You are on page 1of 154

t on

'I

iLSO' RmaUlHlO'
~i,

IN AlSOCIATlON wtm
SC(l'OTll!K

,MO:~Oll 'cy,elll'UJ 'WlTI"

'WHfl~I."

iiil

T U--I N-'~' N'- 'G'.,~I- F'OR


"' •• " __".. •• 0"

~,iMIOTlcn\ 'CYCLIN'G~I!' MANUAL

Sl

"'D'

"

'id·'MO'T'IC'. ICYCl.F.NIG~~! ,ELBCTR~EeAL,MANlJAL,


)I'O'DERN M>O'TOllCY,C:LB ,MAIN'TJ~tN'ANCE
,I

How

'bo

inc,rM~le Ib perfornlQ:nQe Qf a 'naJ'odard m"owrcy,c[e enginc for r.ac.ing and


tO~l1pet.itiro',D 'w'o"r.k
pel"

~~MOTOllt !CYCLIN,G'n

!;,:PO:1iTS ,MODEL B..DA,D TES'TS p~, B" IR V'ING


'Il JIf ]11" 'iii, Ai' ~'

'TR'I'A.LS :RID.I:N 0, S,ICR,AMD,LES

AN'D' MO'TO·,CROS;S E'N'GINEBRJ]''fG

MQ'T'C)i'B,'CYCLE

~""''''. ~ ~ ~''''JI,d~~ ..~

... ','Il.,

'~

Ii" AI'
'I

~'!!'~.

~'iA~IB!i'
-

T E ,M P_',L_'B P' R,I.

~'CI D J;! ~ ,~

D' ,0'"',10'" K
.I .' .'

",

0' li"J1

LON'ON

..

VAN 00 UVIE,R' ISILAND' REGID'

1.,..-~,r;,_"2 if,1 r;, .g_

_.

"
n

.~ ~UB·USRlED 194 S, OroND' mMPRmmON' 1949 SEOONfi :ammoN 19,:51 S(800ND .WdP'RU$JONf ID9's,1 mE,u :mmON 19'.5'6

s~rnND

f'OIJR.m ~::ttm~O'N 1'900

nmt'll

U4f':Rf3.SlION(~)
IMull~N

196:5

1963

Sme8, 'time ilmmemorial man, bas SDlJ,Ib;t, '10 travel £u'~er tllAll.his felOiW'man! lb:i:s inborn thum~n. 'W:,PiIMn~dbemendo1M ~mpetllti ,ome 6fl' ,ear-s ago l~th tbe inrt-rciCd~ctlonof the pe'trol e.mDuleas:
1

I.ftVLmseBi' Thea' d.emJllhti,s for 'm,ore p-ower and L'mlOM miles per lIeul!' W0m 'mel m;tlWJr by' lJ]he ~Wmf,dc 1~~jID't ofLlt,~g l&rler and, still larpr Mgmes.. 10. thms 'brn1te'fo~ n' em, m wwcffil ;s:b~er' ·y·olume' ICOUD~ ror. mere man ¥o~umGmc ef6dieney!, ·tb,cl mul,ts " i,'l", ~ 1i;,=',1:: f' 1l'''~IIi' 10,_ lILil!~Far---1'illiS1 • '~~nmep:~ jI,.. 'wem ....~I'i ·~tHJ' 'eb-·' J~lOml,'1 tne ,sc!ll.e~JtWC mlSClIH, ~QT'til~1 nmdts :~I],teo s~Ldornunderstocd.
II.!,

mf

~ ~"'"" a pmc~t.CI. 'l pJDpoM'tJJOD

me

_w' Ebrm,

or' 'ttatIS:po,rt

JliOl

.,._·'L:!' II "~~t~e

~e.1t the:ffi_r

PlIO[p'YiI!lS'U)(J.
~'il'~ "

'If·...··

1i...1.,.,.. ..ILuev~.LB1~y I' IIllSe'lS

C4DmpetUl.ve jns~:imC1~S,

iIIIJIlj

;ii,

method of' ,ro,grc&SiGn~ Wi,th

'C~~]y B halt b:~dto


'".i .. •

roe ICQUed,to
a."
L~ ~

..

ptaJlclp

.~

,... ~ .... '"tb- :DB m lntl;l!ll,.l!;iw.-eomIl.iI],lS~Ol1 l[lOW,U prcu,Ltm:!on~ ....1;m~ ""1 w,~~ WtuW
................ ~l

gt'Qwlno lunders'ltUldiDl'Of basle

diis

'j"

Jr.a:,n'k(Ul1;slein '9 MaM~er ~~

pm~liooJJ.cxpel'tmmb en the ,rond"l d~~gmH:S1 tu-mild 'rtheu' itJt'teD'"' lion '~DI,obtW:mrng' increa.d "_rfo'mJ!wnce fmm, f0nlgirnes of mOllie m'Dc.b~mteublC tapaciw ~ SOl fu lIS,mOiro~cyeles Welle oollcemed~ e tbJ]s,more scii!ll tru6c fOnD or dl¥eJopm~nt 'we cnco'um;Rld by the inttc dueIJol'll or 'dita .• 1~ 'L'lf' M'[UDJ TDurlS~ TrQ.pby R,a.~i 'wjtb 'th.eif strict, Umit&tjOlll o~'ID(girne,iDs. Tbi~,second era, 'was ante .In w'hi'cll l eov~red
OV'M
..,'I·!1I.o. .·"b . am'~..v",m~nucy:.amtl6iUl ·'....",,~1,u ".dI.A 1LJ1e OU&:m1ttf11'~ mee

.Ptl'nred 1:1 PfJn,dl (mil SQ_~ l.ui. P'rflJjlt~.~ iJ-S:omer'ilrel')1 (1114 Ul1lJO.J:f
MAD':!! I'M GRIJI;,T U~.ilTJ.,:~ ..J: t

Id¥aie. Q\VIilaf Jn ~ wfd~ variety of' loomJnnj'tiOM~, }\l'ar meed he poaas ,e\li)®,rtlte 'work:slbo_p, facimides to mw~,ro'~B! pmoPllU,ce the ~r'Jll~ss,tamdmrd ~1JI'lS model or p_fIJ lIEu-etiol},'t.fP~ mG~r~ W,b~t b~:

reachm m this· iLhe 'H:lir.d I D - _. Im:.m:y - - :s.ooreu n·;; ~enm Ill... .IE'~.. . iii... if'!....! : '-'!!I!IoJI~JiIIj~W lUlliOU are no' 'Dr ',~ ru ilia!;, pll!~d, b.mt.·· :FlOR:e, ud ~~~rk, Suooas in :m:~m atio'J1al '~vtDm ,b~,peDd~s. ul)om, 't'~leC:<D,mlilined] e,m~lmof lilt dmigU6l and developtmlent en,tPIJ}eerjl plus: ,B. host '0.(' ,s~i_:aJjst ·toobn~eians, I.Ptmmb~c, rOE ancillary eq,tljpmeD~~ But if' the I~y bra PISsed. 'w.hen '~e: lODe amlle;m ·could :bOJill1'01 ~·t fhe ~ratCtOG' repme'n'tativ,e iII a nmjtlr ·c\f·ent, tWilirn.g, :s'ilWlj1 comlrlined 'Mlth riding' ,abW1:JI) continues 'to b:mIg Sl1~9, t,O
battle pli I);cirl}les~-the :poini, .has nnw been '
IIII~

W~'l'h.advances,
~ut..ii!i;-",'I;;."'iI!'.i&

his, p,ro:r:~iom_d dYSb'"


.

,a!,

,~'!

secret of ·rune.'~'w.mCh elliiibled

.',..:ii ~ ..JI~ neer :somelimoo ws" :ki m for ,s, 1'b1iil~!JIo KOirl0

m, me:taJ.lurrgy ~d

:1 lcomplete ,aJ,PP([iOOm.tiOD.
,LIiI

ef

the

1·!'Ii'ln''In,.iiI''II,n-ii'''ll·~ ftUI.itl
_'~'~Il&l Il;jIl

1!JI'Il·I'III'1iIIN·'

~~"

I,U

"I.

must -ba", however'll ls [he mee~ry ,.. kn.(lW :howu and ·~t II ~ supipled ..m 'thO, 'MWJUtU~ W:rit~el!l! 'by a ~ll ... klD!awn L'ecltnieiM (1C!SI)(ll]js.~.'bb~ :Btu; die designJj dt,\relo.pm~t amd r,aclril pmparatk,ilri o.f bJ,ihly'~sl\1cceuIUJ~ ~'fadory'~ ,lmo'dle1s i.t embodles ;Ii weaJtb ·oJ 1Il., 1, d ,1."',)1.-. .. 1', ye~r ~il!JOO~· '~0'U1~U~1l1~, iii· ~- h. i.L.,.., IliDI~.n.- '~_W~ :IU,IIl.!Ii:I'Y.IIl.~ :ray.), i! 11:",.... "iIl.._it:'nl,~ .;;I .1lJ.DJII.'u, ... eame~ MY''"' ~ge. , -.. . ~,,,,, ... ":I:'-·, .IE\" t1..· . t.. ... .'~ ---~'II,., lI!l.Il(d~n ~~wms, !OIlJ"LlL8 pnva.~e OWIDlms PfQW~ll1U~
t '11. .. ,

ill'

oo
bn1l0DOCr.H'N'

, ~""I 1.11 ,£A:~ ,JL IiJl

::-··1!..~·1!o]'9i"~

..

'"

~ef.haM DOlt in, the ]ea~ de,ll"le¢ iln~te!it,ed m lBiCms;, cam ~n,en:l ,ftom, I I'rudy of 'die ~Doo~a~ ,u!!iembly m~Ulodsemployed, by rtu;i!mg mechmi:<~ ; ~ tourmg: e~gille r,ebuill 'to fnmng slbmdard's 'of :!f(uraq ,could well [be mO[le Icftlcjcnt ~n ow.raU p~lIT~bI1lim'i'loot s,mQotb.~r·l'iImlIllinBt eleaner and ql]ljeter' Ul O:()eIA,t ion ['han hWlthe:li:to~ 'a... L' i~," 'L" iL.,,,,, uG ,1.uil;.~liOremp.ua:s~xes, ·tuB 1. in tLIIM~IC~ t b k It nss'" not 1~9. ,DO '" it :a-.,..,. possible to i~e1ft d~_pmy in tJD debrMls o,r .Sllc'Cij]~ makos, of mm:e:ltille~ ,and. [p'Qr\\\!9f.' mj,'E$" Tbm~,should tbe reade r Bn U1a'~, his adv;t~ runs eountnr to itb~.[;,(tl'en msome m.nLlllfi1~hlllrcmll jJl~'f~nJC'tj,oD :m&n.ua·~1 die :Llrtter s'ilcn31']d Qffiw~, be b~d,ed 01:' fht maker. 00'0'" !H.~ill,t.Cd b~[LorD DI~odi!llmUoIDl8, :Gre lJ,nlde[[i~~kleH'," Srumi1a:Ii1y~1 w.be~e ,referenee ls. mlm;d.e I~O macblr:u~, t,g o~s~ hCiil( '.re ..mm'i:& Qndi, :50 fo1!tffil" t 'die :buolmerJloD Is 11''en 910 dDt the f0fJ1!d~r ay ,c~p.bdn w:ba,t :i:; m 'required to ,t h~ 10UJgtneer depu ~cdl to lcarry 'o,'u~t::llewort ~ sp~iaffilst. 't=hmicians are mot :l:3Jlway~ 'weU ,"~~ed in ~lbe ItUOOY41Ct:uias ot ·mo~o.tcyc1e.s and wiU, ,at'p:pfUia~0 ,~x~n .~dy]oo.,
iII'~
j!

