Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
Posto Motors Corporation
.::No Sin ² I Win::.
Automotive Guide ² A basic reference guide to automotives, a compilation of various articles taken from Internet Sources (esp. Wikipedia and How Stuff Works) for fresh Mechanical/Automotive Engineers
Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion Motors converting heat energy into motion are usually referred to as engines, which come in many types. A common type is an engine such as an internal combustion engine which typically burns a fuel with air and uses the hot gases for generating power. External combustion engines such as steam engines use heat to generate motion via a separate working fluid. Another common type of motor is the electric motor. This takes electrical energy and generates mechanical motion via varying electromagnetic fields. Other motors including pneumatic motors that are driven by compressed air and motors can be driven by elastic energy, such as springs. Some motors are driven by non combustive chemical reactions. Terminology Originally an engine was a mechanical device that converted force into motion. Military devices such as catapults, trebuchets and battering rams are referred to as siege engines. The term "gin" as in cotton gin is recognized as a short form of the Old French word engin, in turn from the Latin ingenium, related to ingenious. Most devices used in the industrial revolution were referred to as engines, and this is where the steam gained its name. In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. In the context of propulsion systems, an air-breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidize the fuel carried rather than supplying an independent oxidizer, as in a rocket. In common usage, an engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel, and is differentiated from an electric machine (i.e., electric motor) that derives power without changing the composition of matter. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover, a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered 2 www.aliwaqas.tk | .::No Sin - I Win::.
by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but ultimately all such devices derive their power from the engine. The term motor was originally used to distinguish the new internal combustion engine-powered vehicles from earlier vehicles powered by steam, such as the steam roller and motor roller, but may be used to refer to any engine.
Combustion engine Combustion engines are heat engines driven by the heat of a combustion process. Internal combustion engine Animation showing the four stages of the4stroke combustion engine cycle: 1. Induction (Fuel enters) 2. Compression 3. Ignition (Fuel is burnt) 4. Emission (Exhaust out) The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (generally, fossil) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to components of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades or a nozzle, and by moving it over a distance, generates useful mechanical energy. External combustion engine An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where an (internal) working fluids heated by combustion of an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work. The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused (closed cycle), or (less commonly) dumped, and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine). "Combustion" refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the heat. Engines of similar (or even identical) configuration and operation may use a supply of heat from other sources such as nuclear, solar, geothermal or exothermic reactions not involving combustion; but are
Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
not then strictly classed as external combustion engines, Environmental effects but as external thermal engines. Operation of engines typically has a negative impact The working fluid can be a gas as in a Stirling engine, upon air quality and ambient sound levels. There has or steam as in a steam engine or an organic liquid such been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing as n-pentane in an Organic Rankine Cycle. The fluid can features of automotive power systems. This has created be of any composition; gas is by far the most common, new interest in alternate power sources and internalalthough even single-phase liquid is sometimes used. In combustion engine refinements. Although a few limitedthe case of the steam engine, the fluid production battery-powered electric vehicles have changes phases between liquid and gas... appeared, they have not proved to be competitive owing to costs and operating characteristics. In the Gas turbine twenty-first century the diesel engine has been increasing in popularity with automobile owners. A gas turbine is internal combustion is the sense that the However, the gasoline engine, with its new emissioncombustion takes place in the working fluid, but external control devices to improve emission performance, has combustion in the sense that the combustion is not fully not yet been significantly challenged. closed in and is outside the actual moving turbine section. Traditionally, "internal combustion" usually Air quality excludes gas turbines, jets and rockets. Exhaust from a spark ignition engine consists of the Air-breathing combustion engines following: nitrogen 70 to 75% (by volume), water vapor 10 to 12%, carbon dioxide 10 to Air-breathing engines are combustion engines that use 13.5%, hydrogen 0.5 to 2%, oxygen 0.2 to 2%, carbon the oxygen in atmospheric air to oxidize ('burn') the fuel monoxide: 0.1 to 6%, unburnt hydrocarbons and carried, rather than carrying an oxidizer, as in a rocket. partial oxidation products (e.g.aldehydes) 0.5 to Theoretically, this should result in a better specific 1%, nitrogen monoxide 0.01 to 0.4%, nitrous oxide <100 impulse than for rocket engines. ppm, sulfur dioxide 15 to 60 ppm, traces of other compounds such as fuel additives and lubricants, also A continuous stream of air flows through the Airhalogen and metallic compounds, and other particles. breathing engine. This air is compressed, mixed with Carbon monoxide is highly toxic, and can cause carbon fuel, ignited and expelled as the exhaust gas. Thrust produced by a typical air-breathing engine is about eight monoxide poisoning, so it is important to avoid any build-up of the gas in a confined space. Catalytic times greater than its weight. The maximum velocity converters can reduce toxic emissions, but not of Air-breathing engines is limited to 1 3 km/s due to completely eliminate them. Also, resulting greenhouse extreme temperature and dissociation of the exhaust gas emissions, chiefly carbon dioxide, from the gas; however, the maximum velocity of a hydrogenwidespread use of engines in the modern industrialized breathing engine of the same design is about 4 times world is contributing to the global greenhouse effect a higher. primary concern regarding global warming. Examples Non combustive heat engines Typical air-breathing engines include: Some engines convert heat from non combustive processes into mechanical work, for example a nuclear y Reciprocating engine power plant uses the heat from the nuclear reaction to y Steam engine produce steam and drive a steam engine, or a gas y Gas turbine turbine in a rocket engine may be driven by y duct jet engine decomposing hydrogen peroxide. Apart from the y Turbo-propeller engine different energy source, the engine is often engineered y IRIS engine much the same as an internal or external combustion y Pulse detonation engine engine. y Pulse jet y y y Ramjet Scramjet Liquid air cycle engine/Reaction Engines SABRE 3 www.aliwaqas.tk | .::No Sin - I Win::.
trebuchets. for example some clocks have a weight that falls under gravity.Basics to Automobile Engineering Non thermal chemically powered motor Non thermal motors usually are powered by a chemical reaction. engine operation is of greatest impact with respect to mobile sources such as automobiles and trucks. Sound levels
Electric motor An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. and by their application. Electric motors are ubiquitous. but commercial exploitation of electric Engine efficiency motors on a large scale required efficient electrical Depending on the type of engine employed. Examples include: y y
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compressed gases (such as pneumatic motors). The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. machine tools. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. where aerodynamic and tyre by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic noise is less significant. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator. Physically powered engine Some engines are powered by potential energy. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. but are not heat engines. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. and disk drives. Electric motors of fitted with mufflers (silencers) to reduce noise. by their internal construction. rather than an electric motor. By convention. blowers and pumps. and (to some Molecular motor .
. being found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. Pneumatic motors have found widespread success in the hand-held tool industry and continual attempts are being made to expand their use to the transportation industry.
In the case of sound levels.
www. This type of engine can be used to move heavy loads or produce motion. Engine noise is a particularly large component of mobile source noise for vehicles The physical principle of production of mechanical force operating at lower speeds. Electric motors can be run as generators and vice versa. Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air to mechanical work though either linear or rotary motion. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. Other forms of potential energy include
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. rates of efficiency are attained.tk | . Pneumatic motor A pneumatic motor is a machine which converts potential energy in the form of compressed air into mechanical work. springs and elastic bands. Petrol and diesel engines are field was known as early as 1821. pneumatic motors must overcome efficiency deficiencies before being seen as a viable option in the transportation industry.motors found in living things extent) battering rams were powered by potential Synthetic molecular motor energy. power tools. usually through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. although this is not always practical. and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. electric engine refers to a railroad electric locomotive.aliwaqas. with ratings in the thousands of kilowatts. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. The reverse process.
Historic military siege engines included large catapults. different generators and electrical distribution networks. However.::No Sin . increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century.I Win::. while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor or piston air motor. household appliances. Hydraulic engine A hydraulic engine one that derives its power from a pressurized fluid.
each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously energy.::No Sin .aliwaqas. trucks. large ships and electric generators. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an Traditionally. internal combustion is advantageous since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy density. "ability") meant any piece of machinery a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. In mobile equipment. and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives).Basics to Automobile Engineering In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine." (An electric engine refers to along with variants.tk | . A a locomotive operated by electricity. source of most rocket engines. Engine configurations Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration. ingenium. The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite different Principles of operation from external combustion engines. or by the cooling system employed. Where very high power-to-weight ratios are required. such as pistons. aircraft. the use of the engine. Intake 2. or a nozzle. or contaminated by combustion products. "Engine" (from Latin. A "motor" (from Latin motor. however. Power 4. While there have been and still are many stationary applications. boats. motorcycles. in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of. via Old French. hot water. turbine blades. Working y Four-stroke cycle fluids can be air. Roc ket etc Applications Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and portable machinery. helicopters. generating useful mechanical energy. Classification
By Waqas Ali Tunio
At one time. pressurized or even liquid y Six-stroke engine sodium. with a variety of different strengths y Atkinson cycle and weaknesses. Compression 3. such Reciprocating: as steam or Stirling engines. mixed y Two-stroke cycle with. the layout of the engine. such as the "Engines". Exhaust
. 5 www. turbofan. such as the Wankel rotary engine. ramjet. Diesel engine A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built. from the smallest to the largest. Generally using fossil fuel(mainly petroleum). the word. referred to as "motors. Powered by an energy-dense fuel Rotary: (which is very frequently petrol. the ICE delivers an excellent power-toy Wankel engine weight ratio with few disadvantages.I Win::. These applications include jet aircraft. the real Continuous combustion: strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile Brayton cycle: applications and they dominate as a power supply for cars. these engines have appeared in transport in almost all vehicles (automobiles. heated in some kind of boiler. Four stroke configuration Operation Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle) 1. described. This force moves the component over a distance. combustion engines are often more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines. y Gas turbine Only for hand-held power tools do they share part of the y Jet market with battery powered devices. electric motors are not referred to as engine in which combustion is intermittent. a liquid derived from fossil fuels). internal combustion engines appear in the form of gas turbines. engine (including turbojet.) second class of internal combustion engines use Engines can be classified in many different ways: By the continuous combustion: gas turbines. "mover") is any machine that produces mechanical power. jet engines and engine cycle used. and boats.
almost invariably a deflagration.8 bar (1. a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed combustion process typically results in the production of into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to a great quantity of heat. Most diesels also fuel. Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in automobiles and The most common modern fuels are made up light trucks employ glow plugs that pre-heat of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce fuels (petroleum). This battery is mixture is expanded. Large apparatus). just as well in cold weather once started. and the rarer use have a battery and charging system. typically with oxygen from the air usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). Diesel Ignition Process Combustion Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines.Basics to Automobile Engineering As their name implies. rely solely on heat and All internal combustion engines depend on pressure created by the engine in its compression the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the process for ignition. Fossil fuels include diesel no-start conditions in cold weather. turning fuel on and off gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical petroleum gases without major modifications. can also be used. as well as the production of instantly ignite. although they will run compression and other factors. determined by the chemical makeup of the fuel and This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more oxidizers (see stoichiometry). Engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas. Diesel (though it is possible to inject oxide in order to do more engines will take in air only. this of propane. Most new engines rely on diesel fuel ignition injection. Except for the fuel delivery components. most internal combustion engines that are designed for system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting. Many engines overlap these steps in time. such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form electrical and electronic control system that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that reduce emissions. and for running auxiliary electrical diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot components and accessories. pressing on and moving parts of recharged during operation using an electricitythe engine and performing useful work. 6 www.aliwaqas.tk | . wood gas. coil to provide a high-voltage electrical spark to ignite although a few systems involve detonation. hot tube and flame methods were used. as well as from so-called producer gas made from other convenient biomass. nevertheless. HCCI type engines will take in both air steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided autohigh temperature. due to higher pressures and heat. atmosphere then use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder.::No Sin . generating device such as Exhaust an alternator or generator driven by the engine. the temperature reached is combustion process. operation of four stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine: Intake Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber Compression The mixtures are placed under pressure Combustion (Power)
By Waqas Ali Tunio
yield triglycerides such as soybean oil). The hot the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. and shortly before peak of the same thing and gain a power boost). Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture.28 MPa). Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline The cooled combustion products are exhausted into the and compress it to not more than 12. Gasoline Ignition Process
Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction The mixture is burnt.
. Before the invention of reliable electrical methods.I Win::. The compression. gasoline and petroleum gas. jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines. Liquid and gaseous biofuels. as well as by the susceptible to cold-starting issues. The compression level that occurs is reaction of a fuel. or charcoal gas.
