Submitted to Mahatma Gandhi University In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration Under the guidance of Mr. K.G. Makesh, Lecturer, SCMS School of Technology and Management By Preethi Mohan FM-554

SCMS School of Technology and Management Aluva, Cochin, Kerala

SCMS School of Technology and Management,

Aluva, Cochin, Kerala - 683106

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled “Organization study and a study on absenteeism at Klene Paks Ltd, Bangalore” has been successfully carried out by Ms. Preethi Mohan in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration under my guidance during the academic years 2009-2011.

Mr. K.G. Makesh Date: (Internal Guide)

SCMS School of Technology and Management, Aluva, Cochin, Kerala – 683106


This is to certify that the project entitled “Organization study and a study on absenteeism at Klene Paks Ltd, Bangalore” has been successfully carried out by Ms. Preethi Mohan in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration during the academic years 20092011.


Dr. Radha Thevannoor (Director)


Makesh and is my original work. the undersigned. hereby declare that this project report entitled “Organization study and a study on absenteeism at Klene Paks Ltd. Date: Place: Cochin Preethi Mohan ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .G.I. The empirical findings in the report are based on information collected by me and not copied from elsewhere. Bangalore” has been written and submitted under the guidance of Mr. I understand that detection of any such copying is liable to be punished in any way the school deems fit. K.

Klene Paks Ltd. Radha Thevannoor. MBA. I thank God Almighty. First and foremost.I write this page to sincerely thank all those people who helped me in completing this project work successfully. I express my respect and sincere gratitude to my parents. for his blessings and care. for giving me support during my study in the company. I thank my friends of SSTM who helped me whenever I needed Preethi Mohan . I remember with thanks all other department heads and managers and the whole members of the Klene Paks. under whose guidance the project was carried out. I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to SCMS School of Technology and Management. Last but not the least. for providing the best of opportunities. Bangalore. motivation and assistance which served as the forces that helped me to bring this project to its present shape. I bestow my sincere gratitude to Mr. for his valuable support. SCMS School of Technology and 1Management. for supporting me through every step. Their support was inevitable for the completion. Bangalore. Makesh . I thank Dr. for her guidance and support. Ltd. my research guide for the guidance and encouragement given to me. Director. I am deeply indebted to Mr Punit Sipani.

COMPANY AND PRODUCT PROFILE 12-19 2.4 Concept of Absenteeism 6 2.CONTENTS CHAPTER NO: CHAPTER NAME PAGE NO: 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INDUSTRY. INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2-11 1.1 Packaging industry: An Overview 12 2. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL AREAS 20-41 .2 Klene Paks Limited: A Profile 15 2.3 Organization Study 6 1.2 Organization Structure 5 1.1 An Introduction to Organization 3 1.3 HDPE/PP Woven Fabric: A Profile 19 3.

6 Methodology 44 4.4 Scope of the study 44 4.2 Review of Literature 42 4.1 Overview of the Departments 20 4.5 Objectives of the study 44 4.7 Limitations of the study 44 5. 6. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 61-65 6.3 Significance of the study 43 4. ANALYISIS AND INTERPRETATION 45-60 FINDINGS.1 Statement of the problem 42 4.3.1 SWOT analysis 61 . RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 42-44 4.

3 Suggestions 64 6.6.2 Findings 62 6.4 Conclusion 65 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPENDIX 66-67 LIST OF CHARTS .

9 Hierarchy Structure of Despatch department 40 Chart No:5.1 Company Organizational Structure PAGE NO: 20 Chart No:3.4 Cause of Absenteeism: Family Problems 52 Chart No:5.5 Block Diagram of routine functions 25 Chart No:3.3 Job Satisfaction Level Respondents’ View Cause of Absenteeism: Low Salary 49 50 51 Chart No:5.7 Block Diagram of Routine Functions 30 Chart No:3.8 Hierarchy Structure of production department 32 Chart No:3.6 Hierarchy Structure of Marketing Department 28 Chart No:3.6 Cause of Absenteeism: Poor Relationship With Colleagues 54 Chart No:5.1 Chart No:5.3 Chart No:3.4 Hierarchy Structure of Finance Department Hierarchy Structure of Purchase Department Hierarchy Structure of Machinery purchase and maintenance department 21 23 24 Chart No:3.2 Chart No:3.5 Cause of Absenteeism: Lack of Transportation 53 Chart No:5.TITLE CHART NO: Chart No:3.2 Chart No:5.7 Cause of Absenteeism: Heavy Workload 55 Chart No:5.8 Cause of Absenteeism: Pressure From Higher Authority 56 .


15 Cause of Absenteeism: Heavy Workload 55 Table No:5.13 Cause of Absenteeism: Lack of Transportation 53 Table No:5.3 Marital Status of Respondents 46 Table No:5.10 Table No:5.16 Cause of Absenteeism: Pressure From Higher Authority 56 Table No:5.11 Job Satisfaction Level Respondents’ View Cause of Absenteeism: Low Salary 49 50 51 Table No:5.4 Educational Qualification of the Respondents 46 Table No:5.12 Cause of Absenteeism: Family Problems 52 Table No:5.2 TITLE Sex of the respondents Age group of respondents PAGE NO: 45 45 Table No:5.5 Work Experience of the Respondents 47 Table No:5.9 Table No:5.14 Cause of Absenteeism: Poor Relationship With Colleagues 54 Table No:5.7 Locality 48 Table No:5.8 Type of Family 48 Table No:5.1 Table No:5.17 Cause of Absenteeism: Unsatisfactory Canteen 57 .TABLE NO: Table No:5.6 Nature of the employment 47 Table No:5.

absence from work is a cause of loss production. The problem of absenteeism in India is widespread. business. a certain amount of absence will always be unavoidable. profession. continuity of their relations with rural area and due to certain other reasons the rate of absenteeism is much high among them. Thus this topic has been chosen for research study. this problem adversely affect not only laborers but also the whole organization. Progress and prosperity of Indian company will be largely hinging on the growth and development of our industrial economy of all the factors of production Human factors plays a decisive role in achieving their end in our country. Labor Absenteeism is the one of the main problems among employees. Even though it is difficult to gauge economic effects of absenteeism. It destroys the family income and company economy it is suicidal for the workers in the long run. As the employees are from rural areas. Absenteeism.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Absenteeism is non-spectacular as a symptom of industrial unrest even though the total time last through employee absence could be as high as that last through other forms of industrial problems. . Due to sickness injuries and other unforeseen reasons. “is clearly related to employee morale and often constitutes an unspoken and usually unconscious protest against conditions of work life in general”. They frequently change their industry. Absenteeism can have many reasons but has only one result. according to many researchers.

company’s permanent employees have highest work experience. The lack of health problems alike. poor mainly and due to family problems. it says that a large portion of the employees is satisfied with their job. it was found that the company has a strong customer base. Analysis of data is done by using charts. The study also reveals that the employees feel that absenteeism is caused transportation. the internet. The study was directed towards finding the reasons for absenteeism in the organization. The objective of this study is to find out the various cases of absenteeism faced by the company. books. purchase and marketing departments though the human resources department functions a little weakly. The company has brand equity and has sufficient godowns and storage facilities. Absenteeism is seen more as a habitual problem. In addition. The entire employees in the organization constitute the population. The study is essentially descriptive in nature. bar-diagrams and tables. previous dissertations etc.This study is helpful in finding out major reasons for absenteeism in Klene Paks Ltd. . The study is conducted across a cross section of employees of the organization for a period of 11 days. A sample of 50 employees is drawn from the population using judgmental sampling technique. This study will help both management and workers to find out what kind of relationships exist in the organization. to introduce various measures to reduce absenteeism and to suggest and recommend improvements in the existing system. the employees should be provided with sufficient fringe benefits. From the study. It is suggested that the employees should be given training and awareness on how to tackle the habitual problem of absenteeism and why it is detrimental to work and the employee as an individual. Primary data was collected by survey method through a questionnaire that was distributed to the employees and secondary data was collected from company records. In addition. a strong production. company website.

an organization has been born. Its purpose is to create an arrangement of positions and responsibilities through and by means of which an enterprise can carry out its work. and b) The formal . and specialist) personnel employed in its service. An academic textbook definition of organization can be formulated as follows: “a) The responsibilities by means of which the activities of the enterprise are dispersed among the (managerial. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION When two or more people get together and agree to coordinate their activities in order to achieve their common goals. supervisory. There is really no doubt about the present meaning of organization.The results of this study have helped the management of Klene Paks Ltd identify their flaws and shortcomings and make necessary changes to improve the present scenario.