'much of the text ~ provo IcqumUy [lS!~ftd to ~ose drivers! '[If FOmIuLI. m raJ:ing cars wbo 'may Ilct i1'l'll;ct[MI'expe:rjen<Jc in 'Ilbe tumng lor high~perfotma'll~ ajr.. o Oiled. afIlI]. an~, twin.. :yliltd.er c c !power I!lmlts~ Moreover the ordimlry' ew,ryday mClt.o~cJc]is t,

AJfhou.p

mtended

prinla..ri~,·fer the mC~W:1gmo'tof~dist

hy

IGfLULW:

'W 41.~ EDlnoN 1


FA!Cll'Ob
U"" ~_,;:';'
~~I

AUTlQ&. 's lPoRnrOJlD


II! ~

"fO TlIIli: FDTJam,


i:I~Y-~'!f.laI.IJ..

'&~'~H~""'A

'1).;..'_' ·"i"·~'"'""'·'··.!Ii.III'!iIV ~"'''''''''!III~'

.111 CA:RI~n'ON

AJ'rm iNDrOcnON'

m:ATrmGmi..\t
[V

!I!~

m.16

IA'U

O. D"V;-!:., ,~h '--""r:IlDi . ~m~u~


~'~.!I!

'CoJIP,R.SJON

ItAn~ ANrJ Pu:eu


..nOD .AND' 1I1"OiiBm)
,c--

.3,.2

v C.C'KING ,,~ 'TIm Co~G


W 'Ym
'IX

,'~:
liSI,

PmTaN AND IlrNG WMR


,'AY.NCDlct; FLYWJmW

TRUJ:NO AND

,1m
!}If)

WORK ON 1'BI' CftAN&CA51


~IlLliNG '~Ck&l COMPON~

tIl

x;

l~iCTap..~'1

~LY

124
134 Jl~3

m
U xmJ

,LrG~Cl'

'nU VILVB .MmcqAmS~

ADroftMINTI
o.BlOVED·

'VAt'Y! OIAR 'CY:Lum-:, F1Ju.JN"o


'1'0
1

t5S
m70 184,

XlV' WNl110N - ~ OPIOJ

GRAH~AM WAL.KER

n
lVl XVU'

TwlN'''C'JiLlINDmt

E-NC'rJNB

Tw~(Ja'

ING"
TJ:1B BNGDf:g. Dl mB .1FBA1!dlE 0' JL~if3'NO
III ,"')<

UH
200
211
24.3
.PLJUG.

·xwo
XIX

~o
~!I'~

'l;jf .,_.........-_ -~, ..• ,. .wlr~_:L~:~, 1'i

'0'

,i,

C-

'_ ARll"'~

ANt.1 lIon Tnt. OF S'P:A..'RK--.mNGr xx Tes1mG 'IlIiB, Wc.nu~:


~I

!2l61
26,7

,AH:1flDlx

Itmu

27'6 .290

...l' . '''.II,

AUTR·i' O'"R,ltS' F"O'I:D:"~W" ,'O"'n!'n TO'" ,~ ,'.. "nD, ,.,.~ ,," JLD1~ PO-:'UR"TH-' .' ',' '" BDIITl'ON
n,Ol ~·taDd sIJillt S'tead:y PIC'~ is ma.de '&om year tel YOt lUl.d ,8 bo·ok.'wb!lcb, 'W,i!JS first lU'ibeli 1~4r8,canno;t~one to ",majn of "ij,'i ...,k u ..... ~mf'li;a; ,..._'IIIo:;,i:\il!' _,'i,~L'!IIiIi'...iI1 t:~_ " 1 " "'~mo:;, "~-';Ci ":.ilultlS ..... m ,~~n, ·1,.j;~rW~ UJ]liILc~ iL'~""·~~w~,11:& u~ 114." '~I tn~~. ·1~:~~i13 l~~l- (LJIl~ ~1~1~~' A\.!' 1u

.M, in every o~~· b~.

of '~sine-erin&mr}'hlm,c~e! deMlD does

j':ijIJ:'i'

...

~ ... t"iI'!':i

on. (elw ooat:sions~ :and. it has now been coEltsffidered ,advm~ib]e :Pre:PIfC maUler edition .. To tW5. c.lni much doId t'D wood in ·the' [0,00 of' refeli~DGeS to Jo'MiOleb,J models hu, been delemdt mlthou\gb ·some bas beenl retaine~d to assist lo~ef.S, lo,f '·'vmm;p·~[imJtbi,n~, or t~ \traCDme .HIles IDr *,'~Ol'Jn.~.t w.wICb haVB ted up 'to ,modem desj'lM~ MUd} 'new 'material has be:e!m, 9dded~, ,Ind. scwm'~ :pma Q,es R~u."rmls,ed or ,allered '0 a:,aid, 1I,p;tirioo .amd for the A:ke "of ,lfea:~J:e'~ar~ly.~i w~lthot'lt lncrew!dng
dm:DlCI
ll

'been

dl,e SDe'

llUD,er h~ to

,lcaOro,pUs:h 'with bl'~OI'th<!l Sflll1e ·vo.:llmla. !


l

0,'•me,book. 1tOemu] m faet~ ba,vQl B'ttempted

I:~ in U~emryfOlU .. wba'l lie on e,(l1gi't1~- -pa.r(:·k, I hJt mOll! puncb

A
:SUCCEiS;

DD'''t;:i1' T:~L~T1h."TAR'".. .r·~u:¥1ILL1:'"

':

"I'

Y···· Ci'U· R·. V'· E'-Y"'., 0


I : •

engine for speed depends u,P crm ttmee main :fm,c~,c'fS~ ThC\Y' ,ar.: (I) letttl.ng the maXi.m:Wl1, combusti ble charge into 'the c,ynllder ·the ma~imum number 'tillWS peE ,minu Ie: (2) tu.m:mg am mucll as possible! o,r the .lu:~,t,jhera;~edllnte useful 'w1o,rklj, mst,ead of abs o,I["'bitns it ~ ] D'W' the ,c'Cimth·tlstio'll!-oc'lu,m bel" walls 0:£ ~(DsWg :h, d.o'WJl 'the lema ust P~"pe ,aD~, (3,) ,e]juWJ,atmng an unnOO'ess·a·ry 's,our,e: s Or'ln't:erEud. =
all,
~"I!..,;o:o;.Qn. ILIl1~~~, ~ ~~

,in tuning

0'"

fricrti,omij three nv~ I-~I ,Iii. ""'a AI ,Crr'lII'ri, IU' : :,",~m som ~,.i me WI'.t;'L Uil If ~~,u JIUJI. ea II be ~pen:L'~e'r:,prallTUab~,In plmmnun; a course, ,of acUo,m. 'wruch wiU ullim,~'~cbr ghte tbe maxmmum bendt 'WJdJNlut.
,",,;'1',(1;...
[UIIJ ~ ~

'Fill

,lI.lLUlJJ·~Y ~ ~''I!!.!J,'

InFII

'v!lr_j

iii<

. II.;.

lit must be assumed that certain indi9,~cnsJ;ble lequi,pDl~n~. ~s I ,lilablg~sucll IS a goo d 'worksh,op' 'ben,eD" wen nlb;ted:~ a.nd :in s,ltlfl'iou:ndjn\gs ol SlJtn. a namre that scfu,pul,otlS c]earn.'H, .. ness, Ca:D 'be ,o'bserv,cd. P,aJ wdetllar~y dnring '(he ,inlal, a!mges 0'1' .8 SItJII,'b1y ~ It is also I, ,go ad ~]an 'to _p.reprtf'C table' 'wasb] Oil and dra '"nJ.ng tr&y5J) la.rge· enolUl,gb to ~'c:cOIDm!Od,ale & com ... 'p];~te. ran tC~J! bl!./Ore 'comme.I1Cilg 'wa~k~ e &mrnal and internal micrometers IClr MS orted sizes an: 'Useful. 'but 'expens,~'ve!i' As one 'WUI be IC[MllOetnled pd~mtl'lri~y wili1w, eleara l1C~: and not setuu dimensions, they are not ,aba,cllliute\Iy vital, but a ,g'Olad set ,of' na 'UO'W" bladed. ,feeler

wa~rtln.!'too,

,.

mUCIlIl

,. ume,

or. monel'li

on

nOln,Oi;eS~IiIJ't~8 ..

=.~.II

s:w

,p:uges D1,OSt deiD:her]y wU1 be" An ortber V''ef.y b1's,eful pdget :~ a C3:s[.iron surface plate ~t, least 1:'2,m~ square, llooUy . aeeurate saaped. 'pIates, toe, iue :expe:osive but a sllaD' of e~lt iren or mild slee'~pIDate~ surrao~,l,fQwd on b Q!tb S~d,eSljl' makes an ex,ce:Uc_mt substitute., and t~ere, are pleDJty of mli\IC'hm~ sbo,ps whjoh, will catTy' 'Oll:t tbe gdndmg, at qUite
j'

1l',&la;SOJ:ilaWlWC

'L.iII

. '1 ;:;11 ,me~,.. T',_ I~OIIJunCbODWl th 'Ui' S-IQliu~e p:'8te: ''WJlH W .· .;[... .,'....£
,i ., '.

T'U',N':nN'G

POR, 9,Pl11:0

,Ao P',Il]3::L:U'J N A R Y S,U II 11IBY

be meeded, a 51cribmg' 'bloct ,and, ldial puge


JLft":I

f' ,'nl'l '~,i ~, 'ar cW],ec&.mg squareness ana parauensm 0',f' W[[.llOU~ compo'nOll.ll~ .Ind, assem blies, and a bwre:too ,Oil' Wild ua,t,e;n grw, jar" fo,r 'mMs,.M,1 compres:sio,:o, 'f'~ldOI," ~
'II.~ 1W, ...., ....,...;iII ..........
r

reading te ,.,I!lo'm

I!lIiddi'I:·.;p.,..:,..., g; dl'Nifflii!ii '~:thO"'at" ·,~ftr'y DrI!:ul·ncmlP'-"II;, :~'~, _lU~~ ... ,....,t it,A .,11~,U~! -rnrlJ.' .'.~~ W:w:__ ~~~-.~-u.,. I..v. the lEu] WO(f.ksJ:110P hand ~OOlbl but a tittle ,tR,[pimi m:v,~t'ed :1' itB,e ,outset, is almo~"~- certa.m to, illY a dJvJldelild J2ter' '011., 'WheD m.a,ck, of cash is a dccinm:i' factol ~ 1t, is ,3 ,8~od p-M 'fllf.'
11~t .ii'ilh'~ L.-

A-

Now < 'mad, off" un, the; tHll};:'ttB the: amount of Uq,uid, poured into tho hgd", ,Ai;;;S'1l m iD3 tiUs; to be 80 O~,'O.,and the correct volume of the ,engine t'@l be 49'1: e.e., the CJ.I .., 'wou,ld be
,:,1" U

BCes;S '~';f ~ DL .~._'_ ~. !!!i1'ili"U

'!I1'!Fii

jii-:;'I '.~, '!i.. u .;rt,. ~w, u '"eaenes 'L .... ·' ~',.,w,aY' up tne
'i".il!io'J.