It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines.5 times that of a typical four-stroke engine. Also the thermal efficiency is improved because of lack of cylinder heads. size is an advantage for most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize surface area. and most remarkably in the Napier scavenging allowing some of it to escape out of the Deltic diesel engines. They use forced induction (similar to supercharging. The Wankel cycle. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in air-assisted fuel injection which avoids this loss. The initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts. mopeds. however. a two-stroke engine produces comparable also been used. outboard motors. It operates with the same separation of phases
. X. efficient over a wide range of less power at other speeds.e.and power strokes. Wankel Research continues into improving many aspects of twostroke motors including direct fuel injection. The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes. engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of using at either end of a single bank of cylinders with two engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to crankshafts.::No Sin . configuration. For comparison. Because here gas in. alternative efficient small four-stroke motors are around 43% methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. like in the over a narrow range of engine speeds. chain saws. Fuel injection is essential for a modern twoengines. crankcase-scavenged two-stroke was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine. typically around 1. at the expense of four stroke engine. and continues to be used for marine engines. Common cylinder configurations include the straight or inline configuration. revolution numbers. and many motorcycles. used in some locomotives and large ships. or turbocharging) to scavenge the cylinders. one can achieve uniflow scavenging. and are an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke corners. amongst other things. which is. Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles. Two-stroke engines have the advantage of an increased specific power ratio (i. string trimmers. the most are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes.Basics to Automobile Engineering Two stroke configuration
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Sulzerturbocharged two-stroke diesel as used in large container ships.I Win::. The advantage of having one power stroke for every 360° Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720° in a 4 stroke need a cylinder head at all because they can instead motor) is balanced by the less complete intake and have a piston at each end of the cylinder called exhaust and the shorter effective compression and an opposed piston design. power to an equivalent four-stroke engine. In terms of power unusual configurations such as the H. The thermal efficiency (SAE 900648). This design Small displacement. U. and W have per cm³. an example of this type of motor is the Wartsila7 www. lawnmowers.aliwaqas. one down) for every power stroke. fresh charge in the crankcase. which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their and the wider but smoother flat or boxer power output and mechanically very simple. produce more power than an equivalent four stroke. stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators.tk | . the more compact V configuration. power to volume ratio). Since there 50% thermal efficiency. emission standards. The shaft turns three times for each The largest internal combustion engines in the world are two-stroke diesels. It may be possible for a two stroke to outlets are positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder. More than their four-stroke counterparts. These used three crankshafts to exhaust port. It is the most efficient and powerful Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes internal combustion engine in the world with over (one up. jet skis. rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft. Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial they are also generally less efficient and more polluting configuration which allows more effective cooling.
Crank shaft: a shaft which converts the reciprocating motion of piston forms of jet propulsion often use solid or liquid propellants. Petrol is used in this type of engine. While it is true that three power strokes typically occur per rotor revolution due to the 3:1 revolution ratio of the rotor to the eccentric shaft. only one power stroke per shaft revolution actually occurs. and a turbine. In case of Diesel: Air compressed. Gas turbines A gas turbine is a rotary machine similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main components: a compressor. Connecting rod: connects the and feed it through a nozzle which accelerates the jet to piston with the crankshaft. Combustion Chamber: It is the portion above the cylinder in which the combustion of the fuel-air mixture takes place. this engine provides three power 'strokes' per revolution per rotor giving it a greater power-to-weight ratio than piston engines.
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Intake and exhaust occur at bottom dead center. but rocket discharges the products of combustion.I Win::. Some form of pressure is needed. the burnt gases simultaneously. Cam shaft: The cam shaft controls the opening and closing of inlet and Exhaust high speed. At the same time the fuel-air mixture above the piston is compressed. the fresh air and fuel mixture enters the crank chamber through the valve. escape from the exhaust port. The mixture enters due to the pressure difference between the crank chamber and outer atmosphere. used to initiate the combustion process. When the achieved by exhausting and re-charging the cylinder piston is at the bottom dead centre. so may be thought of as a "four-phase" engine. Piston: It is a cylindrical component making an up and down movement in the cylinder. About of the heated air combined with the products of combustion is expanded in a turbine resulting in work output which is used to drive the compressor. The air after being compressed in the compressor is heated by burning fuel in it. the piston moves downward. and other models.
. As the jet accelerates through the nozzle. This type of engine is most notably used in the current Mazda RX-8.Basics to Automobile Engineering as the four-stroke engine with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine. either crankcase compression or super-charging. The rest (about ) is available as useful work output.::No Sin . valves. When the piston moves This system manages to pack one power stroke into downwards the valve closes and the fuel-air mixture every two strokes of the piston (up-down). a combustion chamber. It is this creates thrust and in turn does useful work.aliwaqas. This is inside the crank chamber is compressed.
The major components of a two stroke spark Ignition engine are: Cylinder: It is a cylindrical vessel in which a piston makes an up and down motion. and ramjet forms also lack the gas turbine) into the rotary motion. Engine cycle Working: When the piston moves from bottom dead centre to top dead centre. Idealised P/V diagram for two stroke Otto cycle Ignition with the help of spark plug takes place at the Two-stroke end of stroke. In this engine the suction stroke and exhaust strokes are eliminated and ports are used instead of valves. Due to the explosion of the gases. the earlier RX-7. In thermodynamic terms it follows the Otto engine cycle.tk | . Two Stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine: In a two strokes SI engine a cycle is completed in two stroke of a piston or one complete revolution (360º) of a crankshaft. Compression stroke: Fuel-air mix compressed and ignited. Inlet and exhaust Jet engine ports: The inlet port allows the fresh fuel-air mixture to enter the combustion chamber and the exhaust port Jet engines take a large volume of hot gas from a combustion process (typically a gas turbine. Spark plug: located at the cylinder head. fuel injected and self ignited Power stroke: piston is pushed downwards by the hot exhaust gases. The steps involved here are: At the same time the transfer port is uncovered and the compressed charge from the crank chamber enters into
and during combustion the volume varies little ("constant volume"). The cycle is repeated. but with a compression heating ignition system. as the piston moves. This engine corresponds to a 2003 US patent by Gerhard and ignited. This variation is called the diesel cycle. the bottom is the compression stroke Engines based on the four-stroke ("Otto cycle") have one power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-updown) and employ spark plug ignition. Schmitz. They are used in cars. and many light aircraft. Again the piston moves from bottom dead centre to top dead centre and the fuel-air mixture gets compressed when Diesel cycle the both the Exhaust port and Transfer ports are covered. In that the history of ICE by Otto himself. rather than needing a separate ignition system.
P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. more efficient. They are generally quieter. having two outer The steps involved here are: cylinders. The cycle follows the numbers 1-4 in clockwise direction. that performs the double expansion of Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in. EHV. notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. and was developed apparently also by Honda Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is pushed of Japan for a Quad engine. larger in diameter. precedent in a Spanish 1942 patent (# P0156621 ). diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure. most give the expected results. Four-stroke
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Idealised Pressure/volume diagram of the Otto cycle showing combustion heat input Qp and waste exhaust output Qo. some engines and cars with this principle. 2nd. larger boats.Basics to Automobile Engineering the combustion chamber through transfer port.es ). This fresh charge is deflected upwards by a hump provided on the top of the piston. The diesel cycle is somewhat different. working as usual.oepm. the power stroke is the top curved line.::No Sin . plus a central one. and a 1975 patent (# Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. and an improved SFC. In the diesel cycle.I Win::.
.aliwaqas. Combustion occurs rapidly. built in 1906 a six or eight cylinder engine. that didn't There are a number of variations of these cycles. Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle. a four-cylinder engine would be less powerful than Connecticut (USA) based company. P0433850 ) by Carlos Ubierna-Laciana ( www. This engine has a similar downwards. During the 1st.
www. This fresh charge removes the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber.tk | . and 4th stroke the piston is relying on power and The concept of double expansion was developed early in the momentum generated by the other pistons. with an increased Compression stroke: Fuel vapor and air are compressed efficiency in the gas energy use. and a case. some motorcycles.
The British company ILMOR presented a prototype of 5Stroke double expansion engine. by Francisco Jimeno-Cataneo. in 1879. exhaust gas from the other cylinders.
and this extra energy is tapped by the other biofuels (see Flexible-fuel vehicle). this heats and y Bioethanol and Biomethanol (wood alcohol) and expands the air.I Win::. noisier. then the inlet valve of heat upon combustion to make practical use of the closed and. a turbine. British term: petrol) The Beare Head and "piston charger" engines operate y Petroleum diesel. constant engines" in the UK). The first part of the piston down the combustion chamber. however gasoline engines are also combustion takes place at constant pressure.
. firing every two revolutions rather more like a y Compressed natural gas. The exhaust valve opened for the engine. cylinder. rather often colloquially referred to as. The air after being compressed in the y Biodiesel (replaces petrodiesel). y Jet fuel (aviation fuel) Brayton cycle y Residual fuel Coal: y y y Brayton cycle y y Most methanol is made from coal. Gasoline can be made from carbon (coal) using the Fischer-Tropsch process Diesel fuel can be made from carbon using the Fischer-Tropsch process Biofuels and vegoils: Peanut oil and other vegoils.tk | . and y Biobutanol (replaces gasoline).::No Sin . regular four-stroke. y Hydrogen (mainly spacecraft rocket engines) Gas turbine cycle engines employ a continuous Even fluidized metal powders and explosives have seen combustion system where compression. Notably. "gas engines" ("petrol than with the Otto cycle.Basics to Automobile Engineering Six-stroke First invented in 1883. a combustion chamber. These attempts at imitating the Diesel engines are generally heavier. They are also more fuel-efficient in most circumstances and 10 www. Engines that use gases for fuel are called gas engines and those that use liquid hydrocarbons are in the engine giving continuous power. The systems capture the wasted Petroleum: heat of the four-stroke Otto cycle with an injection of air or water. y Petroleum spirit (North American term: gasoline. and more principle of a steam engine were very inefficient. firing every three crankshaft revolutions. the fuel-air mixture fired. Velozeta Nowadays. and that the fuel releases sufficient energy in the form stroke drew in a fuel-air mixture.aliwaqas. Bajulaz six-stroke. compressor is heated by burning fuel in it. combustion. two pistons in a single y Autogas (liquified petroleum gas). fuels used include: six-stroke and Crower six-stroke). the six-stroke engine has seen renewed interest over the last 20 or so years. and expansion occur simultaneously at different places some use. Fuels and oxidizers
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Engines are often classified by the fuel (or propellant) used. powerful at lower speeds than gasoline engines. turbine which in turn powers the compressor closing the y Biogas cycle and powering the shaft. the called oil engines.
Four kinds of six-stroke use a regular piston in a regular Fuels cylinder (Griffin six-stroke. piston upstroke.
A gas turbine is a rotary machine somewhat similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main Biofuels: components: a compressor. as opposed-piston engines. Obsolete The main limitations on fuels are that it must be easily transportable through the fuel system to The very first internal combustion engines did not compress the mixture. in the remainder of the down-stroke.
wood gas. making it a serious contender as an energy carrier to replace fossil fuels. often to increase power output or to allow operation under water or in space.tk | . & charcoal gas. motorcycles.i. Other chemicals such as chlorine or fluorine have been used experimentally. but has other issues such as the high price of the sodium borohydride which is the raw material. ships. methanol. hydrogen has a higher specific energy but the volumetric energetic storage is still roughly five times lower than petrol. Oxidizers Since air is plentiful at the surface of the earth. Nitrous oxide has been used with extra gasoline in tactical aircraft and in specially equipped cars to allow short bursts of added power from engines that otherwise run on gasoline and air. In many situations the disadvantage of hydrogen. and mopeds. Paraffinand tractor vaporizing oil (TVO) engines are no longer seen. Nitromethane is added to some racing and model fuels to increase power and control combustion. Hydrogen
By Waqas Ali Tunio
Compressed oxygen. It is also used in the Burt Rutan rocket spacecraft. Measures of engine performance Engine types vary greatly in a number of different ways: y y energy efficiency fuel/propellant consumption (brake specific fuel consumption for shaft engines. and cubic centimeters(abbreviated cc) for smaller engines. in other words the volume swept by all the pistons of an engine in a single movement. sophisticated dieselengined cars have taken over about 40% of the market since the 1990s. is its storage.I Win::. It is generally measured in litres (L) or cubic inches (c. There are other materials that are used for special purposes. Even when liquefied. biodiesel. relative to carbon fuels.