Staff: All organizations have a number of staff members. An organization is basically a social arrangement which is in pursuance of common goals. Features of Organization The different features of an organization are as follows: 1. it would have laborers working for it. It has a definite structure. The employees in an organization are distinguished by their specific roles in this structure. Also if the company is a manufacturing concern. In reality. policies and culture. internal changes also occur oftentimes due to the development of various informal relationships. which is different from all other organizations. almost all organization structures must be occasionally reviewed due to various changes in the external environment of the organization in question. technical staff and supportive staff. Structure: Each organization has a definite structure. This includes all the management staff. Moreover.interrelations established among the personnel by virtue of such responsibilities. 2.” It must be emphasized that an organization should not be seen as rigid as the term “framework” implies. . It controls its own performance and is striving towards a goal.

Culture is unique and can not be copies. Strategy: Relates to the planning process. plans for the future based on its resources and Importance and Objectives of Organization The effectiveness and efficiency of organization helps in providing the continuity and success to the enterprise. Facilitates Growth and Diversification: A sound organization helps in the growth and diversification of activities. System: System refers to the processes and procedure followed in the company. A sound organization helps in providing appropriate platform where management can perform the functions of planning. hiring. 4. information systems etc. Shared values: Shared values define what the organization stands for. Facilitates Administration: An efficient and sound organization make easy for the management to relate the flow of resource continually to the overall objectives. promotions. Culture/style: Culture of the organization refers to the norms and values that rule an organization. It defines how the organization opportunities. 2.3. motivation and control. There are many factors that explain the importance and objectives of organization and they are:- 1. The growth is facilitated by . 5. It conveys the central belief of an organization and forms the rest of the features of the organization. 6. direction. It relates to the financial systems. coordination. It is based on the historic trends in an organization.

Permits optimum use of Resources: The optimum use of technical and human resources gets facilitated in sound and efficient organization. and interaction among different levels of the ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE . It encourages the creativity of the people. favorable working environment and democratic and participative leadership. the functional types get replaced by a more flexible decentralized organization. Stimulate Creativity: The specialization in the organization helps individuals in getting well defined duties. training. clear lines of authority and responsibility. The sound organizational structure enables managers to concentrate on important issues where their talent can be exploited to the maximum. It makes people work in a team and not like machines or robots. Encourages Humanistic Approach: A sound organization helps in adopting efficient methods of selection. it helps in the organizational elaboration. Organization helps in providing factors like job rotation. 3. 4. A sound organization provides all the desired potential and strength to the company to meet the future challenges. It also facilitates optimum use of human resources through specialization. The organization can have the facilities of latest technological developments and improvements. In short. job enlargement and enrichment to its employees. In case of reasonable expansion of organization. It enhances the mode of communication management. proper delegation of authority etc.clear division of work. 5. remuneration and promotion for employees. A sound organization provides higher job satisfaction to its employees through proper delegation and decentralization. The people in the organization get appropriately trained and get promotion opportunities.

By regional area .g. marketing manager South etc 3. . An organizational chart shows the way in which the chain of command works within the organization. etc. employee motivation and a range of other people focused activities.a geographical structure e. Different organizations have different structures. marketing manager drinks. By product e.g. These departments will provide back up support and training. In addition there will be a number of cross-functional areas such as administration and Information Technology departments that service the functional areas of the company. Organizations are structured in different ways: 1. For example most organizations will have a marketing department responsible for market research and marketing planning. etc 4. Into work teams. with a marketing Manager North.Every organization made up of more than one person will need some form of organizational structure. A customer services department will look after customer requirements. marketing manager crisps. A human resources department will be responsible for recruitment and selection of new employees. By function as described above 2.

It also looks at how theoretical knowledge is made use of in real life. Absenteeism: “Absenteeism is the habit of being absent and an absentee is one who habitually stays away” “Absenteeism is the failure of workers to report on the job when they schedule to work” CONCEPT OF ABSENTEEISM . Objectives of the Organization Study The study aims at familiarizing the working environment of the said organization. Definitions Absence: The term absence refers to all “stay away” from work whether unauthorized and authorized.communication and instructions can then be passed down the line. who is accountable to a junior manager. who is then accountable to a senior manager . legal requirements and likely trends. An effort is made to identify strengths and weaknesses of the organization and to study the working arrangements of the organization.Reporting in organizations often takes place down the line. ORGANIZATIONAL STUDY The organizational study has become an increasingly complex field in which the students of management need to keep abreast of current best practice. An employee might be accountable to a supervisor.

where such a problem occurs. it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be at work. Many human resources specialists have found that repetitive. Such team members need individual attention from frontline supervisors and management. In other words. Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absence as percentage of total number of man shifts scheduled to work. Indeed. it is obvious that people such as malingerers and those unwilling to play their part in the workplace can also have a decidedly negative impact. boring jobs coupled with uncaring supervisors and/or physically unpleasant workplaces are likely to lead workers to make up excuses for not coming to work Features of Absenteeism Research study undertaken by different authors reveals the following features of absenteeism. it is essential to find and then eliminate the causes of discontent among team members. . willful or caused by circumstances beyond one’s control. to cure excessive absenteeism. “Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee work. as prevention is better than cure. For any business owner or manager. it is always important to review recruitment procedures to identify how such individuals came to be employed in the first place. Any employee may stay away from work if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or some accident or without any previous sanction of leave.It refers to workers absence from their regular task when he is normally schedule to work. and an absentee is one who habitually stays away from Thus absence may be authorized or unauthorized. Maybe even worse than absenteeism.”.

Willful absenteeism 4. Authorized absenteeism 2. Unauthorized absenteeism If an employee stays away from work without informing or taking permission or with out applying for leave. Willful absenteeism . Absenteeism caused by circumstances. if increases considerable on the day following the payment of wages and bonus. they are- 1. such absenteeism is called authorized absenteeism. 2. Types of Absenteeism Absenteeism is of four types. such absenteeism is called unauthorized absenteeism. 4.1. Unauthorized absenteeism 3. 3. Absenteeism is generally high among the worker below 25 years of age and those 40 years of age. The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department an organization. 2. The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on pay day. 1. Authorized absenteeism If an employee is applying for leave by taking permission from his superior and gets absent him from work. Absenteeism in traditional industries is seasonal in character. 3.

Absenteeism caused by circumstances If an employee has taken leave which is entitled on the ground of sickness or some accidents. of employees in the roll B. 4. that the employee will not be available for work at the specified time. For a period = man-days lost due to absenteeism / Total no of man days available Measurement of Absenteeism . such absenteeism is called willful absenteeism. of persons absent ∕ No.If an employee stays away from duty at his own will. Any particular day or time = No. and when the employer has no reason to expect. Schedule to Work When the employer has work available and the employee is aware of it. such absenteeism is called absenteeism caused by circumstances. Calculating the rate of absenteeism Two factors are taken in to consideration. Absenteeism formula A. well in advance. Present A worker who reports for a part of a shift is to be considered present.

industrial production is reduced. For Example: a) Average number of employees in work force: 100 b) Number of available workdays during period: 20 c) Total number of available workdays (a x b): 2. In order to meet the emergency and strikes. the employer has to suffer a greater loss due to absentees. Thus the time lost in terms of absenteeism is a loss of income to workers 2) Loss to employers On other hand. It is because there is a general principle of “no work – no pay”. It hinders industrial growth and its effect in two fold.For calculating the rate of absenteeism we require the number of people scheduled to work and number of people actually present. worker’s income is reduced largely. an additional labor force is also maintained . Effects of Absenteeism on Industrial Progress It is quite evident from the above figures that absenteeism is a common feature of industrial labor in India. Absenteeism rate can be found out by using absence rate method.65% Since absenteeism is a major barometer of employee morale. It disturbs the efficiency and discipline of industries consequently. 1) Loss to worker Firstly. due to the habit of being absent frequently.000 d) Total number of lost days due to absences during the period: 93 e) Absenteeism percent (d [divided by] c) x 100: 4. absenteeism above 5 percent has to be considered as very serious (across most industries 3 percent is considered standard).

