffibly be better
; ;

Hebrew language than myfelf. The fcholar will perceive that there is, in my interpretation, no arbitrary diftorting of the meaning, no
acquainted with the



of ideas for founds, no myftical homophones or ideographs, but a fimple following out of the principle fubfequently (though imperfectly) adopted by the Rev.
C. Forfter, the principle, namely, of giving to


alphabetical forms the fame known alphabetical powers. With this key I found the infcription to read thus:

Thy fon will be built (up) like rock." By referring to Plate IV. the reader will find the groups in the Hebrew,
AiTyrian, and Cadmean numbered comparing the Aflyrian with the
i, 2, 3,


4; and by

Cadmean, or

fecond and third line of groups, he will fee the principle " carried out. I will of " like forms with like powers this infcription to a critical analyfis, in order to fubject I will convince the reader of its truth and fimplicity. n BN, the root of run, Ba Na H, take the groups in order with a radical, but mutable or omirlible n H, c< to build

alfo " the young," as the fon up/' &c., and




Tr(inflation of an

Inscription upon a Brick.


by his father, and the Ton alfo builds up and continues his father's houfe. inanimate things it denotes what

comes or

produced from another for inftance, a twig from the tree is called in the Hebrew language growing " <c the fon of a tree the arrow (hot from the bow is " the fon of the bow called ;" and in this cafe a brick is is the material to be built produced from clay clay up or made into a brick, and as clay cannot be a brick until it has undergone certain changes of form, and is Subjected



to baking, burning, or expofure to the fun, therefore p c< " (group i ft), sn with the fuffix D, K thy/' will be thy

Aleph, or A, denotes the firft perfon but as I have ufed it in the third per " it will," a few words are necefTary by way of exJon, There is no doubt but that planation of this change. this brick infcription was written many centuries before the formation of any fyftem of Hebrew Grammar.




Singular future

Now, we

find that

Grammar grew up


the fchools

of the Greek philofophers Plato had only two parts of fpeech (the noun and verb), and Ariftotle added conjunctions and articles, but in his time there were not About 250 years any fuch terms as Singular and plural. and even fo B. c. all pronouns were clafled as articles late as in our own day Gefenius, the greateft of Hebrew cc greateft difficulty is found grammarians, fays that the From all this in the explanation of the third perfon." I infer, that in the earlieft ages, before any of the nice distinctions of grammar were known, and before any attention was paid to fyntactical arrangement, the firft To proceed and third perfons were fynonymous. cc third perf. fing. future, //," D> (is) from HUP Aleph, a root frequently ufed in the O. T. Hebrew Scriptures, and found very widely fpread in ancient languages, whence " to the verb UP (eSTe), " being," and hence be," future " built " will be" made, or become.'" 3 (K,) a up, (p BN) " <c nv of fimilitude, " like (TSR), rock

prefix particle



= " Thy fon


will be built


like rock."


accordance with what Heroquite rendering dotus tells us in his defcription of Babylon, that the


The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

fon of Canfh built (this) fortrefs to be the moft likely.


bricks, foon after they were made, became as hard as ftone or flint. friend has fuggefted another reading:




which he thinks

The Rawlinfons, Layard, and others, imagine that moft, if not all of the infcriptions found on bricks confift either of the names of cities or of kings, and it fo that the majority of the names actually thus happens
discovered are thofe of well-known perfons in facred or

Now, fyftems of decipherment which profane hiftory. to recover names of kings, cities, and events preprofefs vioufly known from Scripture or from ancient authors,
for, as Mr. Forfter naturally give rife to much doubt remarks, the natural bent of moft men engaged in juftly

fuch purfuits
look for.


to find


they fee k,

and to fee what they


From the experience I have had in deciphering the Hebrew infcriptions found upon bricks, I venture

to ftart the hypothefis, that the majority of the infcripOons found upon bricks are not the names of kings or
cities, but are merely the paffing thoughts of the brickmaker, ftamped or marked down at a moment of leifure while the clay was foft. This could very eafily be done with two fticks, the ends being made of a wedge fhape (fee Plate V., fig. i), and with three fticks of this kind 1 The every combination or group could be formed. translations from various bricks, by means of the new

alphabet, ftrongly favour this opinion. Take, for inftance, " the brick figured on Plate IV. Thy fon will be built up (made or become) like (to, or as folid as, a) rock." What can be conceived more natural than for the brick:

maker, while thinking of the durable nature of the materials he was working up, to mark down at the moment his thoughts with 'the tools he had by him for
In Rawlinfon's " Five Ancient Monarchies," vol. i. I find the " Tools following remarkable ftatement corroborative of this fuggeftion with a triangular point made in ivory, apparently for cuneiform writing, have been found at Babylon;" mowing plainly that they were ufed to


the letters Jinglj, and





H. Rawtinfon's Nineveh.


There is no doubt marking fome important order? but that fome bricks have been or will be found with names of kings or cities written upon them but it is

hardly reafonable to expect to find bricks infcribed with a genealogical lift of kings. There is another infcription " read by Sir H. Rawlinfon as " Nineveh (fee Plate V.,
fig. 2)

whether from a brick or not
fact that the fenfe eliminated


from the


cannot fay ; but confirmatory of

was fo. This inof characters, confcription compofed of five groups fifting of twenty-one letters, forming ten words, according to the new theory; whereas Sir H. Rawlinfon has but one word of feven letters, which he calls "Nineveh" I will give the Englifh with the Hebrew juft as it occurs in the infcription, word for word, and letter for letter, fo that any Hebrew fcholar can teft its accuracy bearing in mind that this infcription is in Hebrew of the moft archaic form. The translation may not pleafe the modern
hypothefis, I






Hebraift, either in


orthography or

arrangement was written probably 1500 or 2000 years previous to any Hebrew grammar being formed, confequently the language itfelf muft have undergone confiderable For inftance, look changes during fo long a period.




in its fyntactical recollect that this infcription

change the Englifh language has gone through orthography fince A. D. 1349, only a period of 500 years. Take the following for an example, cc But whenne thoufchalt preye, Matt. vi. 6, 7, and 8 enter into thi couche and whenne the dore is fchet, preye thi'fadir in hidils, and thi fadir that feeth in hidils.Jchal
at the



zelde to thee.



mychefpeche. zour fadir woot what

But in preying nyle zee Jpeke myche, as doon, for thel gejjen that thei ben herd in her 'Therefor nyle ze be maad lich to hem, for





nede to zou, bifore that ze axen much whether the ancient
fo great a

Hebrew had undergone

change up to

A. D.



Englifh language from 1349 period of little more than 500 years.



1870, a

refremment jVn. or abide.1. L. coming in or -oV. 1 in 8. nV 2. D 5. 10. 7. reft. in the Englifh language to exprefs the " " I have retained the original. VD 7." Whoever heard or read in the whole courfe of ancient or modern hiftory of a king recording what he never did ? The Ajjyrian i. i IN 3. that inveft every brick with an air of majefty.<J nV. i. 3. In Babylon buildings for myfelf and for the honour of my kingdom / did not lay out. "To nothing nV. IN. with the Hebrew equivalents and Englifh meaning. i. . reft. 5- fV?. dom / did not lay up. 3. Logf a Jewifh meafnre of capacity containing three-quarters of a pint. 2. in. : " The feat of my kingdom in the city which did not In all my dominions I did not build a heart." : in "oV 9. to pV. LN. " ^3r. 2 f^ LLN. but I queftion whether it will not contraft favourably with thofe of Sir Henry's. 2. . to take in. 3. the fame as V " Hebrew Gefenius' Hebrew." and to ftay. 4. r> r^dil3- 1. 8. 4." 1 There not being a word exaft meaning of the above word. or in The recording works and events that a king never did> viz. a particle prefix "to." " 2. 6. Group. " reflr 2. 1. foregoing tranflation may appear to fome Hebraifts as very puerile.2. 10. " nothing Chaldee. infcription. rejoice my The precious treafures of my kinghigh place of power. LE. iii." and Parkhurft's " Hebrew and Englifh Lexicon. at the 1 time (of) 3. and i. (fo) deferable. lodge.3. going out. Buxtorf's "Hebrew and Latin. and that find on them names well known in facred and profane hiftory. Heb.2.1. I. juft a nice draught for a thirfty man. n. 2. fVV i. always VD." Deut.88 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Lexicon. i. my 1 log 9.2. ^Vn 6.

xxxi. Another deftination : Now." M jfc. always. ware in exiftence. " coming going out. figure 3) is read by MefTrs. Bou. to. Layard's Sargon. to /'. VD. is found on the Glafs Vaje. Prov. comfort. and make them fmooth as ftone. u. fupporting my hypothefis. -|rds city." alfo to come at anything. and reading . the application of the primitive alphabet we find it to confift of ten words and nineteen letters. " ^Y STABLE inclination. cc nor for Princes to defire ftrong drink. containing about meafure of capaof an Englifh pint. K. whilft in By Layard's deciphered name there are only fix letters.Mr. refrefh. <c K all. 89 JT7 w." V (*/) i. or aou. and the infcription on it (fee Plate V. c( or BLG. that beautiful and interefting relic of antiquity. and out. or to take one's reft " refrefhment." " with Yod fuffix. " LG. AO. and now in the It is the earlieft fpecimen of glafs Britim Mufeum. a prepofition.. " "W. or rBLK KL. to obtain or " to take. every." nearly. in this infcription there are feven groups." it. the name of a king well known in facred hiftory. cc to ftrengthen." in or Chaldee." */ about." infcription is expreflive of the quality and " of the object it is written upon Thy gravelly and earthy matter will repair the roof and turrets. Layard. to be read as Aim the fame as nw." in " i." root m. Rawlinfon and Layard as Sargon. my." Another highly interefting infcription. go e." Vau. " my log." y " 3. 4. difcovered by Mr. the Hebrew the commuted for the G. Bou." b. "according almoft." LGI. viV.

nothing new . &c. nothing interfofmg (to) thus. whilft the fecond character denotes an AfTyrian god. appear to have been made up of the name.iav opa rr]v TravTuv. that their /0#/r..\r\Q(. it is the fame with many (this names in the Holy Scriptures) like the Theodofius and Theodorus of the Greeks (and he might have faid like the Ifrael. countries.' &c. pyrei taw ffvvrpeKtj pyre a\\a /. In "Mark Ant. method is not very intelligible. may in their retirements into themfelves find out truth. It is this fa6l which it fo difficult to determine with any degree of certainty or con- . And we find this idea embodied in the writings of the ancients. whether royal or .' Abimelech.' The firfl component part of the name Eflaris is haddon renders the monogram for the god Afshur. ethereal foul of man.not. they pray that God would give His bleffing upon the day." Plato." . ii. names with which we are acquainted. " The inferior gods formed a mortal foul. orrjv a. fays. in " <j)d)ri XajUTrrfT-cu The lightened by a ray of light" As the reader may feel fomewhat curious to know by what means and as the Mr. but when lit by its own light. " hide (or cover) the fecret within 1 What can be the meaning of this myfterious legend ? " to cover the myftery within!'" It appears to me that this glafs fpherical vafe or bottle has been made ufe of in religious rites to fymbolize the pure. we read.' is of/ protected by. are not written phonetically. and the truth centred in itfelf" Philo Judasus.' and < Daniel ' of the Hebrews) and Abd-ullah and ' Abld-ur-rahman ' of the Mahommedan nations. Thus. fphere of the foul is luminous when nothing external has contact with the foul itfelf. " At the rifing of the fun fpeaking of the Therapeutic Effences. that is by letters having a certain alphabetical value. epithet.. but by monograms. that true bleffing whereby their fouls may be filled with heavenly light j and at the letting of the fun. whofe name was 'San. The names of the gods being ' ' ' commonly written with a monogram. e. the firft ftep in deciphering is to know which god this particular fign denotes. I will give his explanation verbatim: "As the name of Sennacherib. ] Made round and expanfive. and they have ordained that the blind and grois portions of our fouls Jhould be en- KCU rrjv tv avr/. it fees the truth of all things. or title of one of the national * ' fervant of. in his Doftrine of the Origin of the World.' ' beloved deities and of a fecond word. as well as thofe of many kings. fays. in the name Sennacherib we have the determinative of God." lib. and cities. being wholly difburdened of their fenfes andallfenfible things. and the deciphering of them is a peculiar procefs which may fometimes feem fufpicious to thofe not acquainted with the fubjecl. Layard difcovers the names upon bricks. a few words by way of explanation may be The greater number of AfTyrian proper acceptable to my readers. and were commanded to endow us with all the perfections of which we are fufceptible. fuch as {lave of.' to which no phonetic ' value attached . " vtyatpa yotE^r)Q orav /Lir^re fKreivrjTai STTL TI.90 " 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

and afterwards drilled out. Vau. Roof. cap. " to collect. That upon the idea of engraving the thoughts of the maker articles of manufacture is quite in accordance with fidence moft of the Aflyrian names.Mr. Vau." GG." or had known anything of the difcovery beyond the fact that there was a glafs vafe found. Arabic. intermitting. . (Chald. compact." fome reference to what Mr. a vacuum. page 147. chevi. " Perfian." with. GG. nothing/' " no. Chaldee. which. " to cover or hide. for the marks of the tools are plainly vifible upon it. Sennatainty? no!) cherib. " Y i. root> nn> Kin. a circle/' and alfo from in.) "a a particle. folid. collected in itfelf." ^/ AL . " interpofing. Layard's Sargon. " within. empty. Raz. " Layard fays in defcribing the vafe ? That it was originally caft in a folid piece. u CHUa (in)." " LE. Chug." or in the to be 5th conjugation. round. failing. from :nn. " e." " hiding. nV. vi. not. according to Gefenius. i." Has not the fecond word in this infcription. 91 U P> r " to u CHUA. " " and." This tranflation was made before I had feen " Nineveh and its Remains. collected in i&\fParkhurft. a dome." /. and Efarhaddon. cover and expanfe. and which leads me to warn my readers. the interpretation of all thofe which are found upon the monuments of Nineveh is liable to very confiderable doubt ? LA YARD'S Nineveh." " ' ' Arabic. as Sargon. top. n. that with the exception of fuch as can be with certainty identi" name with cerfied (have the AfTyrian Philologiits identified a fingle "with well-known hiftorical kings." n. a bottle ftill denotes the hut of a Bedouin Arab from its r<?##^ " form. gather. cupola. ." fecret. means round. hollow Perfian.

the act of crowing. I am ready" On another. "KA0IE. or CC KAAE COOS niES0E. lie down" and "KEOMAI. and other evidently copied from their more There are many ancient neighbours the AfTyrians. and the difcovery encouraged me to proceed with the ftudy of It is particularly gratifying to find coincidences that tongue. Layard. the hero and his opponent are made refpectively to exclaim. What a " Great Houfe has to do with the name of Sargon I am at a Jofs to know. or to anything that it cock is reprefented in might be fuppofed to contain. A How infcribed " d'ye do ? " TON A0ENE0EN A0AON. 3. but I fuppofe thofe two groups come under the category of Polypbones." (See Plate IV. he exclaims. firft Remains. " HATS-CINQS. Thus. Mr. with the infcription " nPOSAFOPETO. on which the conteft of Heracles and Cyenus is depicted. and which they call. Again. on a prize vafe at Athens was I am a prize from Athens." the two " groups mean Palace or great houfe . can be proved from infcriptions fictile many upon Greek and Etrufcan vafes.92 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and hence Sir H. What a very convenient." fome remarkable between the conjectures of fome of the AfTyrian philologifts and words I have found by means of the new alphabet. the cuftom of the ancients.. Amongft them all there is none fo ftriking as the firft five groups of characters of an infcription found upon nearly all the flabs from the earlieft palace at Nimrod.) Thefe were the firft words I conftrued by means of the Hebrew language. conjectured very erroneous fyitem ! What man in his fenfes could believe in fuch ? . the wine isjweet" it is Jo good that you may drink it" Another vafe has an inscription which bears no immediate reference to the vafe itfelf. Beth Rab^ and which in Englifh means 1 Obferve that the above groups which they call Beth Rab> or "great boufe" are precifely the fame as theory? two groups they ufe in " the name of S argon (p. 1 09). where Silenus is reprefented gloating over his wine. vafes in the mufeums of Europe with fentences antique and often colloquies written on them. Rawlinfon and others call it cc The ftandard infcription. but ! fays. on a vafe ornaments. in his cc Nineveh and its " It has been that in a note. fig.