'~'RI

~Qm~~

1''''':.'' ~

4.98 + 80 ,5 78: 7"~ ~~-IIIIiiii:'-,_ "'t.o '~' lL


1

60

- 10,"

' ...'

lev-efta],8,'spkmu

draim on 't'be pocket of ea,cJJ:t ind:iiViduaL Then ,ODie must ,decide :foir'what s:o,rt.of B'YBrrt the machine is, to 'be USed=4lir,- '[ather!" fttf.' ~~ha,t lit i~, uitahle'_SlasS:j ~ :s(::mmbiesjJ mu~clim'b Orr 'm'oad e~en'ts,!! 'owe~er Wen pre", pamdiJ' wry raw engines ether titan :modem types, can eem,~;ete with tiIllmy bo:pe of eve~,moderlle sueeess ~a Ion, .. l$'" a 'iun,ee raci:rog wh'eD 1:iJDi:te4 'l,gJl l1o',n-rucflffil.'oijo (tle J 'buTi" b.eI' ma.y do quite 'wen. In ,sli!ol.rt"'"wstnDoo 'work-dirt 0'1" ,FB85f"i'
trill(fking~ hill-elim bs or ~pritD)t s:t:uf[~'r' even lcu:ru14~ta nice
1
,I

to speed honours to pool. their' resources IDd thus' loomim, a welll~qm,pped \V,orb.bop' without an

~'flve

land S'D ,OD! f.a,r an, other eipa.Q~'ty (see ICJ:~Q"eF The level of ,~quidl in 'tbe; hole should be 'watched c:~oseJy for II 'w,hi1e~to 'v,erJi(y that no l'eak:alc is, taking p,iaca, past the
rimp or val ves, IT tht:Jw

m~

m a, 'teao,ICi

1i

~hcn th; I~td Y'lo'~'UmG

'track, Dr f Crld ... nclng here ,aJcohoi jSI permitted Some ,of r 'nhe eDpa,es built, :sev1er,;Jil years before t~l' 'ffi9(3t-4S war are eseellen t tot' such w,ork; Uu~y a.119 us llBU,y Ugh ter than (beb
i

me derD brethren ~ and, ,aJ'tb,ouCh sometimes ratL~I~ruBffi.tCf.t':nt , ~11 ':lln ~rr~~ j'udged by modern st~,nd rds, ~his, is Dot to '~'hei I r de rimem:t if UI£ en,line :is to run, el't'ClUlSiveb on d,ope' ;, fUll;
Ii.

,i'a factt it ma.y ,even. be :an asset in sho,r -distance events

wileD a 'fa;pld warm-up tc, c pe:r,ating tern pe"falllf~is ne~ssary ~ Right from tb!6 start it is 'be3lt, tu toop a, record, rather 'than to tmstto m,cmor1" iof work do'ne;and the results 'wmcb ha ve been 10bralned, land, in order to ,know where: 'YUiU, have slaroo.d~ commence oper,utions, 'by lDOtm,8 Ciltlruny 'the j,gmitio,:n d.min,g., valve: tim!:in-g p,d compJ£ll:SdO'D ratio, The latter' is determined by settin! th,,, p.. is'Wtl a;, t.d.e, wi tb, dle valVC-9 clo,sed, tll,le:n, 'aUing, the cylinder 'h~!d from 'the D'Oretl.e umtU the ,Iliqwd, jfJ~t ,rea,chel, the lowest tbre'ads of 'tJ~e:plug h,()I~j'the e:ngine being po,sitioned so 'Cn!1t the PiiQI J1il ole is 'v~rrjcal~ Then lOck 'the: m.aiM:~lft very slighny 'untO tb~ liJqIrid reaehes .its mwrimn:m, helght imdl ,~~,p..:1ll1l: .. 2

'

of ~h,ehe lid, wiU be s,'ome\\V.ha'lle., than the appmr.ent volume 'bu J' unless the engine is in ,R ;,,~ry b~d s,ta'te iDd~dj Ith~ w.aCCltr,icy 'win n',aooly 't]~. !bad, ,c,nou·lh to matter at, this
I

If Y(JU ,rreaUy want tOI dJo the job ll,oofi8'ifily ~ I~en ,lift off' the bead 1,![J.'de:tl':efiuU,y' a:pp~.ygallase iiU'tHl~d,tb~, v!aJve heads. and be~en the: pistUD, crown a.nd bal~re1'to fOircm a termporalY seal, AB, to 'rtll.'~Hq_wd Used~,water]s the 'best 'wh~n. th,crf,e.is ~;~y d,.oubt ,a~;bo;tltthe conditl,QiD of the 'valves, or' 'rings" beca 11116 it is less mike].y ito le'ak PI'St, these 'pom,m than. -para:ffim Of' Bgb,~ IGil pMtk~lll1ar.ly .if a Idn),p 0([ two ,of MBiDe oill lis list
&bJg~:

o,r the

proeeedlngs,

l!

3,

llf"'

m'o- It
'. '.

'S'''i'iII'D'Il'''I'''i; ....Jr. ~LD.lbI1

A .PRBLIMl1NA.R!

STJ,I.,v·m.y

, -- .~...,;"n,rr J,ay,V uJJ

sq nIDr~,OO.u.p tIR, ,[D b~t and eshaust perts, p'()[[' Meclililg 'tOe -", ..... a ",], new.y assem "bt,..:il' , ' ~,:",, ", I .mu:x1~'UI!e, ,0"f-' pal~ ,;~ .... ,t_e,u.e,D1!m£~1 -- ~ .~ - and, 'thin .,oil is pre_&f!~ble~.as .H dees not leave a lic,lil'CY .{'If
o'iii'!lfi

plIn

ady:ance

10'

det;ermim1,e:
I,angel

is,

fOil"

subsequeut ,rcftlmO!ce what the, actual

rus:_t b -~:

bin~ '"

,1.d- ~'t. .
i, '

'1,., -...!II,

,m:Q' bso,lU'~e 3 need to, use either that. iustmm'!llt or '(fla.-t, seale, The held volume could JIJS'i~ as et:sily be, measured mn, ftwd ,cnJ;ncesor ,ctl:bic inehes, p'Tovid-ed tWUit the 5ilm.~ measure is used '{(l,r the ,cyUnder ca,padtY,1 In wo,r:l-dn,,1 'ou,l 'th@ ratio ~amem her that 3.5..2 ,8luid IO'fhlmc~ equals, one 1irlm ,('t ~OOO ('LC~) and, us~n~, this oo'Dve rsien [actol;' d1le '¥,clume of ~n.y cylinder can, c:asUy
C',,(LS~

Altho'QIh burettes I(whi,ch can, 'be' obtaifJJed from most wh,01eslde chemis~s 'Oil Bcie:ntific wstF:UlIIlent Sil\l.pp]je~,s) are
m,oiS~ygmauated

there is of course

and

wmrn

For 'the: '~~a,J' 'meth(,ds; vary: so'me cams are groU'lJd with, ql1ieb~;nlj'n!: ,CI!llVe'S, ,.j' 8\1; tfue: 'stMt aDld ,fiDi&b. ef lif~j)
II,~

'pom'ti dim>~ult 'to de~e:rnnne'~.'The, r-ecom,~ mem:larliO'D, in sneh cues, js; WI measure tlbe timing: wjJ.th tn.a
U
1'1

give ;m very sh~w' tak~~upj mtTdng th~ aetaal

,~t

close

mitt

i'~

d' Lie t~letetlfDllmn~


.. -

j1

J'

,;,( m~~81.nin,l: ~gm:ti,oDI' ,1] rat set 'I[h,~pein ts to 'the. oor1'"~C~ or the gap (..10 12, in. in tb,= ease Qf' most [,aciD'B' maJ,gnctos'Jt in... sert a l ~'":&11.0U.. ree~er Or. aJ, piooe of tissue pap'er between th_e. p'omts,t. and, wlillc app1y!ng: s[j,rbt resistam,ce ,I)I the
the sprllcket n ut be:Lwee m, dI~ 'M,gers, Vrr some such method). in order to 'Lllke up a.ny back.";iam the diiV~t t-urn 'the, motor unt'&rul Itbc' [eelrEH" is jlLS t m'lCiea5ed IS, m£ poin:ts 'OOr.mJl:lenoe to o'pen" the ecntrcl armatare spi udle
(by holding

Don venient ,[008.1ti on i the 'po-in t-e,[i' ca r,i be bent ' D' ix, accu It.. ,IItell" zeT'O' en 'the d:iit ,"b en the pistOD is, abSiO~ll'te'I,),' ,It 't~dl.Ci"i as mdie~a:~ecl,by the liquid mn the p lu; Ilro~e ha vm,G reached maximum iu~ipt .... .... 1 Th' 11"1UQ:n 1].1"d v,w:v.e 'timihl,gs can flrC'W ~:.. IC ce~e._ll' In. d to JC . ~., . ne h ~..d-' ',..!iI '. • j..... .. "' ~ 't. d d d system 0 r B'\1'C',~y UU:O',IDJ1:S'Lr.;;DClS:S ~rt ]~ tJ est 'LO I!~Oplt a staac a W" ~ meDS~IJr.emJ3lDltl p'referably '~h~treco mm6Jld.red 'byltbe 1m a kers,
l

, .', itimi~g d:[sc is firttc;d 'to ~be mains ba (t 'ing tb,e; clearance vtQl~unle il'lld a w~tr,e plcrmter

before measuris bed, ,at ~o,mc

d:~~llaup: m, conmct ~:th the valve stem, a:lld '~Ol ildJ~t the '£a.ppeb, ~o tba t the "!tal¥B 'is lUled one to 'tWOI 'thoWi~'jj ma: 'ilIJ,g
~I

'using feeler ,g.,Ups ,of lUbe app ro'lulnte ,thicknCiS tH~t'~lee,m valve sitem, and earn :foUD~w~r:~ On V'irJicent em,gines, it i', not p'oss,ible to meas,ll1f,1 ~''he ,clea:rafl~ wllth leeteI'I; we L1u:th.od ado:peed is to s;e;t Ill.p
the ta1JlfYW'er is, OD the bas ' cllC~G lor the ClUIl and 'Dot jus'~ ,8ft: the '!iIb1:rt Q,f Hft~ T,lll~n,blll1!11 th.c engiLUJe

,opr:lliug and ,e]os!mg p'oiDfa, 0] 0118 sharply ,de.eil~ but o,r CDUU!!\., it d~ Dot give tbm tnm_e' I,guTeSl~ S! pOi,bu. wbleb 'mIJl1S'£ be bornE m m:hld woeD loompmnri~g 'the "iJmlDiIS ,~or en,ginu IOlr' di Icrel1Jt ·mQtes,. ,A. table of rCpf~edta tivI vaI\fJfJ 'ei~l1nngs,I nd C~Ctlr~Ulm is' ,Ii-vel], ill. Cha,pt'G,[' XU .rro,ml which It \viH be ,se0Qtha(c. 0]], o.h,o, Nortons, tile timJ rig is. q u.o~ed wIth ,lu! ttl an ~he ,fUUning c'h~arl,D.ae!1 As 'lJle rtt.~neeis ,adjus,'boo, by 'fary.hll tfulc k__n esses of s;ru'm_s; ins,ide 'the 'V,I~ve,oa pB on these mode~j" 'the, fieoom meD.ded checking eleeranee is ,ob~ained 'simp,ly' b,),'
1

'm,ppets set to ,R leil,ea:fBn~ ml!llc'b,gre'lt~r :running ,c.le8;mnOf!i'~, Tllu hss the effect

tM:o tbl'