Family size and responsibility 3. Some of the aspects revealed by research studies on industrial absence have been the nature of industry. Causes of Absenteeism I. leisure orientation . Their adjustment brings serious complications because such workers do not generally prove themselves up to work. On certain occasions. Personal factors They may be studied under the following sub classification. out of this nearly 50% accounted against environmental factors such as socio-economic factors like poverty unhygienic living condition.83% in one such study.by the industries. Organizational factors Organizational climate plays a vital aspect in the behavioral pattern of the workers. number of dependents. sickness. Marital harmony 2. Higher absenteeism is an evil both for workers and the employers and ultimately it adversely affects the production of industries. [a] Internal factors 1. Work orientation. leniency on the part of management and militancy of trade unionism in certain industries account for higher rate of absenteeism. maternity factors and religion. Environmental factors In this. those workers are employed who present themselves at factory gates. During strikes they are adjusted in place of absent workers. The rate of absenteeism in Indian industry is estimated as 17. we are examining the extent of influence of the external environment on workers’ absenteeism. II. III.cultural factors.

Side income . Standard of leaving and transport [b] External factors 1. Social. Indebtedness of workers 5. Educational level 7. Living conditions of the workers 2. and cultural aspects and housing IV. Social norms and values 7. Bad habits 5. Health of workers 3.4. Emotional and educational level 6. Level of unemployment 2. Education 6. Recreational facilities 3. Socio economic factors 1. Drinking habit of workers 4. religion.

The market volume of the Indian packaging industry amounts to about Rs. Worldwide. packaging industry has gained enormous importance because it creates vast employment opportunities and contributes to nearly 4% of GDP. food and Pharma . The highest demand for packaging and the associated equipment come from the food processing industry at 50 percent and from the pharmaceutical industry at 25 percent. liberalization and organized retail sector are the catalysts to growth in packaging. COMPANY AND PRODUCT PROFILES Packaging Industry: An Overview In the global plastics industry.CHAPTER TWO INDUSTRY. The pace of growth will accelerate to between 20-25 percent over the next five years. packaging is one of the main segments. In addition. The large growing middle class. The rising demand for agricultural food products and off-the-shelf items throughout the world has initiated large-scale production of these commodities.570 crore and has constantly grown by approximately 15 percent year on year.77.

While major components such as cartons. are of global standards. Indian companies are now placing increasing emphasis on attractive and hygienic packaging. India’s packaging industry may achieve an annual turnover as high as US$ 5 billion in the current financial year with . Karnataka. the glass bottles and outer cartons are areas that need to be upgraded Plastic woven sacks industry in India was started with just two units during 1969-1970 at Bangalore and now comprises of more than 1000 units spread over 21 states and union territories having an annual turnover of Rs8000 crores and providing employment to over 6. which are Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) certified. agriculture. This promises enormous potential for the future. Germany and Italy are the largest suppliers of packaging machinery to India but focus is now shifting on Taiwan and China. Dairy product packaging constitutes a large portion of the South India Packaging industry. cans and laminates. Its contribution to the national exchequer is over Rs600 crores and its exports are over Rs400 crores. There are about 600-700 packaging machinery manufacturers. and services grow at high rates the packaging industry is also showing great variety and depth in its growth. including packaging. 95 percent of which are in the small and medium sector located all over India. Southern states including Andhra Pradesh.00. As infrastructure. Abundant tea production in South India brings opportunities in paper bag packaging industry.packaging are the key driving segments.0000 people. Packaging Industry in India The current wave of economic development in India is seen from all over the world. manufacturing. Kerala and Tamil Nadu now lead the country in a number of indices.

to a broad array of rigid. or metal foils that are used separately or in combination for various packaging applications. India’s consumer packaging accounted for just US$ 2. coffee. It is generally lighter in weight. the packaging industry worldwide generated an annual estimated turnover of US$ 417 billion. In 2001. oils. soaps. BOPET). uses less material. reseal. Today. semi rigid and flexible packaging options increasingly made from specialized lightweight materials. flexible packaging as laminates of plastics that have a unique set of properties that ensure toughness. dispense from. Leading companies in the Indian packaging industry show a compound annual growth rate of 30 per cent. HDPE. cloth. health and personal care. LDPE. and in certain other nonfood applications such as household detergents. and steel. Flexible Packaging Demand in India and Worldwide . aroma retention. spices. grease resistance. glass. and Japan.a growth rate nearly 25 per cent in significant segments. chewing tobacco. BOPP. tea. Flexible Packaging Flexible packaging consists of multi-layer laminated sheets of plastics (PVC. paper. and dispose. printability. packaging is produced more quickly and efficiently. The major regions that made up this total include Europe. moisture resistance. rigid containers made of wood. US$ 129 billion. US$ 81 billion. is easier to open. Packaging has evolved from a relatively small range of heavy. These find use in packaging food. that is about half of one per cent of the global packaging volume. North America. and shampoos. $116 billion. However. heat sealability. low odour and taste. confectionary. gloss.3 billion in that year. bakery. store.

Though the Indian plastics processing industries registered an impressive growth rate in the last decade.World demand for converted flexible packaging will grow at more than 4 per cent per year through 2005 to nearly 14 million metric tons. KLENE PAKS LIMITED: A COMPANY PROFILE KLENE PAKS LTD. Over thousand employees are working in this company. Africa. Fabric is essential for most of manufacturers to packing and selling purpose of produced products. yet the industries have to gear up to meet the challenges of greater competitiveness in the post WTO scenario. KLENE PAKS LTD has two manufacturing units. a pioneer in packaging industry. This HDPE/PP laminated and non-laminated fabric/sacks is essential product for most of the industry for packaging purpose. with a value exceeding US$ 50 billion. Eastern Europe. This HDPE/PP laminated and non laminated fabric/sacks is essential product for most of the industry for packaging purpose. . was established in the year 1971. The company has been registered as a private company. India holds largely untapped markets with a potential of double digit market growth. Bannerghatta road (Old manufacturing unit) and other one is at Jigani industrial area (New manufacturing unit). with all time tested manufacturing facilities and proven quality standards. Fabric is essential for most of manufacturers to packing and selling purpose of produced products. The company is located at Bangalore. including Eastern Asia. The flexible packaging industry in India is currently estimated to be US$ 1 billion and records a high growth rate of approximately 20 per cent. one is at Arekere. The best gains are expected in the world’s emerging markets. and Middle East.

Papers. The company caters to the needs of manufacturing industries like Fertilizers. Super Phosphates. by the year 1991 the company was debt free and was financially stabilized. after in-house production began. for their packaging needs. They have been manufacturing HDPE/PP. the company was modernized in the year 1987 and converted its flat looms to circular looms with high production capacity. Papers and Sugar Factories for their packing purposes. With rich experience and with the best leaders. Super phosphates.Background and Inception of the Company In the year 1971 the company was formed and in the year 1983 it was taken over by Sipani Group who were pioneers in the world of woven fabrics. The company shifted from being a bag marketing company to a fabric marketing company where the company targeted small scale entrepreneurs who converted the bags to fabric and supplied to smaller markets which are called open markets. The increased demand of 50% a year from the large scale companies changed the whole strategy of business in the year 1999 to 2002. Hence it had to outsource the job to 15 other smaller companies. and Sugar Factories etc. Fabric/Bags/Sheets & LDPE/ LLDPE/ HMHDPE liners to the leading Units manufacturing Fertilizers. During the years 1991-1999. KLENE PAKS has more than three Decades of experience in providing packaging solutions. Laminated/Unlaminanted. Chemicals. Chemicals. Nature of business . the company experienced a greater demand for the products.

2. Promoting a team based culture. is one the leading manufacturers of 1. 3. HDPE/PP woven laminated bags 2. HDPE/PP woven non laminated bags/fabric/sheets 3. which encompasses human value and ethics. 4. Delivering quality of product at a competitive price and Adopting a friendly Facilitating absolute Technology and to nurture a clear decision making through the to achieve customer satisfaction on time. we will strive to understand the packaging needs of the consumers and translate it into affordable products that deliver value for money. Mission and Quality Policy Vision “Strengthen our customer base through close ties with our existing and future partners” 1. To be the first choice for packaging needs of customers. adequate use of data. customer satisfaction and profitability” As a responsible. . and healthy surroundings.KLENEPAKS LTD. To be the preferred employer for staff in fabric industry. 2. customer focused market leader. Vision. 3. LDPE/LLDPE/HMHDPE liners etc. Quality Policy 1. To be the number one in quality and on time deliveries. Mission “Wide recognition as the bench mark for quality.