which is the modern Again. and to the latter portion of it he gives the fyllabic tha. He alfo admits that group 4 (Aafli) {lands for the name of the city of which the hiftorical name is But let us add group 5 to it. in the orthography of the word. immediately adjoining Nimroud with the prefix B and termination ah in addition. Layard's Sargon. Now. power of Sa. or knew anything of the for I find that the locality of the mounds of Nimroud : declare or proclaim. which means great building.'' The coincidence here is the more remarkable as the application of the new alphabet was made before I had feen Layard's book. neighbourhood of Nineveh. Thefe are {ignificant and 5 as Nineveh. and we have at Nineveh* once the name which is {till preferved in the fuppofed Dr. T7 . "Proclamation Palace" The next character is the primitive Vau. according to the primitive alphabet." Therefore it reads. what appears to be the true Solomon truly fays. Then V follow the laft three groups. Rawlinfon identifies the phonetic power of Sha. fourth group (or Aafh) Sir H. Great Houfe. namely. which means " and" " together with. is group. Hinckes alfo imagines that the fame group has the Sir H. name <c " Aaflioik is preferved to this day in the mound BAASHOIKah. 93 worthy of note that the arrive at the meaning of Aflyrian philologifts thefe two words by the application of any letters of their multitudinous alphabet they cannot find any to fuit their purpofe out of the whole 300 letters and 500 Now. AASHOIK. or pa> lace.Mr. mark the coincidence. Rawlinfon gives it -2&AJshur y and Dr. and [3=^7 ln (Chaldee). n Binin. or an abbreviation of the name Athur. variants. will juft fuit their The firft purpofe. " There . "to mow. all pointing to name of ancient Nineveh. therefore they {imply content themfelves with and give them the meaning that calling them Ideographs. it is do not ." &c. The whole infcription is thus " Proclamation Palace and Aafhoik. groups 4 coincidences. which read AASHOIK. the country of In another place he afligns to it the value of Aflyria. Hinckes is convinced that it is either that name.

or Aa/hoik? appears to be a prophecy of the deftruction of the city. riz ou eeber . oh that thou wouldft. James's Palace. : a kid of the Capr<e Egagrus. is fomething that bears arm <c Oh. Rawlinfon declare. What is the inference to be drawn from this ftriking coincidence and the fimpler tranflation ? Clearly. The flab from which the above infcription was taken bears a reprefentation of a winged figure. and that which hath been now." mation Buckingham Palace. though equal in fplendour This is the fubftance of the firft four lines to Aafhoik. that a beginning had only been made. <c 'The Temple of that follows the ftandard infcription. viz. carrying on his left . Beli. edicts.94 is is he Ancient Ones of the Earth. chu alu " ! My ! 20. or laws emanating from this particular palace of Aafhoik. Beli. that thou aloud and fcatter the multitude of rock wouldft cry god. waiting for the true key to unlock this vaft ftore of primitive literature Well may Sir H. and an earneft prayer to the god Bel for enlight" enment of mind. with the more than probable meaning elicited by means of the new alphabet. or an AfTyrian prieft. or Aflyrian in his right handj held up." for we find our own beloved Queen adhering to the very fame kind of formula as that ufed 4000 years ago ! : " Proclaby Aflyria's early monarchs. I mall now endeavour to give almoft a literal tranf! . in words like thefe Li. (very What volumes of ancient lore are yet locked up in the rib tfr alu . nothing new under the fun. and that Aflyrian decipherment is only in its infancy. much abridged). <c St. deftroyed through its crimes and grofs depravity. (how gods me the true god " There is alfo an allufion to the deftruction of the city of Baalbeg. amounts almoft to abfolute proof that the fubject matter of each flab contains proclamations." or or cc Windfor Caftle. li bi. my god. that the fact that thefe five groups of characters commencing every infcription in this particular faloon.000 feraphim already difcovered." as the cafe may be. containing more than 200 words. goat and the figure evidently a refemblance to an ear of corn The fubject appears to be about offering a facrifice. that after all that has been done.

nearly." like the Greek that they will act with a feparate meaning as V ^ u ancV' and 3L almoft. Houfe." a connective particle. TI 6. ftay. " V7 $7 y V Ouk." And (2.) among all No that character the infcriptions has it I given cannot arrive at any other conclufion but It moftly occurs muft be " disjunctive fign. are intended to anfwer the negative fign " oux." Y7 Y i. ^ rTTO pVa. I cannot think thofe two characters no. " declare. fince. Binn. B. firft perf. future. after. about. <. abide.) A. a prep. " Great." .'The Author s Tr(inflation. y.a. and. fing. yet. alfo. "will "a/h" foundation. to lodge. 4 preceding groups. be." but it is my opinion not. " Great lace.. midft of. 2. " Pabuilding." or " Rawlinfon by guejs." in. 3. into the Bmal. or proclaim. " |> Ppft- into. "in." me more trouble than this one." Rawlinfon by guefs. A after the I. prefix. (i. " according to. among. >. or dwell. flab 95 the Aflyrian lation of the infcription with the Hebrew and on the above tions meaning on the Hebrew language which follow the analyfis of the " Brick Infcription." &c." page 105) Englifh : equivalents. Lun." "together with . &c. Chu. N. as. &c." but. with the as follows (fubject to the obferva- Roman Tranjlation of an Infcription on a Jlab with wingedfigure.) and (3. " to mow. 2. a." and hV.

RB." Leader. the true God." God.. i and 2.96 I. alfo. The fame No. i. i. Light. or myftery. for. 'J an interpofer and mediator. cc A fe- cret. Llin.1.' 3 " " if. or V^Vn. Third perf." mountain." and " fVV. " nin 4. <c to lodge.4. 4-3-2-I. am. ^^-i i." or 2. or Rza. or HRRI. prep. 20. a ftone. ^^ 19. a flute or paragoge ufed as (milel). 10. I. prep. Ln. J 4- ^ Nl>*X7 i. Y7 <\ 2." I. I.3. N. 2. ' or nnn V " mountaineer. <e and. N. 2. The Ancient Ones of the Earth. " " of L. LF. cc far be it. pipe with or chalil. Lun "lodgings." the eftablifhment.. "a 2. the. 1??Nn HALou. "among. i.2.3. AR.2. nV. a pre. BLun or Bmal. 13. mighty." 2. 1." Dan. AA iv> TSR. HRRou. Rzou." ^j^^^ Pv^" v T." T7 V. ^ ALF." 1. __ 3. Rze. V. ^ . or Mp. 3. cc The fame as as No. B. 2. 4 to enlighten. 17. chali n." " Chief. Great. a pre. ill pVn. 1 8." np. chief head or capaffliction. a knife. future. 16. diftrefs. u and ~ narrow. 8." and 4." O that.4. " Of iV." . ce " it will be." 12. " .2. . an ad.^ m. to become light. a particle. to mine. f?.3. ^ I. . God c< forbid.3." and ALF. 1. 3. lodging. to inftrucV' 2. OUK.3. 6.

'/Sk deteft." &c." cc " de" ftrudion. alfo V to cry out. EDR> EDR ' " Atl rrient. declare." |>l^|^_ ^nn. """' """' /^A. 22.Tr (inflation of the Winged 1. 29.. or proclaim."or it maybe vau fuffix. "fmoothnefs. a prefix conjunct:." 31. pomp." cc /z/V. 15. and 22. to l^j^P^ AA Y7 n>" RZou. him" " his His Jeer et> or myftery. 19. n. 1 1 and 23. honour." Vi. to dream. |^^\7 in. and iVo. <c to naufeate. a feer. 26. cc as Nos. if fo.3. chu " to fhow. cc . . intensifies the meaning of either of the above words. n. chu. as applied to man." a vifionary. or glory. Therefore I <c Extreme Jpkndour. hence a prophet. to fuit the context. ^ BChl. to be. or beauty. glory. " and. p^v TV W^ ^" 3 " FulL " iV. KLch. majefty. L kled." to wafte away." as to vegetables. " rough and wringreennefs. lam." oppofed to riVs. give it as. Figure. fplendour. to loathe. L 30." The word being repeated. Lch. as the cafe be. doubtful ?. cc from nV." &c. chalum. 25. the fame as 24.2. The fame as Nos. chalu. The fame from D^Vn. >^T7 ^*> ALF." am inclined to think that this is the H . "afpect. r^ry >Vn. 97 rna " 2I * ^^ may 1-2-3. as The fame Ct No. appearance. tc j^^24. M/ n." Chaldee.. Rou. to fee. and TH. RU. 32. n^J^\7xLxL>l uVfVrM c< Y*^^^ I nnn<l> we have mn." I^^^r7 V. molu y ALF.

expanfive. AGG. // i. ALTS.SGG. the I firft " to fhut or overfeer. SGG. prefix.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. mod archaic character for the Great I am. denotes prefixed fecond perfon " 4. " x> Arabic. decc noting failing or defe6t. . account of the comparative extent of their dominions." It is a fingular fact that Sir H. cover. A "/#.4. u. . the firft would be " roof. meaning of this word GG. lieutenant." pa. clofe. Bou. as No. with K. " fuffix." I muft leave this to the judgment of the Oriental Jc hoiar. above. I. or RZ. GG 3. i. 3. LIBou. Bnk." ." " to be fhut up. efpecially 98 is as it repeated. urge. to prefs. J J GG. which converts it into the letter L. " roof. V A(C The fame n-V. 2 in having the fecond character carried through the third. The other letters. 2. prepofition fuffix i. 15. cover. 2. 3." and Vau." and n. top. 2. forming ALSH.4." in the fecond it will be. n. n. The fame as No. LI.5." or n." &c." to expand/' and Parkhurft fays that the was given to the Amalakitifh kings on In but he calls it an Ideograph for " King. Rawlinfon gives this " character the power of King" not by means of his alphabet. third perfon fing. i.5." cVc. the Shin being commuted for ^sadde^ making .3. ^^J wwJVvAvs. T. or SGR in inftance it would be C Deputy. future. 6. thy fon. This group differs from No. Chalto go in or out. top. have nothing nearer than SGN. dee. B. compound word of 'V. 5.2. I am very doubtful as to the true 1. term " WN. 2. "him." fing.

"The fire. particle "if. as in the infcription. pa. fail. mowing of meadows." and prefix B. a forefather. at that time.Tranjtation of the . that. Chu. or opprefs." GG." n ol"der to protect. "then. As before. GG. 1 ' ." or "the foundation. the "The With fhearing. to fhow. or be fruftrated. father. &c. on this account. Bouk. to be loft or miffing. after . or to hedge round. K. fpeak. fVV. r> A^ Y-Q. as a conjunction. AB. fpeech. GGSGG." 99 LV that. " to move quickly or cheerfully. Same V." before. Same as No." // u. " to wander. D.. a word. or abide. * "to hedge in. adv." referring to paft or future time "therefore. to lodge.""to proverb. V fleece. Winged "not. from." . a thing. As _^ A or A/\ /\ ' ?. wool morn off. in. a benefacbut with the A 1. 187 Y7 y V V V TW> Shuk. . LML. negative "O "perhaps. as before. or the young fuffix grafs after mowing. BRTS. &c. a maker. " \^ /v ^n> in." or F. with. Same as before. A tor. prefix "to. "fpeak. 3 V." 1 "a L. to perim." *. LLN. by word. dwell. go aftray. 31. by. V TO GZK." "confufion. AZ." ML. to run> a runner ^ to rum u P n J to aflail." Figure. "perplexity.

" mediator. " and." V. ing. LAAL. into the midft of. or hold faft." &c." . with. en- fe^A7 Pt^Hr Belt. " to furround. The Ancient Ones of the Earth. into. This appears to be a compound no." &c. LI. but open at the top. LIALRou. as before. confine. nothing. " To bind up. Vt*NV. . a place walled round." &c. as before. from." nyn. "to " either with a prefix. or together. . to embrace." and fee. " My God." Rou. &c." or "to interpofe. "God. afpecl. prep. open court or building. by. and A V i." "failAL. or word of LA. ZR TSR. of." &c. &c." *' CHTSR. To fhow. Chaldee." and AL." "appearance. not. iy.ioo in. " in. among." hence. B. " interpofer. or alluding to the Aflyrian god " Court of a temple. . denoting "defect. out of.. " The true God. <|1?ra> " an viron. Chu.

Thus.CHAPTER The Sun worfhipped VI. Forfter's Sir H. no mere images of fancy. As the new world. or of Omnifcience . Rawlinfon and others theory. attributes. fymbolical of ubiquity bulls are thus no idle creations. HERE is no doubt that the gods of the heathen were the heavenly bodies but it is equally certain that they worfhipped thefe bodies in conjunction with certain mortal creations. the type of intellect of the bull was the fymbol of ftrength and power. THE NUMERALS. as being the moft worfhipped ." Under the fymbolic form of the winged human-headed his bull they gave expreflion to tradition had fpoken darkly. RawRawlinfon's errors in his numerals linfon's Temen Bar Singular coincidences between the Author's theory and the conjectures of Critical notice of the Rev. and the wings of the eagle were Thofe winged or Omniprefence. body or of Omnipotence. glorious body God of in the vifible creation : " That with furpaffing glory this crown'd look'd from his fole dominion. of which the The human head was and knowledge. in Aflyria under the form of a Bull Infcriptian Author's difcovery of the found on the back of a winged Bull Numerals on the Black Marble Obelifk Annals of Aalpharr. C. the Aflyrians the fun. have inftrucled races of men that have parted They .

years.). myfterious his fires. revolving and re-revolving away more than 3. and in order to facilitate the work. had the three upper ones been feparate elements. I began forming a vocabulary or lexicon of every them ? The word found upon the monument (from the folio volume of the infcriptions publifhed by the authorities of the Britifh Mufeum. correfponding word in Hebrew or Whilft profecuting Englifh meaning. under the fuperintendence of Sir H. This led me I to think that there was more meaning in them than was aware of at that time. as will be perceived. I obferved that thefe two groups were preceded by a fingle character or element.000 : the vaft expanfe in. not in illuminating heaven's (whofe) going out is nothing to equal fails who coming return. is compofed of five Now. I formed the Obelifk. refolution of giving my verfion of the infcriptions on the Black Marble Obelifk." There has been in the courfe allufions to the AfTyrian numerals I naturally afk by what means this work frequent the reader will very . this work a certain group of characters or elements would it obtrude themfelves. I was inclined at firft to give the group the phonetic power of cc Min" but I did not I next came record it as a word. and now they fpeak to us language equalled only by the infpired voice of The following is a tranflation from an infcrip" Made tion on the back of one of thefe winged bulls cc I am Almighty. The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and the two lower elements would fimilarly Rawlinfon). C. upon the fixth group in the plate.IO2 again in Ifaiah." dwelling in heaven's circle. 1863. joined together they would have formed the primitive letter M. arrive at a knowledge of of anfwer to this queftion will lead me to the relation of what I deem an important difcovery in connection with the infcriptions on the Black Marble In the month of October. . which. with its its Arabic and : have made the letter N. with the fix elements all diftincl:. of which I could make nothing was the fifth in confecutive order of the numerals (Plate IX. to reprefent the fupreme God.

and XIII. will (how the refult of my dif- fome fingular coincidence. he gives the XI. "/'. and Plate IX. it Ideograph. and XXIII. in the total II. with the former I was to make it fuit the interpreobliged to give it rather an arbitrary twift " The firft. AwlefW (as feen in Plate IX. from 6 to 15. Rawlinfon could not have known the groups referred to were numerals. &c. the Lamed or L. but upon comparing it with the original the Awleph turns out to be a Lamed or L. XII. as feen in Plate IX. Rawlinfon. it matters not whether the character has the fame meaning. had given the exact number of the reign of his fuppofititious H. or.) of the primitive alphabet. Then it read. (Dr. and he does not tell us there is any other matter between the invocation and the firft year's annals of Temen Bar. year) up to the XX. inftead of giving the XXI." graphs to make BLACK WHITE How very convenient this fyftem of Ideo- ! . for he tells us that the firft fourteen lines are taken up with an invocation to the Aflyrian gods. Hebrew copy." " O/the fecond.) Again. Sir H. XXII. Now may be ftated confidently that the annals of the king (whoever he may be) do not commence until nearly the clofe of the twenty-fixth line. But in Sir Henry's fyftem it is an be long or Jbort. and followed by a group of fix elements. it was the right thing in the right place. 103 the At the time I made this difcovery I was not aware that Sir H." &c. Hinckes fays they commence on the twenty-fecond line. by covery. of years Temen Bar Sir : king commence on the it fifteenth or fixteenth line. But in adopting the right character. it fuited admirably. over 1 This Awleph.Annals of Aalpharr. "the fecond. year. but immediately following " In the the invocation he goes on to interpret thus firft year of my reign I crofled the Upper Euphrates. but alike in both cafes.." tation . I made it A. Rawlinfon's Temen Bar. " O/the firft. the initial of AL.. Rawlinfon had difcovered any numerals." thus leaving us to infer that the annals of the &c. was copied from the Folio Volume of Infcriptions. after giving the annals and the numerals in confecutive order (with the exception of the IV. but upon fubfequently perufing fome of the Afiatic journals I faw that he had either difcovered them. I followed up the clue thus obtained. Look Numbers L. "the" (Arabic). Now." and fo on.