Hydrogen peroxide power was under development for German World War II submarines and may have been Hydrogen could eventually replace conventional fossil used in some non-nuclear submarines and was used on fuels in traditional internal combustion engines. as well as some compressed air. Engines with greater capacities are more powerful and provide greater torque at lower rpm and consumption of fuel increases accordingly. or cu in or in³) for larger engines. increasing the power-to-weight and power to volume ratios. hydrogen. Many different systems have been used in the past but modern engines are usually started by an electric motor in the small and medium sizes or by compressed air in the large sizes. was used in the Japanese Type 93 torpedo. and light aircraft. but have not been found to be Although there are multiple ways of producing free practical. The 'Hydrogen on Demand' process (see direct borohydride fuel cell) creates hydrogen as it is needed. Note that in Europe. an engine's capacity is the engine displacement.::No Sin . those methods require converting combustible molecules into hydrogen or consuming electric energy.Basics to Automobile Engineering are used in heavy road vehicles. Compressed air has been commonly used in torpedoes. Engine starting An internal combustion engine is not usually self-starting so an auxiliary machine is required to start it. Gasoline engines are used in most other road vehicles including most cars. There are also engines that run on hydrogen. railway locomotives. Liquid hydrogen has extremely low density (14 times lower than water) and requires extensive insulation whilst gaseous hydrogen requires heavy tankage. Unless that electricity is produced from a renewable source and is not required for other purposes hydrogen does not solve any energy crisis.d.aliwaqas. Some submarines are designed to carry pure oxygen. ethanol. y 11 www. the oxidizer is typically atmospheric oxygen which has the advantage of not being stored within the vehicle. some automobiles (increasingly so for their increased fuel efficiency over gasoline engines). Alternatively fuel cell technology may come to deliver its some rocket engines (notably Black Arrow and Mepromise and the use of the internal combustion engines 163 rocket plane) could even be phased out. However the energy density of hydrogen is considerably higher than that of electric batteries. Engine capacity For piston engines. Rockets very often use liquid oxygen. thrust specific fuel consumption for jet engines) power to weight ratio thrust to weight ratio
. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
Internal combustion engines are primarily heat engines and as such the phenomenon that limits their efficiency is described by thermodynamic cycles. The miles in miles per gallon represents a remaining hot gases are vented (often by opening meaningful amount of work and the volume of a valve or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows hydrocarbon implies standard energy content. Increasing the engine's efficiency brings better fuel economy but only if the fuel cost per energy content is the same.tk | . For internal combustion engines in the form of jet engines. or TDC). real Energy efficiency engines run best at specific loads and rates as described by their power band.I Win::. most engines retain considered a waste product and is removed from the an average efficiency of about 18%-20%. such as wind be translated into work by the engine. Even when aided with turbochargers and stock Any heat that isn't translated into work is normally efficiency aids. response. the piston to return to its previous position (top dead center. is usually measured in the units of miles per gallon (or fuel consumption in liters per 100 kilometers) for Once the available energy has been removed. the combustion products hot highway is usually operating significantly below its ideal gases have more available thermal energy than the load. the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders losses result in an engine's real-world fuel economy that drive the engine's pistons. These and many other engine. energy in the fuels.::No Sin . exhaust emissions. None of these cycles exceed the limit defined by the Carnot cycle which states that the overall efficiency is dictated by the difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures of the engine. for example. power. which varies between engines. practical engines are always compromised by trade-offs between different properties such as efficiency. Rocket engine engine either by an air or liquid cooling system. and the useful energy extracted from the fuels in the form of kinetic energy. but also manufacturing and distributing the fuel. because the engine is designed for the higher loads original compressed fuel-air mixture (which had desired for rapid acceleration. Sometimes economy also plays a role in not only the cost of manufacturing the engine itself. For example. Measures of fuel/propellant efficiency For stationary and shaft engines including propeller engines. ideal gases. y The real world is substantially more complex and all the complexities reduce the efficiency. In general. A terrestrial engine is usually and fundamentally limited by the upper thermal stability derived from the material used to make up the engine. a car cruising on a Once ignited and burnt. The most fundamental and abstract discussion of engine efficiency is the thermodynamic limit for extracting energy from the fuel defined by a thermodynamic cycle. Overall pressure ratio for jet engines and gas turbines
By Waqas Ali Tunio
The thermodynamic limits assume that the engine is operating in ideal conditions: a frictionless world. The piston can then proceed to the next Most steel engines have a thermodynamic limit of 37%. the miles per gallon accumulated. and operation at infinite time. weight. The most comprehensive is the empirical fuel efficiency of the total engine system for accomplishing a desired task. In metric units. fuel consumption is measured by calculating the brake specific fuel consumption which measures the mass flow rate of fuel consumption divided by the power produced. Higher thermal stability allows for greater temperature difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures thus greater thermodynamic efficiency. In addition. which is the number of pounds of propellant that is needed to generate impulses that measure a pound force-hour. heat. efficiencies are better still. All metals and alloys eventually melt or decompose and there is significant researching into ceramic materials that can be made with higher thermal stabilities and desirable structural properties.aliwaqas. because they Engine efficiency can be discussed in a number of ways combust at very high temperatures and pressures and but it usually involves a comparison of the total chemical are able to have very high expansion ratios. 12 www. There are many inventions concerned with increasing the efficiency of IC engines. the automobiles. the power output varies drastically with airspeed and a less variable measure is used: thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC). In a reciprocating resistance designs for vehicles.Basics to Automobile Engineering y Torque curves (for shaft engines) thrust lapse (jet engines) Compression ratio for piston engines. perfect insulators. The available energy is engines are used as contributed drag on the total system manifested as high temperature and pressure that can reducing overall efficiency. The applications of higher chemical energy). phase of its cycle. or noise. up to 70%. the number of grams of propellant needed
the Road Traffic (Vehicle Emissions) (Fixed Penalty) (England) Regulations 2002 (Statutory Instrument 2002 No. So far. For the other three: benzene. The primary causes of this is the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline engines in order to achieve combustion and the resulting "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls.Basics to Automobile Engineering to generate an impulse that measures one kilonewtonsecond. sulphur dioxide. One final element in exhaust 13 www. For the pollutants described above (nitrogen oxides. and premature death. depending on the operating conditions and the fuel-air ratio.I Win::. The main derivatives of the process are carbon dioxide CO2.3butadiene. particularly supersonic-capable aircraft. 1. otherwise the fuel would burn more completely in excess air. TSFC can be used. such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
pollution is ozone (O3). a small amount of fuel will be present after combustion. In England. It reduces the efficiency and increases knocking.aliwaqas. This means that a driver can be subject to a fixedpenalty fine if he/she leaves a vehicle engine idling while stationary. This is not emitted directly but made in the air by the action of sunlight on other pollutants to form "ground level ozone". "exceedingly small". but typically other equivalent measures are traditionally used. Ozone is broken down by nitrogen oxides. For rockets. carbon monoxide. cardiovascular issues. Many bus companies now instruct drivers to switch off the engine when the bus is waiting at a terminus. there are accepted levels that are set by legislation to which no harmful effects are observed even in sensitive population groups. Automobile and truck traffic operating on highways and street systems produce noise.::No Sin . so carbon monoxide (CO) is also produced. and particulates. 1808) has introduced the concept of a "stationary idling offence". Air and noise pollution Air pollution Internal combustion engines such as reciprocating internal combustion engines produce air pollution emissions. so one tends to be lower where the other is higher. lung cancer. Rocket engines create the most intense noise. but tends to encourage the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to combine to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) that has been demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health. There are however some additional products of the combustion process that include nitrogen oxides and sulfur and some uncombusted hydrocarbons. only a few local authorities have implemented the regulations. When running at lower speeds. Increasing the amount of air in the engine reduces the amount of the first two pollutants. sometimes causing the engine to stall. or hydrocarbons not initially present in the fuel mixture. such as specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity.
How Manual Transmissions Work
If you drive a stick-shift car.3butadiene that are also particularly harmful. The effects of inhaling particulate matter have been studied in humans and animals and include asthma. unlike the "ozone layer" in the high atmosphere. Carbon fuels contain sulfur and impurities that eventually lead to producing sulfur monoxides (SO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust which promotes acid rain. then you may have several questions floating in your head. Further chemicals released are benzene and 1. quenching is commonly observed in diesel (compression ignition) engines that run on natural gas. as do aircraft flights due to jet noise. Idling Internal combustion engines continue to consume fuel and emit pollutants when idling so it is desirable to keep periods of idling to a minimum. some of which can react to form oxygenates. How does the funny "H" pattern that I am moving this shift knob through have any relation to the gears inside the transmission? What is moving inside the
. Not all of the fuel will be completely consumed by the combustion process. is regarded as a bad thing if the levels are too high. there is no way of proving they are safe at any level so the experts set standards where the risk to health is. Noise pollution Significant contributions to noise pollution are made by internal combustion engines. and not all of the fuel burns up completely. due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel. one of them being Oxford City Council. which.tk | . water and some soot also called particulate matter (PM). and ozone).
a of clutch to manage the link Electrohydraulic maximum rpm value above which the engine cannot go between the transmission and Dual clutch without exploding. from semi-automatics and Automatic CVTs. with the option being an automated transmission such as a conventional Ideally. First. the transmission would be so flexible in its ratios automatic. there are also other types of instead. Conventionally. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds.Basics to Automobile Engineering transmission when I move the shifter? When I mess up and hear that horrible grinding sound. 14 www. Vehicles conforming to US Government standards must Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. then you know that engines have belt instead of a fixed number Zeroshift narrow rpm ranges where horsepower and torque are at of gears.
Comparison with manual transmission
Most cars sold in North America since the 1950s have been available with an automatic transmission. if you have read How the engine. the driver must push a button in (called the shift lock button) or pull the handle (only on column mounted shifters) out. often via paddle shifters. automatic Transmission types Transmissions differ Manual In this article.500 rpm. Most automatic since the 1990s.
. The that the engine could always run at its single. transmissions have a defined set of gear ranges. Some vehicles position selector buttons for each mode on the cockpit Besides automatics. or CVT. any engine has a redline -. an engine might produce retains the clutch like a manual Continuously variable Bicycle gearing its maximum horsepower at 5. freeing the driver from automatic transmissions have become very popular having to shift gears manually. semi-automatic. and continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) (such as Lineartronic). Second.::No Sin . An automatic uses Manumatic Cars need transmissions because of the physics of a torque converter instead Semi-automatic the gasoline engine. ratios as the vehicle moves.tk | . In order to select modes. and a semi-automatic their maximum.I Win::. or to manually select specific gear ratios. The but activates the clutch Derailleur gears transmission allows the gear ratio between the engine through electrohydraulic Hub gears and the drive wheels to change as the car speeds up and means. base equipment in a car. You shift gears so the engine can stay below the redline and near the rpm band of its best A conventional manual transmission is frequently the performance. if for example the driver were redlining the engine. Despite superficial similarity to other automated transmissions. For example. semi-automatics (BMW SMG). performance rpm value. automatic transmission is less popular An automatic gearbox is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear in Europe. often with a parking pawl feature that locks the output shaft Automatic transmission modes of the transmission. with 80% of drivers opting for manual transmission. In most Asian markets and in Australia. such as some forklifts and lawn mowers. we'll answer all of these questions and significantly in internal Sequential manual more as we explore the interior of a manual operation and driver's "feel" Non-synchronous transmission. bestability to shift gears manually. only use a torque converter to provide a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels. slows down. the driver moves a selection lever located either on the steering column or on the floor (as with a manual). manumatic. Conversely. while a CVT uses a Saxomat Horsepower Works. in order to select the transmission operating 'mode'. freeing up space on the central console. automated transmissions such as continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) and semi-automatic transmissions. what is actually grinding? What would happen if I were to accidentally shift into reverse while I am speeding down the freeway? Would the entire transmission explode?
By Waqas Ali Tunio
that free up the driver from having to shift gears manually by using the transmission's computer to change gear. (manumatics such as Tiptronic).aliwaqas. That is the idea behind can also be found on certain automated transmissions the continuously variable transmission(CVT).
If one driving wheel slips while the transmission is in "park. The Park position is omitted on buses/coaches with automatic transmission (on which a parking pawl is not practical). This is typically achieved via a normally open 'inhibitor' switch. which does to some extent prevent (but does not completely avoid) inadvertently putting the car in reverse when the vehicle is moving forwards. push the shift lock button in (or pull the shift lever forward in the case of a column shifter) and select reverse. Such a pattern led to a number of deaths and injuries owing to unintentional gear selection. it may not be possible to release the park lock (move the selector lever out of "P")." the other will roll freely as the slipping wheel rotates in the opposite direction. as well as the danger of having a selector (when worn) jump into Reverse from Low gear during engine braking maneuvers. A car should be allowed to come to a complete stop before setting the transmission into park to prevent damage. giving the ability for the vehicle to drive backwards. Prior to this. restricting the vehicle from moving in any direction. which is electronically engaged by a switch on the brake pedal. Usually. or simply
. It should be noted that locking the transmission output shaft does not positively lock the driving wheels. Many modern automatic transmissions have a safety mechanism in place. top to bottom.tk | . the rear of most front-wheel-drive vehicles has only about half the weight on the rear wheel as is on the front wheels. the driver must have the foot brake applied before the transmission can be taken out of park. except for empty pickup and open-bed trucks) or to front-wheel15 www. Another vehicle may be required to push the stuck vehicle uphill slightly to remove the loading on the park lock pawl. they must come to a complete stop. A parking pawlprevents the transmission from rotating. although the vehicle's non-driven road wheels may still rotate freely. Some shifters with a shift button allow the driver to freely move the shifter from R to N or D. so use of both the parking brake and the transmission park lock provides the greatest security against unintended movement on slopes. or clockwise). or similar. Only a (properly adjusted) parking brake can be relied upon to positively lock both of the parkingbraked wheels.::No Sin . Not coming to a complete stop can cause severe damage to the transmission. It is typical of front-wheeldrive vehicles for the parking brake to be on the rear (non-driving) wheels. greatly reducing the security provided by the parking brake as compared to either rear-wheel-drive vehicles with parking brake on the rear wheels (which generally have near half of the total vehicle weight on the rear wheels.I Win::. An efficiently-adjusted hand brake should also prevent the car from moving if a worn selector accidentally drops into reverse gear during early morning fast-idle engine warm-ups. thus completing the circuit (when the key is turned to the start position) Reverse (R) This engages reverse gear within the transmission. which is wired in series with the starter motor engagement circuit. Therefore. (This is not the case with certain 1950's Chrysler products that carried their parking brake on the transmission tail shaft. Most automobiles require P or N to be set on the selector lever before the internal combustion engine can be started. and therefore the vehicle from moving. For this reason. which generally have about two-thirds of the vehicle's weight (unloaded) on the front wheels. quadrant-selected automatic transmissions often utilized a P-N-D-L-R layout. In many modern cars and trucks. Automatic transmissions have various modes depending on the model and make of the transmission. Some of the common modes include Park (P) This selection mechanically locks the output shaft of transmission.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
drive vehicles with the parking brake on the front wheels. a defect compounded by the provision of a bumper jack). Advice is given in some owner's manuals [example: 1997 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme owner's manual] that if the vehicle is parked on a steep slope using the park lock only. which must be placed in neutral with the parking brakes set. the other being Neutral (N). Park (P) is one of only two selections in which the car's engine can be started.aliwaqas.Basics to Automobile Engineering have the modes ordered P-R-N-D-L (left to right. Some electronic transmissions prevent or delay engagement of reverse gear altogether while the car is moving. the brake pedal needs to be depressed in order to allow the selection of reverse. In order for the driver to select reverse in modern transmissions. This also increases the life of the transmission and the park pin mechanism. it is recommended to use the hand brake (or parking brake) because this actually locks (in most cases) the rear wheels and prevents them from moving. Unfortunately. because parking on an incline with the transmission in park without the parking brake engaged will cause undue stress on the parking pin. and is only closed when P or N is selected. This mechanism usually consists of a solenoid-controlled physical barrier on either side of the Reverse position.