000 Sq ft of built up area. An upcoming 3rd unit in Madhur consists of 11 plants and 450 . United chemicals industry Infrastructural facilities All three units are fitted with state of the art machinery.Customers The main customers are1. Ltd 6. Diamond cement 4. The infrastructural setup is designed to meet both short and long production cycles. Shanty petropacks private limited 3. Birla super bulk terminals 2. Mysore cements 7.Madras cement 11.50. Dalmia cement (Bharat Ltd) 5. Deepak extrusions limited and 4. Penna cement 8. Lanco cements Ltd 10.Orissa cement 12. The present setup consists of 11 plants and 350 Looms of European standards which are of latest technology machinery producing quality and precise product which are facilitated in 2 units consisting of 2. A considerable portion of profits is invested in new equipment. such as 1. Jindal Aluminum Co. Cement corporation of India 9. Abhinandan patropacks private limited 2.Various flourmills & rice mills Competitors’ information KPL is one of the major work holding companies in India. Chettinad cement corporation limited 3. Yet it faces huge competition from various companies.

Leave facilities The employees are granted leave in respect to the company norms and the employee should provide an advance notice with respect to situation. Retirement The retirement age for all employees in the company is 58 years where the employee would be benefited with provident fund. Disciplinary action The fundamental reason for disciplinary action is to correct the situations which are unfavorable to the company. gratuity etc. Medical Benefits All workers are under the ESI (Employees State Insurance) act. Canteen facilities The management provides the employees with hygienic food t subsidized rates. It is contracted to outdoor caterers. .00. A guideline has been prepared and shared with all the employees.000 sq ft which will make KPL the largest producer in the country. Also each worker holds membership with ARC(Accident Relief Care) and the premium is paid by the company every year. The employees also have an option of VRS (Voluntary Retirement Schemes). This guideline says what should and should not be done.Looms built up area with 3. These disciplinary actions are printed in standard orders of the company.

The company also offers normal lamination or with paper and BOPP film slitting glossing. . double color fabric. In all the above categories. KPL caters to their client requirement as per the client specification in terms of gms. also has excellent prospect in the field of packaging in the years to come through high quality value added products and value added service to the costumers. lamination. KPL. yellow. they offer special service of converting fabric in to sack by cutting. gram age. They also offer stitching yarn to the customers. which is offered to the market with 600 ready varieties. blue. without lamination. printed and plain HDPE/PP Woven fabric is the basic product. colored green. Their newly launched product is leno fabric. border color.Future growth and prospectsKPL has had excellent operation performance in last 4 years. which are classified. There are more than eight ISI standards relating to woven sacks and the weight and specialization of the bags depend on the end use application. lemon yellow. natural. stitching and printing in to any form. size. by product in terms of width. blue tone and red. HDPE/PP WOVEN FABRIC: A PROFILE Product Description Plastic woven fabrics and sacks are made from High Density Polythene (HDPE) or Poly Propylene (PP) and used as a major bulk packaging material.

All departments’ managers give the information about all routine functions to respective Directors but final approval for any activity is by Managing Director of the company. . 1) Finance Department 2) Human Resource Department 3) Purchase Department 4) Production Department 5) Marketing Department 6) Despatch Department In Klene Paks Ltd. concerned Directors are handling and controlling the activities of all departments.CHAPTER THREE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL AREAS OVERVIEW OF THE DEPARTMENTS Klene Paks Ltd produces the HDPE/PP Laminated/Unlaminated Fabric and sacks with the co-ordination of following departments.

Company Organizational Structure Chart No: 3. Finance department of Klene Paks Ltd is a centralized department for both the units. Bannerghatta road (Old manufacturing unit) and other one is at Jigani industrial area (New manufacturing unit).1 FINANCE DEPARTMENT Klene Paks Ltd has two manufacturing units. One is at Arekere. .

The department strives towards monitoring the budget and budgetary control as well. Depreciation Policy of the Firm Klene Paks Ltd follows the written down value method. Functions The finance department has a variety of functions.Hierarchy Structure of Finance department Chart No: 3.91 percent per annum 5) Electrical installations-13. Also great emphasis is laid on enhancement of business projects and upgradation of day-to-day transactions. and depreciation for the year 2008-2009 is as follows. One of its major functions are to monitor the debtors and creditors of the company. 1) Building-10 percent per annum 2) Plant and machinery-13.1 percent per annum 4) Office equipments-13.91 percent per annum .91 percent per annum 3) Furniture-18. The department also performs critical functions like day-to-day reconciliation of transactions and evaluation of financial performance on a regular basis.2 Objectives The finance department aims mainly at protecting the financial interest of the company. The routine functions of accounting and auditing are also carried out in a systematic manner. Proper utilization of funds is of prime importance too.

540 Net working capital: Rs25. the gross and net working capitals are as follows: Gross working capital: Rs28. .6) Generators-13.91 percent per annum 7) Computers-40 percent per annum Working Capital In Klene Paks Ltd.

which is useful for melting and for whiteness purpose. This raw material is being purchasing from 1) Reliance Industry limited 2) Gas authority of India They will place an order through three agents and they are.PURCHASE DEPARTMENT The main raw materials for the company are Raffia grade. fillers and master batch. This raw material has been being purchasing from Kalpana industries and the Colorings are called as master batch and are purchased from the SCJ plastics. The raw material Raffia grade is the main material in the whole production of HDPE/PP laminated and non-laminated fabrics and sacks. . The Filler is another raw material. 1) N K agencies 2) Soubhagya Polymers limited 3) Amsa Trading Corporation.Always there will be a buffer stock of 10 days.

Hierarchy Structure of purchase department Chart No: 3.3 Raw material purchase Machinery Purchases and Maintenance Hierarchy Structure of Machinery purchase and maintenance department .

Lohiyya Star Linger Limited and others.Heirarchy Structure of Machinery purchase and maintenance department Chart No: 3.4 Machinery purchase manager handles the purchase of required machines for production of HDPE/PP laminated and non-laminated fabric/sacks.P industries. Usually the machines are purchased from the J. Some of the machines are as follows. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Looms machines-116 Extruder.02 Lamination plant-01 Bobbin plants-03 Printing machines-12 Stitching machines-20 Baling machines-05 .

but it also maintains the machines for smooth run of production. If any item reaches to reorder level then the In-charge officer will fill the Material Purchase Request (MPR) form and submit it to the machinery purchase manager.5 The purchase department not only purchases the required machines for production.8) Captive power (Generators) -03 Block Diagram of routine functions Chart No: 3. The . There are 1300 items in a standard list at stores level to maintain the all machines of the company.

the carrying charges will increase while the ordering cost will decrease. Statistical technique used by the company to place an order As the order size increases. If some other materials are required at shop floor then they have to take the approval of In-charge officer to purchase those required materials. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is that size or order. Later the In-charge officer will fill the Material Purchase Request (MPR) form and send it to the machinery purchase manager. After final verification. if any item not present in 1300 items list and required for production then they have to fill the Material Requisition Form (MRF) and have to take the approval of the In-charge officer. Formula to find out the economic order quantity to place an order is as follows. and confirms the received items. based on material purchase request form. Later In-charge officer will send the bills to the machinery purchase manager. the In-charge officer checks the quantity. That means. defects.machinery purchase manager will place an order to supplier. The In-charge officer will check the necessity of the requested materials to purchase. When the suppliers send the ordered materials to the company stores. On the other hand. the carrying cost decreases and the ordering cost increases. the machinery purchase manager sends the bills to accounts departments for clearance of purchased items of machineries. which minimizes total annual (or any other time period as specified by individual firm) costs of carrying inventory and cost of ordering. as the order size decreases. After this same procedure as mentioned earlier. .

At stores level.EOQ= 2 D Co Ch Where EOQ = Economic Order Quantity D = Annual demand Co = Ordering cost Ch = Carrying cost In Klene Paks Ltd. then the In-charge officer will inform (by MPR) to machinery purchase manager to place an order for required material. As soon as the item reaches to reorder level. machinery purchase manager will purely replace the machines based on. the machinery purchase manager has fixed the Reorder Level to each item in the list of 1300 items. the In-charge officer regularly checks for the reorder level of 1300 items. Then the machinery purchase manager will place an order Machinery Replacement Policy In Klene Paks Ltd. to maintain the machines through out the production and life of that machine. 1) When productivity of machine decreases 2) When maintenance cost increases .