" inftead of Awleph." we find them in the order Sir H." or " fo many captives taken or killed. for wherever he finds a numeral he reads it as " fo many times crofled the Euphrates. A. and XXIII." or " fo many cities taken or burnt. fc^ X " if y u * k at the P rimi ~ . the firft numeral followed by a group reprefenting AS (or) S 1 which in Arabic means "principium rei." &c." we but. Rawlinfon calls his " Simple B. in its place . XXII. each element having its own individual value.) Now. as I have done. L.). Rawlinfon was of his tranflations from the Black Marble Obelifk . the edge of the obelifk being fo broken that the numeral is quite obliterated.104 again. they fhould be (XXI." or <c the beginning of a thing. find upon c< Monureferring to Layard's that there is no numeral at all to be found. year. . Cf *The Ancient Ones of the Earth. elfe he could have eafily fupplied the proper can only come to the conones. We clufion ignorant of thefe or was very carelejs in particular groups being numerals. in which there are from one to nine elements to form an individual letter. on referring to Layard's Monuments of Nineveh. But more of this anon. proceed with I my difcoveries refpecting the nume- found that the numerals were preceded by a fingle character^ which I fubfequently found to be Lamed. Rawlinfon did not certainly know thofe particular groups to be numerals. The numerals are the ikeleton upon which he builds up the body of his tranflation and the very fact of the numerals being compofed of from one to nine elements. read by the primitive 1 There is a very curious and laughable coincidence in what Sir H. (Vide Plate IX. To rals. and there he gives the numeral XXVI. It appears to me that he has made his imperfect knowledge of the numerals the fole foundation that Sir H. "of. his fupervifion. Rawlinfon proceeds rightly again until he comes to the XXIX." Then the group of fix elements. muft be fubverfive of his fanciful alphabet. ments. The laft three errors I look upon as almoft proof pofitive that Sir H.

that Rawlinfon's fimple live alphabet you will find forms Smith's (ftupid) firft or beginning. Selimarim. as read by the primitive right alphabet. vol. and laftly to Shalmanezer II. Rawlinfon (during the laft 20 years it has been afcribed to Ninus." by right of birth. firft who was by and after page king that He reigned iv. From what has been faid I infer that the annals on this interefting monument ARE NOT the annals of any of the fuppofititious kings afcribed to it by Sir H. the CH commuted for K. Temen Bar. him Alaparus^ and who reigned 3 Sari. Sari of 3600 years each. or BKU. Aalpharr. are following group tefted by the fame means will give BCHU. 125." But in Arabic AS(a)S means - me . thirty-one.)." alphabet. thine by right of birth. Reckoning a year for a day it would be equal to twenty-nine years feven months and five days." "ASS. fupreme king." Then follow the annals of the year. and and then the group it is. And the annals of every fucare preceded by the words tranflated above.Rawlinfons Errors in bis Numerals. that Alorus of reigned Babylon was the birth a Chaldean. which means ^ thine The fecond year's annals begin with. with the modern prefix B and the Greek termination. We 10 read in Walker's Ancient Mythology. Aalpharr.. in Polt's Nineveh of a king whofe name was Ballipar-es. with fuffix K. ceeding year Who is this Aalpharr ? I think he is to be identified as the Ballipares of profane hiftory Alliparr or Aalpharr. "es" -who was contemporaneous with Gideon. by right of birth" " Of the fecond (year fupplied) of thy reign. within a year and a few months of the read alfo reign of the Obelifk king. 105 " AALF or VRR and the ." Read fecond of thy reign. collectively. but the annals of Aalpharr." Then follows a group which means " fupreme king. (( thine "Of the whofe name occurs frequently (or one very much like it) on the monument. viz. and the prefumption is that the Obelifk is the one> Aalpharr. The three names are very fimilar in found and in ortho- We name graphy.

giving the vertical primitive Vau) the power of 5. Norris tells us Even where he is nothing more than a " Any one among them and its X ftoration not its fite ^ 2 V 3 touched. And after giving us a number of readings where this group is found. 4). muft in that capacity. each other as poffible a phonograph for the fame word and of the fame meaning." and it is the nega- alfo doubled. (Plate VI. in the height . ( y 9 A. 3) viz. medley of nonfenfe.S." .A. to be a difference of opinion There appears between H. Here we have a fimple group of two xii. and laftly the numeral VII. and the digging of its water not we muft at -" have fix characters VZVSV^) laboured Again: "Any of one its among them (4) to the palace therein. " doubled again. the fame. / think be founded the name of Sardanapalus we muft give the fign in (R." feems certain of their renderings. wedge 3) for his numeral VII. an ideograph for a word. but it is fays. vol. The fame tially figure (3).io6 Sir The Ancient Ones of the Earth. placed to the In left all of a decade ( <^ ) the power of 50 other refpects their numerals are effen(fig. N. Mr. queftion the pronunciation of 'pal. alfo the certainly reprefents c ideograph for an afon.' " any one whatever. Rawlinfon and Dr. Hinckes with refpecl to the The latter takes Rawlinfon's " Bar and Pal" numerals.' and bar] and in elements with five different powers. only differently grouped. and when (the fig. " let it not. a phonetic fyllable in a long name. But this is not all. page 405). re- U 3?\jf V (here undertook. Rawlinfon " Awleph. it : For example not Mr. fingly it is " water" and fuffixed " My" then doubled it is. that <c thefe readings are doubtful.J. all as oppofite to a letter. Norris in his Affyrian Lexicon gives us a few more meanings to this Indianrubber (caoutchouc) character (fig. " Ai" the female power of the fun tive particle. be it not.

Rawlinfon's Errors in his Numerals." and pp. or the Jale R. there he will fee (on the firft Bilingual tablet) the word " " Tadani " Danat. y 1 p. and not the fceptical distortion of Gana Duniyas. " "pleafure. But the pronunciation of the word might be khirat y or " " " according as we at"). flayed not (4). ftrainings. and laftly." read at the Britifh AfTociaj . call the Bilingual infcriptions as a proof of what I affert. as its name imports 1 full c< of every " tree that is pleafant to the fight and good for food (Gen. and. and he will foon find them to be a mafs of unintelligible contradictions. the wild conjecture of the Garden of Eden. flave he is uncertain about (as ufual). or thirat (or any other to the letter kh its normal power of khi or adopt one give of its fecondary values. 1870. owing to the doubtful form of the fifth Phoenician letter and the many-found value (nonfenfe) of the cuneiform equivalent. intoxicated with the fumes arifing fromfelf-love.) " This name of the of a Jlave named Ar-ba-hil-khi-rat. " a garden. of arbitrary of inconfiftent poftuof what appears to be a rigmarole of lates." lovelincfs. I tell him for his information. GN. zi or M." See Rawlinfon's cc Notes on the Site of the Terreftrial Paradife. the feat of its buildings knew not In fatl> the tranflations (4). Let the thoughtful ftudent carefully and critically examine into his works. the word Tadaniy which he tranfpofes girl. ii. of the Aflyrian philologifts are only to be compared with the ravings of the Delphic Pythia. tion. fuch as the above. of bafelefs conjectures. The Garden of Eden. 9) " an enclofure of one of the earlieft gods worfhipped in the country. was a garden fair and beautiful. 1 07 power. in fine." And it is by fuch uncertain means that he arrives at the name of the flave into Again. who." . EDN. zirat. are compelled to give forth from time to time wild rhapJodies of uncertain and equivocal meanings. adulation and praife. tranfpofed into would make us believe " the faffing over. to pleafe their thoughtlefs admirers." which he (Sir H. Let him look at what they philological Barnumifms. into it ventured not" (4).

to her god for protection." " this over or giving up is always reprefented in paffing thefe legal documents by fome derivative from the AfTyrian A " root Nadan. give. from word Nadan has reference to " uncleannefs In all its bearings the and impurity. " The e." &C. it is feminine. root in Nathan. a gift" certainly. calls the correfponding Phoenician letters cannot by any pqffibility have any reference to the firft line of cuneiatic writing any more than it can to the nineteenth : A The whole infcription may contain a or twentieth line. unhappy (woman). confequently it would be DVT. be ijale? gift I have taken the firft line of cuneiatic writing that Sir will fee You Scriptures in H. thus In humble fup: plication (cuneiform). O Arial." it is an unmiftakeable Vau i.io8 ." What Sir H. of the Britifh given a number of Greek infcriptions." both terms ufed in the original copy of the Ezekiel xvi. he is wrong in giving the fecond Phoenician letter the power of cc TV. not at obfcene and impure cha- Nathan is " applicable to the prefent cafe. T. and 3jrd verfe: cc They give 1 But how can a (Nathan) GIFTS (Nadan) to all. R. Newton. fru. anointed of God. " to give anfwering to the In what language does Sir Nathan. root find Nadan ? I He fays- it anfwers to the Hebrew Nadan." . and by the application of the fimple primitive alphabet it reads letter cc for letter. this AfTyrian root Hebrew H. of an racter. and it would read " But he tells us that fad. R. a word of very different meaning ." fad unhappy woman waiting for her enemy. pafling over or the Jale of a flave. gives us in the plate of the tablet. preferve (me) under the fhadow of thy The Phoenician on the margin reads " wings." In the firft place. Hebrew means " all deny it moft emphatically. but a gift of a peculiar defcription. and word for word. for thy protecting care. 1 by C. at Halicarnaflus is Mufeum. which the firft line prayer In the hiftories of the difcoveries made feems to favour. while " to to offer" to ftretch forth the hand. The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

Sir "Bilingual Tablets. or give. dedicates to the infernal deities the perfon who ftole her bracelet (<TT<X. give a Adin. gives us groups as " Tadan? which he then is (he fays) derived from the Aflyrian root Nadan. which to give? equivalent Nathan. " A fad.TO(. he gives as Nadin. In New two Series." and may be or perhaps even as Iddin. and of the perfon who receives Nakon. " to tranfpofes into alfo <c DaNaT. " Nadan." This ftrikingly illuftrates the tranflation of the firft tablet given above. xv. religion. which he very well knows. In vol. of the perfon who feduces her hufband away from her and her two children. and for the caufe of little more literature. and Jcience. to give? and the AfTyrian cuneiform equivalents he gives as above. fame vol. made by one " Profochan. me alfo in like manner is elicited that weights." Nadin. Now mark the difference." in pronounced Again. line 13. little clofer into Tablets. But let us look a vol. to " . R." art.Rawlinforfs Errors in his Numerals. So uncertain is this fyftem that not one group or name can be depended upon. and enter heart and foul into this deeply interefting Subject. And goes on to fay in a note that reprefents the root " page 400. the wife of Nakon. i) numeral 52. of thefe Bilingual the Royal Afiatic Society's "Journal." devotes any one who has defrauded her with falfe Another is &c. i.\YI) . Niddina (which he gives elfewhere as Mo). the firft group (No. Old Series (fame " On the is a Orthography of the (Tynan paper work)." H. When will the literati of England awake from their culpable apathy. unhappy woman. 109 which a certain female whofe name is not given. Cuneiform Names/' where he fays that the following A groups the gift " >< I- ^ % 2 - ni fy is "giver of an AfTyrian then he Now mark.

David's." found a very curious collection of bilingual tablets. of Jpice of truth in this. Rawlinfon. 1866. New Among Series. the Lord Bifhop very of St. Rawlinfon has been one of the moft important phi* lological achievements of the In reality. 1866. Plate VI. AfTyrian and Phoenician. B. (at attention to the ? prefent) occult fcience of Afly- rian philology Why mould thoufands of gentlemen highly gifted by nature and education. tablets. would be one and the fame? So much for the Bilingual A BLACK WHITE. the deciphering of which by Sir H. and I cannot regard it. of a chief who figured wars againft . and the opinion of Sir H. Prefident of the Royal Society of Literature. DAVID'S. Sir " H. April 25th. Afiatic Wednefday. "Bilingual Tablets. c< in the ordinary characters. or whether (hall be which. according to his fyftem of variants. or B C." Vol. Rawlinfon. The Lord Bifhop of ST. fays that (fig. the fo-called Phoenician key had added but very little to our knowledge either of the Aflyrian alphabet or language. c thefe will be ' C. and capable of judging of the matter if they will but give their attention to it. but his enof the matter. 2.C. fpeaking of but he cannot depend on this diftinctive epithet I its phonetic power. cc pafl year :' A clear proof] value" There is fome little my Lord Bifhop. Now the find to be the in the name (Auz(i)ts) Gillirri. RAWLINSON.1 10 "The Ancient Ones of the Earth. tire ignorance There Sir is another fingular coincidence worth mention- certain groups of ing. pin their faith to half-a-dozen men who are always disagreeing among themfelves whether fhall be B. on the fame work. I will now give the reader the opinion of a learned dignitary of the Church. but in the other my Lord Bifhop difplays not only his ful- fome flattery.) Chaldean titles it feems to conftitute a diftinfiUve epithet ." H. K. thereas of any ejjential fore. I. little that you the know very matter. Journal.

. in the preceding chapters. and which I He goes on to ftate that " the read as Dab. 2). it is brief. 2. hitherto is entirely antagoniftic to this all theories nearer! propounded upon its fubject. He " fays On my glance fig. i) occurs many times on the Black Marble Obelifk. Mr. fig. fubject is carried out. face A. but the evidence fupplied by one of the words (the firft deciphered) outweighs volumes of learned conjecture. On the fecond ftep from the top. Sir H. Forfter's book was publifhed. and this name (as feen in Plate VI. From what has been faid already the reader will perceive that the theory now fubmitted to the public in this work." (Plate II. Forfter finds a taken by atfault. Forfter's alphabet. application of known alphabetic powers to known alphabetic forms.3. containing only five words. is The that approach to principle (in Rev. to prevent the entering of 1. or Dabab.4." This was precifely the principle I adopted ten years Let us take before Mr. fig. whofe theory is. 1 1 1 This name (Auz(i)ts) occurs three times in the four gradines of the Black Marble Obelifk." But why not give the firft he deciphered? On his firft Plate II. Aram (figure i)." infcription I Over it : there a fhort infcription firft (Plate II. fig. reader look at Mr." &c. at the obferved a word the Jecond as read by me. or Dabab. one or two fpecimens of his tranflations to fee how far " like known forms with like known his principle of words only] " The by the powers" can be "A flab. fays that the name of AfTyria does not occur in any of the infcriptions .Singular Coincidences. caftle ift. marked glance he takes two letters (see with an afterifk) from two different groups. i). but it is well known " that the name of "Aram is given to many parts in the Eaft. &c.2. which he Let renders according to the Arabic Dab. C. Rawlinfon I confined him fecurely. any unprejudiced and fay whether there is the leaft likenefs between the and the characters he has picked out Himyaritic B or infcription over D . Forfter. occurs this expreffion " (according to the primitive alphabet:) Auz(i)ts fought fearfully. fupreme king.

according to monument or obelifk has four fides. Rawlinfon has done commenting upon fingle . Rawlinfon's claffification. than to have cut out a part of two different words. Rawlinfon and Layard to be. mences with that highly interesting monument of antiand after freely quity. filled with armed foldiers. C. grounded on the principle device. and given them an arbitrary meaning to fuit the device. and finds pictured before him the whole definition the murculus or rolling tower. "like known alphabetical forms with like known next looks into Golius for alphabetical powers.1 12 as The Ancient Ones of the Earth. in his fpecimen meet of his " Affyrian Dictionary. Mr. Sir H. I drank. He goes on to fay. Hinckes "its clear waters were abundant. and with a battering-ram. the fame group in each cafe. Norris."the muddy overflow of its waters. The Rev." has the following. Rawlinfon. and then to fum up all in this grandilocc It would be difficult to find a legend quent ftyle fo comprehenfively explanatory of its device as this 1 : I perfectly word. he proceeds to give us his the fubjecl. in the way of deciphering and of " legend forms. B. . Sir H. "The remaining words are equally clear. Dr.'* I drank. Forfter to have taken the infcription word by word^ and to have given fomething like a connected and reafonable interpretation. the Black Marble Obelifk what Sir H. C. &c." Then he : He turns to the flab (which he had forgotten to examine). does not Mr. Forfter confiftently follow it out ? Let us take another fpecimen of this gentleman's abilities as He then coma decipherer of the Aflyrian cuneiform." the root. c. and he finds the following definition "Dababat. Would it not have been more fatisfactory for Mr. D. an engine of war a kind of battering-ram." a fpecimen of the agreement take the following example." but he does not give us the words. Norris "of its flowing naufeous waters. and there are five feries of figures between the AfTyrian philologifts -Mr. Forfter is clearly as much at fea as he aflerts the Meflrs." I drank. this and. and like powers and like Now." agree in the principle laid but why and believe it to be the only fafe rule down. they marked As A." are 1 own views upon it. .

confequently there are five epigraphs. Mr. he applies it to the firft paunch. the legend is fo far from the device. reads the cuneiform from right to left. who is feen in the I firft and fecond feries. and calls that " Dar In the fifth epigraph alfo honeycomb tripe/' the word occurs three times. This he tranflates a Then With arbitrary fyftem of deciphering them. 1 1 3 running round the four fides. the right in i). but in no inftance is the group or legend under the device. Mr. Forfters men and each animals feries Theory. or third epigraphs. of the earth. but there that will fuit the device in the firft. for the information of thofe who of antiquity. is a fimilar object. this figure. in the right-hand corner. textile fabrics.Mr. vafes. In the fourth epigraph to the left of face c he finds a word that feems to anfwer his purpofe (fee Plate III. in the under figure in the fifth feries. Indeed. and immediately fecond feries. firft feries. conto the opinions of all the Aflyrian trary philologifts. ct Forfter fays that the fecond figure is carrying honeythis obferve here. fecond. which is called an epigraph. that the five feries of 1 It may be have not feen as well to this interefting relic illuftrate the tribute or conciliatory gifts from the king figures appear to or chief of fome diftant country. Forfter cafts about him to find a word is no word that will fuit the figures of his choice. contain- water-melons. bearing a fimilar tray to thofe on fide c. is figures feen a figure bearing on his head a kind of tray. Mr. another tray with articles refembling our modern carrying 1 There is alfo another one-pound bundles of cigars. that no reafonable being could fuppofe there ever was any connection between them. fide A. precious woods. it feems. ing what appear to be fruits of the earth or fomething very much like them . which occurs on the laft fide D. excepting at the conclufion of each epigraph. . which he applies to the firft figure to the " Dar from the Arabic. which are borne by fixty attendants and to be the produds their officers to the king. fig. Forfter. fide A. A. Under of figures there is an infcription in the cuneiform character. In the firft feries of on fide c." figure to the right in the fecond feries. minerals. for they confift of animals (tame and and what appear wild).