,of maJidDs the


l

Donna]

c~ea

of' eeurse, tb.t

until 'tbe 'valve lift9 :I fWither ,..00.5 :mli Ii .mud rood otl'the 'timing \It that point This met&lod is 'be one whi.ch ShCNllid be: U'~ed O"Q.lilY' ,eJl,gloe to pi a :Jt,eal~yaCCllriltc r-ea,dm,l: of tile valve
~~~,~

being, of 'CJOUF,se set to flln adr~'M,ce~ 0:0. maclllnes, fit .~d, 'widl, eUI~clma'tjeIC'enb:llifu:.gm ( ad.v,B'fU)C!C ,mee]uBin nis:m It ,Is bes t '~iO lack: s~ meGba~is:m 1.n:lo full
DDe p.~d['of the fixed an.d ,m,ov:in:g stops; clu~etiDg: Ilt fuU m:e'tar-d and .adding Ule lile.'oretJcal am,ount gf ,advamoa ,given

llioHWJJI,[l11!J' -. . -,D;I!

--

adv:a.ncewit.'b :a piece

0'('

metal Or

me

W() od

jammed. behv'een.,

by Che ,AmT,.D'.~ '~Snot .mally

iIi-CCum.j

,a11mcu_gb, it is

OJ,

lood.

The crank, ,angle a:t w'11i,c;b, eaeh valw mSic&0S ,flrin '[ttl teo, sfuttrUJ1d be mermumd. and ,SISrDI 'tb.e, run. hejght of tift of botb \',aly,es and the anIouot ea,t~ll.is,,open a;t both tUDtlo'm, ,and to,p ldead ro.elU:re;, wi'~ co"ec', Nmni~, el:etlFQ1u:-e$'o; YOIll wi1~ 811;0 ha,ve: B fairly 'compJeltD 'p;IctnNi of the 'y,a1~&-tt:i:mj __ Jlg d]i'.gr.,a~iJ th,o:ugh to d.'D the j\orb p,~op~rlJ,~ readings sho·'Ul,~, 'be mken at]1 soay"2.~ ,mt'etva1~:;," tb~ Uft ·c~ can. ~bi~n,be
5

T.[J'NIN'G' 'P'OIR,

,8.'IID

,Ii!, P'RBLIMI'N,I.B.Y

su

:,'BY

p]o,-tted, 0,0 :sq1UJBd :P81*f seqlUl~D't cam m,odmcanoDS

p]ottms: 'the, .mew' ]lift CtIfVi13S

rIIIJ~

,and ,the leffed ,of an;y sgbwill 'be ,haWD WQ" tleariiJ "by Gil ' ~-~ same ,shee" (m ChQlJte, e

'.

AU 'Chi!, m.us,mmg' and ,];l,oe;..'tam,g ,mm-y seem 'vG:f;Y ill,P'-' s,tage :ud, dme-WllIU,:iiQl, but, if 'y0.U ,are 'to do ~J "oed at, the pm" .y'ou ~ust )]mow 'w:hat y,oo am abDut», Md "OU, ma,,, :RSI weD.start ,oir cOf~tad.y~, 'You DUlY. fOI'imbmcl do sometldm.g 'verry lilly l~t,er IDD, but wim hav'B' aU the imo(rma(iolm noocssary ~o lcibec'k back on, earlier work and diU! be I,b[e bJI put the motor 'bICK to a prcYJ01J9],,, ISll!lJcteBsful sta'~e,and. th,em. start again ,i&,om there blu: ~dcUJ,1~t lines, . TlIrJ, way is, llOW c~earto leI dcnm 'to! blHiml9S~ tb~ fir~t ~tep'j' obvi om1,y ~ 'b_ ima; Q _:Stripi 'nbe e,m\lhu3iloo~p1\eteilYIi kCl:Jp,,' ,ml watoll all tbe timel [or p' 1£-tU wbere 'lDJdUeJl wear hal occUlfrea :for wear implies fti eli O'D", 'wbich is ID'DI, of 'the' m sin ~binp t,o be eUmina ted.
l

:se:_nrete retain, ~:e, faDers In p]ao= 10:0:1 enolU,p to' stop them cueadi:ng all OYler the beech, Sometimes; a 'hearWg will 'be 's'IighUl' pitted in one; :small. area 'but is ,otherwise ,m ,'(1 cd IC"l'uilditjon In 1hi1 ease, as: Ill, 'tem,PM,ary ex:ped'''em.t if no :spt[,e is avaf1eib!c the 'be ariIll g, esn DG, 'refitted on itSI shaft o'r in, ~,ts housing S,D tha:l1he dlm'lled, area, comes into a position where it is, not 811bjcc;wd rtvobM"Y load, 'The lu:u~;of least lOAd is at, 9 ,D'lclock 0.0 the ckiW--lside maim, ,s,t 3, 10 c_lee_',on 'the 'ttmHtg"lsi(h~: main" and , ,o~clock 0(111,he crrantpmE=w eseh lease lookiu,g at the t
i

II

M -.-amJea1 .''-ondirbm, ~'c~dWl


',!mcb "no\\"
:SignS, 01 . bs,d, wear

,:th_, IDem], mec'ltanic~ CDDW'liOmI ony ,lCts


l

'fIlling being to deeide wba,t OOtnJ'ti'tLltes, -,n'IBvcre'llll weal'~ Beea rw:_ Ia rbi'£ lof mll!chamea1 noise d,oes not ma': ter, ,8, certain
J

should be replaced, 'Ole mal n

lOne p o,imt whicb n.oodl 'to be wa tched closely i'9 b~sImdJ. iohrilcati on .., 'and another is: wbether the I'od IOf ,cage: .ho,'~',sltIm:y tenden~y' 'tI0' w,ork lover' to one side ed, hear hu'VJly a8~t th,s flyw,ba.e·, - he ll'tter sta te ls a s~gn 'that !iO,Ucroi!C8efJ ~,IOlta: are not ,absolutely pa:f,aUe~,with ~he a:ds~ If all the rs1.o;t;S have boom, :moonBctty' machUi,ed at 'tbe same &mEILD aD;gle t~he,'oLiers will, clearly tend to s;<rre'W 'their WH" to ,0,013 side, thougffilL .If they are out of paraIDhd in random dkectilDIIS, he errors ma" aU cancel OlU. !Feeding; tih,e IOU w.'t'Q tbe bearing at (lDI': side bas been 'k1lO'vrD, to ca,'IlM

craDktas'€' from the driv,e sid-e"

:PiT mc'h, 01'" diam'0.ter'll w'itlh a 'maximmm ,Oil ,,003 m., B'aU ()~ :f,OUet belrm 0,&5' .~ill,ou~d e pmcticaUy D!Dls·lack in 'them a't. hl\:-: all- and the race tracb, m.ui~: be: ,eJt-omj1led to see 'that no

:slould have

:amcnol't_ of I],~c'k[!tessbC(,IB :and thet,S! can!' be dis,[_,~rdcd ;, 'but i't ~~ I. mistake 'to ,t milk'" as some do, tffil at everytbimg, shQu1d b .' ,s1 opPY", fla.im ~a~a'rift.rsin the cam G;6Il' and :s,maD-end
I,

1195'7' IQ,n¥I'&Tds~ If th,~c ompressi on iB a]]ready fairly mgil" 6,S),',1 up to, " to ] 01" 9Q\i. it: :is 'p([oba,b~!etba:t enQugh meta~,'CiD be .' umed lOW l 'the, eyUnd~r 'I~O -raise: me C. R,., ,um~ient~r,o'r' p:etrQi ..~e~oIL
,[Ir,em

trc,lU -Ie,; but the Ic.twnle is used .syooesstuUy

(lim, . ~~IDeetes

eleat'(Ulc~ of bCltw ;eu, ~'OOlin, and ~002 in,


1

pt-nm ~,has

~et: ,fQIJi1fml:il't~ke pattietJ]ar eare to ,avoid mixingl up the sets, Take each bearing ,Elp.aJ:ri loo.f\~U[[y~ place, set. ,of 'oollter.s ill a matebb OAI or M'l and m$e 1\ note' 00. the COII'I~ ,S,t8tiD,g~ the :l~OGa,ti,on,af the: OOIQ,tentcJ" Injecting 'fresh, G,n mito, (;IC;h beariD I :pri_,Q'lJi 'to dis;ma:nt11ng \Vill uu~y ti;
I~
I

taken p~aCfti' 'Wben dismantl!hlB Rll:y' en~e,

0,'

lConta111'iu\g more 'Ulln

'OUf:

,lB~U1d cOD.dltion and shows :no :si.p.s 101 cxacldng in, 'the gud;geolD bosses. ]I "dope" is 'to be used, the, Qlld, 'piston, can be put quiett,),' QI:m the :she~f~ a new hlgh cl,omed for pattern mIl be, feq'llured m order to' abEam, dIe desirable ',4 to, l er se, m:ati,ol~ 'The, ,conditi,IQiJ}, ,of bl~rr:el md, ri11:gs is especially fmportam: ',~ for i :;s D,IOI use suckin,g, m. a lie! ,of' Io.'s:just ttO, ~'eti'~, i blow PlI!J't 'the piston, If ,an area of wear e:Us'ls at ·the top end, loi'the blftial~ the :r:DI..gs, '~!O9~ eontlct, 'wl'th 'the, walls at, very whl1

,t~ l1e

'used " hUe muumug the ()Imgirnl~, pis,tOD", if' thiil iB in,

mi;p speeds, a.Uowing pt,as,UI\'c to


j

Unfonuoa:~.Iy I~ eyJindefS '\'rill stand beingrebor.-ed, to

escape,

"

r'OKING

F,OR IP2mn

Uilei mn ~ta'Dd1afd,ov,cmSB m.t'hou.t brin,linl


lone re-lined,

,.A,

,P,R.,!tjn:.. N',All Y' 8 U Il'V'.8 Y r.:M,~:

the

ICiOgmC,

..

OO~1 ira.m, C wmdll Is a, lo'Om,a.r.-&1l ve~ypoor COD,"! du.{Jto,,, lfir mez1"t,) it ean, witb ,BdlflBJllta,1 ~ be replaced b, ItUIC ,of Blmmim:ium ..,bITODH: Of :phns p!b.O\['., broue~ 'thOlL\p ltlt~ IIalter' bas been ,kn,Q'WD 'to give Double under ,~xtliemD b!!\lt CIO\ll(Uti ems, ~hr,aug,b_ 'br-e.aldn ~ :1w,fl1 at 'tbl bert end, Ilear
,lUliid',s is; of
j'

15S0p'~S'6:2 s~cZl~ need more, ,,001per" ,m~,ofstem dtlmeter bem 18 go,o d fiSlUre ito lV,ork to" If'~ b~ c'lear,lJlCC is, less, tha~, tbJE1th , YIJ,ve ma,y 'bind at hDlgh I~empera tures;, it mere, it cannet le~rid fIf heal, proper lYil ,DWEllS, to insumcle.nt COD~QJct M,tb tbe guide. nUs maUe- of Ileat dj~l~ipa 'ii vna:ru~ and ,WI'the msti_ng d,oo

of the valves't guides ,aDtt seats is, [m;pol"mt~ Inilet ;~R1J'IeS;1elltS,m(nimdl baVI- betw~C(II ,002 in, and ~,004 moO c'~ai'mJl~1 'bUl emaus;t v,a1ves~; ,if model of 1::".8., grtij: or The eenditien