For every machine. MARKETING DEPARTMENT Klene Paks Ltd is so popular so that the company does not require to advertise heavily about the company. if the parties are satisfied with the quotations. which contains the information of maintenance. As the maintenance cost increases and productivity decreases. machines are replaced. there is no such fixed time period to replace purchased machine. The parties itself call for company’s quotations. they maintain a logbook.In Klene Paks Ltd. then they place order(s). .

Therefore. Distributors problem solving Hierarchy Structure of Marketing Department Chart No: 3. then it will get the order by that party and KPL manufactures the order according to specification to fulfill party’s requirements. there are about 350 customers. Quality maintenance 2. magazines. the marketing manager has assigned two assistant managers for Tamil Nadu region. to handle the huge customer base. On time deliveries 3. In Tamil Nadu. if party accepts KPL’s quotations from among the others. Marketing Strategy 1.6 Assistant managers 1 and 2 handle the customers of Tamil Nadu. . Company specifies their quotations. by advertising in newspapers. All over news covering 4.Sometimes parties call for tender.

In Andhra Pradesh the Marketing manager’s activities have been bifurcated for Hyderabad. in Hyderabad and Guntur godowns have been opened there. To solve distribution problem. In Karnataka the Marketing Manager’s acrivities are bifurcated for local (Bangalore) and other districts. Assistant manager 4 handles Karnataka state. Guntur and other districts. and other districts. In Maharashtra there are no such bifurcations. Assistant manager 5 handles Andhra Pradesh state. the customers give orders by. In Klene Paks Ltd. which contains the gross weight. There are nearly about 100 customers. net weight. If the specified material is available then despatch department sends back that sales slip to marketing department. the marketing department makes a sales slip. This Sales slip will be given to the despatch department to check for the availability of the specified fabric. 1) Post 2) E – Mail 3) Message There is no acceptance of oral orders by telephones. and type of fabric.To solve distribution problem of Tamil Nadu. Assistant manager 3 is handles Maharashtra state. In Chennai and Salem KPL has opened a godown and is planning to open another godown in Coimbatore. Coimbatore. they will be assigned a number called as order acceptance number. In Karnataka there are more than 100 customers. If the specified material is . average weight. Salem. According to specification of the customer. the Marketing Manager has bifurcated Tami Nadu as Chennai. For every incoming order by the customers.

not available then despatch department informs the production department to start production of that specified material. It is highly depends on the bulk of ordered fabric. It may take 4 to 6 days. . With the information of availability of the ordered fabric. the marketing manager or assistant marketing manager prepares the bill (invoice) for ordered fabrics.

Customer Order Acceptance Despatch Department Availability Marketing Department Production Bills Clearance by Customer Delivery Despatch Department .


Order Acceptance Despatch Department


Marketing Department



Clearance by Customer

Despatch Department


Block Diagram of Routine Functions Chart No: 3.7

The raw material prices changes every 7 to 10 days by Reliance industry limited. As the raw material prices changes, the prices of fabric also changes and customer has to pay the amount at the time of ordering rates, irrespective of the delivery of the fabrics.

The prices of fabrics are as follows.

Fabric price with effect from 25-06-2009 PP fabric UL/ L HDPE fabric UL/L Stitching yarn- HDPE Nano fabric 81.00 86.00 88.00 84.00

All these prices are based on the per kg bases, not on the bases of meters of the fabric. After preparing the bill the marketing persons communicate to the customers for clearance of ordered bill. If customer pays the bill amount by check, cash, demand draft (DD). The accounts department issues the amount and gives the LR receipt. This bill now goes to the despatch department.

The despatch department will load those ordered fabrics. The bill contains the delivery place, amount etc. The bill, LR receipt will send

along with transportation or they will post it. The customer gets their ordered fabrics if and if they (Customer) show that clearance bill and LR receipt. The aggregate sale of Klene Paks Ltd varies between 80 – 100 tones of sales every day.

Production Department

often called production lines or assembly lines.8 Product Layout Product layouts. .Hierarchy Structure of production department Chart No: 3. Such layouts are designed to allow a direct material flow through the facilities for products. are designed to accommodate only few types of product designs.

Product layouts typically use specialized machines that are set up once to perform a specific operation for a long period of time on one product. To change over these machines to a new product design requires great expense and long down time.

Companies that produce only few product types often set up a different production line for each product type. The facility layout would allow for the different product lines to be separated from each other.

Workers in product layouts repeatedly perform a narrow range of activities on only a few product designs. The amount of skill, training, and supervision required is small. Although the planning and scheduling activities associated with these layouts are complex, they are not ongoing. Rather, planning and scheduling tend to be done intermittently as product changeover occurs.

Klene Paks Ltd belongs to product layout categories. In this company there are four plants are there to produce HDPE/PP fabrics of laminated and non-laminated. Before going to production process, it is necessary to know, what materials. The company uses. They are as follows.

PP - H030SG, H350FG, B250EG, H033MG HD – W50A001, E52009, 53EA010 Lamination (PP) - H350FG, B250EG (LD/LLD) - 1070LA17, E36009A, E24065


The PP fabrics are somewhat rough as compared to HDPE fabrics. The company produces 80 percent only PP fabrics. If customer orders HDPE fabric, then company produce as per the customer’s order.

Like wise if customer orders the laminated PP/HDPE fabric, they will laminate to the fabric. Otherwise, all output is always in non-laminated form.

Production Process In Klene Paks Ltd, the production process is carried for HDPE/PP fabric laminated and un-laminated. Therefore, the production is carried out for two shifts from 9 to 7 and from 7 to 9. I ) Production for Bobbins:For the production of bobbins, three (3) plants are there. To each plant the required workers is as follows, 1) Plant operators = 10 2) Winders = 8 3) Helpers = 4

The raw materials, Raffia grade, fillers, and colors (if required) supplies into plant. The operators give the settings to plant for thickness of out coming thin sheet. This thin sheet further cuts into threads. These threads wrap by the winders. Thus from raw materials it becomes bobbins.

In this process the type of workers are semi-skilled and unskilled. This process runs for two shifts.

II ) Production of the un-laminated fabric

Klene Paks Ltd is using 116 looms machines, for the production of the unlaminated fabric. To produce this, the required workers are,

1) 1 viewer for 2 looms machines. Therefore, 56 viewers are required in each shift. 2) For setting and maintenance purpose, 10 workers are there. Here the bobbins are placed according to required color of the fabric. According to given settings, the looms machine weaves it and the output fabric wrapped as big roll. This is the production procedure of the HDPE/PP non-laminated fabric.

III ) Production of the laminated fabric By taking HDPE/PP un-laminated fabric into lamination plant makes it laminated HDPE/PP laminated fabric by giving setting to the lamination plant. The workers in this process are as follows,

1) Lamination plant operators are 5 in each shift 2) 12 helpers are there in each shift

If the customer has ordered for laminated HDPE/PP fabric, company will despatch it. If the customer has ordered for laminated sacks then it goes for finishing section.

IV ) Finishing work for Sacks This finishing work is for the HDPE/PP laminated/un-laminated fabric. After finishing work, it becomes the sacks. In this section, total number of workers is 65.

This section consist of,

which consist of the number of orders to be produce and specifications of the parties. Suppose the fabric is laminated one then. Total 5 tables The supervisor has a job card.1) Supervisor 1 2) Assistant supervisor 3) Printing operators 3 and Helpers 3. Human Resource Department . Finally. the printing operators print the specified print on sacks. These sacks are delivering to the parties. The tailors stitch it. the first they cut according to the specification. they make it reverse. Now it is a sack (bag). workers 4. Likewise total 4 tables 4) Tailors 3 and Helpers 3 5) Cutting (only ladies) workers 4. Likewise total 4 tables 6) Reversing the bag. Next.

3) To meet the needs of workers at the time of programs of expansion. creativity and drive. The promoters have the unique quality in then of choosing the right person for the right job at the right time. recruitment. The employee strength of this unit is nearly about 125 (skilled and semiskilled) and 250 unskilled workers who are working for the development of the organization. diversification etc. The personnel manager looks after attendance. 4) To foresee the impact of technology on work. salary. There are two assistants who assist the personnel manager. Thus. talent. Objectives 1) To recruit and retain the human resources of required quantity and  quality. absenteeism etc. 2) To foresee the employee turn over and arrange for minimizing turn over and filling up consequent vacancies.The most important resources of any organization are its human resources the people supply the organization with their work. This has taken them to the heights they have achieved in a very short span of time to ensure that products (fabric) of a very high order in its quality and standards. The personnel department handles all the employees’ personal record keeping and documentation activities related to employees. existing employees and future human resources requirements. Functions 1) Attendance management 2) Training and Development . most important aspect of an organization is the Personnel management.