Acura. so the vehicle is able to move freely under its own weight and gain momentum without the motive force from the engine (engine braking).::No Sin .Basics to Automobile Engineering moving the shifter to N or D without actually depressing the button.]. but they initially ranged from three (predominant before the 1990s). the transmission will automatically downshift. or locks the transmission in second gear on Ford. and only uses the first four gear ratios. Second (2 or S) This mode limits the transmission to the first two gear ratios.tk | . as well as climbing or going down hills in the winter time. such as city driving. Third(3)
By Waqas Ali Tunio
This mode limits the transmission to the first three gear ratios. It will not change to any other gear range. Corvette. Some vehicles will automatically shift up out of second gear in this mode if a certain RPM range is reached in order to prevent engine damage. The number of gear 'ratios' a transmission has depends on the model. As well as the above modes there are also other modes. the driver cannot put back the shifter to R without depressing the shift button to prevent accidental shifting. or a boxed [D]) This mode is used in some transmissions to allow early computer-controlled transmissions to engage the Automatic Overdrive. According to the manual. or for towing. This gear is also recommended while towing a caravan. seven-speed autos are becoming available (found in Mercedes 7G gearbox).
. and therefore allows the vehicle to move forward and accelerate through its range of gears.
www. Vehicles with this option should be driven in this mode unless circumstances require a lower gear. This is the only other selection in which the vehicle's engine can be started. D4 This mode is also found in Honda and Acura four. Drive (D) locks the Automatic Overdrive off. Some examples include D5 In Hondas and Acuras equipped with five-speed automatic transmissions. This can be used to climb or going downhill. as are eight-speed autos in the newer models of Lexus and BMW cars. and uses all five forward gears. However. which could damage the transmission.I Win::. effectively disconnecting the transmission from the driven road wheels. and Honda models. D3 or 3 This mode is found in Honda. Although traditionally considered second gear. Neutral/No gear (N) This disengages all gear trains within the transmission. First (1 or L [Low]) This mode locks the transmission in first gear only.aliwaqas. this mode is used commonly for highway use (as stated in the manual). Kia. This. Pontiac G8. to four and five speeds (losing popularity to sixspeed autos. like second. or sometimes locks the transmission in third gear. However. dependent on the manufacturer and model. Under hard acceleration or below 35 45 mph (56 72 km/h). it is used for "stop and go traffic". Chrysler models with a three-speed automatic since the late 1980s have called this gear 3 while using the traditional names for Drive and Low. Volkswagen and Pontiac four-speed automatics and only uses the first three gear ratios. GM trucks. In these transmissions. such as city driving. the Chevrolet Malibu LTZ.current in Australia with 6 speed ZF. According to the manual. Drive (D) This position allows the transmission to engage the full range of available forward gear trains. Six-speed automatic transmissions are now probably the most common offering Toyota CamryV6 models. there are other names used.or five-speed automatics. though still favored by Chrysler and Honda/Acura). especially at high speeds. and most newer model Ford/Lincoln/Mercury vehicles). but is identical otherwise. OD (Overdrive) in these cars is engaged under steady speeds or low acceleration at approximately 35 45 mph (56 72 km/h). Some vehicles will automatically shift up out of third gear in this mode if a certain RPM range is reached in order to prevent engine damage. This can be used to drive in adverse conditions such as snow and ice. can be used during the winter season. it is used for "stop & go traffic". OD. Ford Falcon BF 2005-2007 and Falcon FG 2008 . OverDrive (D.
and limited to speeds under 15 mph. This mode will hybrid cars. Previa and Innova.Basics to Automobile Engineering S or Sport
By Waqas Ali Tunio
can be accessed by moving the gear selector to 2 to start. but it has the same same as the 2 position on a Chrysler. Instead of engaging the braking. like dirt. or ice. It takes the place of a mechanical clutch.I Win::. The stator Europe models. this was D2 in the 1950s. For hybrid cars. On Ford. tipping the gear-down paddles mounted near the driver's fingers on the steering wheel). being the same as the 2 position on a Chrysler.aliwaqas. and a set of planetary gear sets to provide a range of gear ratios. not to be confused with the impeller inside the 1990. Hyundai has a Norm/Power switch next to the lower gear and slows down the spinning tires. then taking your foot off the accelerator while This is commonly described as 'Sport mode'.
.tk | . The M feature can also be found in Chrysler and General Motors products such as the Dodge Magnum and Pontiac G6. meanwhile do not have the M. Mitsubishi and some Audi models (TT). and Honda automatics. it down. the same is true for some Peugeot products like Peugeot 206. which is separated from the rest of the shift modes. Corolla. Brake (B) This has the effect on maximising all the available engine output. It operates selecting D once the car is moving. instead of the brakes slowing gearshift for this purpose on the Tiburon. On GM cars. This mode may be engaged either through a selector/position or by actually changing the gears (e. and instead have the + and -. a 'Winter mode' can be engaged so that captures the kinetic energy of the transmission fluid. without stalling. maximising the effects of engine encountering a steep downhill.g. as well as Toyota's Camry. This would have been recommended for use on steep grades. or slippery roads like dirt. BMW and General Motors to curve the fluid's path into the stator. or ice. It is not the same transmissions used (S) to indicate Second gear.
The predominant form of automatic transmission is hydraulically operated. increasing "breakaway" acceleration. the driver can shift up and down at will by toggling the (console mounted) shift lever like a semi-automatic transmission. Meanwhile. This is accomplished with a third member in the "coupling assembly" known as the stator.
Hydraulic automatic transmissions
+ . in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds. this feature torque converter. to reduce the likelihood of loss of multiplication. particularly during acceleration. Fortuner. typically when also downchange much higher up the rev range compared to 'D' mode. in second gear is selected instead of first when pulling effect using the leftover force of it to enhance torque away from stationary. this mode lets the engine do compression braking. also known as engine braking. and by altering the Winter (W) shapes of the vanes inside the coupling in such a way as In some Mercedes-Benz. or slippery roads the 1950s. shifting between effect in slowing the car without using the brakes. allowing the transmission to stay 'in gear' and the engine to remain running while the vehicle is stationary. GM only first and second gears. using a fluid coupling or torque converter. In nonvehicle. being the as downshifting in a non-hybrid car. This mode will have a detrimental effect on fuel brakes. this mode converts the electric Some early GM's equipped with Tourqueflite motor into a generator for the battery. is typically a gear pump mounted 17 www. such as Porsche's Tiptronic. and M This is for the 'manual mode' selection of gears in certain automatics. hydraulically connecting the engine to the transmission. in an identical manner as 'D' mode. (L) was used in some early GM's to indicate (L)ow gear. and is Second Gear Start after Pump.. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling. The engine holds the car back. locking the transmission into first gear. This would have been called this HR (hill retarder) and GR (grade retarder) in recommended for use on steep grades. except that the upshifts change much higher up the engine's rev range. Parts and operation A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts:
Torque converter: A type of fluid coupling. Kia. and limited to speeds under 40 mph. the engine in a non-hybrid car switches to a economy.::No Sin . and therefore enhances the performance of the A mode selectable on some Toyota models. traction due to wheel spin on snow or ice.
whose bands and clutches are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled by the valve body. this component of the transmission provides lubrication. The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators. Bands are used for braking. as the vehicle and engine change speed. Planetary gear set: A compound epicyclic planetary gear set.::No Sin . and minivan models) they have usually been extra-cost options for this reason.Basics to Automobile Engineering between the torque converter and the planetary gear set. it transmits torque only in one direction. However. sport-utility vehicle.) Hydraulic & lubricating oil: called automatic transmission fluid (ATF). the torque being transmitted by the sprag clutches instead. Valve body: hydraulic control center that receives pressurized fluid from the main pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque converter. luxury. rather than a torque converter. which in turn is bolted to the engine's flywheel. Manual transmissions also avoid the power requirement of the hydraulic control system. the difference between the pressures changes. which is needed for transmission components to operate. one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular member of the planetary gear set motionless. Energy efficiency Hydraulic automatic transmissions are almost always less energy efficient than manual transmissions due mainly to viscous and pumping losses. freewheeling or "overrunning" in the other. Mass manufacturing and decades of improvement have reduced this cost gap. along with the complex design of the valve body. which uses fluid pressure to determine the correct shifting patterns and operate the various automatic clutch mechanisms. thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios. corrosion prevention. and releasing automatically when the next gear's sprag clutch assumes the torque transfer. simply "taking up" the drivetrain load when actuated. A relatively small amount of energy is required to pressurize the hydraulic control system. while allowing another member to rotate. (See History and improvements below.. Manual transmissions use a mechanical clutch to transmit torque. in many modern automatic transmissions. Clutches and bands: to effect gear changes. The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side (as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator) to control which ratio is selected on the gear set. the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic engine control unit (ECU) or a separate transmission control unit (TCU). and the mental power of the operator to make appropriate gear ratio selections. Principally. The bands come into play for manually selected gears. These clutches are actuated by the valve body (see below). The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves. thus avoiding the primary source of loss in an automatic transmission. Primarily made from refined petroleum.
. the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages. both in the torque converter and the hydraulic actuators. their sequence controlled by the transmission's internal programming. and a hydraulic medium to convey mechanical power (for the operation of the transmission). a type of device known as a sprag or roller clutch is used for routine upshifts/downshifts.aliwaqas. originally made hydraulic automatic transmissions much more complicated (and expensive) to build and repair than manual transmissions. causing different sets of valves to open and close. check balls and servo pistons. 18 www.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gear set to select the optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions. In most cars (except US family. with the main power consumption due to drag from the gear train being immersed in the lubricating oil of the gearbox.tk | . It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it.I Win::. so the pump provides pressure whenever the engine is running and there is enough transmission fluid. such as low range or reverse. Bands are not applied when drive/overdrive range is selected. Thus the manual transmission requires very little engine power to function. providing two or more gear ratios. and operate on the planetary drum's circumference. and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life. The multitude of parts. The advantage of this type of clutch is that it eliminates the sensitivity of timing a simultaneous clutch release/apply on two planetaries. the GM Turbo-Hydramatics incorporated this. by relying on the human muscle power of the vehicle operator to disengage the clutch and actuate the gear levers. Operating much as a ratchet. The input for the pump is connected to the torque converter housing.
In this system. which can smoothly and steplessly alter its gear ratio by varying the diameter of a pair of belt or chain-linked pulleys. Some continuously variable transmissions use a hydrostatic drive consisting of a variable displacement pump and a hydraulic motor to transmit power without gears.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
Manually controlled automatic transmissions Most automatic transmissions offer the driver a certain amount of manual control over the transmission's shifts (beyond the obvious selection of forward. For example. CVT designs are usually as fuel efficient as manual transmissions in city driving. but early designs lose efficiency as engine speed increases. the same effect is accomplished by firmware. This however is still largely dependent upon the number and optimal spacing of gear ratios for each unit. Mode selection Allows the driver to choose between preset shifting programs.I Win::. in the 3 range. while 'Sport mode' (aka Power or Performance) delays shifting for maximum acceleration. Typically. kickdown is accomplished by mechanically actuating a valve inside the transmission.aliwaqas. to avoid unwanted upshifts or downshifts that could compromise the vehicle's balance or traction. this was accomplished by a mechanical lockout in the transmission valve body preventing an upshift until the lockout was disengaged. In many older designs.