Tb~ latter 'technique is qmm' '8, ,good. idea re'r the, arduous conditions of dirt-rraek or sand, nt.cing', bees use: 'the illinet' can mst be 'bor.-ed out .,'00'5in, 'und~..:sm~ sndJj 1a:ter h,omed, out to s,ttuJ(j'ud (Ua meter.:' ~tkt that a ne UUCf' C1;:U be fiUe(} and thus 'tile expoosl'of ,ne'" "ffi)flf[,els, is, avoided~ J'f 'the wear is, o'rnJly to Itbe: exteat 0"[ two -or 1I]1rl:e ·tfuous;~ the barrel !Can 00, 'laJ"ppoo out by hand ~
l

side 'the c1H!!;, cubie c,a,pacity IIDmi~and :f'OD m'ly' have to, loo: , into the question of IDbtairn,io.g a new bame~ o,r ,having tbe IOlkt,

oue-

in D1tc'UThliBJJ.,Q,i ,and- ,1$, 'me ,mixture ln, such cDgincs is often, exc,es's.iv.cIy rich, the ,guide lubrication suifcilt':$, and 'wear is '"d ra"pI~,

'Val,,, _d Seat· 'M6di1;CSltiODl


IftbB 'ldlauSrt 'vaJvebaswom to 3, v,er!' tWn edge, or SDO'WS signs ,of being badly bmBt under me ile:ld"" it sb.rould 'be dis,.. iC3rde.d. W favour of a n~w ene, - The sncmome: or cobalt-chrome valves ,tJeqUJ3Dd" ,fitted te SPortsl 'eDgm,~s, are very s~'usra~'£oiry .oE'~n3l1 [load ~s~e in ,for.' both imet and ~xha!tStl b u,~wiu!r-e r,~c~1 J ~ concerned rt
1-

is better 1,01'p'~ays8'f,e' and, GO in ror an ,aU5:[,en.ttn; &teew~ i.e., K~Eii ;96,,5' Jessop,l's 'G2J1 ror the em01.]Js,t valve ~a~Lllaugb the Of suu:uiard s;~eelslullWld, be 5:1 tisfactory' for the inlet, A'PBIit fr,om the [ai-nm ebance -that ft, crack may have o acne) between 1i1~ eRba,us~ v'a-lve SCI,t a Ildt p'~ug hole (,0 d~~~~~~ffi~h somedmes diffieuH to det'cc't,)t R'ft old ~,:UJrlde,~1 is
~ • • .~ ii

Am .aU~" 'COlilP (lse-d of copperr wi~h 1 p' r cent, ChrOlmjum ,addml and b()wn ms chromium -oopper.'I' ,is ,eveul bct~0r:for:r' beat uansfer--enee and its, rate of 'w,ear is DiW; '~~iSIJI h,OWCV,Hl' ~ ,mlUeul" to mac'lbiM al1 d, particmimrly hard to ream, ]t ,m:us,t
wUI rniEJ:ctioD, sa U~faetorily 'mtho'ut 'Iubrica;uorn:~; caJt..irOD w,ill WIDick d,ry~ but leven it will, benefit :rrlO~mthe 'pr,e&eoc-e of ill. littlB loil Cast iron howev,er, q:uiite, ~~tis:fa'etory for 'tbe, imJa; valve' guide, BS beat eC'Ddl~ioIIDs bere 91,m: much , QSS, ,sewm~ and iron, materlal,ca_nl witb ,ad;y,a.nt~'I=' be use-it. for B:lna,ust giddet;: in pma,oo of alumh~ium, 'lbrouze JiB engines,

th'_' POlll;;

be ,remembG.red rtha:tno'me lof these

,:tJN],m,.. ferTou&

materials

w.h.k:b bas, :I)~ mlJch iSerli'~te U~,U3Uy !i,hows, a good, deal of ''IIlIive~~mt wea_'f~partwclU~ldy on the wet 8id~ \vhi'cb causes ~blevalves to be sHgln1y masked and 'rcduQe3 their effective Ii.ft" ,=f~ as is .rreq-ue11~tly 'he ,ease in spcns engin'es~ Lh,e. y,ad:yes are of cqu~'j swm; the bMt "'!'sy to ,cru:J'fe U~Sl tnliuble \vllJ be () 0 bt am :1, VaJVID about I ~n~ lar.g,et' Ul dmamet,er 6pen OU,[ '[he inlet pOf1l to ~suilo:nd recut tile seat, 'Th~s p'roQedurc: mlly DO't be possrub[~ In 10 me l~i"D~S ~ 'w11elie 't,he 'vla]v~ 'is a. Lready' ,of tb, ma;u.tDu'ml ,permlsslblll! dliam:etJ~'f~ as d ieta ted by tile posHioiJ!l of the ml~UI,hole or the :~UllbtU~} fouUn,g Ole ed,ge ,of the exhallst valve 'wbell, b oth 'iJ,f" v~lvm;,'are parHall,y lliftad ~ '_ such 18 ease Ole ltLlsmrg m,~t 'be removed by ClltOOg it I,WiJiY withe toot sj mila.r to 2. 'vaj,ve
bc~ad
l

is.

'wi'rn aJumimlium hoods using mletha:no,l", 'Sh,eD A, or ,81I Dr ~imi~u fig,els and I castor-base oil, TJUs, type 0,( otil is soluhle'
j

Dae valve seat arm,tle is 4,51° ~ it is 'often possible to uUUiz~a leutter i]]]:tend,~d for a ~aT,ger \"3.} ve with :0" ,j06 seat, So'me weLdi ng fiJrms make I, ,speciaUt) rOf bru:ll1dIng-'[[rp 'W~Dl seats '~y wetdin,!~, and in lo"me cases a ISOl wi n re ..maehlne the he~d1' though no't at': ~tUr~!e,-ttl -,i,acing s:ta'D(,blrd~,~both irnn ,~nd a1,umbuum,_., b[1o.n.ze.h,eads 'CI,D be reelaimed by this m(;r~b.od~but th1e:te is
l

seat curter b~it widl. a much Bauer ,am~e; jf

8;

a g_m:v,e d:lJlpr of melting the alumjlltUlll, Ja,cl;et 9

Of'

,at least

TUN'ING'

'DB: ~UJ'IU3~U

,It Pl~t:B,L:n~:INA,R,Y' :8U,I,YBY

the close' adherence ~:e~:wooa ie twOI mem.ls in d 'the case ,of bi-metal h,~ds which na:'e aluminlam oos cast
de.ertrolymg
lII'\If'\'l'IIIHd'
~

n orm.1 ~mt the seats and D1m.g· .~:n:serts,.ils an :a'it trac Uve, metb.'(ld of bead r~cla:mra:tru.oA, since 'JDler,e is 'RO risk cradkiii_8 '01" S;poi.lillg, the head, 'W'Olugb !cxcessive' :beaili and ,a1s:0 'tbe· msttts can be made of ma.terlal 'wmeb is less prone to sea ,~imkage. 'Chan. the originw,~:cast ,almttiDiu,m ..br.oD%e'

III,V I!;f!l;I:J. ..

,Ii'!i,

b[·'Que ".
I.

iii II, .

t.....·,,11·"1 SAW) ~

th'E mating. surfaees are very accurate and s:mootb and the bcrtt-tlfll, of leach recess and, timg' are .squiD'e 00 'the Ins:..

F Of'
J_.

0,'

al!1ITImiQd1UlD-br!~nrze heads" mae either :Mo,nel.. meml or · K ... J¥.IIoui (,o'bmina,b'~ from Henry 'W,,,, p 811d C'om~pa:n~,.,. -·t d~,!Ii B-.,.m-=mrt:m p- ftm')" :nr .. gb- ell' b·m:-'Ori''''''p~ p'Fatn 9rr I -,-,.w,·c .L:IIJti...,;" L ' - H,~.:

is bm:d: in 'this, .[Upoct whereas wr,o'Dlht du-mim nm,-bl'\c1ue in tile' ftorm of tu be or 9trmlded. bar is goed, Sea~'rin.gs expansien, !:dgb"'WMr-rn:5,~scin\1 matli!,ria]J' can be obtained
made i~ plaitr w:£:"UO]), or a,1Ustewtie cast;o-ilrOQ whicJl
,.&

hlgb ..·

"ro,m V,UiOru9, firms-'I.~ ~BdcoI~ ,and WeU,w'ortby ~.o meatlen ~my' 'twCJ..==om s:tandmrrd ,shes. web maYt h.oWG"er.~ 'Deed tOI

be 'educed WI ,Ot1ts.ize ,Uiunete'r to be ruJsab~c In some: heads, :Smt r.l~g5 Icam:also be purebasoo as Bpafe& from flrms 'whoi
1· 1 ... ~. sU,PP_'i aiumnnum
'~!...

Wtl,gs, :sl101ll1dJ. mlway;s be Shrunt im,.never pressed in eeld, as 'wi'th the' :bitter method there is always, a risk of' ®cotmg the smfa,ees·~ W.i'l:h .00.2 in. pBr inch of ,diameter' interti~:f\tnce a :ri:ng should just drop into II east..ir:Qm. head at ; ,lOOe Ie;, tern per8:tul~e, dlfrerencc but, to make· IU re, 150i'- C., .i's,ad vis a ble, T~js can be (ibtained ,either by jiU9,t lu:atkt.g: the head to :2 50(1'e'l. or by heating it, ]JO 200;ilII' C., ;Bnd freezing the 'ring in dry ruo= (frozel1,ca:rboIJ, d:i.·o,~de)200 C ..(400 F~).head
t

,abi;y

m the· :ro,nn af' tube,


,I.

II

'Q;

.. ','

:,.;.,

r l!Ii1I7IT!oif'iI:. ll ~",!l.'U·~·.

·l~:·

'",

.-lIIm I!.!II

,i ~ 'H1Ii1'!IIlWI~rF.Ii ~~ L!!~.

ffi-:-

! _,,~.~

..........

rG

'\VIDlrell:5;ttimg sea,t ... :rm\pj ib,s limil'ting 'fa!l:to.l' is, usually 'the: 'thtekness, of meg,] 'w:wc·b 'M:U 'be left 'between Ith~ 'if-eOOS,SeS IDC! t_h~' p~.ug-h,oJ.,aMd B\t: dtc 'tOPI of the sphere bet"w,oon '~_ tw,e; I'IOOSae:S':l1 if 1iB!~ 'thickroess a,~:the sutlace ,of the ~phCFe J's less 'thu f ,m.. there 'is a risk tba.£, I, CIolek wtU occur in ~~erv.i:'c'e~ particu.blrly· ir (bern ,m much di fference rb~'twee;ll, therm at oe~fficieIl'b of e:xpansj,o'n olf the metals the 10(' Ibe seam and the hesd (p~ 2,82),,, Tbe most l~e~y' 'p\tace (Of such a. crack to. strut is bs'tWOOIn. tb~ p~ug\ooho,,['e and e.~atl't se~tlj and ·it may 'b~ po,ss~:ble to 'improve; t.h~ si'm:I," Dom by wiing :I 18ta(-ttWI to suit 1m Imaus,t 'valv.e-m im,~ smaller; ,Bdmi'tledly 'dUal wlU leaw 0" small rid Ie in the
'port 'trllt, :fltJJ can, be su.lbseqUJQnt~y 'blemdea, out did in. any