It follows only one method of external recruitment. 2. It conducts meetings where all directors and heads of departments participate in that. A recommendation of any Experienced Employee for the vacancy of a right person is considered. 3. If previous employee again wants to join the organization.3) General Administration 4) HR Records 5) Ensuring good relations 6) Complying communication through meeting 7) Managing the facilities Procedure of Salary Payment 1.. Existing employees are considered for the vacant job in the organization. 3. doing a right job for the organization. It searches for the right kind of people. The payment is usually done on 7th and between 10th of each month. (b) External Recruitment The organization never goes for institution or any agency. For employee is 30 days in a year Recruitment Policy Once the required number and kind of human resource are determined the top management plans to recruit the vacant post. . Salary list is prepared based on attendance sheet of all employees. it will recruit them. (a) Internal Recruitment 1. The candidate who comes directly to the organization will be considered for recruitment. 2.

Training and Development activities is undertaken. Selected on the basis of following qualities a. performance in education. sense.Selection Policy After identifying the right person. Ability d. His earlier work will be taken into consider at the time of selection. his commitment and whether the candidate will do what the organization wants or not will be tested. successful candidates placed on jobs in order to perform effectively. ability of controlling situation. Special qualities Training and Development Training and Development being one of the pillars of HRM activity. Skill b. In order to enable employees for better performance. Knowledge c. Salaries of the candidate are finalized at the time of interview only. Training here is imparting specific skills and basic training is also given to fresh. the directors call that candidate for interview. In the interview the candidates qualification. The most widely used methods of training take place on the job. If Directors and MD feels good and particular candidate is fit for the job and he will take the organization to words progressive trend then only think to select that candidate. This can be attributed to the simplicity of such methods and the impression that they are less costly to operate. knowledge about work. . HR department is in charge of this pillar.

water coolers and canteen services etc. senior or experienced employees and workers give the training in terms of on-the-job training. the benefits of on-the job frequently offset its drawback. However. when the damage the trainees can do is minimal. and where it is desirable for the workers to learn the job under normal working conditions. In Klene Paks Ltd. temperature and elimination of smoke etc. where training facilities and personnel are limited or costly. lighting. KPL intra mural facilities are in other words welfare measures inside the work place consist of a) Good working condition b) Safety and cleanliness c) Good ventilation. g) Workers health services: Factory health education. emergency aid and medical examination for workers. . Employee Welfare KPL favors employee welfare because that bears a direct influence on the Employee and it motivates them to perform better. Another drawback can be the error made by the trainees while they learn. d) Good sanitation e) Provision for meal time and tea breaks f) Various conveniences like provisions for drinking water.One of the drawbacks to on-the-job training can be low productivity while the employees develop their skills.

h) Employee recreation: In door Games and contests during festivals and i) Other occasions. 1) Canteen facility 2) Bonus for every workers of below Rs7500 salary 3) Tea and coffee to employees 4) Gifts to employees on festivals . Fringe benefits Extra benefits given or provided for the employees to improve relation with management and to improve his productivity and feeling job satisfaction. In KPL following are the fringe benefits given to the workers.

5) If not. giving information to production department to produce required fabrics.Despatch Department Hierarchy Structure of Despatch department Chart No: 3. then loading the given order. .9 Functions 1) Recording the information of available fabrics 2) Taking request from marketing department 3) Checking for availability of the fabrics 4) If available.

If the specified material is not available then despatch department informs the production department to start production of that specified material. 1) VRL 2) GRT 3) SRMT 4) KLL (KLENE LOGISTICS) Quality Control and Quality Assurance Quality controller will take the ten bobbins. It may take 4 to 6 days. the despatch department will load the ordered HDPE/PP Laminated/non-laminated fabrics. If the specified material is available then despatch department sends back that sales slip to marketing department. It is highly depends on the bulk of ordered fabric. With the help of 10-12 members of loading team.Following the request of marketing department. where the fabrics are available. They use the unique technique to load the given order and with the help of information gathering team. they started their own transportation for good customer services. Some of the transportations names used by Klene Paks Ltd are. they place it in . the despatch department can easily identify or come to knowledge about who many. Transportation Klene Paks Ltd uses transportations to deliver the ordered fabrics to different destinations. From each bobbin. The customers have to pay the cost delivering fabrics and freight charges. the despatch department checks for availability of the ordered HDPE/PP Laminated/non-laminated fabrics. they will take 9 meters long thread. So by taking total ten threads. Moreover.

overtime and staff replacement costs. Employers are affected by direct costs such as sick pay. such that. employees can be absent from work for any one of a number of reasons. Nowadays apart from sickness. It will give the respective weight handling capacity. The notion of what constitutes absenteeism has changed through the years as employees statutory leave entitlements and authorized company-level leave have increased. To check the capacity or strength of the fabric they take 2 inches of piece of every produced fabric and place it into strength machine. plus the indirect costs associated with the effects of absence. From an economic point of view. However. and the increased expenses on social security payments. they use measuring tape. there is the loss of potential output. or under agreements agreed at an individual . The absent employees themselves and their dependents may have a reduced income because of absence. absence control is not just about costs. either under statutory leave entitlement.weighing machine. besides incurring possible additional medical expenses. CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Statement of the Problem Absenteeism has far reaching consequences. it has to show the 55 grams of total weight. For width checking purpose.

Hence. to know the opinion of the employees on absenteeism. relationship with the superiors and were tormented by family problems. However. In addition. who was pursuing M. to study the reasons for absenteeism. The main findings of the study was that majority of the respondents were dissatisfied with the salary provided to them.A.B. during the year 2008 in order to study pattern and the procedure followed regarding absenteeism and labour turnover in U.C.I.B.A. the labour turnover during the year was very high and was mainly due to poor pay. the reasons for employee absenteeism can be researched upon in order to curb its occurrence and decrease losses to the company. during the years. during the year 2007-08 in order to know the personal profile of the respondents. poor relationship with supervisors . It was suggested that the company that should the concentrate company on increasing compensate their the employee employees satisfaction in order to improve loyalty of employees. who was pursuing M. Mangalore” was conducted by Mr. the facilities available to them are satisfactory. to find out the level of satisfaction. The main findings of the study were that the absenteeism rate was more among the younger employees and that the employees were not satisfied with their pay and the job assigned to them. Ltd. Ltd only. The study is confined to the limits of U.I. Literature Review The study entitled “A study on absenteeism at Canara Workshop Limited. Firdous Ahmed. to study the existing scenario.C. Muni Raj. to make a critical review of the effectiveness of present policies and make suitable recommendations. The research study is carried out to identify the critical factors that have contributed towards absenteeism. The researcher selected 50 respondents for the study through simple random sampling technique. to suggest measure for reducing absenteeism. Also it was suggested should sufficiently and support them.company level. to analyze the absenteeism rate. The study entitled “A study on absenteeism and labour turnover at United Chemical Industries Ltd” was conducted by Ms.

G.A. This study entitled “A Study Comparing Absenteeism Rates of Two Sister Concerns of S. make employees aware of bad effects of absenteeism and discourage groupism. Significance of the study When absence is not addressed or addressed in an inconsistent manner. It is also said that they should be treated with respect and harmonious relationship be maintained. Hence.A. Measures suggested were to train supervisors effectively and impose punishments when rules are not adhered to.B.A. during the year 2007-08 with an aim of comparing the absenteeism rates of two sister concerns of S. The main reasons that can be attributed to this are ineffective supervision. This would provide valuable inputs for the management. Scope of the Study . also may have personal circumstances that require them to take time off work. Due to twin fold impact of absenteeism on production as well as welfare of the employees there is an urging need for monitoring the phenomenon of absenteeism. Kushal Karia. it is suggested that better salary be paid to the employees and effective training be given to them. It also helps to make prevention methods to reduce the absenteeism and adopt various measures to overcome the difficulties.and transportation facilities. on a continuous basis. absence of control over employees. themselves. Solutions. Solutions” was conducted by Mr. The main findings were that one of the concerns had higher absenteeism rate when compared with the other. It also aimed at finding out the reasons for increased absenteeism rate and suggest correct measures. lower morale can result.G. Employees. The study helps to improve the production process and increase the effectiveness of the employees. who was pursuing M. Such monitoring would be done by studies focusing on absenteeism in regular intervals. groupism etc.