bearing paunches uncut. in profecuting inquiries on the principle in queftion." Then he which. and alfo under a figure for the carrying a fkin of wine or fome kind of liquor of that feries holds in his hands a glafs or leading figure tumbler. it . and the one behind him has an open veflel. unclean different meanings. or between the D'S of In fact. with the rendering by means of the Hebrew language. But I think apparently to dip out of occasionally. I mall clofe this notice of Mr. He finds it under a figure carrying fomething on his moulder like an elephant's tufk. and milii genus." he gives it the name of grain. 6. 7 is the four concluding words of each epigraph. means (fig. " med teeth. dentes defflui three other groups. us now look at Mr. and he calls it " Dar. e. it occurs under a camel. under a figure bearing a bundle of (ticks. and III. like alphabetical forms with like powers. he fays 2). cc dharoo the fame word is found. Thus." comb and the ! firft cc He alfo gives this word five confequently. at the Again. the laft but three." He has alfo found dar . is the tranflation by means of the primitive alphabet. the word would have had many more names equally oppofite to each other. Forfter's works with an extract from his own book : "It was /. fig. has been faid of the <f Legend and Device" prinenough Let ciple to fatisfy all candid readers of its ufeleflhefs. . Forfter's the principle of " like forms with like powers will act. but very different from the fig. 5. and fig. In the example before us it will be feen at a glance that there is not the flighteft refemblance between No.1 14 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. . tripe.'* finds under a figure bearing a bag on his moulder. med teeth." If he had ftrictly followed out his own principle. under a baboon. end of each epigraph and from its frequent repetition he gives it the fignification of <c quod frequenter penditur tributum frequently paid tribute. i D " Alphabet to fee how far or B and the Hamyaritic Plate II. of inconfiftencies. the thing feems to be a mafs Plate II. In Plate III. as oppofite in idea as black to white. alphabetical that I found its alphabet limited to ten (10) letters.

najcitur ridiculus mus. 115 this alphabet that I obtained be mentioned.Mr." . and the refult ' It was literally. Yet fo far it proved monies . Former's while it Theory. and to which I have here alluded only by anticipation.' fatisfactory. Parturiunt was mofl difappointing. as demonftrating the invariable application in all thefe primitive pictorial monuments of the prinall the refults hereafter to was by means of ciple of Legend and Device.

of Trinity College.. Dublin. as will be feen in the Indeed. Wall. a factory. Wall Rawlinfon's Method more fully exHis Doubts plained Difcrepancy in the Hiftory of his Alphabets Rawlinfon's Tranflation ofTemen Bar's Brick Coincidences: " " White is black. be in a ftate of doubt from firft to laft. Sir VII. |T muft be clear to every perfon who has made the prefent fubject in any degree a ftudy. applied to the exprefling the fimple elements of articulate founds. Rawlinfon's Ideographs A (Tynan Opinion of it by Dr. confifting of fo many and fuch variplicated ous ingredients. : the fcience of AfTyrian decipherment is yet in its a commencement has been made> and that is all!' infancy that : Dr. Rawlinfon confefTes himfelf to fequel. RAWLINSON'S ALPHABET. . it is quite inconceivable that they could. could not have been. for he fays cc It would be difingenuous to flur over the broad fact.CHAPTER SIR H. fays: "Surely fuch comcharacters. in the firft inftance. Hinckes. and this opinion is largely fhared in by fome of the moft learned men of the prefent day. in his efTay on the Rawlinfonian Alphabet. Sir H. Alphabet H. want of fomething more tangible than conjecture. and Black is White Pote's Nineveh Bonor- Darknefs vifible mi's Nineveh " Bunfen's opinion of the Syftem of Dr. that the fyftems hitherto fent forth to the world in this particular branch of philology are far from conclusive or fatiThere feems to be a void.

" &c." and in the fecond inftance we have n. or " The entire phonetic plete and uniform articulation. is therefore the only better calculated left to alone). that certain characters reprefent two entirely difllmilar founds founds fo diffimilar that neither can they be brought into relation with each other. I conjecture that the fyllable in queftion may have been the fpecific name of the object which the fign or letter was fuppofed to depict. are we the name of the object. as applied to written ideographic. Awleph. water. cc Whilft in cafes where a ing to the above fyftem !) fingle alphabetical power appertains to the fign. nor will the other . and D." Rawlinfon. cc neareft approach to the firft cafe is DO. alone. " and fome myftify the fubject fyllabic . . a " houfe. and fometimes one only of the founds of which the fyllable is comox. ftructure is thus mown to be in fo rude and elementary a ftate as to defy the attempt to reduce fyftem." mim. We characters. : H." (Thus if N. but to conclude that it is mere wafte of time and labour to attempt to analyze them by methods in accordance with notions hitherto in Sir vogue upon the fubject. (The It certainly cannot be maintained hae.Sir H. at any rate. Rawlinforis AJfyrian Alphabet. reprefents an where a fign : " pofed. Beth. it to A ftill more formidable difficulty. fince augmented to 300. in fpeaking of his alphabet of 150 letters. A. B. / think. fays are not quite fure what Rawlinfon can mean by this term think the term. 117 no alternative therefore Teems left to us. inftead of Cf This appears to be the meaning accordfather.) that the phonetic portion of the alphabet is altogether that every phonetic fign reprefents a comfyllabic." or a ftall for cattle. it would Jeem as if that power had been the dominant found in In this way. any definite one of which is indeed I can only remotely conjecture the explanation. again. A B. and 500 varicc The alphabet is partly ideographic " (we ants. able to account for the anomalous condition of many of the AfTyrian figns which fometimes reprefent phonetically a complete fyllable." or letter reprefents a fyllable." therefore IN. will be an " ox houfe. pae. and n.

the can always be recognized. repeated of instances fo as to reduce almoft infinitely the chance of error. but in their whole the object of courfe being to render phonetic ftructure them generally intelligible. nor. Sir H. power be found articulation. I have added nearly fifty characters to the 100 which were previoufly known through the Perfian key . " as. Pafaegadae triliteral. if we Jhould we be able to ajcertain its AJjyrian The infcriptions at Perfepolis and . . To this fafhion. each confonant being^ . of triple publication are we indebted for our knowledge of the Aflyrian infcriptions. then. name I . and other appreciation of the phonetic diftinctions peculiar to the two languages. . to enter at all into the full and original " In fome refpects the AfTyrian alphabet cc is more difficult to e. a multitude ! : 1 Since augmented to 300. and to this acquaintance with l the phonetic value of 1 5o figns is. and each combination having a different character. and a very excellent bafis has been obtained for a complete arrangement of are almoft are in the alphabets. we neither know the object. have been then fupplied the means of determining with more or lefs certainty the value of about 100 Babylonian characters. in By mere comparifon. limited my prefent knowledge of the Babylonian and AfTyrian Limited How many would Sir Henry alphabets. In the latter. every inftance trilingual and They engraved not only in three different but the alphabets varying from each other languages. and the Coptic object depicted name of the object will ufually give in its initial form the phonetic power of the hieroglyph .capable of two combinations. Rawlinfon's (/'. however. I believe.1 1 8 "The Ancient Ones of the Earth. whereas in Aflyrian the machinery by which the power is evolved is altogether obfcure: did know it. not only in their elemental figns. By careful comparifon of thefe duplicate forms of writing the fame name. alphabet) be made out than the Egyptian." Rawlinfon have ? But this is not all the confonant founds recognized in the AfTyrian language are only fixteen.


in the Hiftory

of his Alphabets.



ap, ip, up, pa, pi, pu." Confequently, this would give It then proceeds into different characters. ninety-fix

frefh combinations, and if carried out to its fulleft extent would give a lift of between eight and nine hundred

But certain phonetic laws (not to be arrived at) intervene to check this exuberant growth, and even then the known Aflyrian alphabet is thus raifed
different characters!

to between

two hundred and

forty and





two hundred and There are other

" determinatives," to be characters, which are called of words in order to determine prefixed to certain claffes

wedge placed name of a the vertical wedge preceded by two horizontal man, and wedges tells us to expect the name of a god. (It is a
before a

their character.

Thus, the

fingle vertical



us that that




fingular coincidence that the three characters juft defcribed, according to the primitive alphabet, mean " chief" and alfo " Then, again, there are ideo-


graphs and monograms to fwell the number nearly to three hundred, befides many more whofe phonetic power conis wholly unknown yet they make this important that the Aflyrian language is unmiftakeably feffion, Semitic and bears the clofefl relation/hip to Hebrew. " Five Ancient MoProfeflbr Rawlinfon, in his narchies," afTigns the original invention of letters to a race had broken up and period before the Hamite He fays: " They adopted a fyftem of picdivided. at the communication of ideas ture-writing which aimed the rude reprefentation of natural objects, and through not only to the tribes who belonged, as it would feem, defcended the Nile from Ethiopia, but to thofe alfo who, perhaps diverging from the fame focus, parTed eaftThe original ward to the valley of the Euphrates. characters for in procefs of time to pictures were reduced the convenience of fculpture, and thefe characters being which correfponded with the phonetic values,

There is fufficient the objects reprefented. of alphabetical formaevidence to fhow that the procefs tion was nearly fimilar to that which prevailed in Egypt.


names of

The Ancient Ones of the Earth. In particular it is true there is a marked difference



the refpective employment of hieroglyphic and cuneiform characters : in the former alphabet each character has but one fingle value, while in the latter the variety of

founds which the fame

ufed to exprefs is of alphabetic emquite perplexing. does not argue a diverfity of origin for the ployment fyftem of writing, it merely indicates a difference of ethnological clarification in the nations among whom the fcience of writing was developed, as the inhabitants of the valley of the Nile were effentially but one nation and ufed but one vocabulary. The objects which the

may be


this difcrepancy

hieroglyphics reprefented were each known to the people of the country by one fingle name, and each hieroglyphic

had thus one

fingle value


but in

the valley of the

Euphrates the Hamite nation feems to have been broken up into a multitude of diftinct tribes, who fpoke languages identical or nearly identical in organization and grammatical ftructure, but varying to a very great extent in vocabulary and the confequence of this, that as there was but one picture alphabet common to the whole aggregate of tribes, each character had necefTarily' as many phonetic values as there were diftinct names for the object which it reprefented among the different fections of the nations." But is not this latter paragraph " the wifh which is father to the thought" of the Rawlinfonian theory;

purely conjectural?
Scriptural facts.





it is

contrary to

The Books of Mofes

are the only

we can

refer to for events in thofe pre-hiftoric times, them we learn that Abram went out from

works and Ur of

the Chaldees into Mefopotamia, dwelling amongft the Semitic and Hamitic tribes that fubfequently he went


Egypt, and from thence into Canaan, and dwelt amongft the Oaks of Mamre in the midft of the Hamite race, who, as we are told, were broken up into a multitude of diftinct tribes, but who all fpoke languages nearly identical in grammatical ftructure, having but one alphabet


to the whole, but each individual

letter or cha-

Tranjlation of *Temen Bar's Brick.




many phonetic values as there were difa multitude of values is it poffible that Abram, Ifaac, or Jacob, in their travels to and
as tinct tribes,
/. e.


fro in the Eaft, could underftand fuch a It jargon ? does not appear that there was any bar to that free intercourfe of fpeech which we naturally expect to find

who fpoke the fame language. In the of this work I have fpoken on the univerfality early part of the primitive language, and of the non- difperfion of tongues, therefore I need not fay any more upon that
a people

point here.

Rawlinfon's hiftory to fee cleared up. In the Behuftan or Perfian alphabet he has forty letters (vide Plate VIIL), and fpeaking of the Behuftan infcripis


a difcrepancy in Sir



his alphabet





tions he fays

They are engraved in three different and each language has its peculiar alphabet-^ the languages, alphabets indeed varying from each other not merely in the characters being formed by a different aflbrtment of the elemental figns which we are accuftomed to term the arrow-head or wedge, but in their whole phonetic Further on he fays ftru6lure and organization." C There is, therefore, no doubt but that the alphabets of Aflyria, of Armenia, of Babylonia, of Sufiana, and of Elymais are, as far as ejfentials are concerned, one and cc eflentials" Sir H. Rawlinfon the fame." Now, by cannot here mean the letters of his alphabet; he muft mean the wedges or elements of which his letters are compofed and yet in fome inftances, where one or more of thefe wedges obtrude themfelves uninvitedly, they
: :



are called


non- ejfentials /"

According to


own account

the Aflyrian alphabet, he had (in 1850) 150 but his brother the proferTor, in the with 500 variants <c Five Ancient Monarchies," doubles the number, and

with this multitudinous alphabet they could not tranflate a very fimple infcription on a brick (fee Plate IV. fig. 2), and only within thefe laft few years have they come to the miferable fhift of adopting the infcription on the

above-named brick



Calneth, in the nominative and


genitive the Aflyrian cuneiform reached that point of perfection to juftify the affertion, beyond difpute, that the name of

The Ancient Ones of the Earth. I would afk, Has the cafes." development of

any particular king or city has been ftamped on a brick ? I anfwer moft emphatically No all has been doubt hear from him, the greateft of and conjecture. " I conAflyrian philologifts, fuch expreflions as thefe "I "I read the two names doubtfully," think," jecture," cc I cannot depend on its phonetic power/' and laftly, <c I will frankly confefs, indeed, that having mattered character and every Babylonian word every Babylonian



which any clue exifted in the trilingual tablets, either by direct evidence or by induction, I have been tempted on more occafions than one, in ftriving to apply the key thus obtained, to abandon the ftudy altogether, in utter What defpair of arriving at any fatisfactory refult." would be thought of a king in our day who would give

utterance to fuch a tautological rigmarole as Sir H. Rawlinfon afcribes to Temen Bar, the great grandfire of cc Temen Bar the great king, fupreme and powerful Pul

king, king of AfTyria, fon of AfTaradanapal the great king, fupreme and powerful king, king of ArTyria, fon of Abedbar, powerful king, king of the land of Aflyria,

of the


of Halah."



to be

fuppofed for


that the king of a nation which had flourished which had advanced in for more than a thoufand years all the arts and fciences, and even in literature (as the


fuch a

voluminous nature of its records teftify) would adopt method of perpetuating the genealogy of his In this family, and that only for three generations ?
tranflation the

word king occurs eight times, but the which I fuppofe to be taken to mean "king" group occurs ten times. Why I fuppofe (Plate VI. fig. 7)
to be fo taken

this particular

becaufe in the


" The monogram (Plate VI. fig. 7) which has the full of c MenJ may alfo poflibly ftand for c MelekJ power

Afiatic Journal,"

vol. xii.

H. Rawlinfon



according to the primitive alphabet,


fee this

group reprefenting the Hebrew word

G G,

" and where the ftem letter is repeated. roof. G G. and evibet. again. or even allowing only one-half to be monograms or words there would be far too few characters to warrant the above tranflation. The groups ce upon one brick which he interprets as Son of Abedbar. extent. from the comparatively large extent of their dominions. e. and to the number of diftinct chara&ers which appear to make up its alphaLetters differing widely in their forms. would unacquainted never fufpect the two were in faff thejame" Upon the fame principle we can prove that BLACK is very to be a "variant" of B WHITE. by allowing W ." on another he interprets as "fupreme and powerful Then. There are in this infcription forty-fix of cuneiatic characters. to be the common name of the Kings of the appears Amalekites. ff top. of ways . there is fcarcely a name upon any of the bricks that is twice given alike. Layardfays already alluded to the laxity conftruction and orthography of the prevailing in the language of the AfTyrian infcriptions." and the numacknowledges to be the numeral <c ber 8. " I have Mr. each containing from one groups to fix elements or wedges.Coincidences. which may be referred JJN. 123 which means. the groups which he at one time king." Probably he would fay " variants. Now." he interprets at another time as being part of <c King of the land of AfTyria. according to his own cc to this root A theory." /. article jj. fupreme. that we might the better teft it ? In fact. in which every group is a letter or monogram and allowing four letters to be the average of a word. This fhows a fingular coincidence . above all. that a perfon changed till at laft the with the procefs it has undergone. are dently the moft oppofite : The fhorteft name may be written interchangeable. every character in it may be in a variety word is fo altered. we find it ftated that G G." Numerals variants of words ! they are But a word or two here on this fyftem of variants. " above." <c M. in their phonetic powers. Rawlinfon give us the language by which he tranflates. H . or expanfe. Why does not Sir H. for in Parkhurft's Lexicon. cover.