equipmeu t, The ,mckiel-·:o: r'C'D a1!l:c'y knDwn .;s, Ni..resist' is ·01 the &1[1 st,emdc type m.nd is 1~.x;ceUl!nt raw 'm:~deTi,~,~ fr.·o,m which (;0 ma ke Sl~'t·_rirngg,.
l!,t, il

.U1ea·;5 111m Illse:r:L"eu seats

',.L.··"iI1

. ..iIi as standard ~

'~empe:UlJ,ttue 'wi,thou~ freez;ing is su fficient for a br,ciRlC head ;; 'Uus 't'cmper:aturc can be obtained in a domestic ,PS or e1'~ctdc S,tQV0!, To easure quick and acC'Uta:m. '~l.Ulm.g I mamdrel (or mmd re'~s)should fimt be made 'up from steel b,~r:l'wi th ,8" pilot which ,fi.ts 'lbe p~ide 'boris ,oud IB, NS1'ster Oil w,b icb tile ,ring filts with it UUle more slaek than the m'~e;rrelret'ee "tr {be rml j D1 'ttl e recess, I(otilerwise tlle m fi n.aml 'ma,), be grW:p,ped by 'the riliJg)", In use, a U.aht !CO!l'tlng of grease on, the, ,[>egW!~M' ill r.el~aw. the ring wwis;~ILitle;mmdr'~l~. w ilSpu~l,ed qUlil~kly nome ,a;n;dp[.~e:d do'\vD.for so,:m,$!seconds
1]

Alumintnm ... aUo·y, helds,- wi,th inserted seats have been ll!ed OD ra!Cim,I'IU11PDCSr for maDY :ycars and. 9l'e, 8, feature ,af' mil post-war prod,IJCllio,D, racers .. V'ad ousme~:o ds of , :fittitll the rimgs, ha ve been tded, but the plain para!n~~ :form just deso -j tred i9, mueh the simpf5t 0 ,Make and to replace and 'Deve;r 'CQlmes lo ese if pr-operly j~Ued ill 'tl~e
l

ntll the rinl is pipped

by the head,

fir,Slt p la:(e;, A1umird.umal


i

, Sf.I~r.ings. of' 'i:h"e same coefficient <Dr expansion as ·ut,e ~d dOl "Dot D.eed. to be fitt!ed. very tightly:' 11·to !thous, pel' Imch 0':[ diametru" 'WRl 'retaiu tlt'em ~nldl':I,mi.te'lJ" p~ovidoo 'tb;m·t

lm:portaDoe~

~am the' euct sbape

o.r tm:e

eXba:u;st port is not of ,erM t

and R_'IR~ ,5.3,b am much better than. ethers in 'this :tespcet ~'Ddl are in consequence :m.ucb. used, Two conlictmg

besides, .ha;vmg a high coe:fficilen l of ,cxpanSioC)rD loses ,a, large pooporlio,a of Its :streiID,gth at. h:IDgb temperatures, thougffil some a.1rnoys, ,Iuch ,IlS, Y ~aU~,

t~lht ~nougb ·the head will

f;a.c~-grsa.ace:ctua.te the 'pIFoblcm; lfth·e II

initial fit :is, mot

e.lI.,p.and away from 'th~ rm.~·

10

'~'i1'T',

., u-

"_'I.", y
'1If.'If~,

'iiN9Ii,D' Id'!'l'lidonn ~'va, gg~1

~'r.

A, P,B.8LI' . <n:N'A,S'Y SUR'WHY


j

land ,it will, IDos~n:, but if the fit is too, tight under certain. Icmcumsl'a'DQe5, the hood metal ma,y stre~cb ,Of' else the ~g may be 'oom:pr'~ood SQ' flg'btly tha!t, it eoUm.pses ,M,d, in either event the '-mg: \villloosen The mOist ,s~dlsfact,orY'
t,

seat mnmfiab

seem
I

[lJ
..

be l:.'wtemEruc cast
[Oil
~ . '-:.;.. -

,s'tiU Oi herwlse in

bas been a,it:[urn'ning 'te:mperatu;rc" If the ,rec~s and


geod

~ype~ IlIlef1~eds-~~,u; bicb, are 'w,ora 'but ,stU] lti:gbt eannet leaa~m" w be, ~rem,o~0dby heating the head, as the va mperature req u lr-ed te ,gle tbe seat. loose eB,ough to drop out is S,O :hip, tb ml Ume, t ben't-'l,fel,~'OOellt ,or tfu£ head metal may be a:feuted. The best method is '_JOI 'tlJlill IOU~ We .o~d seat very' car-ef':1uUy' 1[01 a,void da:ma,tJim~'tbe ;~£QHS~ o~r'else 'W run a flat~nded d:riU down thr'(HJ,pl~~ ,rinS ar li,WO or three p'laoes a~ndbreak tltHoi .ring lD'~O piooes,~ Thls ,opert,s. t:~,a'nmus" ~ bltiJ"wevs[~, be do,ne V,fljIfY muefulJy te avoid 'l[LLaking s:ny' euts itO, th'e~wall 0(1' t~~ recess, or in th· boU,omfac-e,., Locd damage. ,o\r IthiS sort is, almost bcrlllm,d ee ~ea(j to, gIS 1eaka"I'c am,d sev,e;re darnm,,~:e 'to the liead, So,me:nmcs a seat ring: will be rfcll.1:rnd '1:01 be I,oosel. or there 'will. [besome ,evidence, tho t it has been Ie DSC! w:h~Q,the lI~ad
g
ii\c

r~s:~U't 'the out, ,ICf' tJIa't reasen, ,ordinarY' valve..seatwng cutters, o,er~'~ed, 'by band are useLess't 'the onl.y sa tisraCJK1'EY Wtay· tel ~Drrm, Ule seats true ito the valve a;ds in the fint place rntiby meatu of I. sea:t-grillder of tbe
d[fiic'I]llt to
0]-lIC~. ,R'D· -~I.. -d

002 to 00'3 m~, per " :incb ,of ,di~me~ClE yes; parfecdy ,satisfa:c;tory '~Jip.e"r3tiJQin in, f£ii y:.. 1lo)" lOf' 'R~R~ 5\3 hcad3~ Aus;benitio Gait fran worka b hardeas very ril:p.id~yand ,my ml1chim i1ng,epera tb:1r.uSmust 1!...... d.'.. '.. . ......:1 ... , . 1 .- .... ," ne .' ene =-·,jf,L..a per~ep"p~b'l w=PILlUi 0'1, IO[l~ Ii,i&. a ,OW S,pe~n i Will t,lILi ,1·.\U; if' the ~oo] is, ailllcnlled to sti:d OD the 'w,ork it wUJ be verJ'
I:l - .-. -. '.. I" .,'
• .

:md

. "a)' ld . ',~e, Dl_8:tml.,~, ,a,co_ th

"'fiCiugh1

abmm,hilill:m-blome,

,', . mmte_~oe

,0f·

lbe, eKh>l'mlBl1 WYI!d wj;tb.


I ., : . ," '1 I ..
I .

UO,Dl fOIf'
,".c'.,

'the :Wet
t' "

Should. t~e' 'pi'Q,g hole, 'be b:pped t\D m:tc tb old,-f~~,on~~ 1:8,mm~ size" "bleb is, ftO'W :p1rm,os,t. unobtainable in I~ l1ardl~ padas, it ,0Wl be fi'tted, with a 1,4, mimi,. adlap:~o'r aleel'e'~1us,uDy' o;bmilm'b'~e &lom lODe of' the a~!o!'J' 'b,Olmes", PI!'r:ba,ps a ,.. '1'~ 'I l' "''bette_r :pIDa:n,is Ito ~m--e"B' ,8 SOu'·'d' s1tee~, PlUg, -":YlDI 'il JD_., m 0,1' SO below' b im1ie!' slIDrf.ace ID'-' me, head;~ ud Ie pt '~hl~,
UI
'I

L'.,

reeess filled in 'D'y iUl. llQ~L)leDe'weldar mtb S,ifbIOnze... .nus, lean, '00 done s:' d:1l11..:red 'heat; and WllU mot :harmtlu~,bud ii it ms made of' iron, A new' phl,U 'b!DI!e ean then 'be miUgd sijgbdy ofi-centID'l ad at ,I, dit1)mnt I'ngle to '~bc,~.irj'giJlalt

,;jO,iii ... ,

. ,'If!'

. Ii!>

-,

SOl ~ast,o

,get the 'pllLlg: pomnts as meal" to 'the ceo;we of 'rUn~' ead b !I"!rii:.. AI' ;0;1... .....L.J ... = . ..lI':~ - - -- '. ,.... as POSSll~U'e. ,_',U!e' ulRpam lIves we ma~J!l\g,_ wmemlu!~i The remumng ,compomenB to be eoasldered ,are, the
~~'ffi
II'

nlilil

cams and il"Oek~.r5,~S,u~pp'osms 'that the'v,alvle-,(imin'

sun

D'~Aer .: _I[,.

ha VB' worked out :mike'this,: 'IDlet epens 35 ~ 'be~cre t~~:te~:J closes '6cr"' a:f~.er b.d .e, BxbauJ't Orpel]jl ,6:,510'before D""d ,,'COl' . '~loses, 00 after ,trod.~c~ the DamS DCi- or such 1I 'ty,p,- as tOI be, 3 ;: wo;rtn ;rs'taJnmLIt'-&'t, ~eas:[ '~iJ'r'tl\e 'time, being--=-unl'es5l tlaey

' O~~:

are bad]:y wera or lexm.b~Jt wa'"

Banks ut ,if' d]IBl 'utidnS: is slower (i.,e'!1of :sboirt-»r dUf,ati.cul) 'ha:n "t:ba'Ej.
gr.OOV'GS, Olll 'the
II ':

!Set ,o.f cams should " e ,obtained.

aDd parti~LWltlrly' if dle overlap a:~,'t,"d,~,c~ lessl is,

thUD

a E'l.t3W

tiE! mm~
l"IiiR fE A II)

Id~pro~itetlmetal. '~y uumng or filnl; in, ,8, k'th,e '~O a :size which ''WiLlI, give the comet iml'te[rere~!uJ.efit, ,AU bu~ 'the outside , di31meter iOf' tb.*! ring ~hQeld be :ttopped o:lr~:i wirh WIa.X btiore p~a;wll' £.0' e'm; mat~ an,:Y passibili;ty of' p~,ted nilJcbJ 'm fila'kmB~ 'UDder the acden of' hea:_ ,ms1d~the he-'! dll ~
II

condi~~on" a sa:lisfac!'o(i:jF' rep;~ir' CIJJ be made by eoppeJ['"'pla--timg th@ rrng: ,g:rnd finismng the

rjlll

are

'ill

A, JiRBLIIUNA,ay
DVtE',F(lM 'fiD-C.

IU,I,WIY

':U!'

of 'this, lLat:urc it l~c:Ol¥er,ed" it ~s bes,I WI ~ 'the, drn:h:'(£ wlth Dew' rock,er1, Of 'M'th the o~d ones Jegrcnmd to
ICOaet1,

hud-m1ed Ulew' llm ei5,'D,ew' ones can 00 ,obwned and 'ImS is l()bvto1tsl~"a jo'b boot d,one b, '[he·mak~rs;, ~:~~s ewmec~{u:ru,
j