2.. no emphasis is laid on the impact of absenteeism on workers’ productivity. Primary data was collected by survey method through a questionnaire that was distributed to the employees and secondary data was collected from company records. books. CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION . The entire employees in the organization constitute the population. Limitations of the Study 1. the internet. It does not strive to introduce measures to reduce absenteeism. The study suffered due to lack of cooperation of staff. Objectives of the study The study strives to find out the various causes of absenteeism faced by the company. Analysis of data is done by using charts.This study will help both management and workers to find out what kind of relationships exist in the organization. The study is also subject to individual bias of the employees. previous dissertations etc. company website. bar-diagrams and tables.This study is helpful in finding out major reasons for absenteeism in Klene Paks Ltd. A sample of 50 employees is drawn from the population using judgmental sampling technique. The study is directed towards finding the major causes for absenteeism in the organization. Methodology The study conducted is of descriptive nature. However.

5 are married and 5 are unmarried. all of them are married. Therefore. we can see that among the 10 female respondents.1 Sex and Marital status Sex/ Marital status Female Male Grand Total Married 5 40 45 5 Unmarried 5 Grand Total 10 40 50 Source: From the table above. we see that all . General trends are being studied. Table No: 5. the responses of employees with reference to their sex and marital status are being analyzed. Sex and Marital status Here.1. of the total of 40 male respondents. Likewise.

The age groups are divided into 4 categories.the male respondents are married and half the females are married. 41-50 yrs and 50.above yrs categories. 31-40 yrs. below SSLC. Thus married respondents are more in number. diploma/graduate and ITI. The educational qualification categories are above SSLC.2 Age group and Educational qualification Age group/Educatio nal qualification 20-30 31-40 41-50 5 13 1 16 1 21 13 Above SSLC Below SSLC Diploma/ Graduate ITI Grand Total . 2. Table No: 5. Age group and Educational qualification The age group of the respondents in connection with their educational qualification is being studied here. that is. 20-30 yrs. So should be their family responsibilities.

10 belong to above SSLC and 4 belong to diploma/graduate categories respectively. 6 to 12 months. 12 to 18 months and 18 months and above. The categories that have been identified for work experience variable are 0 to 6 months. the work experience of employees is being analyzed along with vthe nature of their employment. Table No: 5. 5 have an educational qualification of above SSLC and the rest 16 have an educational qualification of below SSLC.3 Work experience and Nature of employment . Employees have been divided into permanent and temporary employees on the basis of nature of employment. It is also seen that of the 21 respondents of the 31-40 yrs age group. All of the 13 respondents of age group of 41-50 yrs belong to above SSLC educational qualification category. all the respondents belonging to the age group of 20-30 yrs have an educational qualification of below SSLC. Of the remaining respondents all of who belong to age group of 51-above yrs category.51-above Grand Total Source: 10 28 17 4 4 1 1 15 50 From the above table it can be inferred that. 3. Work experience and Nature of employment Here.

it is seen that of the 3 employees having a work experience of 0 to 6 months. All the respondents having work experience of 6 to 12 months.Work experience(months)/Na ture of employment 0 to 6 6 to 12 12 to 18 18-Above Grand Total Source: 2 8 17 22 49 1 1 Permanent Temporary Grand Total 3 8 17 22 50 Here. The kind of localities has been identified as . 12 to 18 months and 18 months and above respectively are permanent. 4. Locality and Family type The kind of locality in which the respondents live is being analyzed in relation to their family types. 2 are permanent and 1 is temporary.

of the total of 28 respondents living in urban localities.4 Locality and Family type Locality/Family type Rural Urban Grand Total Source: Joint 22 13 35 15 15 Nuclear Grand Total 22 28 50 From the table above.rural and urban localities and the family types being studied here are joint family and nuclear family system. Also. 13 belong to joint families and 15 belong to nuclear families. we infer that all of the respondents living in rural localities belong to joint families. Table No: 5. .

satisfied.5 Job Satisfaction and work experience Job satisfaction/Work experience(mont hs) Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Grand Total Source: 3 8 17 0 to 6 3 6 to 12 8 12 18 5 12 7 7 8 22 to 18Above Grand Total 16 19 7 8 50 From the above table. a relationship is established between job satisfaction of the respondents satisfaction and their work are experience. neutral dissatisfied. we understand that of the 16 respondents who were highly satisfied with their job. Work experience as seen before includes categories of 0 to 6 months. 12 to 18 months and 18 months and above. Table No: 5. The different levels of and identified highly satisfied. Job Satisfaction and work experience Here. 3 had a work experience of 0 to 6 . 6 to 12 months.5.

Table No: 5. Job satisfaction and age group The variables under study are job satisfaction of employees and the age group to which they belong. The different levels of satisfaction identified are highly satisfied. 31-40 yrs. out of which 12 had a work experience of 12 to 18 months and 7 had a work experience of 18 months and above. 8 had a work experience of 6 to 12 months and 5 had work experience of more than 18 months. 6. All of the 7 who took a neutral stand on this had work experience of 18 and more than 18 months. satisfied. A total of 19 respondents were satisfied with their job. They all belonged to 18 months and above category of work experience. There were 8 respondents who were dissatisfied with their job.months.6 Job satisfaction and age group Job satisfaction/ Age group(years ) Highly satisfied 1 15 16 20-30 31-40 41-50 51above Grand Total . The age groups that have been identified are 20-30 yrs. 41-50 yrs and 51 yrs and above. neutral and dissatisfied.

Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Grand Total Source: 1 6 13 7 8 19 7 8 50 21 13 15 We can infer from the table above that of the 16 highly satisfied respondents. All of the neutral as well as dissatisfied respondents belong to age group of 51 yrs and above respectively. Table No: 5. 7.7 View on absenteeism problem . 1 belongs to 20-30yrs age group while the remaining 15 belong to 31-40 yrs age group. There are 19 satisfied respondents amongst whom 6 are under the age group of 31-40 yrs and 13 belong to 41-50 yrs age group. View on absenteeism problem The respondents were asked about their view on why absenteeism occurred. The options given to them were habitual problem. a regular practice and an incorrigible problem.

Thus.View No: of Respondents Percentage Habitual Problem A Regular Practice An Incorrigible Problem Total 22 44 16 32 12 24 50 100 25 No: of Respondents (%) 20 15 10 5 0 Habitual Problem A Regular Practice An Incorrigible Problem View Respondents’ view on absenteeism problem Chart No: 5. 12 of the respondents view absenteeism as an incorrigible problem. we infer that it is mostly a .1 The table above tells us about the employees’ views on absenteeism as a problem. A majority of 22 respondents think that the problem of absenteeism is a habitual problem. It is closely followed by 16 employees who feel that it is a regular practice.

family problems.habitual problem wherein the employees are too used to absenting themselves from work.8 Causes/Reasons for absenteeism Causes/Reasons Low salary Family problems Lack of transportation Poor relationship with colleagues Heavy work load Pressure from higher authority Unsatisfactory canteen & other facilities Poor health Alcoholism Unforeseen contingent situations Yes 19 37 32 16 26 29 27 16 9 33 Percentage 38 74 64 32 52 58 54 32 18 66 No 31 13 18 34 24 21 23 34 41 17 Percentage 62 26 36 68 48 42 46 68 82 34 Source: . Table No: 5. lack of transportation. The important reasons taken into consideration here are low salary. Causes/Reasons for absenteeism Here attempts are made to find put the main reasons for absenteeism. 7. poor relationship with colleagues. heavy work load.

majority of the respondents. that is. While a majority constituting 34 respondents do not think that poor relationships with colleagues is a cause for absenteeism. . we see that of the 50 respondents.45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 sa la ry Fm ly pr La ob ck of Po tr or an re sp la t io ns hi ps W or k lo ad Un Pr st es sf su ct re ry ca nt n fa Po c or he al th Al Un co fo ho rs lis ee n m si tu at io ns Respondents Ye No Lo w Causes/Reasons for absenteeism Chart No: 5. that is about 31 of them do not think that low salary is a reason for absenteeism. A large number also consider unforeseen situations as a cause for absenteeism. Also.2 Causes/Reasons From the figure above. 37 and 32 of them respectively consider family problems and lack of transportation as a major reason for absenteeism. we see that pressure from higher authorities and unsatisfactory canteen and other facilities are also perceived to be a reason for absenteeism. Also. a minority constituting 16 respondents consider poor health as an important cause. it is clear that most of the respondents.