. Some current hybrid vehicles. a transmission could shift from first to second to third. The modes also change how the computer responds to throttle input.tk | . Most modern designs use a solenoid-operated valve that is triggered by a switch on the throttle linkage or by the engine control unit (ECM) in response to an abrupt increase in engine power. wheels or cones. the transmission has fixed gears. but the ratio of wheelspeed to engine-speed can be continuously varied by controlling the speed of the third input to a differential using an electric motor-generator.Basics to Automobile Engineering The energy efficiency of automatic transmission has increased with the introduction of the torque converter lock-up clutch. or neutral). Lexus and Ford Motor Company. Some transmissions will still upshift automatically into the higher ratio if the engine reaches its maximum permissible speed in the selected range. have an "electronically-controlled CVT" (E-CVT). Low gear ranges Conventionally. Continuously variable transmissions A fundamentally different type of automatic transmission is the continuously variable transmission or CVT. reverse. Modern automatic transmission also minimize energy usage and complexity. Such control is particularly useful in cornering. Turbo-boost is normally lost between gear changes in a manual whereas in an automatic the accelerator pedal can remain fully depressed. These concepts provide zero and reverse gear ratios. which practically eliminates fluid losses when engaged. 'Economy mode' saves fuel by upshifting at lower engine speeds. on computercontrolled transmissions.::No Sin . On older transmissions. A slightly different approach to CVT is the concept of toroidal CVT or infinitely variable transmission (IVT). The transmission can still upshift and downshift automatically between the remaining ratios: for example. control of the transmission has been transferred to computerized control systems which do not use fluid pressure for shift logic or actuation of clutching mechanisms. by minimizing the amount of shifting logic that is done hydraulically. Those controls take several forms: Throttle kickdown Most automatic transmissions include some means of forcing a downshift into the lowest possible gear ratio if the throttle pedal is fully depressed. The on road acceleration of an automatic transmission can occasionally exceed that of an otherwise identical vehicle equipped with a manual transmission in turbocharged diesel applications. Manual controls Some transmissions have a mode in which the driver has full control of ratio changes (either by moving the selector. notably those of Toyota. but not into fourth or higher ratios. completely overriding the automated function of the hydraulic controller. or through the use of buttons or paddles). automatic transmissions have selector positions that allow the driver to limit the maximum ratio that the transmission may engage. and whether or not the elimination of spooldown/accelerator lift off represent a significant enough gain to counter the slightly higher power consumption of the automatic transmission itself.
shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. will different." as part of a manual distance. locking the transmission and preventing the input Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air. gears. so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise.or ice-covered roads. limit the transmission to 2nd gear after prolonging the and bicycle fork articles.::No Sin . Since these gearboxes also have a throttle kickdown switch. bumps.I Win::. for example. much as a water wheel works only if there is some exit velocity (energy) in the waste water to carry it
Internal combustion engine cooling
www. hot exhaust gases. first popularized by Porsche in the 1990s under the trade name Tiptronic.Basics to Automobile Engineering "Manumatic" shifters. and vibrations. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure. start off in second gear instead of first.tk | . and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise. rather. it is impossible to fully exploit the engine power at low to medium engine speed.
. because all the forces Second gear takeoff acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. and the provision of the actual manual controls for the driver. have become a popular option on sports cars and other performance vehicles. This is done to reduce torque multiplication when proceeding forward from a of an internal combustion engine. Engines are inefficient. These goals are generally at odds. Activated by electrical solenoid control. motorcycle fork. or "trans-brake. Heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows. The 2000-2002 Lincoln LS V8 (the five-speed automatic without manumatic capabilities (as opposed to the optional sport package w/ manu-matic 5sp) started in 2nd gear during most starts both in winter and summer by selecting the "D5" transmission selection notch in the shiftgate (For fuel savings). then launch the car by simply Engines with higher efficiency have more energy leave releasing the trans-brake switch. With the near-universal prevalence of electronically controlled transmissions. The suspension also protects the vehicle Some automatics. Also note This article is primarily about four-wheeled (or more) that as with most American automatic transmissions. typically using either standstill in conditions where traction was limited on air or a liquid. snow. Some waste heat is essential: it guides heat through the engine. it will simply (motorcycle). requiring only software changes. particularly those fitted to larger itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. much as a water wheel extracts Some automatic transmissions modified or designed mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a specifically for drag racing may also incorporate a transmission brake. as mechanical motion and less as waste heat. capacity or high torque engines. and explicit shaft from turning. and then not shift into a higher gear until returned to D. whereas "D4" Internal combustion engine cooling refers to the cooling would always start in 1st gear. a trans-brake simultaneously engages the first and reverse the difference is waste heat which must be removed. This allows the driver of the car to engine cooling.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs. generally in the interest of preventing engine damage. The amount of true manual control provided is highly variable: some systems will override the driver's selections under certain conditions. valve body. raise the engine RPM against the resistance of the torque converter. vehicle suspension. etc. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible. they are comparatively simple and inexpensive. or by engaging a "winter mode".aliwaqas. For information on two-wheeled selecting "2" using the selection lever will not tell the vehicles' suspensions see the suspension transmission to be in only 2nd gear. either when '2' is The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be manually selected. duration of 1st gear through higher speeds than normal operation. bicycle suspension. so more heat energy enters the engine than comes out as mechanical power.
beyond the amount needed for lubrication. InternalLocations with either high peak temperatures (narrow combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the melting islands around the combustion chamber) or high heat temperature of engine materials.
www. Thus.aliwaqas. As example. damage engine materials and lubricants. sprayed upwards onto the bottom of the piston just for extra cooling. Most antifreeze) which is then cooled with 20°C air. High engine weight. which enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can are more difficult to avoid with air cooling. Engine cooling removes energy fast cooling.I Win::. Air cooled survive. engines may also vary their cooling capacity by using more closely-spaced cooling fins in that area. that can chemically powered by convection alone. heating the liquid to 135°C (Water's standard and ethylene glycol. Conductive heat transfer is proportional to the Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and temperature difference between materials. Liquidcooled engines are able to vary the size of their passageways through the engine block so that coolant Cooling is also needed because high temperatures flow may be tailored to the needs of each area. such as the block and "cars" for the Shell economy challenge are insulated. are cooled directly by the main coolant system. the liquid-cooled engine has half the temperature intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. weight.000 mile-per-gallon Only the fixed parts of the engine. For example.
. cooling and with only accidental heat loss. comparing water and oil There are many demands on a cooling system. it is vital that the cooling system heat capacity).tk | . water. head. where hot coolant left the top of the engine block and access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature. Thus. durability. combustion chamber are never cooled by intake. The water may be used directly to cool the passed to the radiator. such as salt. An difference and so at first appears to need twice the exception is Wankel engines. both to transfer as much energy as possible from hot Moving parts such as the pistons. damage the engine. Such engines can achieve high coolant. but often has sediment.Basics to Automobile Engineering away and make room for more water. properties of the coolant (water. the block and thence the main coolant. However. where some parts of the cooling area. performance engines frequently have additional oil. In each "liquid-cooled" engines use some air cooling. then there is a industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine 230°C temperature difference for cooling. through a heat exchanger (radiator) cooled by air. either air (a gaseous fluid) or a liquid coolant run Liquid-cooled engines usually have a circulation pump. The metal is at 250 °C and the air is at 20°C. where it was cooled before engine. requiring extra effort for successful operation. Therefore. duty cycle. or air) also affect cooling.::No Sin . but this Some high-efficiency engines run without explicit can make their manufacture difficult and expensive. Most "air-cooled" engines use some boiling point of 100°C can be exceeded as the cooling liquid oil cooling. Oil has about 90% the density of water. One key as coolants. and emissions. must rely on the lubrication oil as a when restarting. to maintain acceptable temperatures system is both pressurized. with the step. If engine chemicals such as antifreeze and rust inhibitors. one gram of oil can absorb about 55% of the requirement is that an engine fails if just one part heat for the same rise in temperature (called the specific overheats. a design called adiabatic. and uses a mixture with for both critical engine parts and the oil itself. reliability. a liquidusing a liquid with different properties. which can clog coolant returning to the bottom of the engine. engine coolant may be run Other demands include cost. or chemicals. and through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of durability of the cooling system itself. An air-cooled coolant. Air-cooled motorcycles often rely heavily on oilMost internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using cooling in addition to air-cooling of the cylinder barrels. Marine engines and some stationary engines have ready The first engines relied on thermo-syphon cooling alone. oil. This reduces the occurrence of hot spots. and to a lesser extent gases to mechanical motion. 10. or to a very limited amount of conduction into efficiency but compromise power output. and to reduce reheat losses the crank and rods. such cooled engine might dump heat from the engine to a as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol liquid. Circulation was passages. instead engine uses all of this difference. Some antifreezes use no water at all.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
keep all parts at suitably low temperatures. all heat engines need cooling to operate. and hot enough to set flow (around exhaust ports) may require generous fire to lubricants. In contrast.
air-cooled Deutz diesel the turbine of the turbocharger reduces the amount of engines are known for reliability even in extreme heat. Cooling system regulation includes adjustable baffles in the air flow (sometimes called 'shutters' and Comparing air and water. once water boils. a fan which capacity per gram and per volume (4000) and less than a operates either independently of the engine. but also not cool and liquid-cooled engines. Thus. The viscosity of the oil is optimized normal use and sometimes sudden failure when driven for just this temperature.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
The temperature of the cooling air may range from well below freezing to 50°C. air has vastly lower heat commonly run by a pneumatic 'shutterstat). Moving heat from the engine controls adjust cooling based on throttle to cylinder to a large surface area for air cooling can anticipate a temperature rise. shapes needed for good heat transfer and the space needed for free flow of a large volume of air. especially for passing one stream of coolant coolant leaks. In addition. passing air over several hot efficiency. or which has an adjustable clutch. steam may Air cooled and liquid-cooled engines are both used return to water as it mixes with other coolant. and limit engine power present problems such as difficulties manufacturing the output to compensate for finite cooling.aliwaqas. A compromise is a wall cooled Volkswagen kombis are known for rapid wear in temperature of 90°C. such as an tenth the conductivity. so an commonly. more. it is an insulator. leading to a engine are so severe. it may be a good trade-off to give up temperature. durability (interval between engine rebuilds). the cooling system is designed to vary cooling so the engine is neither too hot nor too cold. see heat transfer). but cooling. the motor. which can aid heat transfer. Further. which is good for keeping cooling capacity is reduced only slightly by small air things cool. Any cooling of the exhaust and in hot weather. use liquid-cooled engines. The cylinder-walls should not It is difficult to make generalizations about air-cooled heat up the air before compression. Each principle has advantages and engine temperature gauge can indicate an acceptable disadvantages. and reducing the net power output of the engine. including the compressor of a turbo and in the inlet trumpets and the inlet valves need to be as cold as possible. over several hot objects and achieving uniform as in aircraft.tk | . A countercurrent heat exchange with forced cooling air does the job. road vehicles often see widely-varying and quicklyvarying load. so the exhaust system is and are often used in situations where the engine runs often insulated between engine and turbocharger to unattended for months at a time.Basics to Automobile Engineering so a given volume of oil can absorb only about 50% of the energy of the same volume of water. which smoothes out temperature increase in short and air needs 2000 times the flow velocity and thus a sprints. For example. air cooling coolant.
. (called heat of vaporization).4 × 10 6 Pa·s thermostatic valve or just 'thermostat' that can block for air vs 8. increasing the energy required to pump oil for cooling. power available to the turbine. while many small airplane and An engine needs different temperatures. reliability the consequences of a broken airplane However. In contrast. Water Finally. therefore the fins. so the first and quietness in order to achieve slightly higher may be over-cooled and the last under-cooled. other concerns may dominate cooling system boils at about the same temperature desired for engine design. Where reliability is of utmost importance. even a slight increase in reliability sudden loss of cooling where steam bubbles form (for is worth giving up other good properties to achieve it. and particular applications may favor temperature even though local temperatures are high one over the other. Alternately. The inlet low-cost engines are air-cooled. while engines in longhaul boat or rail service may operate at a steady load. but also much electric fan. Unfortunately. Some engine controls shut down an engine or recirculating air fan needs ten times the power of a limit it to half throttle if it overheats. Airdown the gas at the combustion. calculation from two paragraphs above.94 × 10 4 Pa·s for water). and failure rates typically deal of energy with very little rise in temperature rise as the square of the number of failure points.
www. This has the advantage that it absorbs a great air cooling systems are simple. and heat exchanger have some heat capacity needs ten times of the surface area. air is a relatively poor coolant. As example. The viscosity of oil can be ten times greater than water. a lower viscosity (about 200 times lower: 17. Also. most cars and trucks enough that damage is being done. keep the exhaust gases as hot as possible. The thermal conductivity of water is about 4 times that of oil. Modern electronic recirculating water pump.::No Sin . objects in series warms the air at each step. Continuing the the coolant flow when too cool.I Win::.
as the picture shows. shrinks slightly when it crystallizes. and has a service life over 10. the water loss exceed 80 MW (107000 hp) (Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96evaporated inconspicuously. thereby not revealing significant water loss. It is also often difficult to build large air-cooled steam engines already expend large volumes of water.