" Our readers will fee on what foundation reft the hiftorical difcoveries . . for he fays ! : anomaly which cannot fail at firft to attract the attention and excite the aftonifhment of Orientalifts is. the only ground on which this Jtarfling " Ninetheory can be accepted for a moment. Sir H. expofing diftinctly that the reading or decipherment is yet in its infancy. it would be hazardous to aflign any pofitive date to the Palaces. it will be found that many characters^ greatly or altogether differing in form. although a conto no pofitive conmore frogrejs is required in But to proceed. or the want of a definite language. " From our limited knowledge of prefent Layard fays the character ufed in the infcriptions. ergo. the developments confequently too incomplete in themfelves. the primitive lapidary writing of the fame races. Mr.") Again: "The recoveries are too few. and to all alphabetical quite oppofite to fenfe and reafon : Indeed. and E of K . L I of A T of C I . . we can come fubject deciphering the character" And accordingly this felfevident uncertainty muft extend itfelf to the profefTed interpretations of the language by means of their alphabet ! upon the monarch. they are : and the fame thing a careful By Mr. ie Ancient Ones of the Earth.'* would indeed be an extraordinary thing if it were fo." very convenient method And it is by fuch improthis of folving difficulties A ! bable means thefe high authorities arrive at conclufions. Rawlinfon fyftems ancient or modern cc The himfelf feems to be aware of this . that whilft all the Semitic alphabetical fyftems with which we are acquainted are diftinguifhed for their rigour and compadtnefs. Layard goes on to fay of infcriptions more than once comparifon repeated. or to : afcribe their erection to any jecture clufion may be allowed. the words without founds (ideographs) we muft either denounce as a monftrous dottrine. occupying the fame feats." (POTE'S veh.124 of one <c ^ . are only varieties or variants of the fame letter. mould be conftructed on It a fcale of fuch extraordinary amplitude and laxity. It is evident from the writings of thefe gentlemen that they are dubious as to the truth of their own theory.

and warm them into expreffion with the magic arts of divination. and in their prefent ftate convey tive in its rejults. tradition.". conceals the features that curiofity afks learning to trace in their truth. we muft perforce give it creThis effort of reafon will be duly recompenfed dence. the figured veil of an unknown rite or myftic ceremonial. The world gazes on the disjected members and bones of AfTyrian antiquity. The fyftem of Aflyrian writing is extremely obfcure. while culties all ALL BE TRUE/' it Ibid. diffi- folves all the of the confequences. and demonftrative to the leaft reflective mind. clear." great feats of interpretation which fuch a Ibid. to fatisfy the importunities of knowledge . " The man as Sir H. concordant with and even eftablifhing fome earlier portions of Holy Writ. foflil The made has been evoked from its tomb . writers. and can combine thefe into a general and. are extremely limited and fragmenlittle that is pofttary. while courting the fterneft fcrutiny of the wideft refearch. but where is the charm that mall compel its voice to reveal the buried fecrets of the paft ? If the original fyftem is incomplete and contradictory IT CANNOT <f But if a new principle. indeed. and calls vainly for fcience to array the fcattered fragments into fhape. reconciles and explains alfo the contradictions we fancy or find in the original if. : will then poiTefs a calculus for every problem of antiquity . univerfal fyftem. or hiftory. even now. Rawlinfon has accomplifhed mould not be fuffered to blind us to the faft that our materials for Aflyrian hiftory. 125 unfortunately. at leaft fo far as chronological narrative is concerned. and all that has hitherto lain unknown or for me obfcure in the general hiftory of the world will combine into a fingle channel.Bonormfs Nineveh. in fact. obvious. bright. it arranges and Amplifies all that we pofTefs or can obtain of myth. after a partial elucidation of fuch infcriptions as have been found. and the language which it records is of only partially intelligible through the imperfect key " Nineveh and the Behuftan infcriptions. a mythic form or monftrous combination.BONORMI'S her Palaces/' .

" In one of the fyftem of Hinckes. fuch a fyftem Thus we fee. and what becomes of his fyftem vanimed like the cc bafelefs fabric of a vifion. This I fhall be able to prove in the courfe of this work (if I have hot done fo already). what has been done hitherto in the way of elucidating thofe dark and myfterious writings is extremely doubtful and unfatisfactory. fays: fpeaking may be admitted as one means of but Dr. now and that fome and new principle felf-evident. is wanted. Hinckes will not expect fubjeftive gueffing. neither one name^ can he authenticate in the whole of his renderings. Fox Talbot. I mean to fay moft emthat from the fyftem hitherto adopted by Sir phatically H. and Bunfen. may He make fome lucky then by means of his ideographs. ." that tence. from the foregoing extracts. at once fimple." Showing guefTes . not one Jenconclusive. In fact. The refults of his own ingenious guefles have indeed confiderably varied. in others. who work on the fame principle. And what has been already faid will apply equally to the fyftem of Dr. polyphones. Hinckes. and I believe few of them which were not already arrived at by Rawlinfon will be found to be word. clear. that it fhould be recognized as a fcientific method. Mr. Rawlinfon in his cuneiform tranflations. and homophones but ftrip him of thefe auxiliaries.126 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth.

not think it neceflary to make any apology for the contents of this chapter. in my opinion. befides. truth. . for the various works that have been written DO upon this occult fubjecl: are now before the world. Apology for the Contents of this Chapter Author's Motive for " Brandis " on the Writing Aflyrian Infcriptions and Mode of Decipherment Rawlinfon's "I am Darius" Author's Tranfla" tion Forfter's Tranflation of the fame Rawlinfon's " Phraortes Author's Tranflation fiftencies and Errors in InconQueries refpefting his Alphabet Rawlinfon's Tranflation of the Black Marble Obeliik. 1 Look at the paper read by Sir H.CHAPTER No VIII. Rawlinfon on the fite of the Terreftrial Paradife. The fubjecl:. fceptical diftortion . but from a fincere love of truth love of antagonifm. The world has been. repudiates the authority of Scripture and gives us his of the Garden of Eden. and have become public property. and are therefore open to fair criticifm. where Sir H. at a recent meeting of the Britifli Aflbciation. is of too much importance to require an apology from me for fpeaking plainly my thoughts on the fubjecl:. who have confidently put forth ftatements on this calculated to fap the very foundations of Biblical fubjecl: ftatements founded only on bajelefs conjecture? Thefe pages have not been written for the mere fake of not from difTenfion. R. 1 870. VARIOUS TRANSLATIONS. but to correct error. impofed upon by the rank and talent of literary men.

not with any pecuniary motive. and induce them to give this new theory a fair and candid trial. in any cafe." account for the multitude of letters in the Rawlinfonian It is evident that after his firft afTumption alphabet. and with the fincere prayer that it may tend to the further elucidation and confirmation of the Holy Scriptures. that certain groups formed the name of Darywujh (Darius). which rendered it neceffary for them to be So when he met with two groups fimilar in claffified. which he has found partly in AfTyrian and partly in Babylonian records. ." fays: the remains of the Babylonian text of the Behuftan inwork on cc fcriptions. and Hinckes. in his " In" AfTyrian Decipherment. he went on but as he proceeded new and ever varying groups met his eye. Rawlinfon gives a lift of 246 arrow-headed forms. " That thefcholars of Mefopotamia may have ujed perhaps a fourth part of thofejigures for feveral founds Let us endeavour to entirely different from each other. but with a fincere and fervent hope that it may meet the eye and awaken the zeal of Oriental fcholars. which have unfortunately fuffered from time and weather. but differing only in a fmall element which he . I mall now proceed to give the opinions of feveral learned men on the fchemes of interpretation adopted in And firft. this pity muft give place to fpeechlefs aflonifhment at the declaration of fuch men as Rawlinfon taking thofe feven groups for the foundation of his gigantic ftructure of the AfTyrian alphabet. This work has been written at leifure moments. the works of Rawlinfon and others. it has been carried on to completion with much patient ftudy. If after ages might appear in the different infcriptions. If it mail happen to be accepted. commiflerate the Babylonians and Affyrians for being obliged to ufe this multitude (as it would feem) of arbitrary forms. cc Palmam qui meruit ferat " but. form.ia8 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Brandis. we have about 160 different characters. It is certain that this number might be increafed (ad infinitum) by a comparifon of all the Ninevite infcripThis variety becomes ftill greater in confequence of the multitude of variations in which thefe characters tions.

Fat and Fate. firft The likelihood of as fuch a fact ftrikes us. on confideration.which he called c The Accadian? And if he mould continue his erroneous fyftem there is every probability that the variety of groups will double the number . that the body in the centre of their fquare. n Rawlinfon's fyftem. called a non-effentialy meaning. different i. primitive fyftem. we are think that beneath this fpot not improbably moulder' . but according to the I. words very much alike in found and orthography. which they call in Aflyrian non-ejfentials y but with the primitive fyftem moft he proceeded with his investigations he effential. polyphones. he claffed them as 129 of the fame i. every element 1 is a letter.'The Accadian Alphabet. if we take a number of groups of letters in our native tongue (a word is a group of letters) on any fimple fub. Mat and Mate.. ideodeterminatives. K* mu. homophones and he found the variety of ftill as he graphs proceeded groups fo numerous that he was obliged to invent a language and alphabet that never exifted. Hat and Hate. two words of very our Englifh words meaning. at thought. mu. but very In ftrict analogy with different in meaning through a little character at the end of each fecond word. fuch as variants. 2. and yet. beneath an obelifk which ftood there till within a few years. or one a variant of the 2. fuch as c Formerly there exifted a favourite tradition among the inhabitants of Red Lion Square and its of Oliver Cromwell was buried vicinity. improbable inclined to enough. . 2. to break. other. as.' and AA f>^2* LRTS.3. and claffifying kept adding them under various fufpidous names.' &c. to his alphabet and variants. 3. fmafh or crafh. c the Earth. or ground. for example. As ject. as : 2 3 < ARTS.

and if we went on through all the ologies of man/ and tions. our obliged not merely to wonder at the boldnefs of the AfTyrians in daring to tolerate them. Rawlinfon. . but more at their ability to read their own writing. of all the arts and fciences ages to arrange them into different languages (like the Accadian) and form If fuch variations can be demonalphabets for each. 2nd. from the moment when the vital principle is imparted to the feed. a feries of words refifted all attempts to bring them into connection with any known language . and the plant firft breaks its mell to the period of death explaining the functions which the : various organs are deftined to perform the changes they undergo.' There are 62 words in this laft paragraph which are not in the firft. be an iambus. it will take him ftrated. Next. accident. Again. or the In this jrd paragraph there are 42 words that are not in the firft or fecond zz 174 different groups of elements or letters. except in the cafe of a proper name. fluences exercifed art by climate.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. in the courfe of his excame acrofs a royal library of terra-cotta treatifes H. zz 70 words. of 69 words from Phyfiological Botany c To which belongs all that concerns the hiftory of vegetable life. vain. the of the AfTyrian kings. if fo. that the fourth refpects from the comic fenarius. if we take another paragraph . fo long as the phonetic value of the figns was adhered to. foot muft be an iambus or tribrach . it differs in two ift. and under all the in. now we will take 70 words on another in it that are fubjedl. finally. and we efforts to decipher fhall be them muft certainly be in and. the number would be legion. C. in health or ficknefs. when the anapasft is allowed which licenfe is alfo conceded to the fourth foot. That the 6th But the 7th foot muft foot even admits of an anapaeft. We read that Sir plorations. The iambic tetrameter catalectic is almoft peculiar to the comic writers . and great variety of variations in the names in feveral other proper names. feafons. and fee how many words there are 130 c not in the firft. making a total of 132 words or groups. on which were written . tablets.

as a generic fign. From this difficulty is Hinckes Credat that no eafily efcapes. without fcruple. and the abbreviated form was in ufe only among the people.Erandis's Mode of Decipherment . to that theory. who confequently can be no other than A The firft fign agrees with this. in Mefopotamia. phonetic value and where. AfTar. and in the Ninevite infcriptions both this and the god AfTar. in the end The initial character to read A/far. Lord of AfTyria. ftriking inftance is furnifhed us in the treatment of the name of ' a king. the thing is Jo utterly Happily we are able to mow mode oj Johing difficulties Neither hieroglyphics nor alphabetic preferable writing furnifhes the leaft analogy to fuch lawlejfnejs. of fuch a principle. perfons. . verified. in this manner. /'/ was natural that the work of deciphering Jhould go rapidly forwards. writing was originally derived the phonetic part of the letter mutt have been although at the time confiderably developed. that the cuneiform from the hieroglyphic. at Behuftan to fign exprefs the land of AfTyria . that in a large numnounced. Be this as it may. ' ! of the name perhaps Don Judteus Afella.. But the laft of the three characters which compofe the name is but the fame as the c firft. countries. We employed its diftinct it for all its probability. it is plain. for the full name of the AfTyrian was AfTar-don-ArTar. may admit. it runs diretlly counter. rivers and but that. it was not proappears to have loft this property. becaufe in no other way can the ufe of generic figns before the names of the like be accounted for . eafily folved. being the AfTarhaddon. Even in various names is oppofed to all Egypt each figure retained always . no difficulty was Jo great as not to be. Nor is the manner in which Rawlinfon feeks to explain the origin of the alleged poly thong at all fatisfaclory. fuch violence was neceflary. e. 131 Once in pofleflion appeared to confirm his hypothecs. Accordingly. i. who Ruler of Affyria* and fon ftyles himfelf of Sennacherib. the figure of an object was incredible as to render any other to this. we believe ber Of ARROW GROUPS A DEFINITE CONVENTIONAL LAW If this difcovery be OF FORMATION MAY BE TRACED.

"disjunctive fign" Each of thefe befides a great number of variants." Can anything be more prophetic of the theory mown in this work ? One would almoft imagine that M. This fcepticifm does not apply to the details merely. and has feen the numberlefs errors. with himfelf. Secondly. Rawlinfon and Dr.132 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Brandis had been gifted with the power of foreknowledge. fome writers have not hefitated to come forward in print and boldly aver their belief that the whole thing is a delujien. with regard to a long feries of ftatements of the higheft hiftorical and literary importance which they And I have confidently and repeatedly put forward. in a letter from Mr. Hinckes have completely deceived. . refufe to join in Rawlinfon attempts his the fentiments juft expreffed ? Behuftan tranflations by means of an alphabet compofed of the joint difcoveries of Grotefend and other German and French fcholars. and that Sir H." would afk. he fays exifts at the fame time in the minds of many a very confiderable degree of doubt and hefitation with refpect in the : to the reality of the alleged difcoveries. have formed an alphabet of thirty-nine letters. characters (as I have faid before) is compofed of from. inconfiftencies. Rawlinfon. Finally. who. can any one who has entered thoughtfully into the works of Sir H. inferted " Journal of Sacred Literature/' and in which he " There defends the Rawlinfonian fyftem. but extends to the Indeed. firft themfelves and then the world. and with what he calls a making a total of forty characters. and arbitrary {trainings he has had recourfe to in his tranflations. our diftruft of this lawleflhefs is ftill more increafed by the fad: that fo many important parts of the Ninevite infcriptions can be deciphered without affigning to the individual cuneiform characters more than one found which each has been proved to reprefent. Fox Talbot. two to five elements but not one of the various groups of elements is anything fimilar in figure to any ancient or modern letter confequently a Rawlinfonian letter . very root and foundation of the whole fyftem. .