- :Ir'the 'weal' is, more 'tha:t1, '1.0 10,n" 12 thcn19,. in di8p£b. Ithe f~~j'S vriB, m ml(,' evlcm.I" need 'to, be rlcp?ood mo,d
_~~~}I'

the

COD,tour,,,

welll f!espbe severely WQim r.oc'lc,e-rs,.,db ID,ff~, ;~ef~~~'" f I!1LOO after n~w roGbn: 'bI,ve beeo i:nstIlUi@d ~ This ~ ,8,e~ear 'Utdi'CIl'U,OD, fha'l: tams pMg ~on,l\eJ.,a!~c IOpen;m.p: are requi:n:d 'for m:axj:m.\lm, po,we.r at h~~~ l,evl,." _'. _ _ The forqc.dng mere 10[' iess co,ren tlt~ pr~li~ary tn~lTe,y
'tery
l l

it :U' :5ometlmes :found, ,th~;t a engine whi.e_b bus been a

8'D1DG;

thu lone...~q'ua_r~er' 'th'l p,ort dJ:a:merte:r~': ,oj'" MllI(r mu'ers, Ml l,tI,pply ,[BernDI tams 'which QlR be fitted diacdy :m ,P,Jace lo,t 'kumrms' 10J' sports cams and. i:t ,i s 'Dften 'possUble to o'btaln, .b:i~sl1Crlilts, by utillzhig, cams, mad~ ,~cran 1_ m~nc of' Lsj_:nl1'i~Brn:take bu of' larger ca,P!1,tlty .. TIL' ~~I,~.,tjm1CI m~-a.m h~ dle~rmined not ,only by 'tb..e cam COJ:wloul'Sbut s.1so b,Y :thBt 100f'tbe, eam, ..:foU,Qwer "'OOIt.,lll,d wear ,of 'their surfaces wl__n dec£ 'tbe' 'ti'mimg' 'C[rnI,'te ,collls;idGi'''; ~dJ]:y," The ,gro'oves wmcb G1'emJua'Uy' a,ppeu'in ccam, ,eollorw:e,n mth l'iJillilil"':fot~JtiO;I SQ,U.d :foot have ~the ,eWeet lof' ,ope:n:i'QS tbe 'W 'lie ,e-a.r]jer I:I,Q ,eiOimlit ]m't_e!r; thu]!6fo,iiC') if comidemllie,
~t 1U1~,'~ of v~l'~~()~ mCSlSur-oo, oulIld, .-e Q~JGmWD.'= of r 111m :~s:~~d to the: area Qf'Iie pon ar~ idtat :l:iftJ1sod ih'_P'~j, :10thlOiJii :selt the liJPi"w!ocit;y is 'Ule ,salIlC. BOw'~ver~, 1~, 'vaiw Is O~ilib'at [d lift g :m,o.g~ m;Uo, ml'WgeI OD~,I.m.fte.r wiD, gi've'bf.hl!'J' 'mta] .flo\¥
Ii ,~
~J

peater

The lift :mlllst abo, be Clons~dtf.ed and mould 'be ~Ushtly

Iu,bs:eque,nt

,of tha new parts w~bi,ch,may 'n reqooE.d and ~0 W'O'F~~~Obl, dene, The 'methods 0(' d'omg 'tbat wOirk form, 'the 5u1)Jee t 'of
i

IC,hl;ptefl~

I·The' i.UC,Ie.t1:£amJO(f of OIl~ml!dU Um, !di~lmr' Q

d;~m&

Q;I

"tbG;fM1

,if' 1ft_;:

smmW swde~ Q .ilt. D10:y' be ,ID,engffiJlg 'Ilt' f ~ bO. 9trDki:e m!.loi., O~ the ,o~er .bJID.d,j if' mO,' ,arhrc 'tbiD.P .8 ie41.l41 Itlie :~Ilrt£a, .f~ds a'Dal lhus, 'we 8jprmg;..s~gtb :~, vRries ~ '~l
VW!/el

b; OD the

i'

prOPCilr.'tI_()D 00 '&e Iif~an>C1, 'LbJe~fote £'0,;. ~l!llM

II the ,h.~

~'t'may '~,~.camty
0l!C "~'

W~p~

to t'OOp1

(Jfm_ee~];ani'caJ SmJlIUl the ,lin bilow '0~e-quMli')1' 'lllic d.i~m~1e-F'

,14

'C,A.RBUIl,AT.U)'tIi] AN'D IND'UCT]:IO'N

FAceRS

t1lJ.elat~er' ;~ ,ab OU'_'til. smaUlest Mm 'WliiCh WiD give, ,anytbi ng lit;~ Spodl :results.l and as progr"€:ss is made) l:USe:r sW.s, ,ca~' be ttied,~, At tlJ,e eemmencement it 'ms unwme to! use .telo, big 'a, choke,. aDd 'the' fo:Uo\vtng f'fJ;l'Igcs, .. Mit Eeco~en~'~d,,:
CARBUR,A'TIOIN'
-' J ., ,'!

AND'

'.~'

INDi<:UCTI···' .. '0," " 'E'lA: · . N Jl.~..:'- ~O··


~ '.~ .' .'~.

• -_~.

_.

'.

I.~.

,Ill!'

'ID ~I ," :,Jtl...!...;J

it is worth no1i:llg lthat. I I.o~.Df ftln CBn be o,btalned by ,~,,, tiDg:. p;' ·8 'side-,valve: cD,giDC:: there: bJo' .u ,n. ;~:e b~D qWte a nwnbe"r e,r :901 .m~p~b~y" i.e 5"00 s" in 5lO 'mstC'n~e ,at . oae 'D'me or ~anotb~r, ilFid:. eaders 'with long, r ,memones, m:u 'recollect 'tb~ 18~c'mshing Uttl0 2.50 c..iD,. J .,At,P ~ ugme.i wblch '''Nierereput~d {YO be eble 'to [,eV,,, Ili ,81,000 r,,,p'.m_., The ,Si\l'~U!W,t is usu:uIU)t much lighter 'than lu Q'Jt~Vli le~.y.ll_an:~, ean be ;scmmed up to, mal:imnm re¥9,~ 9Jndl wi~out dll.QI,er· f' 'tmlC valves hlttinS;thc pm,£oD, or. (luling o
j1HllCl1U~
~J]l
jIli,a, .... ib.

AT 'this;

25()
"ll!J;

'iIr.' U;~~I
C,Ci'

.}. ·u

,;:on
.'

0l'il' Ii'"' !1Ii..I IiifMiil ill

riJI

'iZil"iII"Ii!Pl'l,,;;;· ~·o ~

hl,~' 3,510 e.e, o.h,v., 5,?,O ..C~.'C.,,'S,;!'ij~l_,!n,.~.ID,.• ~.,;, ~


1

oft Ui

'b,

_Ii "

'I~, !Ill!

II 11 mr'"l~ -W

in.:
,II'

5001 C',C'" 'twin o._·',h,V~~

o.h, v., 350

CJJrO S~l';;,t

11 Ul'-ir
alii

in". 250 e.e, s,!,v!i~


:~4Y'down

'ft

'_... AlS, '~O 'valve s~m:l' it

IlL

i"~no,wtnB table ,gives, all, idea, of' 'tile '~D,atsi~ w'ruc~h are adyi!UJ:bt: SOO e~c~1i1. t 'm.,.; ,3,;)1) C:>OJG.,. 1~ i'n~;, 250 e .C"'~
~..:L ,.
..cl(r

hard and fast rule as so DlIBY fae

is seareelj po~sible 'to

are 'in.v,olved'l. '~1Ut, tJle.

any

- ;i·L. ,gwer,~

,1!~e~t'J':a.tiom" Im,pr()"ring 'thc: br~fI,th'rnml' capam:'~y'or the ...'1.·~" '"... .'Iil.. ~ ., .,·L, ~~ve, ~...d P Q11."1~ WI:wOUi'I;, •• llJl1Cr-easJJlJg 'we 000. '.e S!IZe wID,) on
l. ,,..

,mam factors Ito 'be comidere.d in 1'118 inlet 't:r-a.ct: (,I) ttl Sim, of [b'e: "alive j: (b) 'Ot'C! :sna,',' .' and length of 'fh,e port; ,and I(C)I the size of fits IQtUib1Bl~tt0F.~, T,c' 80m,-' L, .... :u': iL, ",'I... '~~D w~ are ~e!,;l to ("a(i1U 'OiW_"ee, .I.~,OI CAumple'I' i' ja ne ",.'., ins ,8 very' 1larpbore car'bl:re~ter if dl. r-es;1 (l,f 'tile; ,bl,hlJIQUDm ,aystlom is 1mBde.qu.fj·k; ~uch. ,a.m, ,iru:mun~:~wm: ,live, ntt~ ,Dr no Icxtra. 'pOWIf ,andl will cartainl,y ~parit the
There are ~
.,. .. Ii. ~¥ ..,...
..;I' "

D 10 hDv~ lt1l1ewllet 'pillage Di9 'U~~bstflillatlvl U p ol,!Jiblell' ,An ef1~Y'exit, ,for Hie pnaw,t Is a~'~ol mlhID,y de~d,m.bm~1l th~oug'll 'this is! 1.8, much 'rO'F' kw!plmlG: -, 'tWs 'valve; eeot as 'for ai,ding po'w.er pfoductiOD~, -

of opcuatiom~ tb.e prime ~e_~8i:~

Irrupettive

Qf 'the

~OCI;tJ(Jll

of 'the

,'WV'., or 'tbe.k ,m.efhod

an d "u)'l;' to, thel enGine as :11 wO;o.!e.,,A'~'best", ho~e:fer~ these 'ffigures can on1;y be: a ,~oul~b,pide ~~aw~e odle.r, .f~t~~ , be sida, ,til, 'cy]jnde' capaCity emler lErto Ute mat:teT; the· I~ype0'( ,pcrForm.am,ce. (Le, dU~j :su'pe ,of' 'tn.c.. po~er e u.~el rrequired~1 Itbe v,I~',e 't~mim.& ,oom PfeSSW DO ,.ran()I ~9. d.esl,g~ of ICM'b1!l retter ::lud the nlltu,JS' to f the 1C;I,_(}J3:m s't. sJs~em :aU
l

m., ..L • 'f' .. .A~~ ~d.'~...,..."·I'~:_,..:aJ ... The CSlplu::itiu refer lto 'Iwe 9:W. ,0 'iDu!tViI uai 1c;,w.wueI8

eXeiF.,ciselID effect. Generally' speekln til '. fa,t,e; 't~~ cD,line is cap\lb'~e o,f 'F,j!'v1olY'iI18i judle~: ',frorB a pure ly

'g'

be used, tbo'Ugh :I goad deaJ. .of mo mClltMlfl. m~,J be required' b. rOrF6 the w.um_at~ 81. is, li'tJtaim~,; this '~i'ml"" of developmeil'~ I ~mO$'E. ~neviitabl,y l~.a:d,s '~O',8. ty -. ~:e ~~8n1u.~ 'yimm whilst it. dey~lo(ps; very h1.;h 'power at high ["p~ ~"~
-I.

mee ~&ftiC81 !i. usee. 'the larg~r the choke wh:~ch'~

even't,~al~,y

.IDs

CQDBequen.oe bas to be ,[LLSe~, inrii'coo.~~ti(ln 'Wi'~,,'V-c.;?(i·a.r'Bfully c ',ooon par ratios and dnv,en wl'lh pel' skilllJ~, ,CIder
l

v~rt~)d~y' ue'~ess beJolw a eertaln

ml]'nrtmllm

speedl and

];D

wmtbout ,aifectbJg. tile l,ow ,Sipce.,. £Dd .mucb; 'but" of ,c.OUfIe' the i4al, aD,aDgem.ernt is Ito Blate 'the wh.ol,e ,ind,~~ti,o'n
d'esenlbed u
, . ~ _,-

I~.~,

ethel'. ~~anld,,I~pT"OYle: the pg,wc:t a UWe a1l: wgli ,re-V,Ii'"

~)l,9ite~ ~a'~Ii'i thu


III!,
."',~'

:head 'WDJ '~~~IB'n_ :bn,,1I''-'II 0,.;ro~,.'Il'~I.'I~·'_


I~~

,:_,'AN

c.a.r1iJing ,out, [9, priDriple OBce aptly plDportiona] ,tl1l~" 'i~ C'"C~, e1'i!~c Wlltb. a ~QD.V~tio'Dal IClSt.. uun o ..h~v",
-, ",' I . .' I~ _ iI',~ .' _ ,~

go ~

~DllUUl,~~~

,n~ 'I" '. vJl ._

'-::'m"", . I

II

,ft'f!;
~~

11~

1-.

.. ';in L",,'NIi Ii a.uill UUIIIIIIW JlI