. it is usually desirable to minimize the number of heat transfer stages in order to maximize the temperature difference at each stage. Tatra engineer Julius Mackerle published a book on it. thus avoiding engine reliable vehicles. However. Air cooled engines are better adapted to extremely cold and hot environmental weather temperatures. since water loss lead to most noted mountain roads had auto repair shops to overheat and further water loss from boil-over. even though During that period. and a solution found. Air-cooled engines do not require coolant service. and can freeze at ordinary cooled engines and continue working when water temperatures thus causing permanent engine damage. and do not suffer engine damage from freezing. engines. These have time) were equipped with carbon-seal water pumps that instructions on a cast metal plaque and a spherical bottom watering can hanging next to a water spigot. engine boiled. designed and survived durability tests. be useless around the house. where water loss is accepted. Meanwhile. researched. spherical bottom was intended to keep it from being set air cooling advanced in memory of boiling engines. having to work over cars and ending with a small and generally unrecognized such a wide range of speeds that its impeller has only a technical change. ACS (Auto Club Suisse) maintains historical monuments to that era on the Susten Pass where two radiator refill After isolating the pump problem. In the USA.aliwaqas. Automobile radiators (or heat exchangers) have an outlet that feeds cooled water to the engine and the engine has an outlet that feeds heated water to the top Cars and trucks using direct air cooling (without an of the radiator. Water circulation is aided by a rotary intermediate liquid) were built over a long period beginning with the advent of mass produced passenger pump that has only a slight effect. damage. whereas large liquid-cooled engines was running and the engine was hot. two Transition Away From Air Cooling commonly-cited advantages for air-cooled engines. While running. However. the minister to overheating engines.. The subject of boiling engines was addressed. Previous radiators and engine blocks were properly essentially the lifetime of many engines. and at the time. Before World War II. but used water It is usually more difficult to achieve either low pumps with a leaky graphite-lubricated "rope" seal emissions or low noise from an air-cooled engine.The change of air cooling to liquid cooling occurred at the start of World War II when the US military needed 55 °C.::No Sin . Volkswagen advertised in the USA as not boiling over.tk | . original water loss was hidden. Porsche built aircars sold well. colder than is encountered by many engines. The did not leak and caused no more geysers.Basics to Automobile Engineering Similarly. The Czechoslovakia based company Tatra is known for their big size air cooled V8 car engines. you can see air cooled engines starting The coolant used in many liquid-cooled engines must be and running in freezing conditions that stuck water renewed periodically. the leaking pump seal drained cooling water to a level where the and trucks routinely overheated while climbing pump could no longer return water to the top of the mountain roads. Franklin built awareness rose in the 1960s. but these Deutz built air-cooled diesel trucks. with the water in turn cooled by air. But as air quality cooled farm tractors and Volkswagen became famous with air-cooled passenger cars. trace when the engine stopped and cooled. leaving at best a small rusty C 14-cylinder diesel). After the war. cars and trucks built for the war effort (no civilian cars were built during that stations remain (See a picture here).. water cooled cars minimal effect as a pump. cooled ones start producing steam jets. However. European firms such as Magirusnew water-cooled cars no longer boiled over. two (gland) on the pump shaft. This was considered normal. so water circulation ceased and water in the water.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
air-cooled engines.I Win::.000 hours. creating geysers of boiling cooling radiator. Detroit Diesel 2-stroke cycle engines commonly use oil cooled by water. throughout Europe. The seal was inherited from more reasons most road vehicles use liquid-cooled steam engines. and without question. therefore. so nearly all air-cooled engines are under Because the pump seal leaked mainly when the pump 500 kW (670 hp). Air-cooled engines became popular spite of which it was stolen. in problem. coolant based on propylene glycol is liquid to . even though boil-over was no longer a common down and. since engines. and laws governing
By Waqas Ali Tunio
Now more than ever. This new refrigerant has a can enjoy the same comfort levels that we are higher operating pressure.
Should a major problem arise from your air conditioner. your system. ORIFICE yourself" repair to these systems. R-134a. Today practically no air-cooled automotive engines are built. may require larger or more robust button or the slide of a lever. so they were loath to change. It is responsible for compressing and the Montreal Protocol. your auto mechanic is at the mercy of this new environmental legislation. Extensive scientific studies have proven the COMPRESSOR damaging effects of this refrigerant to our ozone layer. The A/C system is split into two sides. to the final cost of the repair. a landmark agreement that was transferring refrigerant gas.ACCUMULATOR. With the push of a dependant on age. This. while Subaru took a different course and chose liquid-cooling for their (flat) engines. defined as discharge and 24 www. a great many of us. as we drive our automobiles. accustomed to at home and at work. which will allow it to use the new industry accepted. These reductions in the cooling effects of both the lead and the formerly rich fuel mixture. Basic knowledge of your air conditioning system is important. such as computerized types of air conditioning systems. as opposed to merely repairing and recharging with Freon. Not only is he required to be certified to purchase refrigerant and repair your air conditioner. the days of "do-itCOMPRESSOR. Unfortunately. that was manufactured by DuPont). You may be given an option of "retrofitting".
. led to overheating in the air-cooled engines. name for the refrigerant R-12. Simply put.Basics to Automobile Engineering exhaust emissions were passed. today larger motorcycles are water cooled with many relying on convection circulation with no pump. EVAPORATOR. Commonly referred to as the heart of the system. as this will allow you to make a more informed decision on your repair options. THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE . but not R12 commonly referred to as Freon® (Freon is the trade both. Valve failures and other engine damage was the result. the and its manufacture has been banned by the U. That is. a high pressure side and a low pressure side. we now have tough tube. their engines having small cooling water volume. his shop must also incur the cost of purchasing expensive dedicated equipment that insures the capture of these ozone depleting chemicals. we make the seamless parts to counter its inherent high pressure transition from heating to cooling and back again characteristics.aliwaqas. friendly" refrigerant. Retrofitting involves making the Automotive Air Conditioning Systems necessary changes to your system. which make up these automotive systems are the have added complexity to today's modern air following: conditioning system. Words like "retrofit" and "alternative refrigerant" are now in your mechanics glossary. Note: if your car has an Orifice To add to the complications.tk | . RECEIVERthe past. "environmentally Today. may reduce cooling efficiency which equates to higher operating costs and reduced comfort. Also. the concept and design are very the desired temperature and have the system adjust similar to one another. DRIER. While each of the automatic temperature control (which allow you to set three types differ. air cooling being fraught with manufacturing expense and maintenance problems.I Win::. is almost a thing of TUBE.S. CONDENSER. you may encounter new terminology. such as recharging the system with refrigerant either have a Receiver-Dryer or an Accumulator. in some cases. Volkswagen responded by abandoning their (flat) horizontally opposed air-cooled engines. And if not performed unless something goes awry. Motorcycles had an additional problem in that a water leak presented a greater threat to reliability. will add significantly without ever wondering how this change occurs. many things have undergone Vehicles are found to have primarily three different extensive change. you will of tasks. it will not have a Thermal Expansion Valve as these environmental regulations that govern the very simplest two devices serve the same purpose.::No Sin . should the system be opened up for repair. therefore. properly. Since the advent of the automotive air conditioning system in the 1940's.he will have to charge you more. unleaded gas replaced leaded gas and leaner fuel mixtures became the norm. Improvements. The most common components automatically) and improvements to overall durability. and compressor is a belt driven pump that is fastened to the many other countries that have joined together to sign engine. introduced in the 1980's to limit the production and use of chemicals known to deplete the ozone layer. if your mechanic has to spend more to repair your vehicle .
The condenser. due to aerodynamic improvements to the body of a vehicle.Basics to Automobile Engineering suction. its location may differ. Several 25 www. the to install a larger pre filter in front of the orifice tube to moisture contained in the air condenses on its surface. minimize the risk of this problem reoccurring. This heat is then carried off with the refrigerant to the outside of the vehicle. As mentioned above. CONDENSER This is the area in which heat dissipation occurs. it might make sense aluminum fins of the cooler evaporator coil. can be found in most GM and Ford models. orifice tubes in use today measure approximately three inches in length and consist of a small brass tube.I Win::. this is usually accomplished by taking advantage of your existing engine's cooling fan. Another example of a thermal expansion valve is Chrysler's "H
. or suction side. condenser air flow is supplemented with one or more electric cooling fan(s). in many cases. it is compressed and sent to the condenser. Its location is usually in front of the radiator. Listed below. Several variations of this valve are commonly found.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
other components work in conjunction with the evaporator. The condenser is designed to radiate heat. where it can then transfer the heat that is absorbed from the inside of the vehicle. and covered with a filter screen at each end. While inexpensive. Since the compressor is basically a pump. It is located in the inlet tube of the evaporator. On rear wheel drive vehicles. a frozen evaporator coil will not absorb as much heat. replacing the orifice tube. This point can be found in a properly functioning system by locating the area between the outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the As hot compressed gasses are introduced into the top of evaporator that suddenly makes the change from hot to the condenser. their main functions are the same. It is not uncommon for these tubes to Located inside the vehicle. probably the most commonly used. This type of valve can sense both temperature and pressure. As warmer air travels through the then recharging. heat absorption component. opening from the inside of your vehicle. they are cooled off. Some Dust and pollen passing through stick to its wet surfaces Ford models have a permanently affixed orifice tube in and drain off to the outside. The ideal temperature of the evaporator is 32° Fahrenheit or 0° Celsius. draws in refrigerant gas from the outlet of the evaporator. will have much the same appearance as the radiator in your car as the two have very similar functions. the ideal temperature for an evaporator coil is 32° F. THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE Another common refrigerant regulator is the thermal expansion valve. somewhere between the outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the evaporator. Rest assured this is perfectly normal. are the most commonly found. Refrigerant enters the bottom of the evaporator as a low pressure liquid. Commonly used on import and aftermarket systems. On humid days you may the liquid line. The intake. ORIFICE TUBE
The orifice tube. or in the liquid line. Its primary duty is to remove heat replace one involves recovering the refrigerant. it must have an intake side and a discharge side. Temperature and pressure regulating devices must be used to control its temperature. In some cases it does this via the accumulator. With this in mind. keeping pressure in the evaporator low and keeping the evaporator from freezing. Many variations of pressure regulators have been introduced since the 1940's. evacuating and dehumidification. The evaporator provides usually between three to five dollars. As the refrigerant begins to boil. A secondary benefit is the system up. it can absorb large amounts of heat. the evaporator serves as the become clogged with small debris. The warm air passing through the evaporator fins causes the refrigerant to boil (refrigerants have very low boiling points). These can be cut out and replaced with a have seen this as water dripping from the bottom of combination filter/orifice assembly. but in some cases. As the gas cools. Once the refrigerant is drawn into the suction side. PRESSURE REGULATING DEVICES Controlling the evaporator temperature can be accomplished by controlling refrigerant pressure and flow into the evaporator.::No Sin . it cold. the labor to several functions. Condensers must have good air flow anytime the system is in operation. your vehicle. While there are many variations of devices used. Most of the high pressure liquid. On front wheel drive vehicles.tk | . and is very efficient at regulating refrigerant flow to the evaporator.aliwaqas. or TXV. You should then see small dimples placed in the condenses and exits the bottom of the condenser as a line that keep the orifice tube from moving. EVAPORATOR surrounded by plastic.
Some of the moisture removing desiccants found within are not compatible with R-134a. This type of valve is usually located at the for your wallet. between the evaporator inlet and outlet tubes conditioning system. although efficient.I Win::. Compressors are designed to compress gas not liquid. It is connected directly to the evaporator outlet and stores excess liquid refrigerant. it is of long term benefit to your air firewall. This is connected to the wheel and/or the axle.S. This type of enough to stop something as big as a car? metering valve requires liquid refrigerant.pneumatically or electromag netically against both sides of the disc. a phenomenon known as brake fade. When in doubt. To stop the wheel. hydraulically. However. It does this in two ways:
How Brakes Work
to charge the system. and if the brakes get too hot. Brakes convert motion to heat. A brake disc (or rotor in U. Moisture in a system mixes with refrigerant and forms a corrosive acid. Introduction of liquid refrigerant into a compressor can do serious damage. your car must also moisture and filter out dirt. These types of valves. also remove debris and moisture from a system.
. we'll cover these three principles: Leverage Hydraulics Friction
The disc brake or disk brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel while it is in motion. a receiver is used. We all know that pushing down on the brake pedal slows a car to a stop.::No Sin . The use of the sight glass to charge the system is not recommended in R-134a systems as cloudiness and oil that has separated from the refrigerant can be mistaken for bubbles. This type of mistake can lead to a dangerous overcharged condition. Newer receiver-driers use desiccant type XH-7 and are compatible with both R-12 and R-134a refrigerants. vapor bubbles should not be visible in the sight glass. like receiver-driers. Accumulators. This sight glass is often used multiply the force of your foot. Moisture is enemy number one for your A/C system. have some disadvantages over orifice tube systems. The desiccant type is usually identified on a sticker that is affixed to the receiverdrier. it is rare to heat a disc brake system enough to result in brake fade.
www. it may be to your advantage to change the Accumulator or receiver in your system. To ensure that the valve gets liquid refrigerant. English) is usually made of cast iron. While this may be a temporary discomfort
Mechanical advantage(leverage) Hydraulic force multiplication The brakes transmit the force to the tires using friction.Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
block" type. they become less effective. and the tires transmit that force to the road using friction also. The secondary purpose is to remove than you could apply with your leg. It is a good idea to replace the accumulator each time the system is opened up for major repair and anytime moisture and/or debris is of concern. ACCUMULATOR Accumulators are used on systems that accommodate an orifice tube to meter refrigerants into the evaporator. But how does this happen? How RECEIVER-DRIER does your car transmit the force from your leg to its The receiver-drier is used on the high side of systems wheels? How does it multiply the force so that it is that use a thermal expansion valve. but also have small moving parts that may stick and malfunction due to corrosion. Since the actual brakes require a much greater force gas and liquid. Friction causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop. Like orifice tubes these valves can become clogged with debris. There are variations of receiver-driers and several different desiccant materials are in use. The chief role of the accumulator is to isolate the compressor from any damaging liquid refrigerant. When you depress your brake pedal. Under normal operating conditions.aliwaqas. but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carboncarbon or ceramic-matrix composites. Before we begin our discussion on the components of the brake system. and the liquid and suction lines. friction material in the form of brake (mounted on a device called a brake caliper) is forced mechanically.tk | . your car transmits The primary function of the receiver-drier is to separate the force from your foot to its brakes through a fluid. The receiver-drier usually has a sight glass in the top.
000rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet. electric screwdrivers 100.
vehicle drive. the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. They are fully compressed and no longer in use once drive is taken up by the main damper springs. It is also used in some electronically controlled all-wheel drive systems. heat treatment is crucial. Ceramic materials are between 2-3KW and a feed rate 1m/minute. It is used in race cars including F1.
Friction clutches are by far the most well-known type of Manufacturing clutches. In a drill for instance. or unlocked and spinning at different speeds (disengaged). part of the clutch. pre-dampers may be used to reduce gear rattle at idle by changing the natural frequency of the disc. one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck. For example drive straps are now commonly employed to transfer torque as well as Various materials have been used for the disc friction facings. Indy car. Laser welding is becoming more common as a method of attaching the friction used on a friction disc surface is 0. Modern clutches lift the pressure plate upon disengagement of vehicle drive. locked together but spinning at different speeds (slipping). the release bearing can be known as a thrust bearing (as per the image above).000 miles. and automatic transmissions and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmissions. These weaker springs are compressed solely by the radial vibrations from an idling engine. The opposite is true with a push type. In addition to the damped disc centers which reduce driveline vibration. In this instance. Clutches are usually employed in devices which have two rotating shafts so we will use this as in the most basic example. clutches control whether automobiles transmit Dampers engine power to the wheels). motorcycles. In these devices one shaft is typically attached to a motor or other power unit (the driving member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work to be done.aliwaqas.tk | .I Win::. Clutch pads usually last about either in amount or over time (e. clutch. Modern clutch development focuses its attention on the simplification of the overall assembly and/or Materials manufacturing method.::No Sin . The opposite component of the clutch is the brake. Bursts speeds are typically around 5. depending on how vigorously the car is limit how much torque is transmitted through use of a driven. The 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23KN (23.000N) is normal for a single plate 430. World rally and even most club racing. This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved or "stacked" with several driven members. They are most commonly made of rubber but have been known to be made of asbestos. With regards to the manufacture of diaphragm typically use an compound organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material.000N). Load Mercedes truck examples: A clamp load of 33KN (33.Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
A clutch is a mechanical device which provides for the transmission of power (and therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member). A typical coefficient of springs.g.
. pulling on the diaphragm spring and disengaging the 27 www. typically used in heavy applications such as trucks carrying large loads or racing. In a pull type clutch. They are usually around $120 pounds but different car Clutches are used whenever the ability to limit the transmission of power or motion needs to be controlled manufactures vary. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they may be locked together and spin at the same speed (engaged). Push/Pull Friction disk clutches generally are classified as "Push Type" or "Pull Type" depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. including asbestos in the past. the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing.35 for drive plate to the disc ring with the laser typically being organic and 0. though the harder ceramic Multiple plate clutch materials increase flywheel and pressure plate wear. Pads
Clutch pads are attached to the frictional pads.25 for ceramic.
or Safety clutch: In a modern car with a manual transmission the clutch is This device allows a rotating shaft to "slip" when higher operated by the left-most pedal using a than normal resistance is encountered on a machine. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly increased friction coefficient. Engaging the clutch abruptly when the engine is turning at high speed causes a harsh.
Major Types of Clutches by Application
Vehicular (General) There are different designs of vehicle clutch but most are based on one or more friction discs pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. installed.I Win::. Many safety clutches are NOT friction clutches. to eliminate the effect of vibrations and slight engine limit damage when the mechanism jammed. The Hele-Shaw clutch was a wet clutch that relied entirely on viscous effects. The cone's taper means that a given amount of movement of the actuator makes the surfaces approach (or recede) much Automobile Powertrain more slowly than in a disc clutch. However. This kind of start is necessary and desirable in drag racing and other competitions. literally. On older cars the clutch might be driving shaft of a large grass mower. immobile object. stump. Motor-driven mechanical calculators such remote means of actuation are necessary to had these. Cone clutch
By Waqas Ali Tunio
Carefully-designed types disengage (but continue to transmit torque) in such tools as controlled-torque screwdrivers.tk | . tend to lose some energy to the liquid. Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil). (Motors movement.) With a rigid mechanical linkage. jerky start. rather than on friction. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate. Wet clutches. however. This clutch system employs centrifugal force to automatically engage the clutch when the engine rpm rises above a threshold and to automatically disengage the clutch when the engine rpm falls low enough.::No Sin . between the drive motor and gear train. A number of such devices Torque limiter fit various makes and models of drivetrains AKA slip clutch. had high stall torque. a given amount of actuating force created more pressure on the This plastic pilot shaft guide tool is used to align the clutch disk as the spring-loaded pressure plate is mating surfaces. The clutch will operated by a mechanical linkage. engine mountings being flexible by design. or other clutch may physically be located very close to the pedal. driving the output. Centrifugal Some vehicles such as mopeds use a centrifugal clutch.
. is not bathed in fluid and should be. depending on type. as the name implies.aliwaqas. these have a "grabby" action generally considered unsuitable for passenger cars. The transmission's drive splines and pilot shaft have a complimentary shape. An hydraulic or cable connection from the pedal to the example of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the clutch mechanism. The friction material varies in composition depending on many considerations such as whether the clutch is "dry" or "wet". The shoe(s) are held inwards by springs until centrifugal force overcomes the spring tension and the shoe(s) make contact with the bell.
Distinguished by conical friction surfaces. Even though the "slip" or "give" if the blades hit a rock. smooth engagement would be near-impossible because engine movement 28 www. stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for the lower coefficient of friction and so eliminate slippage under power when fully engaged. dry. However. As well.Basics to Automobile Engineering Wet vs. Friction discs once contained asbestos but this has been largely eliminated. raising the engine speed too high while engaging the clutch will cause excessive clutch plate wear. where speed is more important than comfort. A "dry clutch". but belong to the "interference clutch" family of which the dog clutch (discussed briefly later) is the most wellknown. dry A "wet clutch" is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid which also keeps the surfaces clean and gives smoother performance and longer life. rotating inside a clutch bell attached to the output shaft. The system involves a clutch shoe or shoes attached to the driven shaft.
magnetic particle clutch riding in the same oil as the transmission. it unwinds and opens the valve. If the trip mechanism is operated when the clutch would 29 www.I Win::. while the other plates have lugs on the outer adhere to the operating surfaces. When the temperature is low.::No Sin . Typically used where slipping is not acceptable. When "tripped". Wrap-spring clutches: These have a helical spring wound with square-cross-section wire. As the temperature of the spring rises. If the driving member rotates in the direction that would unwind the spring the spring expands minutely and slips although with some drag.tk | . Rotating the driving member the other way Other clutches such as for an air conditioning compressor electronically engaged clutches makes the spring wrap itself tightly around the driving surface and the clutch using magnetic force to couple the driving member to the driven member.
. while pressing the pedal disengages the clutch Hydraulic clutch: The driving and driven members are plates. However.Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up. (driving). locks up solidly (typically in milliseconds or tens of ms) non-slip. Engagement and diameter that lock it to a basket which turns the slippage are notably smooth. y Still others use ratchets with the pawl mounted Automobile Non-powertrain on a moving member. can lead to instability. Some of the plates have members which upon application of direct lugs on its inner diameter locking it to the engine current causes the particles to clump together and crankshaft. while pulling the lever back towards the rider Warner Overdrive transmissions in cars. allowing the driver to shift gears or coast. its other end is unattached. Motorcycles Electromagnetic clutch: Typically a clutch that is engaged by an electromagnet that is an integral part of Motorcycles typically employ a wet clutch with the the clutch assembly. the clutch effectively disengages. In simple form the spring is fastened at one end to the driven member.aliwaqas. being oscillations into intermittent linear or rotational applied only to the rear wheel. allowing fluid past the valve which allows the fan to spin at about 60% to 90% of shaft speed. Specialty Clutches/Applications Other General Clutches and Example Applications Single-revolution clutch: When inactive it is disengaged and the driven member is stationary. No pressure Examples include: on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged y This was essential for the operation of Borg(driving). makes the driven member rotate faster than the driver. The driving and driven members are backwards. coupling is hydrodynamic. motion of the complimentary member. allowing the rider to shift gears or stop pedaling and coast. y Another application includes an oscillating Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches to member where this clutch can then convert the eliminate the effects of engine braking which. will disengage the clutch plates through cable or y Typical bicycles have these so that the rider can hydraulic actuation. the spring winds and closes the valve. On most motorcycles the clutch is operated by the clutch lever located on the left handlebar. y The winding knob of a camera employs a (silent) There are other clutches found in a car. not in physical contact. The plates are forced together by a set of coil springs or a diaphragm spring plate when Overrunning clutch or freewheel: If some external force the clutch is engaged. These clutches have magnetically influenced particles clutches are usually made up of a stack of alternating contained in a chamber between driving and driven plain steel and friction plates. The spring fits closely around a cylindrical driving member. it Dog clutches: Utilization in automobile manual transmissions mentioned above. a wrap-spring type as a clutch in winding and as a belt-driven engine cooling fan may have a clutch that is brake in preventing it from being turned heat-activated. transmission input shaft. which allows the fan to spin at about 20% to 30% of the shaft speed. For example. Positive engagement." No pressure Partial engagement under any significant load tends to on the pedal means that the clutch plates are engaged be destructive. separated by a silicone-based fluid and a valve controlled by a bimetallic spring. coast. and rotates the driven member just one full turn.
. The other end of the spring was attached to the driven member inside whom the drive shaft could rotate freely. the other was clutch locked up the driven mechanism coasted and its free. notably the IBM Selectric.aliwaqas. creating the cascaded lockup just described. but nevertheless close to it. One end was fixed. The other end of the spring was fastened to a reduction gearing was a wrap-spring clutch-brake. maybe hundreds of millions of cycles without need of maintenance other than occasional lubrication with recommended oil. the wrap was so effective that the lubricant did not wear did not seem to be a problem. One end of the spring was attached to a sleeve surrounding the spring. it was simply a compliant mechanism. but if the trip lever engaged Load torque tightened the wrap so it did not slip once engaged. which in turn kept the third one engaged. re-started the motor in the correct direction. lever were out of the way.
The first pawl had a projection that engaged a trip lever. but also had some spring restraint at the other end of the spring created by the action. If the lever engaged the pawl the clutch was disengaged. Some types of self-starting synchronous motors Considering that the drive motors in some of these (such always started when power was applied. The thick disc attached to the driven member. Many different types of synchronous clock motors were used. defeat the grip. These were typically disc-shaped assemblies mounted on the drive shaft. The inertia of the rotor going backwards engaged trip pawl and sleeve tooth. "Kickback" clutch-brakes: When the clutch was to disengage power was disconnected from the electromagnet and the pawl moved close to the sleeve. the IBM Selectric typewriter had several of them. but in detail. on the order of milliseconds.Basics to Automobile Engineering otherwise disengage the clutch remains engaged. these were a variety of dog clutch. This sequence happened quite fast. As rotated the sleeve which permitted the spring to the clutch rotated it would stay locked up if the trip contract and wrap tightly around the driving sleeve. an electromagnet attracted the When the trip lever moved out of the way the first pawl pawl away from the sleeve. "Cascaded-Pawl" single-revolution clutches: These superseded wrap-spring single-revolution clutches in page printers (such as teleprinters) including the Model 28 Teletype (and its successors using the same design principles). Variants include half-revolution (and other fractionalrevolution) types. the Marchant had several of them.::No Sin . inertia rotated the disc until a tooth on it engaged a part of the clock's gear train. To engage the clutch. The clutch did not slip once locked up.
By Waqas Ali Tunio
These clutches had long operating lives cycling for tens. It rode freely but closely on the rotating member. it expanded to minimize contact with the driving cylinder. wear would be Coupled to the rotor by one (or possibly two) stages of excessive. this kept the spring the clutch and "wound" the spring. Single-revolution clutches in teleprinters were of this type. The wrap spring's torque kept the sleeve's tooth pressing against the pawl. as well as electric typewriters. They were also found in motor-driven mechanical calculators. including the pre-World War II Hammond manual-start clocks. When the spring did not rotate. clutch would continue to drive the load without slipping. As it "unwound". The wrap spring's torque engaged. If the pawl were held away from the sleeve the the clutch would quickly unlock. When the sleeve's tooth contacted the pawl the sleeve and the load's inertia unwrapped the spring to disengage the clutch. These were an essential part of printing telegraphs such as the Teletype page printers.I Win::. As well. Some These clutches were lubricated with conventional oil but designs had no explicit spring as such. The sleeve had a projecting tooth. like a ratchet tooth. Basically the spring was kept expanded (details below) and mostly out of contact with the driving sleeve. A spring-loaded pawl pressed against the sleeve and kept it from rotating. The clutch-brake locked up pawl that kept it from reversing. Inside the hollow disc-shaped housing were two or three freely-floating pawls arranged so that when the clutch was tripped.
www. the load torque on the first pawl to engage created force to keep the second pawl engaged.tk | . These mechanisms were found in some types of synchronous-motor-driven electric clocks. their behavior was chaotic and they were equally likely as teleprinters for news wire services) ran 24 hours a day for years the spring could not be allowed to stay in to start rotating in the wrong direction. Together with the when rotated backwards. Typically. The mechanism was lubricated. close contact with the driving cylinder. They are also used in farm machinery and industry.
defines the design standards of chassis and body conversions.tk | . and the final drive (drive wheels. the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of: y y y y y Cylinder head and exhaust manifold A turbocharger to increase engine power. including the other components only if they are integral to the transmission. and crew compartment. as well as "chassis cab" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies. driver's seat. transmission. For the internal combustion engine it is important to have the Exhaust System "Tuned" (refer to tuned pipe) for optimal efficiency. the term powertrain or powerplant refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface. solar. to reduce noise. armored personnel carriers. combat engineering vehicles. water. etc.::No Sin .). The design of a pleasure car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads and constant work use. rear-wheel drive. This includes the utilization of multiple power sources and non wheelbased vehicles. etc. A muffler (North America) / silencer (Europe). A catalytic converter to reduce air pollution. and suspension. engine. An example of a chassis is the under part of a motor vehicle. etc. A chimney serves as an exhaust pipe in a stationary structure.