) forming Rawlinfon's M (fig. it. mercy. forms Rawletter.") Collectively Rawlinfon's "I AM D.) linfon's W. and the primi- "No! pofed of one fhort horizontal wedge and three vertical ones (two long and one fhort. and reft. 133 forms a primitive word.) Believing that at one period of time there was only one cuneatic alphabet in ufe all over the Eaft.) is compofed of four elements one horizontal over three wedges (Plate VI." &c..) and fpring.) primitive A. but or LM Lam (meaning in emphatic negative. 10. 14) is Raw- linfon's Y.") ufed in this inftance of five elements. 9." The as eighth does. according to Rawlinfon. is Adam Daryam Darius. "he. 15. equal to Awlal "the race" (and this form The ninth ufed only when the race or family is noble. and that the Perfians were the laft to ufe it. LILI. wu/h"I vertical " the infcription. is compofed of three horizontal wedges (two long and one fhort) and one long vertical wedge. "they. Now.") The third letter. " night. fingular. A. A. " Al" descendants." plural. " . (" foolifh words. 8. as I have mown by examples in a former part of this work.) tive or Lan (in Perfian an (vide Tablet of Alphabets) Perfian " mercy. or time of affliction and forrow :" Hebrew. forming the primitive LALU (Perfian. is fupplied." Rawlinfon's R. ou i ou (Perfian Awi. pofterity. as before. the article.") vertical wedges Rawlinfon's (fig. "They mall not (find) The fixth letter. vain. offprimitive Aoul (Perfian Awl. vagabond. fig. forgivenefs.) compofed (fig.") The feventh letter (fig. (The brick and glafs vafe. me. Awiou. the firft letter in this fhort fentence. "a long. race. progeny." primitive. mail not be that. The fourth letter is com- tranquillity. or foolifh fellow that knows not what he " foolifh.) forming Rawlinfon's the primitive A. I refolved to teft my The beginning of alphabet by means of thefe writings.The Cuneatic Alphabets. V?. dark night. fame . but the primitive Yaja. in Rawlinfon's alphabet (Plate VIII. The fecond group with two LN it D." "certainly never.

vital The tenth and laft the mouth. mind. and the very attitude of the king (as reprefented on the Behuftan of rock. or an addrefs to certain individuals. of the c< cut fhort man fame ten groups treated of above a fingle rope. primitive Gan. wind. (fig.) Rawlinfon's U. and he is obliged make fenfe of it." &c.) forming SH." This appears to be the middle a fpeech. which is only applied to noblemen. (but) imprifonment for life.) fpirit. which the fame in Perfian. He thus declared. the latter is cerjudge tainly beneath criticifm. with his hand uplifted to the prifoners before him) And the word Awlal. Forfter. (fig. I determined to teft another fmall infcription from the Behuftan rock. the foolifti race. (" the is indicative of the fact. or. by engraving many captives faflened by I mall let the reader cutting andftriking with a mallet" between the three tranflations . there are only three words that are triliteral. whereas in the original (according to his own lym frwrtifh alphabet) there are only feventy-one. felf. by the Rev. 17. if the prifoners are the nobles that confpired It will not be againft the throne and life of Darius. 16. of to fupply one to each to : . pain. C. but. Rawlinfon fays that thefe infcriptions are in almoft every : A inftance trilateral . In the whole he fupplies thirty-four letters. and continued on the rock befide it. imprifonment. but the primitive Lgg. letter is cc Rawlinfon's compofed of three elements.134 is The Ancient Ones of the Earth. making a total infcription of 105. I am Xathrites.) Therefore the tranflation by means of the primitive alphabet will c< read thus They mall not (find) mercy nor reft : (during) a long time of adverfity. out of place here to notice the (to fay the leaft of it) very curious tranflation. is in the race/') right place." &c. viz. awtha athh adm khfhthrit amiy uwkhmtrhy adhurujhiy " This Phraortes tumaya adm khfhaythiy amiy madiy. or Lkk (Perfian." was an impoftor. Jan (" life. in the inftance before us. forrow. I felected the infcription cut upon the drefs of the third ftanding figure to the right of the king. Encouraged by my apparent fuccefs with the above ten groups. foul. trouble. letter.

our water in affliction. our land in trouble. without any labour or ftudy but I muft fay. will never be. Rawlinfon Yaja. the efTence of misfortune. . and two r's in his alphafor D." . and of feventy-one groups cut on the drefs of Rawlinfon's ConPhraortes. forrow. cluding this part of the fubject. and kh Sir ? 3rdly. . . with refpect to the Behuftan alphabet. 2 vince to province." I think this fhould agreement be reverfed. two h's. by means of the primitive alphabet. am The tranquillity like a ftagnant pool. why ufe fupply five letters in the ninth K " that the language of Herodotus is in full fays with that of the Behuftan infcriptions. . it was thrown off as I found it. why fupply : Dh and for Mu for M . /#/). viz. I may afk for an anfwer to be given firft Such the refult of ten to the following queries ift.The Behuftan Rock Inferipf ion." "I am 1 H. inflaming the mind miniftered juftice and mercy. defiring reft." 2 The Perfian word "Yaja" is fynonymous with "fool. trouble. and I in fetters. I am king of Media.e. defire life it is Lo ! I folly to expect mercy . fpirit of the king and his race is To increafe profperity vanity (I) forgivenefs is not to be expected no mercy will ever be mown to us . I am a fool. " the language of Rawlinfon is in full agreement with that of Herodotus. three k's. nearly verbatim. odour and Yaja. 1 the race of Cyaxares . In his tranflation. governing well the Yaja a long troublous time I faw not province through affliction a babbling." the following tranflation. in is ." i. mifchievous flew from profpirit in captivity . : and misfortune. forgivenefs in vain.. I am forgivenefs Yaja. it feems a remarkable coincidence that it mould give forth juft fuch language as we might naturally expect from a dif" Behold I appointed and unfuccefsful confpirator . I have to 135 In giving fay in its nothing favour. Lo! mercy I our land in trouble. the die is caft. What occafion is there for two g's. Why in the forty-firft letter. bet ? andly." is am Yaja ! fon's my experimental teft of Rawlingroups of Perfian cuneiform. vainly I ad- tranquillity and never expect (and) I I in malice grew triumphant (literally.

and ? laftly.136 word . the Englifh. he attempts the tranflation by means of his felf-acknowledged imperfeft Behuftan key of forty letters.) J How very necefTary it is he mould recollect every ftep taken in this important inquiry But let us return and look a little further into Rawlinfon's tranflation of the Black Marble Obelifk. with the addition of what I imagine Rawlinfon would call a Now. DOG another group characters. if I take a group of elemental binations. why is he not content with his ? own in- alphabet Why ufe one of Laffen's letters in two Rawlinfon fays he His own ^ a ^> whofe text ? follows the text of 1839. thefe would be all different But if I combinations. to a correfponding group in French. that a DOGE is a DOG. commenced in the preceding chapter. would it be right to fay that it had non-eflential. and SH and R. the Rawlinfonian imperfeft Jyftem. and Latin languages are compofed of the fame elemental figns or letters. is dated 1 844. DOG. . but to produce a word of the fame meaning they enter into different comFor inftance. (Vide Rawlinfon's Alphabet. cannot hold good with fimilar groups of Nineveh or Babylonia. yet precifely one meaning. viz. that text from 1 839 and Q. and apply the adopt Englifh group. As I have faid before. becaufe the groups are fimilar in form ? Again. If he means Laffen's. and that the fyftem of Rawlinfon. CANIS . CHIEN and ftances in this fhort infcription A ! : . which we have juft fpoken of. the neareft approach to it would be DOGE. as widely as and Z. Behuftan. if I apply the . muft have obferved that there is a marked difference in the combination of the various groups of elements or wedges. or word of the fame meaning in French. in making an individual group of fuch elements in the Perfian language a letter. 'The Ancient Ones of the Earth. which belonged to a much earlier To illuftrate this we know that age and nation. Nineveh. French. to 1844 differs very materially. Any one at all acquainted with the various cuneiform infcriptions from Perfepolis. another in Latin. and Babylon. the fame meaning. or one word in Englifli. Nakfhi-Ruftam.

H . Rawlinfon tells figures 5 us have the fame meaning. fonian letter has either a Perfian.) have formed alphabets differing greatly The in philolo- number of figns. which Sir H." the fame thing ? Yet the Aflyrian philologifts are ftill farther afield in their variants of the fame letter. is gifts beyond my powers of imagination. in modern alphabet days. if I apply the French group CHIEN tials. Then is compofed of three hun- dred letters or figns. But before we proceed with the Black Marble Obelifk. viz. and which has to their fcarcely any or but few correfponding groups Is it any wonder they are full of doubt. think and error ? If we compare the Perfian groups forms Rawlinfon's alphabet with the groups on which even groups. Plate VI. Latin. confequently in that light it ftands for SUT. with two non-effenOnce more. Sut. and contradictions refpefting this monu- before . that figure 5 is the primitive S. and teft them by we mall find that each individual Rawlinthe certainty. I think. inconfiftencies. what procefs or what authority he has for ftating that 6 has the fame meaning as 5. Neither does Sir Henry of any confequence. 1 37 fame group. and if we take the various groups of which F. unalphabet. and the Rawlinfonian alphabet is formed.. with five hundred variants. and of which they can give no certain account as to the pho- netic power of each it letter.. K. that one was common all over the Eaft. &c. primitive. B. to the Latin language. e. "a to the Latin I mould have CHIA fig of delicious Would it be proper to fay the two words meant quality. another ninety. DOG. as . the Black Marble Obelifk. it will be obferved /'. let us look a little at the remarkable anachronifms. &c. beyond doubt. that will at all correfpond. another eighty. Spanim..The Black Marble Obeli/k. Q. (Look at and 6. as. T. one alphabet for Englim. KH. proving. French. One Sir Henry's ArTyrian alphabet has forty. Arabic. the neareft combination to it would be DOGMA. They apply this imagithat had exifted between nary alphabet to a language two and three thoufand years earlier.we (hall find on\yf or letters. But as for figure 6. or Hebrew meanas has been noticed ing attached to each feparate group.

the Who is Selima Rim ? contemporary King of Syria. a period of cc : thirty-five years. Is he the fame individual as Sir H. xii. leaving alone the faff that Jehu was never fubject to tribute by any Affyrian 2nd. The bas- reliefs illuftrate the offerings and prefentations to the King by his numerous tributaries. i Mufeum authorities. but the ProfefTbr objects attributes the monument to Shalmanezer II. . Sir H." vol. amongft whom are Jehu. conNeither fequently there is a difcrepancy of 255 years. Rawlinfon and Dr. The " that the figures Profeflbr alfo ftates. B. in his " Five Ancient king. ii. who fucceeded : his father Sardanapalus the Great. under the debris which covered It contained bas-reliefs in up Shalmanezer *s palace. page 430. the ft. c. the King of Ifrael. 824. Hinckes. at all agree with the reign of Selima Rim. the Ifraelitim King. reprefent Jews bringing tribute to Shalmanezer. c. and Hazael. 902. 647. page 367. and that it reprefents the chief ambaflador of the Israelites proftrating himfelf before the king (Shal1 manezer). fides. fon of Sardanapalus ? If fo. Raw- Printed by order of the Truftees of the Britifh Mufeum. accordBlack Marble Obelifk ing to Sir H. 859 to B. five on each of its four. twenty compartments. fays of Shalmanezer //. Profeflbr Rawlinfon." vol. The monument Monarchies. in page 365. between and below them. fharply infcribed in a minute There cannot be a doubt but that both character.138 linfon The Ancient Ones of the Earth. Rawlinfon " Thefe epigraphs contain a fort of regifter of the fays : 1 " Royal Afiatic Journal. and the fpace above. which has attracted moft attention in this country. who flourifhed from B. c.. it contains the annals of the reign of Selima Ri/h. will the reign of Jehu." mentioned above are the fame. of the Houfe of Omri. this king (Temen Bar) did not reign until B. In contradiction to which. Rawlinfon calls elfewhere Temen Bar. difcovered in a proftrate pofition. and the infcriptions record the names of the donors. Sir H.C. ment perpetrated by and others.. being covered with cuneiform writing. is an object of black marble.

receipt of the tribute from Shehua of Ladfam" Again. many are duly recorded on the obelifk^ in fome inftances with fculptured reprefentations of the various objects fent. viz. . 859. and according to his account it contains about fifteen royal names. Again. Shalmanezer III. of the fame object." and here he makes the remarkable u I cannot follow the fenfe of the whole invoconfeffion. and fubdued The names of the fubject kings diftant nations. Amongft th6fe kings was one whofe name reads Jehu. now in the linfon calls Britifh " Mufeum. Ani. as different and gap oppofite to each other as two accounts can be. infcribing upon it the principal events he was a great conqueror. the fon of Kunvri (Omri) and who has been identified by Sir H. the Great Lord. and Jehu 880. the conqueror of Samaria." Then follows AfTyrian . to placed on fuch conflicting ftatements? with the Black Marble Obelifk. Rawlinfon fays proceed that " the infcription on it opens with an invocation to the gods. Rawlinfon with Jehu. B. 2000." contains the annals of the Son of Ninus. which takes up fourteen lines of writing 1 I think I perceive the following names. for the Son of Ninus flourifhed Can any dependence be B. 139 by five different nations to the A/Tynan The firft epigraph records the king (Temen Bar). 1 " The god Aflarac. . what Sir H.C. but cation. c. and Shalmanezer IV. reigned eighty-nine years after Jehu. But again. King of all the great gods . confequently Jehu could not have brought tribute to any of the Shalmanezers. King of IJraeL Can here are two accounts by anything be more prepofterous ? the fame writer. of time of more than eleven centuries muft be bridged of his reign A over before we can bring thefe two contradictory ftatements into contact at all. Raw- manezer. the ProfefTor ftates that " can this be ? Shalmanezer II. He built the centre Palace of Nimroud and raifed the obelifk." How Jehu fent tribute to Shal- The Nimroud Monument. commenced his reign about the fame year that Jehu died.The Black Marble tribute fent in Obelijk. 138 years fubfequent to the death of Jehu.

(of . pafTed away. and prifoners taken thoufands upon thoufands {lain cities and pillaged burnt. as Gillirri the fupreme zaallini. Ninus. But before we proceed any farther. juft as in modern days we do not find the names of Marl borough. &c. (Aufzits. Nit. and " if Rawlinfon cannot make fenfe of thofe king. and 4th groups in an horizontal direction to the right (Plate 9). Selima Rim. there are fome and complicated groups in the firft twentyvery peculiar fix lines which he cannot find in any other infcription. but Sir H. a lift of names taken from the Aflyrian mythology. makes them fynonymous. I would notice that Rawlinfon's tranflation of the Jecond year.. are the i ft. The fact is. he candidly tells us fubfequently. A (crofling the Euphrates) . Ligirr.140 The Ancient Ones of the 'Earth. . of thofe names is the conjectural diftinctive epithet " Bitalready noticed. the mother of the gods. Achligrou.) and many others.. and we hear of them no more. WaiOne pole. and laftly Shalmanefer. I afk. the character for "an" according to the primitive." . jrd. R. of what ufe. &c. is the prote&or. is his alphabet of 300 letters and 500 variants? He then goes on to detail the annals of his ideographical Temen Bar. Cf on the Jecond year of is my" ^ . groups. which I find to be names of individuals. the fupreme god of the provinces. all in clear. year by year. and yet he cannot follow the fenfe of racters. the fe^ L. and Artenk.) and fubhe gives us page after page of letter-prefs fequently of defcriptive of battles and fieges.) mow(and the opening invocation ! ing the probability of their being diftinctive appellatives of certain individuals who. moft of which. well-defined cha- which I can make intelligible fenfe. firft With my fyftem the character. Belt. or Pitt in the annals of William the Fourth. having diftinguifhed themfelves during the reign of the Obelifk king. the powerful. "are 'very But why cannot he follow the fenfe ? doubtful indeed'' He has given us twenty-fix lines of cuneatic groups forming this invocation. 2nd. but on the original it is ^> L. will be the king.

Smith (who transcribes for Sir H. Sir by giving us feventeen and a-half containing at leaft 175 letter-prefs. but with Rawlinfon. A. we mail not have quite fourteen words to record the events of the tenth year. . indeed. F. we have only feven and a-half of letter-prefs. containing. the transactions of which are reprefented by two lines of groups. This. fo that it appears plainly that wherever they find an awkward group that they cannot analyze by means of their 300 letters and 500 variants. in fuch tranflations ? Again. G." group letters in it. R. I pafs over many minor errors until I come to the tenth year. the names of Darius and' fifty-four letters." afked Mr. R. but about twenty words . the fecond I group from the numeral W. of whom I have fpoken before.the right thing cafe right place of" thefecondy my fuppofed. if two and a-half lines of characters cannot be defcribed with lefs than one hundred and feventy-five . in words in the contraft with the two laft-mentioned cafes Henry makes up lines for it of ! . account of the year's tranfactions. the eleventh year has two and a-half lines of cuneatic writing. which would give but a very brief too fhort. and if we Sargon allow four groups to be the average of. containing 120 words! what combination of to letters be Can there be any truth.) by (year) The Black Marble Obelijk. I afk again. it was what they called an ideograph. a word. and call it an graph" but with my fimple fyftem it refolves itfelf into the name of an individual king. and to defcribe them. Now. (2) will be "year. Where does it all come from ? And then. are compofed of feven groups each. for he has given us twelve lines of letter -prejs for the year's annals. containing eighty-two letters or not very prolific in events. year there are fixteen lines of cuneatic character. for Sir H. Aalfarr. Rawlinfon. " in the 141 in he made that particular he anfwered that there were no "year. L. they give it a mean" ideoing to fuit their own purpofe. annals of the twenty-fifth. of but is more in accordance with his own fyftem courfe. according to his fyftem. A. viz.

who kept an account of the number of times they crofTed the river Thames. it The Ancient Ones of the Earth. he might time I crofled the Euphrates. follows that we muft have upwards of eleven hundred for the fixteen lines. cc I will give the reply in his own words . with a final T." But in no one inflame above five groups to be found in the place he has affigned In the twenty-firft year he has. And in the twenty-four years he fays "I crofled the river Zab" and he has given us precifely the fame groups for Zab. think. in their journeys we fhould think them to and from Windfor to London ? more fit for Bedlam or Hanwell. merely premifing that although confiderable difficulty ftill attaches tural" The following words will mow the confidence with which he views his own tranflation of the events contained He in the infcription on the Black Marble Obelifk. anfwer can be given to thefe glaring inconfiftenleaving alone the extreme abjurdity of fuppofing a to keep a regifter of the number of times he crofted king a river in the immediate vicinity of his home? What would be faid of our beloved Queen.) interpretation even which I have of many of the ftandard expreflions is almofl conjecgiven critical tranflation whenhave met with a pafTage of any particular " of a . he fays that Euphrates is written XMtA/ > or $4 / or optionally. I regifter (of events) ingly undertake to give an explanation.142 words. inftead of the one hundred and Jeventy -five words which he has given us. as he has all through for Euphrates. : I do not affect to confider my reading of the obelifk infcription in the light ever. be founded Berat or out of nine. is either of the each of thefe forms muft. indeed. That might be. or any other of our Englifh monarchs." have miffed a year. What cies . Once " the name of the more. " Of this I will now accordfays : accounts for his omitting obfcurity I have omitted it: (this " and the the invocation. Perat. than to govern a civilized people. " the twentieth for them.