The major findings of the organizational study following the S. structure. It curbs growth. the internet.W. It strives to understand each department closely and study its objectives. From the study. Bangalore”. Analysis of data is done by using charts.T.T. the various strengths. This study has two main parts: an organizational study and a topic study. opportunities and threats that the organization faces are brought to light through a S. productivity and affects the company’s progress in two-fold. previous dissertations etc.CHAPTER 6 FINDINGS. It is conducted across the entire employee population of the organization using sampling technique.O. analysis are as follows. bar diagrams and tables. company website. The organizational study has become an increasingly complex field in which we need to keep abreast of current practices. Primary data was collected through a well designed questionnaire and secondary data was collected from company records. books. functioning and operation. weaknesses. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Absenteeism is a common feature of industrial labor in India. The study aims at finding the main causes of absenteeism in the company. A sample of 50 employees was drawn from the population by using judgmental sampling. The organizational study conducted here sets out to study the overall organizational structure of Klene Paks Ltd and give an overview of some departments that are relevant to the effective management study. Data was collected from primary as well as secondary sources. .W. analysis. The second part of the study is a topic entitled: “A study on absenteeism at Klene Paks Ltd. legal requirements and likely trends.O.

d) The finance department is powerful. g) The length of the cash cycle is of 8-10 days. e) The purchase. Weaknesses a) There is a scope for development in the Human Resource Department.W. b) KPL has brand equity in the market. and production departments are strong. Therefore it is never burdened with the responsibility of paying the preference dividend and debt interest. Strengths a) KPL has a large customer base for profit as well as for survival of their business. Therefore. b) There is continuous variation in the number of unskilled labor. customers easily purchase company’s products. c) KPL has smooth work force throughout the organization. i) Company has only equity shares. marketing. f) KPL has its own transportation service. c) Fringe benefits are not up to the mark.O. . Workers are not satisfied with the company’s fringe benefits.SWOT ANALYSIS A S.T analysis of the organization is conducted and the following are the findings of the analysis. h) KPL has godowns of sufficient capacities to meet local demands and for urgent deliveries.

which are not possible by every fabric producer. The study has found that a large portion of the respondents having maximum work experience are dissatisfied with their job. 3. majority of respondents are satisfied.d) Less number of techniques are used by the production and purchase departments. b) Customers may shift to eco-friendly fabrics/sacks. the respondents with the least work experience have the highest amount of satisfaction. c) Continuous increase in the technological changes is another threat. Also. it . All of the respondents are permanent except for one who is temporary. all are permanent employees. Of this majority. b) Customer coverage is increasing in every state. Half the women were married. The largest number of highest qualified respondents was of the age group of 41-50 yrs. It is found that majority of the respondents are having experience mere than 18 months. Opportunities a) Company is planning for some more godowns in different locations. The company does not recruit on probation basis. Overall. Threats a) Up coming fabric producers produces competition. Thus. This could also mean that the family responsibilities are more for a major portion of the respondents. 2. c) Company has ability to produce different fabrics at different sizes. This study indicated that majority of respondents were married males. FINDINGS FOR ANALYTICAL STUDY 1. 4. Greatest number of respondents are of age 31-40. The analysis reveals that majority of the respondents have an educational qualification of above SSLC.

This can be attributed to the fact that most respondents belong to joint families.Most of the respondents said that poor relationship with colleagues does not cause the employees to be absent from work. It is seen that a large number of middle aged respondents are highly satisfied with their job while the respondents who are dissatisfied with their jobs are the ageing group. This shows that most respondents stay quite far away from the place of work. 11. A majority of respondents also feel that absenteeism is mainly caused due to lack of transportation facilities. 7. 8. the employees are not provided with enough canteen and other facilities. Hence. 5.Major part of the respondents felt that absenteeism is caused due to poor health conditions. This means that there exists harmonious relationship between the colleagues.The study reveals that many respondents agreed that unsatisfactory canteen and other facilities have lead to increased absenteeism. . 6. Thus. Thus. 14. 12.It is found that majority of respondents aid that pressure from higher authorities is responsible for absenteeism. majority of the employees are not dissatisfied with their salaries. it is found that the employees have made it a habit to absent themselves from work. This may point towards the fact that the employees suffer from occupational diseases etc. Thus. Most of the respondents feel that absenteeism is a habitual problem and a slightly lesser number feel that it is a regular practice. we understand that the employees are pressurized excessively to meet deadlines etc. it is understood that the work assigned to the employees is quite heavy.A large number of the respondents agree that heavy workload is one of the main causes for absenteeism. 13. Highest number of the respondents said that absenteeism is caused mainly due to family problems. 10. 9. The study reveals that most of the employees do not consider low salary as a reason for absenteeism. Hence.can be said that the company has recruited the right persons for the right jobs.

Hence we find that majority of respondents’ is not much affected by alcoholism. 4. 7. has to be developed. 3. promotion etc to fight competition from upcoming . sufficient training too. 16. the company has to build high levels of customer satisfaction. should aim at improving the style and number of techniques used. SUGGESTIONS 1. They should be given The company should try to extract maximum The company’s Human Resources Department The production and purchase departments The company should design strategies like possible from its customers owing to their brand equity in the market. 6. There is a lot of scope for its development. players.friendly products.In this study it is found that majority of the respondents said that absenteeism is caused most of the times due to unforeseen contingent events. advertising. The company should look at recruiting younger employees to increase the productivity. The company should consider recruiting persons on probation and temporary basis because such employees display higher levels of productivity and efficiency.Majority of the respondents said that alcoholism does not contribute to absenteeism. 5. In order to retain the customers and prevent them from switching to eco. 2.15.

health problems. The company should improve its canteen The employees are absent mostly due to facilities and other extra benefits. transportation and accommodation. sort them out. employee to work because that affects the employee’s morale. The company should have an in-house counselor who can help the employees with their family problems and CONCLUSION The study provides an insight into the functioning of the different departments of the organization.8. 10. 14. It also explains the reasons for absenteeism in the organization and suggests measures to combat absenteeism. The study has concluded that most employees are satisfied with their job and the organization has well developed and functioning departments. The organization should consider providing some facilities like fringe benefits. opportunities and threats of the organization. The company should be able to provide transportation facilities to employees or accommodation nearby the company in order to reduce absenteeism rate. 12. The company should consider reducing or The company should not pressurize the distributing the workload so that employees are not overburdened. . 13. Hence the company must take necessary steps towards protecting the employees from occupational diseases. 9. weaknesses. 11. The employees should be given training and awareness on how to tackle the habitual problem of absenteeism and why it is detrimental to work and the employee as an individual. the strengths. training etc.

Kothari C. Bombay. New Delhi. Himalaya Publishing House 2. Mamoria C.B. Sixth edition. Gupta K. Research Methodology. New age International Publishers . (1995). Himalaya Publishing House 3.. Personnel Management. Fifth Edition. Shashi. (2006). Human Resource Development.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.(2006)..R.

www. http://www. www.com 5.com .citehr. www.com/people/what-is-organization/ 7. http://www.html 8.indiastudychannel.managementparadise.com/resources/69871-Importanceobjectives-organization. http://socyberty.blurtit.com 9.klenepaks.aspx 6.com/q595581.4.

Work Experience : a) 0-6 year c) 12-18years 7. Nature of Employment : .APPENDIX Questionnaire Study on Absenteeism at Klene Paks Ltd 1. Name (optional) : 2. Educational Qualification: a) below SSLC c) I T I d) diploma/ graduation b) 6-12 years d) 18&above 6. Age : : a) Male a) 20-30 c) 41-50 b) Female b)31-40 d) 51-and above b) Married d) Widower b) SSLC 4. Marital status : a) Unmarried c) Widow 5. Sex 3.

No: 1. 3. Indicate whether the following would constitute a reason for your absenteeism from work. Locality : b) Permanent a) Urban c) Probationary b) Rural b) Joint family 9. You view the problem of absenteeism as a(n) a) Habitual problem b) Regular practice c) An incorrigible problem b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied e) 12. 4.Are you satisfied and content with the job that has been assigned to you? a) Highly Satisfied Highly Dissatisfied 11.a) Temporary 8. 2.L. Low salary Family problems Lack of transportation Poor relationship with colleagues CAUSES/REASONS YES NO . Type of family : a) Nuclear family 10. S.

Your suggestions (if any) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 6. 9. 10. 7.5. Heavy work load Pressure from higher authority Unsatisfactory canteen and other facilities 8. Poor health Alcoholism Unforeseen contingent situations 13.

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