. Motorcycles In most motorcycles all or most of the exhaust system is visible and may be chrome plated as a display feature.Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
A chassis (plural: "chassis") (pronounced / æsi/. box trucks. the pipe must be heat-resistant. The entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. A motor vehicle's driveline consists of the parts of the drivetrain excluding the engine and transmission. In particular applications. In a wider sense. is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck (without the body) to be ready for operation on the road. Sometimes "powertrain" is used to refer to simply the engine and transmission. running gear designates the wheels and axles in distinction from the body. cowl and chassis .S. or four-wheel drive. kinetic.[ An armoured fighting vehicle's chassis comprises the bottom part of the AFV that includes the tracks.) energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes. It is analogous to an animal's skeleton. the term chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine. a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the U. the power-train includes all of its components used to transform stored (chemical. differential. etc. or air.I Win::. In a carriage or wagon. These include motor homes. driveshafts.
Caterpillar tractors. An exhaust system is usually tubing used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted) with the wheels and machinery. after the transmission. Design criteria
In a motor vehicle. continuous track like with tanks or 31 www. It is the portion of a vehicle. This includes the engine. A body (sometimes referred to as "coachwork"). although common usage of might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. fire engines. / t æsi/) consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object. driveshaft. Indoor generators and furnaces can quickly fill an enclosed space with carbon monoxide or other poisonous exhaust gases if they are not properly vented to the outdoors. which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure.
An exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic and/or noxious gases away from the users of the machine. propeller. This describes the lower hull. the gases from most types of machine are very hot.aliwaqas. A chassis serves as basis for platforms on tanks. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only . and it must not pass through or near anything which can burn or can be damaged by heat. transmission. Also. such as school busses. differentials. ambulances. nuclear. that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel drive. Vehicles In the case of vehicles. potential. Depending on the overall system design.
engineers create a manifold without regard to weight or cost but instead for optimal flow of the bulge in the exhaust pipe known as an expansion exhaust gases. aluminium. also called a 4-2-1 or 4-1. in such cases the end of the exhaust pipe often different times. because of increased weight of the exhaust system and manufacturers forcing more fuel into the engine to gain extra power. This design results in a header that is chamber uses the pressure of the exhaust to create a pump that squeezes more air and fuel into the cylinder more efficient at scavenging the exhaust from the cylinders. and may have is visible. A twin Lagging the exhaust pipe stops it from overheating the cylinder may flow its exhaust into separate exhaust engine room where people must work to service the sections. Sometimes these exhaust through the exhaust system when another comes. This has often led to a decrease in fuel economy. During In a two-stroke engine. titanium. these bikes would come standard with a single exhaust. also known as R6 and R1. Part of the pipe result in a design that is cost effective but that does not do the most efficient job of venting the gases from the between the engine and the silencer is often flexible engine. they may flow into a single exhaust section known as a two-into-one (2-1). However. each cylinder's exhaust port to the common outlet all equal length. Often in such trucks the silencer is surrounded material-saving design features such as to use the least metal. This sheath may be chrome plated as a display feature. forcing companies to use other methods to increase performance of the motorcycle. or the GPX 250). sometimes through the middle of the propeller. known as the Ninja 250 in the US. This pipes have a flex connector attached with it. This provides greater power with bends and folds calculated to make the paths from and fuel efficiency. See Kadenacy effect.I Win::.Basics to Automobile Engineering Aftermarket exhausts may be made from steel. to blow the hot noxious gas well away from people. These design restrictions often burnt touching the hot silencer. Feeding water into the exhaust pipe cools the exhaust gas and thus lessens the back-pressure at the engine's cylinders' exhaust ports and thus helps the cylinders to empty quicker. Headers are generally circular steel tubing during the intake stroke. In the past.
Manifold or header
In most production engines. exhaust leaves them at vertical. and Suzuki's GSX-R series) often come with a twin exhaust system. and joined at narrow angles to encourage Two-stroke engines 32 www. a design. Inefficiencies generally occur due to the nature metal industrial ducting. Marine engines
By Waqas Ali Tunio
With an onboard diesel engine below-decks on marine Motorcycle exhausts come in many varieties depending vessels:on the type of engine and its intended use. Manifolds are often made In many trucks / lorries all or most of the exhaust system of cast iron in stock production cars.aliwaqas. transferred into the exhaust system. Larger engines that come with 4 cylinders. such as seen in the Kawasaki EX250 (also engine. This helps creates a back pressure and restriction in the engine's exhaust system that can restrict the engine's true in minimizing the vibration from the engine to be performance possibilities.tk | . and pressure waves from gas emerging from one cylinder might not be completely vacated has a hinged metal flap to stop debris and birds and rainwater from falling inside. as in the image in the section "Terminology". Since cylinders fire at different times. such as Japanese supersport or superbikes (such the Kawasaki ZX series.Yamaha's YZF series. Or. Outboard motors In outboard motors the exhaust system is usually a vertical passage through the engine structure and to reduce out-of-water noise blows out underwater. depending on its layout. A "full system" may be bought as an aftermarket accessory.::No Sin . carbon fiber or. Honda's CBR series. Sometimes a large diesel exhaust pipe is of the combustion engine and its cylinders. or have the by a perforated metal sheath to avoid people getting lowest production cost. as seen on the Kawasaki ZX-6R 2000 and 2001 models. A header (sometimes called extractor in Australia) is a manifold specifically designed for performance. such as that used on dirt bikes. EU noise and pollution regulations have generally stopped this practice. to occupy the least space necessary.
. the manifold is an assembly designed to collect the exhaust gas from two or more Trucks cylinders into one pipe.
The reason for a fashion in car styling to form the rear bumper with a the term screamer pipe is the loud noise they produce.tk | . The side of a passenger car on Turbo-back which the exhaust exits beneath the rear bumper Turbo-back (or turbo back) is to the part of the exhaust usually indicates the market for which the vehicle was designed. systems replace stock catalytic converters with others The end of the final length of exhaust pipe where it having less flow restriction. Some turbo-back (and header-back) vehicles have exhausts on the left. Lincoln. a tip is sometimes chromed. One justification for this was that 33 www. This headers specifically for their car. Due to the muffler. and not back With or without catalytic converter towards other cylinders.
. an exhaust system can be custom built for any car. The mufflers stage.e. Japanese (and some older British) vehicles system from the outlet of a turbocharger to the final have exhausts on the right so they are furthest from the vent to open air. If the system is engineered more for show than functionality. Headers can also be generally includes the pipe from the converter to the custom designed by a custom shop. but may include a fancy tip. Imperial. This is have mandrel-bent turns that allow the exhaust gas to usually accomplished by correct sizing in the design exit with as little back pressure as possible.I Win::. generally the only visible part of the exhaust system part on a vehicle.aliwaqas. most car performance enthusiasts buy Cat-back (also cat back and catback) refers to the aftermarket headers made by companies solely focused portion of the exhaust system from the outlet of on producing reliable. and generally is Cat-back exhaust systems generally use larger diameter not specific to the car's motor or design except for pipe than the stock system. the muffler. vents to open air. turbine so to overcome this problem gases can be reIn the late 1950s in the United States manufacturers had routed down a separate pipe about thirty centimeters long and vented straight to atmosphere. to reduce engine. Generally. In a set of tuned headers the pipe lengths are carefully calculated to enhance exhaust Some systems (including in former time all systems) flow in a particular engine revolutions per minute range. companies. left side if driving on the right). Tailpipe and tip
With trucks. and selecting a proper gasket type and size for the included in these kits are often glasspacks.Basics to Automobile Engineering
By Waqas Ali Tunio
pressure waves to flow through the outlet. This produces a final bypass the turbine and pass straight down the exhaust reduction in pressure. Good systems will needing to properly connect solidly to the engine. Packard) were fitted with this design. Two outlets symbolized V-8 power. while European with turbochargers. Header-back systems are generally produced as aftermarket performance systems for cars without turbochargers. Header-back (or header back) is to the part of the exhaust system from the outlet of the header to the final vent to open air everything from the header back. and sometimes used to enhance down pipe. Luckily. this can be expensive. This can cause turbulent airflow around the the appearance of the car. This is illegal in some places if the Headers are generally made by aftermarket automotive vehicle is driven on public roads. i. back pressure. expensive cars (Cadillac. It is often of larger pipe than custom waste gate is fitted to allow exhaust gases to the rest of the exhaust system. and only the most These are not for street use. but sometimes can be bought from the highCat-back performance parts department at car dealerships. sometimes the silencer is crossways under the front of the cab and its tailpipe blows sideways to the offside (right side if driving on the left. made of. hole at each end through which the exhaust would pass. often ends with just a Screamer pipe straight or angled cut. and the final length of pipe to open advanced materials that some aftermarket headers are air. (sometimes nowadays called catless) eliminate the catalytic converter. cost-effective well-designed the catalytic converter to the final vent to open air. Turbo-back systems are generally produced as aftermarket performance systems for cars curb in countries which drive on the left.::No Sin . it may be tuned to enhance the Header-back lower sounds that are lacking from high-RPM lowdisplacement engines. The To regulate the boost pressure on turbo charged cars.
Exhaust Heat Management is the term that describes reducing the amount of exhaust heat loss. are responsible for transporting the burned exhaust gases from the engine and the exhaust manifold and funneling them towards the car's tailpipe. These upgrades however can significantly improve engine performance and do this through means of two main principles:
By Waqas Ali Tunio
of a ceramic coating applied via thermal spraying. there are certain components that enable the exhaust system to function properly. The exhaust pipes. being a low-pressure area. How Does a Car Exhaust System Work? A car's exhaust system is responsible for transporting the burned exhaust. or has a hinged cover flap which the gas flow blows out of the way. further burns any fuel that was inadequately burned by the engine and funnels it down into the main exhaust system. The exhaust manifold is attached directly to the side of the engine and is the first part of the exhaust system to receive the burned exhaust gases from the car's engine.Basics to Automobile Engineering luxury cars in those days had such a long rear overhang that the exhaust pipe scraped the ground when the car traversed ramps. The fashion disappeared after customers noted that the rear end of the car. and it funnels the burned car exhaust out into the outside air. By reducing the amount of heat from the exhaust being which is an enclosed metal container responsible for "muffling" the sounds of the traveling exhaust gases. Exhaust Manifold A vehicle's exhaust manifold is the upper end of the exhaust system. However. Furthermore. which is an "after burner" responsible for igniting and burning any leftover exhaust intake manifold temperature. That protects anyone near a stationary truck from getting a direct blast of the exhaust gas. from its engine and out the tail pipe. Back pressure is most commonly reduced by replacing exhaust manifolds with headers. they must pass through the muffler. collected soot from the exhaust and its acidic content ate into the chrome-plated rear bumper.::No Sin . Muffler/Catalytic Converter
By reducing the exhaust back pressure.I Win::. The exhaust system is basically just a long tube attached to the engine and extending to the rear of the vehicle. Exhaust Pipes The exhaust pipes make up the brunt of a car's exhaust system. therefore reducing back pressure as well. but often raises dust when the truck is driving on a dry dusty unmade surface such as on a building site.
. The Tail Pipe The final destination for a car's exhaust gases is the tailpipe. When a bus. Exhaust System Tuning Aftermarket exhaust system including headers and a white plasma-sprayed ceramic coating Many automotive companies offer aftermarket exhaust system upgrades as a subcategory of engine. One dominant solution to aftermarket upgraders is the use 34 www. keeping the heat in the exhaust gases speeds these up. This is often fairly expensive as it usually includes replacing the entire exhaust manifold or other large components.tk | . but provides an effective way to protect the exhaust system from wear and tear. which is extremely hot. truck or tractor or excavator has a vertical exhaust pipe (called stacks or pipes behind the cab). The tailpipe is the end of the entire exhaust system. In some trucks. This reduces the underbonnet temperature and consequently lowers the and the catalytic converter. components from being damaged. the end of the tailpipe turns 90° and blows downwards. which have smoother bends and normally wider pipe diameters.aliwaqas. or atmosphere. increasing power. lost into the underbonnet area. thermal degradation and corrosion. to try to prevent foreign objects (including droppings from a bird perching on the exhaust pipe when the vehicle is not being used) getting inside the exhaust pipe. The exhaust manifold. when the silencer is front-to-back under the chassis. or combustion gases. This also has positive side effect of preventing heat-sensitive gases not burned by the engine and exhaust manifold. This not only reduces heat loss and lessens back pressure. which can be metal or aluminum. engine power is As a car's exhaust gases are transported along the increased in four-stroke engines exhaust pipes. sometimes the end is curved.