' this " Why. i. not having a knowledge of his alphabet or of the variants . may be made out pearls with more or lefs accuracy.The Black Marble Obelijk. Britifh firft ment Nimroud lines there are no lefs gentlemen as a committee. the double back. courfe the variants will be brought in to fupply their But what can be faid of fuch a fyftem. but this I know. but I cannot conjeclure (woncamels I derful!} the nature of many of the offerings c the dejert with find under the designation of beafts of : . that in the fourth epigraph he ftates that the tribute is that of <c Sut pal adan" There is not any group (that he has previoufly ftated) that ftands for "Sut" in the there are many " Pals'' (fee Plate whole epigraph IV. fpeaking of the various articles which compofe " the five tributary offerings. rendering the folio volume of infcriptions which has been fent to all no more value than wajle 'paper. parts of the world of And this I am ready to confirm before any number of Gallery. fpace as is defignation would occupy whole epigraph. ebony and ivory. fig. according to his as own fyftem. and gems. Then follow his conjectures refpecting the epigraphs." Very pofTible but ftill they are very doubtful. 143 to the pronunciation of the proper names. and although the meaning of particular paffages is ftill unknown to me. I hold the accurate afcertainment of the general purport of the legend to be no more fubjecl to controverfy than my decipherment of the Perfian Behuftan infcriptions. in the than one hundred and forty forty-four errors in the tranfcription. the interpreters can pick and choofe from a Jot of eight hundred and make juft what they go any further I muft ftate. where place. or much . with the original monuin the comparing the inpublifhed by the Mufeum. of ! . leaving no room for the affigned for " cc Forfter's Honey-comb tripe. he fays Gold. which I regret I cannot follow. befides an interpolation of fome three or four groups. that fcriptions pieafe in ? But before I authorized copy in the Truftees of the Britifh Mufeum. Again. or paunches uncut .) but not one <c Adan" in the epigraph. filver.

commuted for n. BKR. monkeys. commuted for G. to be feen with the camels. known in j. at all probable or rea- fonable to fuppofe that the ancients. and other animals. and this almug wood was ufed for ornafigures. and as fuch an acceptable offering or tribute the exact figure is feen on Face B. and no more tm (BKN) the i. The word is group of Face D. we have the word AKKG. mentation in palaces. feen in the left-hand corner of the fourth . AALMZ. And laftly. c< a young camel.144 Tfie Ancient Ones of the Earth. R. which appears to be a favourite oblation to their gods. which is quite legitimate im. to fuit modern orthography the almug. which is near to the "capra aegagra. and here we have the name of the moft coftly wood that was N . and for mufical inftruments. the t. who were obliged to record the annals of their kings and their literature upon (tones. the Eaft. there are feveral figures bearing bundles of wood (it muft be precious wood to be brought as tribute to a king) . which are Is it for the elephant." Then. yoV. again. would adopt fuch a round-about way of naming an animal when one word would fuffice ? And that one word (according to the primitive alphabet) we have in each epigraph under where the camels are found." or Aflyrian goat. Z. behind the rhinoceros.

fenfe. Rawlinfon Cylinder of Tiglath Pilezer Author's anfwer to it Great inconfiftencies in the tranflation. Rawlinfon.. however. and meaning of the infcriptions. far from acquiefcing indolently in the other's opinion. been a fubftantial agreement as to the nature. Mr. The refult of their long and careful examination has. Fox Talbot's defence of Sir H. Fox Talbot " For feveral fays years.CHAPTER THE WINGED IX. FIGURE. and the almoft complete revivification. ET us now look a little into the celebrated tranflation from the fuppofed cylinder of Tiglath Pilezer. of a long and totally forgotten language. two engaged in the work of interpretation. fible that inquiring independently fhould agree refpedling the fyllabic value of one or two intelligent two men . the pronunciation of the words. Rawlinfon's confidence in his own works &c. Rawlinfon's anachronifm requiring explanation Author's tranflation of the three Gradines of the Black Marble Obelifk Author's tranflation from the winged figure Conclufion. has always mown a difpofition to criticize and examine them narrowly. and almoft from the firft difcovery of the Aflyrian inrival fcholars have been feparately fcriptions. be led by his fancy in fuch an inquiry but it is quite impof. &c. and fome of the chief and each of them. perhaps. In fupport of the theory of Sir H. difcoveries are due to their fagacity : . An individual fcholar might. as it were.

but they would certainly But not fo with this cylinder of agree in the main. and a vaft number of words formed out of fuch fyllables. if there were no real bafis of truth on which they had each feparately reared their edifice. Thus. general tranflated Tiglath Pilezer. grafped in And the fame battle their mighty weapons in my hand. if there happened to be a A A agreement in the tranflations. It is true in that Meflrs. Talbot and Oppert agree countries. flab is found with an ancient us fuppofe a cafe: Greek infcription on it." In anfwer to thefe Statements. that this agreement is no doubt to be attributed to their names of thirty-nine with one or two doubtful excepthe having adopted the values propofed previously by RawlinOut fon and Hinckes" And here the agreement ends. Rawlinfon fays hand their valued and warlike Jervants" Of the fame cc I have groups of characters Talbot makes. < do : they Jpoke to me their langroups Dr. when we know that they work with the fame alphabet. think it anything remarkable. Oppert renders. copy of the infcription is fent to a profefTor of languages in each of the Englifh Should we be furprifed. when they all by means of the fame alphabet ? There might be fome trifling variations. Burnouf. a few of (euphemistically called which I fhall enumerate. is]. I contend that there is nothing extraordinary in the apparent agreement of the AfTyrian philologifts (even fuppofing they were all agreed.146 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and LafTen. it is to be remarked tions . Rawlinfon. " at the Jame time. extenfive domination of the fore part of my guage (that <c . and alfo as to the true intent and meaning of long hiftoric ftatements in thofe phrafes of a nearly unknown language. hundred crabbed and complicated fymbols. which is far from being the cafe). or nearly fo. in the fourth paracf Having committed to my graph. but differ in fome of their letters as they lean to fome of the Let earlier fyftems of Grotefend. however. or univeHities for tranflation." not. of fifty-four paragraphs there are more than thirty that and there are many extraordinary variations flrange varieties"}.

while Rawlinfon has flain lions in his chariots in his exploratory journeys are in direct oppofi- 120 I lions. and their ." (Why does he fay "two fofs?" Why cannot he keep to the text. really believe in their own contradictions are to be of the fame paffage ? cannot even agree in the names of they the gods. for Rawlinfon has . Fox Talbot makes. we have. on the borders of Syria. and 800 lions." The fame fentence rendered by Talbot is : " their paragraph." Inconfiftencies in the Tranjlation." Now in Profeflbr Rawlinfon's "Five Ancient Monuments " (p.Great Jhips." They agree in the name of the great Anu. Hinckes place Rawlinfon has " wild elephants. and 800 of them in my " the wild bull or buf133). he ftates faloe to be a rare animal. accord" their movables. their WOMAN. and their valuables I plundered." Talbot. were not very abundant. and their ." and Talbot has The gods Niniv and Sidu." " wild buffaloes. but they all difagree " Vul in the fecond. laid and 800 low. Rawlinfon has. and 800 of them in my 1 In another chariots. 120 buffaloes in the conflict of the chafe on rny lands. and then in fuch fmall'numbers as to imply that even there they chariots in enclofed parks I deftroyed. ? 147 is Is not this laft quite unintelligible the agreement ? Again. abundantly I carried off. in enclofed parks I deftroyed." ." Fox Talbot has by means of his god Ninev 120 wild bulls or buffaloes. . two fofs of lions fell before me. . when fuch palpable this all . in the fifth Where ing to Rawlinfon. in one inftance. . in the thirtyfixth paragraph Rawlinfon has. Thus." Once more. and in the country about Haran. "in the conflict of the chafe on my lands I flew. " In the Ninev my guardian deity. . in their various tranflations found Nor is 1 Here we fee that Rawlinfon and Fox Talbot " tion to each other. in my exploratory journeys I laid low. I flew. in my chariots. " The " gods Hercules and Nergal. and fay 120 ?) Of the fame paflage Mr." Nimroud the mighty hunter muft man fink into utter infignificance after fuch a royal fportfCan it be poffible that three gentlemen of fuch ! acknowledged learning can fyftem." and Dr. wealth. and only to be met with in the outlying diftricls of the empire. the firft of the facred Triad. to a countlefs amount. cc Under the aufpices of my guardian deity Hercules.

depend on Major Rawlinfon's readings of the cuneiform infcriptions ? My faith is not very firm in his interpretations. : them " captive to AfTyria." And this is ftrongly corro: borated Now. " and twenty-ninth verfe (and reigned) twenty years " In the of Pekah. and Hazor. The two are at direct variance in principal philologifts. 27-29): of Azariah. Hinckes upon B. mod eflential points. Efq. Caroline Frances Cornwallis to " Can we Samuel Birch. <c ln the Kings xv. I Not having Mr. am troubled with a certain feeling that I 's plenary know nothing about the matter. F. "Ao. all the land of Napthali. and Janoah. King of Judah. certainty to his conjectures. but perhaps your treaty with the Egyptian king may give a : little more infpiration. and proved a wicked man and a tranfgrefTor. when 1 Extract from a letter by Mrs.) this Pekah held the government twenty years. but that when names are expreffed." 1 " The fifth defcendant of Ninip-pal-ukin" Oppert Thefe are only a few out of a multitude of examples that could be cited. and Abel Beth Maachah. i. 1 1 that the principal events recorded the above-men- tioned cylinder took place and yet there is or in Jofephus. Pekah the fifty-fecond year fon of Remaliah began to reign over Ifrael in Samaria.. chap. London : 1 864. and Gilead and Galilee. by Jofephus (Book IX. King of Ifrael. with refpect 148 paragraph the following varying interpretations Rawlinfon " The beloved child of Bazanpalakura. mowing indifputably that their : : : agreement the cal : in any cafe is purely conjectural. xi.fourth laftly. Cornwallis." and Oppert. we have in the forty. whofe name was Tiglath Pilezer. "Iv. . fee. and carried clear upon this point (2 . and Kedefh. 20 no mention in Biblical hiftory. But the King of Aflyria. King of AfTyria. "Yem. the chronological and hiftoriftate for both Sir H." And to names. Rawlinfon and Dr. of any Aflyrian king invading the country of Judea at the The Bible is very time fpecified in their tranflation. it is poffible that they may be imagined rather than deciphered" Correfpondence of C..The Ancient Ones of the Earth." Talbot: cc The/0rM defcendant of Ninivbalu/hat. and took Ijon. moreover. c. came Tiglath days Pilezer." Hinckes.

Great Inconjiftencies in the Tranflation. Hinckes." own place. and tranfplanted them into his Not a word is here faid about kingdom. lower Egypt) I ravaged. fact. does Sir H. and I exprerTed my conviction moft decidedly in tranflation." conjectural. from beyond the Euphrates to the " Upper is Jea of the Jetting Jun" (the Mediterranean). the three moft celebrated of Aflyrian be in direct antagonifm to philologifts are thus found to each other ? It is much to be wimed that thefe three eminent fcholars ordeal/' when fhould give us a plain explanation of the means by which they have arrived at the phonetic power of each particular letter or fyllable. nor fays : But what. and the adjoining country. "/ am Jatisfied. their armies I This interpretation deftroyed. and confequently there is a difMr. Rawlinfon. "All the provinces king was into Syria and Egypt: of Mufri (i. and I burnt their cities." It is evident from what the doctor fays here. and Kadefh." partly Supported by Sir H. and that the lay fuppofed expedition into Syria and the Mediterranean was notes to my Egypt one into Armenia and the Black Sea. who fays that Tiglath Pilezer invaded Paleftine and conquered all before him. in point of upon this point ? He is it of any confequence.called Galilee. who will be bold enough to fay there is any dependence to be placed on the or as fome call it. he made the inhabitants prifoners. and the region beyond Jordan. Rawlinfon fay " / am neither able. But Dr. which is . after viewing all thofe glaring di crepancies and contradictions. fo that their readers might be put in a pofition to judge for themfelves. and Hazor.. in flat contradiction to this. Fox Talbot reads crepancy of nearly 400 years. "The final "Literary Inqueft. 149 he had made an expedition againft the Ifraelites. 740 B. fays.e. that he thinks that Rawlinfon's and Talbot's tranflations are moftly imaginary or Now. from the infcription that the invafion of the aforefaid Thefe events took Egypt. according to Biblical chronology.C. that the countries Juppofed to be to the north-eaft of Korfabad. and had overrun all the land of Gilead. .

I do put forth a claim to originality. in the "Royal Afiatic Journal" (vol. 13). The firft is the confidence which the difcoverers evidently repofe in their conclufions . Sir H. the more ample we naturally defire their teftimony to be. which have been known and ftudied ever fince they have ceafed to be fpoken. let us take what he publifhed in the year 1847. as I believe. which is fuch that one of them (Dr. is a very off-hand and^ afcertained the power of each Does unfatisfactory method of getting over difficulties. to defcribe the means by particular letter. this. he there fays then.150 which I The Ancient Ones of the Earth. to fay the leaft of it. be of fully ." But as a ftrong proof of the confidence Sir Henry Rawlinfon had in his own works. The fecond is that without venturing for a moment to queftion the profound learning and acute fagacity of the difcoverers the more tentative the procefs the the fmaller the number conjectural the refult. of fo after the lapfe many years. the greater part of which ftate as to afford is in fo perfect a ample and certain grounds for a minute and the purorthographical and etymological analyfis port of which to the hiftorian muft. as having put forth to the world a literal and. and of witneffes (at prefent not much above the Mofaic minimum) by which the foundnefs of more that refult is attefted. Rawlinfon imagine that we are to take all that he choofes to put into print without examination or " There are two confiderations which feem to queftion ? us in expecting fome more minute information juftify on this head. I think. Speaking of the Behuftan c< infcription." Now. that we may be put as much as in a pofition to form an poffible opinion for ourfelves. Hyftafpes. a memorial of Darius : In the prefent cafe. . Hinckes) has not only prefented us with the firft of a feries of Affyrian Grammar. or to determine the refpective dates of the difcoveries. p. a correct grammatical tranflation of nearly two hundred lines of cuneiform writing (fince augmented to four hundred). but has even ventured to employ his affumed knowledge of that language to the criticifm of other cognate dialects. x. or who are competent to give evidence in regard to it.

" : Now be underftood that the foregoing extract was written at leaft two years previous to the difcovery of the Black Marble Obelifk by Layard.e. former of his ftatement. 1 a man of . when the Obelifk was not part known pletion the Perfian infcription in the early part of the year 1846 or but he did not fee the Obelifk until his arrival 5 in to exift for feveral years fubfequent to the comof the Behuftan legend ? Sir Henry had jini/hed middle of the year 1849 1 inconfiftency which requires explanation. Does Sir H. came againft me offering battle." This requires a paufe. This antiquary convifts the readings of Rawlinfon. Rawlinfon goes on to fay " : It was indeed the difcovery of known pafTages of this fort IN THE OBELISK. and it was only in the palaces of Nineveh that any records were fince it is found ? Sir H. fuch as the rebels having ajjembled their forces. 151 equal intereft with the peculiarities of its language to the philologift." Again.9 Rawlinfon s Confidence in his own Works. a member and a real difcoverer himfelf fcience. This is an Inftitute. which in epigraphy. and of thus placing beyond the power of difpute the claim of the fociety at date (February 1846 or 1847) to tne refults which are publimed in the following memoir. I fought with them. INSCRIPTION that firft gave me an infight into the general purport of the legend" (i. Monfieur de Saulcy. what authority has he for the aflertion certain that Nineveh's palaces had been deftroyed many years before the birth of Darius. he fays (1846 or 1847) I took the precaution of forwarding to the Royal Afiatic Society a literal tranflation of every portion of the Perfian writing at Behuftan. an extenfive traveller in the Baft. in the of the French 1847 London. the Behuftan But how is this to be reconciled with the infcription). Yet we find in the year 1 850 <c or 1851 Sir Henry fpeaking in this ftyle Many of the ftandard expreflions at Behuftan. in the fixteenth page of the fame (C In February of the prefent year volume. and defeated them PROVE TO HAVE let it : ' ' BEEN ADOPTED VERBATIM FROM THE ASSYRIAN ANNALS. Rawlinfon mean to fay that Darius Hyftafpes copied from the Aflyrian infcriptions ? If fo.

and was imperative in the prefent fubje6t. perfonage by perfonage. however. or at being left deftitute of proof. that he " denies nothing. the publication feems to merit the fever eft treat- ment. Athenteum Franqais. the fubftitution of one group for another. and as I claim to be the difcoverer of a new fyftem.152 The Ancient Ones of the "Earth. appear themfelves to have tacitly taken a fimilar courfe. indeed. the printed copies of which are fo full of errors that it would have been labour in vain to have attempted any more from fuch a fource errors which Sir H. and is that it can only be brought to perfection by gentlemen of profound abilities as Oriental fcholars. to the number of over a fcore. where the difcoverer pretends alone to have the key to the exploration of the cuneiform writings. my fole defign is to exhibit the refults of a fyftem which I firmly believe will ultimately prove to be wholly erroneous. incumbent even is indifpenfable in all fcience. The fubject I confider to be one of great and vital importance. enabled to copy from the originals in the Britifh Mufeum. in conclufion." . alfo to mow the errors and inconfiftencies of At the fame time. and then I hope that the great problem of the primitive language will be folved. parenthetically. but merely waits until Rawlinfon gives fome proofs of his revelations . while I firmly previous fyftems. of elves. in proving the truth of my own theory. adds the editor of the "Journal of Sacred Literature. I my fyftem it is think that founded upon truth and reafubject to many modifications. to fay the truth. of being improbable in tbemf He fubftantiates this triple charge againft variance with each other. In pointing out thefe obvious difcrepancies." It is alfo the advice I would convey to your Britifh readers. and . noife they And make about fo ftartling a publication. reveal to us the loft names of certain kings of the Aflyrian dynafties. who. taking the principal divinities. Having faid this much. believe that fon. Rawlinfon. Hinckes and Layard would only call non-effentials3 fuch as the omiflion of elements or wedges from fome groups. if one may judge from the little in religion. I am compelled. Rawlinfon's Pantheon. and this. he fays. with farcaflic deference. I mall proceed to fhow that while in the colony of Victoria it was next to an impoffibility for me to give anything like a correct tranflation of any of the infcripBut fince my return to England I have been tions.

or Z. 14. Now. although it was at firft my intention to make a tranflation of the whole of the infcription on the Black Marble Obelifk. difadvantages. and. therefore Gillirri might have M become Gimmirri. with a flight that people in ancient take up their dwelling-place near a fpring or well of water (as is proved in Genefis xxv. can perceive any of the names of the AfTyrian I 1 mythology. H. if not fatally. the Lamed gets fhortened and becomes A." and poffibly became the founder of a townfhip or city afterwards called LAILIROU). that I can follow the Jenje. I mall be I have made an obliged to defer it for the prefent. but fearful and myftic city cries found favour with or pleafed the feeble monarch. the Zain. vice verfd. only think this I will not fay anything in its favour. or it becomes the or elongated. or chief bowman. "And Ifaac dwelt by the well LAHAIROI. 2 Can this be the name mentioned in Genefis It is well alteration in the orthography ? as well as in modern days congregate and known xvi. "Gimirad. but with the primitive fyftem. It begins with a proclamation from the fupreme king Gillirri. or Gimir." page 476. (fee Table of Alphabets). or Sometimes Awleph. confequently Lamed. will aflume the perpendicular and become the Beth or B. W. it would greatly. and I do not much. : Gillirri appoints the friend of Tfaallni chief. who will 1 In the third volume of the " Journal of Sacred Literature. interfere with the truth of the tranflation. Ormfby. there is a paper by Mr. wherein the writer ftates that. to the above ance of CH . where every element is a letter. or chief of the Gimir. fubjecl. For inftance. and has the appearand again. 1 1. or vice verfa.and ftating cc that their king will be cared for Gillirri entered the and took captive the king . all thefe changes are looked upon as non-eflentials. attempt of the firft three gradines. had fettled in Shinar and founded a Scythic kingdom/' May not this be the fame individual as the one mentioned above? We know that the liquids L and interchange one with the other. 153 the alteration of the figure of an element. appointing one Tfaallni to be governor over the conquered people of Lailirou. and may be tolerated on the imperfecJ Eehuflan Jyftem . L Tfadde (or TS) gets placed upright. the Awleph (or A) I find in fome cafes is drawn out. Therefore.. .Author s Tr'(inflation of the three Grammes.

a a flab with a reprefentation of a winged figure. a colle&ion of people of different nations." Second gradine known I will not fail and felected Lien. and.. will fubmit as well as) the city. where he reigned 200 years before the Trojan war. known unto all that the chief governor of the people Lailirou will will of ! rebuild the walls or fortifications. and lo behold them (obliteration. or about the time of Jofhua? 1 Has this name any connexion with the Leleges we read of in ancient hiftory. I will confine him fecurely with Blaal. like as a) friend they feen in the time of trouble. an animal of the fame fpecies as is feen on the Black Marble " to gather. and approved thou Tfaallni preferve from trouble Lalagees.*' as its name imports. &c. an EgypXt'yw. Nothing mall diftrefs the land the fojourn of the king.M. to in page 73. 2650. or AfTyrian pried. whom if the people had affifted him (no) trouble would have entered Proclaim Lailirou. tian who came with a colony to Megara. will authority. rebellious to my them to accept the new governor. and compel Afluredly the towns it Be (obliteration. about A. 1 who the intercefTion of Tfaallni that through to fave fome in the tribute. viz. Gillirri the triumphant!" during " Third gradine (Obliteration. Aufzits fought fearfully to prevent the entering of Aram. whatever I attempt. and in this laft cafe a continuous narrative. Ligirr. Thus it will be feen that. Proclamation to the brought ! : town) and the imprifon all city ! And I. the fupreme king. fo named from Lelex. which I muft fay fomething about. by firmnefs of mind " And make : to collect the it tribute. it will be obferved. There is another fubject alluded . bearing on his left arm a kid of the capra as <egagra (a goat inhabiting the European Alps as well the Afiatic ranges)." &c. Aufzits.154 not fail The Ancient Ones of the Earth. and Ahhligron their chief. derived from . What remains it for me to fay at preferit is but I mall be impoffible moft anxious to refume my ftudies when I know I can do fo with certainty. The chief Tfaallni will the governor by the fourteenth day of the month compel Zou to abide (his word). and the chief. I can elicit fenfe.

Chron. from between the two cherubim. and the manifeftations of His glory. mine (forth) and fpread around the defires. beautifully embroidered and fringed. and that fpreadeth around the the heavens (goodnefs. 17. above all). xxxii. 155 The figure bears fomething in his right hand not clearly defined. 14-15: "And the Lord thundered from heaven. 13. Obelifk. if thou art He that dwelleth above. 2 if thy wrath covereth with confufion." Second line : And O 1 2 Samuel. and the moil High uttered his voice. but having fome refemblance to a large ear of corn . he wearing a robe reaching down to the heels. xxii." rather reference to a remarkable imitation of the Divine prefence mentioned by Philoftratus ? . O ! eternal mall be covered with that which covereth the top (i.Tranjlat ion from the Winged Figure." " And thou (halt put the covering the mercy-feat the ark. many of thy unhappy ones will thine altar " and unchangeable Supreme.e. The infcription of fixteen lines is cut or engraven acrofs the lower part of the drefs. 23. 6. and cxliv. through the interfaces and finuofities of the fringe. 23 and 1 7th). the wrath of God abideth in and around.. the cherubim mail ftretch forth their wings on high. and mow me the extreme beauty of the true 1 Haften my God.e. and fcattered them. and a fimilar underdrefs reaching to the knees. will deftroy them that thou wouldft cry aloud and fcatter (or break to pieces) the multitude of ftone gods (II. and a preferved. and with bracelets on the wrifts with rofette clafps. with their wings. The infcription begins with the <f ufual formula Proclamation Palace. and there I will meet with thee. Deut. with large taflels hanging from the waift. taken by the Aflyrians. bleffings of Him who is above and mercy. Pfalms vii. And he fent out arrows (i. and truth). 2 Does not this appear to be an allufion to the altar and mercy-feat of the Ifraelites. with the glory of Him who is that thou wouldft attend to my prayer. in all probability at the facking of perhaps. in the palace of which this flab formed Samaria. together with Aafhoik. which made fome portions of the infcription very difficult to copy. from above p art : And upon mercy-feat Or has it above the mercy-feat." Ixxvii. and but I will dwell among my kindred. Light : ! . his word].

and carries on it the face of truth. or with the feeling that no good can come out of Let them rather condefcend to teft this new Nazareth." is of two lines only. viz.The Ancient Ones of the Earth. cometh Repent 156 ! quickly. fo foft and artlefs in her expreflions. of human languages ? greatest prophet. and I may add. ideographs. on fome Armenian hill. and poffibly they may find that the conjectures of many fcholars will turn out cc That the earlieft of the three orders to be true. who is too earned to fmile. theory with the fame zeal that they have fhown with their felf-acknowledged imperfect key. it lies concealed from human eyes by marge of fome brook. fo unfophifticated in her ways. Where portant queftion put by an eminent writer may lie the tomb of the mother of the Semitic family. who utters no word but burns with life. the wrath of Him. without egotifm. been brought full into the light of day by the indefatigable refearches of the . by fome Mefopotamian watercourfe. too : cc confiding to reafon. the eternal. and the to the device. on application of the nineteen letters of the primitive alphabet. whofe paflions feem exhauftlefs. too impaflioned to argue. the great philologifts throw it afide as unworthy of notice. Let not practicable. and inconfiftencies and contradictions I have pointed out might be multiplied ad infinitum. the woman. in our opinion. and her intellect fcarcely appreciable. of cuneiform character imprifons a captive and dumb " and may alfo be able to anfwer an imSemitic Jpeech . but I think I have faid enough to convince the candid reader that the fyftems hitherto propounded can- which not be true . and fo it is in every legend applicable inftance. and will afluredly curfe and deftroy the rock. par excelLike the grave of her lence. be fwiftly taken away (by him) who covereth the top. without the cumbrous machinery of This the fubftance homophones. polyphones. that the theory fubmitted in the prefent work is at once fimple. 500 variants. Thofe determinatives. my god.. All that we know leads us to believe in one primitive Semitic Jpeech" This fact has.

he fays : " We . find employed a very important cuneito have efcaped hitherto form ^jT TSIB. .. be cut for and it. which feems the notice of AfTyrian fcholars.. A he will find that his . Science. but philologift to ftill Winged Figure. Smith. Fox Talbot's tranflation of the Bellino cylinder. and the fubfequent dif- covery that through the inaccuracy of the authorized copy. I have noticed in a former part of this work that I difcovered the numerals while forming a lexicon for facilitating the tranflating the whole of the infcription on the Black Marble Obelifk. Plate III." in printing this paper a new type had to will If Mr. and the method of reading the more complicated groups This diagram. the reader will fee nine fimple words from the lexicon. a few of which I mall notice. TSIB. preters have been trying their various fyftems now for more than fixty years. in Mr. There are many ftrong corroborative facts and coincidences which fpeak loudly in favour of the truth of the primitive alphabet." by D. out of fixty of the letter A. and in a note Mr. I could not depend upon any one word.Tranjlation from the Layard. and Religion. I had completed the fixtieth when the numerals put a flop for a word of the letter A time to my lexicon-making . In Plate III. but I believe it is not in any of the publifhed alphabets. in the adjoining column. It is furely high time they eflayed a trial of fome other fyftem. was difcovered in 1848. viz. 157 awaits the magic wand of the true The modern interbring it into life. Firft. Fox Talbot take the trouble of looking into the catalogue of the Library of the " True Key to the Britifh Mufeum for a book. or Awleph. mows the truth-fpeaking Jimplicity of the fyftem. and they are as far off from any certain and definite refult as when they began. has caufed me to give it up until a more favourable opportunity. Norris has informed me that this figure has been long known to him . AfTyrian Hiftory.

D." &c. ftone comes a moft as to the truth of the new theory. as that each individual element " had Jam A fhowing plainly its own peculiar power. FoxTalbot's from Michaudi's "Caillon" (which I call " The Altar of the Word. If we look at the Black Marble Obelifk." a battle. I have never feen the above character ftand alone. "a bar of fiher . but he could not me he had But now I never feen the group in that ftate before." is * Why afked that the third element tranfcriber . overwhelming evidence TSR Now > rock." ^_A^. . at the end of the 38th line. and . Smith. Face c.158 under the The Ancient Ones of the Earth. " In 'A command of Tyre. but the coincidence is fingular. below the line ? I Mr. the tell for Sir H. y > " to ACT RTSou." hence. 1249) had omitted the third element .' . rufh upon violently. and for fear of chipping away any of the fecond or fourth elements. When we omit a letter we infert s it. but always in conjunction with fome other letter or element. immediately undery juft as we now do in A. LRTS. fc "to cram.C. Rawlinfon. to bind remarkable up clofe. break. or dafli." or <c The Foundation of Freemafonry"). not much difference in the found. either above or below. &c." alfo." &c. he engraved the third. " Another fingular coincidence is found in a tranflation of Mr. fact. with a caret. to fmafh to pieces . G. "to oppofe. 1873. and fmafh . asi ^> RTS.AA flint. >^A\ ARTS. or " > to run. ground. "the earth. we /hall i a 4 5 find two groups &||^7 ^'L P"*^" I **TS R is it CH ^ meaning. In the firft line he fays " that . or the R. can tell him that the fculptor (B. name of " tjadde" (Ts) there is .

H. nifies 24 (which . and whofe grandfather.). account of the extent ^S which. ancient alfo the Hinckes'sy^. fouth. then. is SH. but a deep conviction of the will . point to the Eaft. which Parkhurft of his alfo renders " king. may not fubject. lived many ries. it often ufed fo but The king who" certainly does. in his turn. and which radiated to north. In conclufion. King of the Amalekites). fha" exprefs Now. Fox Talbot and Mr. what bring out of thefe ancient infcriptions new and important hiftorical to ? Who can tell truths may be light refpecting the early hiftory of the brought in corroboration and full elucidation of the inworld. Nothing could have induced the author to have written this work. "who. it direftly years contemporaneoufly with Adam. and . and crowned him with glory and honour. what" = <c 'The king primitive alphabet. all the knowledge of the arts. eaft. Thefe are fingular to the truth of the pointing primitive What is the conclufion. that we muft alphabet. ? fpired narrative in the Old Teftament that the fubjecVmatter of the prefent treatife I hope be apology fufficient for any errors that may be found in it. all nations. concentrating their abilities upon this interefting and with the aid of this new alphabet." can there be a doubt that Nineveh was the recipient of the primitive alphabet and the art of writing from the patriarch Shem. and all numeral coincidences. Norris. this is precifely what I render GAG." on dominions (alluding to Agag. of which Nineveh formed the centre. SH. and the W who" according to the the primitive. Mr. w. of 4. When and modern. and weft. Lamech. all perforce come to ? ages. who received from God? In this age of marvellous difcoveif what may we expect men of fuch profound learning as Sir Rawlinfon.Conclufion. who. and is " it is alfo ufed to Sar. fciences and literature which has made man <c a little lower than the angels. fee Plate IX. received it from his father Noah.

but faith in the truth refults. . and from an almofl It has been overwhelming Jenje of its great importance.160 The Ancient Ones of the Earth. carried on through difficulties almoft unparalleled its . truth of the fyftem he propounds. and hope in its final have cheered him on to completion. of his theory.

. 2.5. From A. 3. AK fiy.4. A Fy.M. .Fiy.


or proclaim." or Bou." P or AI. "to bind. REV.' Dab. Cf O! that thou wouldft. Hamyaritic " Thofe dwelling laden in filth I and B or D with crimes fcattered with the ftone. pained. "to in or out." or " to reign. Hamyaritic B or D AG. Over a caftle taken by ftorm. 2.PLATE II." Vor N CHU. Fig. " to dwell or abide. go Country." Ethiopia lou. The Greek or U Primitive Syftem." Hamyaritic Ethiopia H or LN." .' Greek K Greek OUg or " Jg. or dabab. FORSTER'S ALPHABET. C. " Shew > Greek E Greek Hamyaritic declare.


S u c OrCL) "8 1 C (U 1 K Q w~ r GROUPS AA CO .A t3 1 fd I s N 4-1 3 3 " h _Q 5 o u <u 3 4-1 TJ (U T3 c o -C 4^ co .II.


>J o <& o <fc o< o o I* "8 c CU *" 4-1 OQ U ffl MH CO .w <.




o AA n s AA A >- - AA n A CO c \/ v A V *" r^O h r< AA < .


y eo .5 *n Q CTJ [XI : s I .



Kaph and koph. fim. Epfi n. houfe or tent. or ox goad. eye. hook pin. . tent door. camel. Pelafgic. Cadmean. Lamed. prop. J^ He Awleph. an ox or leader. Beth. Shin.PLATE Primitive. Dawleth. . Vau. F Y V X armour. Nun. Mem. T . head. Samech. Zain. w A/V nr v\ V VA A /V V\ Y Ain. Cheth. V Refti. water. crofs. . . Etrufcan. He. Bardic. A A Gimel. Yod. tooth. Tauv.

FL ii i Modern Hebrew _ Roman A7TT VII r>!| A . Palmyrene.Samaritan. Phoenician.



Martin. Bernouf. Laflen.1836-39-44. St. 1 I . Grotefend.

LafTen. Martin. St. Rawlinfon. ^^ .IHJ6-39-44Grotefend. Bernouf.



as f Occurs. 10 1 1 v VI I C V 16 .PL ASSYRIAN NUMERALS. Numerals. ac ra 35 D ale ac A 7.

are as Teen in Sir H. Y The numerals marked above.i on the black marble Obelifk. Numerals. . Rawlinfon's copy.





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