to keep :i,1 alWll"S puWl1g, ab av.c it'Sm'rum;~m1lm1, sp~~". S,~cb. :0,. pO'wel' m,t 'wl sholw' up at ~tsb~st on a, fas_" cm'cl~jl,~t ,:bUll mfiY be eq~ane4 or e"e~ ,onWlRIM:d. b, an engt~~ ~Ith ~~s~ ,m.aJrimDm pf;YWer but witLh gr~iI:tertorque Of' 'P.g]lI~l:p;t,.we~' ~,t low Of m.edlUD1 $pteds~ on, a mo,rt COWM:' .w,lth many ~~'mers Dr 'W. a vebi,cle such as a l,aQ~I: ~ W:h2~; ~ 'very cID,os@; ,of gear ratios call1J)]Dt be used.. 'Thc talIa'flG ue I·et Ilota.ble le~(Hll~Dts, of' i;Hpb 01'6 inductIon, $Y!ije:ms :~;the
'7

16

'IUR, ,NO ."0 ." '.P:~I:D

·C,ARIUI..A TI'OIN ,ANDI I"M:D1LTC'r~,ON PA,CI'Olt,S

,2'~ Gum has a c'b.ok.e ,0,' 312~mm, ctia.met=r~ lor j'1tiIst


"''''' inn~'"

I ' ,im ~ aDd, thBfsforQ~,,\


!l:.u ,I""=-~II;"!,!,"@IL!L

~I'"

~ ..

£00"

.' 10.)0,.,

'Ilii

lL~

"Iiu:ued' riga: _ 'tblrou,gh the m,ong:'mduc:tioin pips :W!1d inle 'port up tt;O, the throat of'fbe v,aJ.v'6,. The 5.00 ,C,IC~ tw'm. of IIiiJG same mue" whieh, "s, virLliaUy :tw,o 2'0 :sml~eB,~has le'en, been used with ],5: mm~ chokes and tlte ~ame she is, used 1011 the r~u:r-C!ffindcr Glil.em in. w'bleb one, cHbtl1eU'er feedsi ;8 pair lof ,c),Hnd,e.rs, ,of \'ihfcb leach is, 10" eourse OimJy 125 G"C~ ,At t'hat,ume '(be' ,fu,'OOs:t JEhl,g'll;isb, ,i 'w<lo.rks I~ machines had 13,0)'£' glc:ne te 'dul~el ~~mea,; the 'rt.\Vm A.J"S,. h;ad one, ii, i~~ carbmel1ie'r feeding each Oil i'm, 250 C,.IC\, cy'IiIlde:r.s ~ w,hUst t~9 wo:rks ~I' 5lQOc,.c: N o'~to't1S a nd V;e;foce~;~c:sIllse~.- 14 mi. c~ot:es, The fore,gom,g data terer to e~ginc:.'i;buiU t1"~r'ca I 9 5'O-S,~" Si nee . 'til'eD ell,gine speed s ha veJ' ,gone 11 igh'6t' ~\I:rLicw]l'dy' in singAe-eyllilder' types~ and chokes of' I lIn" diam~ ,h&~)t!been used on quUe a nurn ber 10" SOOIt,C. em.mu!l,runmllg in, ~C~JJS of 7;tOOO r.p.. ., m Bven these . lms~, thoug'b s maiLer ill rleJa;fj aD J) 'tb,·· reyliDChu' ca.pacit, than tim Italian eumpl0S. fiD.J1lB·: ,8, ,Ia~ spl1e d cQ,nsiderably lo.w - F'tha'~ thos ~ s,tat«ll by some til urth oril , Ues .'tOI 00 '~., 'the O~ 'tffi~aJ o,p'uID~m~ 'tllis 50mewl'aLart pUlz~idirn',G parade\!: be~lJ,~ bil,bly caused by the litot,C$aid loptimum _ PEO ,ba~B ~cem "die'Dermim~d in manifold-type 'mtiltJ},"'1cyIind:er CD,guI,es:JLft which the rue~has to 'be vapDrized and :mmin:tained in ttlliAi" :state " efbfe rtm,chlnS ·~c IC:JHnd0f$ to obtain e'qual I~tri,bu~ om~,'wber()3.S rn mo,'tolCycle engmllel' '(be bulk ,of tbe fue~ ]S B'Ot, a,cmaUy va.porized until miner "t entees tbe, b,ot i~Mde!'; this 'process takes lruill. ,advlaDtage of the ii' Jem:t heat 01 evapor.at;:oD b,f the fuel tO coo] the cnuge mtbJm the cyUm.c1lerand SOl resuJts in ;8, grea~e'[ wlfdgbt c,b.arlge'beimg induced, (P'or later informm.~ion seepage 246.. )
j
~I

,,'t~_"...
.ri __

jib

:1iar8ef 'tBU, th;a,t


-:ii' "".T'

x'!tOftODS:1i

..

;~

,..;0;;, AI

tws
. ;L.:,

DID!rm_all,
t..

D'Ole

fiued ~s Icon
~

O¥M'

with, '1s:rger mve-s or oorb,uetters Ilmr'~, 1:0, the meantfme 'B"era~,jobs, ICia he dJo,ne to im,pro,ve tbe 1braLtWiDgtLJJili~y" As

the '"alve is O,pe'fl.tin.g only p,u.tldly lopen fOf' m.uclll, lof the ti:m,~,mydlim;g' which wiU :ease 'the.' 'passage o,f gaa' 'pot 'the :5£9 t at lo'w' Iifu, m m,ghly' be [IDefici 31" and one. :81WPI it'Ow!ud.1i, 'thiSI "iI, "0 reduce 'the Kilt wid,tll frlom the USHa] '" in. O'l' so
dlorWD, to a mer;= 1\. :in,.. Diy c8!f~ftl~~Y ,rad i,using the corners
1

,the va:~ve,al the soot :and 'the [O'P edge, and perf ormiDg a 9:i:m'~la.r O'~F2Jr iOD, on 'the port, .

O'r

'f! CRT OPI:N~CI our Ai 'EDG,E Qf nAT

,I

'I f' the ICI1't is Vlry 'Wid~. IS, i'l frequ mUy is w'heD Intercbrul.,pa b~e vaJ:ve.s He used,pi~£, is also p o~sibls;'to open G'ut 'Lhe port ~y pClffil aps Ttr ~'fL:. w:hio'b :provi'de;s a us.eriJJI mOfWlS(!) ,m :~Ot9Jares. The, crJonoot mBtho~, is tOI ''lL~ea cUlth~.r'~ limUar' to a val ve-sea t cUltter'll bu't, 'Wi.th an mel uded Mgh} of 4-.5;Q,~ but 'the. ,johl cam 'be d.ane b, Ica:refuJ 'wmrk with R 'Hlel and

of

!lEJJ8off ,th_ valve edl9 hold tJlle stem 'in 'tine ,chuck lof a lathe; 101. drill~. r-emove 'tile bult of the. metru]] with ,I rlRKJolh me, and fim:sb, ofF wj th lemery ,('Joth. Should. Itbe va hve--se8't in the :het1,d be very hRd~y 'p'oe~reted .nell yo'u d.l6Cidceo fit iI larler val ve, it U on.e:n possi'bJe '£0 utilize 10D£' " rom alarger engine 0" the SWIIJC makC'lI s ]'t is 8.. frequent a praetiee to BD!l.ploly me sa:me sm. of dem through,out the
FOIl

SCf,S-- ,~

Fowd

Wllr . ,0, ' the

:bI", PO,ft'

'ml.s'IJo:ma.ibly eill ·~o Itble. 5tmld1:Fd~s w ,so [al' ~~saibed ~d is in go.Dd eg'Ddi'liIQU it. maY' be: well to leave 'th:im,gs as 'lhe.y a r-e far the 'tmrne 'hein,g' and t1tperimeJrl,t '1,8

If',.,o~ c.D:gWe eenforms

,ra.l'Jl' ; altlem.aDvely, flloimg editions ,of' sports lengmlleBi ,31R: ,iI!"~_ ~", ........ .ll lY::.,:w~a._,gm:' ~, ,'L - t!' .. L. . - ,,, .~IA . onen :Ul.!~.g, "",,!... 'III - V~Ll~~ - ;IIId"_ 0:8e o:~:tnese ICOWt!, b ,_C , d,~ emv, ,aye' 'The s'bape, of' {be' iDle~,va).ve under the 'head is of' more :imIpo.rtan~ Ilium is il'lftea ,fw~m.d. and depends; upon the Iblp£ of ,pon" It used tal be. the fa's].rloll 'to hav,e II com" I
···,'··.i_

19

'IO:N'N'O
I

:f'OIR IPII'DI

DDde~3:tll ~ jlo~ed to too' ~Emwttb I, smAIl .tIl!di.IUS,ji 80 3S, to aDo·TN plem'~Y Qf' ro Dm. ('Or.' the gas to ftJJW put Into th,s

parati'v;el., :ht !>.i,ttligltJ;t port-=-='lt 9\hape 'wmel1. dd1ieds 'the las 6l ow .pu~, 'the va]:vc s;mm mt·o·1ilei regicil, neareet 'the· ,exha.u51,t ·v.al:~~amd, in 'tbl1S, I~e 'the valve, h.Md mus _ be ,fairl,Y' lal
i

~e:a:~G the .. est, p~'rt J because the area (8) is, ~~latruvel" b mlefleebve· ,owulg to tb~:S!CUl ei ehangein mroolikm 'whi'cn, ·the ps :d 'CDtmpeUed tO take, :lU1Q partly 'because mum ,of' 'tile. ,eha;r-gecominl. in ~~t(All is, liable to fO;SR s~'[,alghtacross IBid
~U),
j
I

operaii·-.. 'regloml~ T~s port :;hll.~ee

!ike~e.bbellow-...... b, i'

out ~'Ilrougb. 'the ~till"'Qpe.n e,x·ha.'Us:t valve, pa-rtictl!~a'ly' U' a

,hi,gnll' .(I:tra.cUve elha ust sl's t·em hi. in 1UBC~

,Lt,~dtOfi'O~,71J ,'flll~~ ~1pe ~'fItlti iRAti ~ {Wl't are de,pt;r,:te,d In'


ltit:dJ' 11111
~tll

,it~

~JIJJ'

oJiJ...

,t1J.I.~' sk -u:i;,. NDt\~ t~'iJ ~~ ,rth'e .frres/~


/fo'w'
~lla~g6 .70
,X' ...

"Nlll

JlfltMI' pOTI ~

,..he shape: ,shown bit the lSOOond ~dlie;~cb~u, used iJil ~l ,. 'nl L. -d:... mOuem ieJl,;tnei-ma:y Dot J]OO'~ SOW U te '1u10 casual leye.~ but is, ill, flict l~u!t~tT' beesuse alm·os'l, tll1l3 wh,o~e ,of 'dn:e·seat ' ciooumdierenc.=' is brotmgb:t into .-Ieetive l\lse~ Thi~ desi.p of pDn w,o,:t.s bi;it m. ,oonj1JDctio.n, wi Uh'. s.e:mi-·uu1i.p va]:ve 'tb,g sbape (l,r whie)] "has,the elee~ o:f l.rinG th.e gal, '£owuds t'be 'I:owtr s:id1e 0'[ till: S9,ltin,g',. :8ome ofUl'= fresh ''b:Hlt· 'is 'tho dm'OOte.d. I'Wily from 'Ole· eXfu8U$1 v.llv:e IDess 'wiU 'e!{!..I;pei ,aDd, it: 'will ]l,lc·t up, 'las ·h.eat {ro,m that bo:t",,'DeadGa (0,01.'PtlEl,mt. ICo.nve:rsc~y rtfI,~ 'I s..U'er is in cti.ned. to .run :b.oUe·[il a ~ , ,~ "A - h' ",'IL ",,~."::'!11 L.... b . · ' llDi.9l.E[1l. W,_'_~eIllWW wve 'to ·e \V.attbed. m peltJiom-be:nlzol,c ml~~OfIS "bUl,t is, 10f'less, consequence with ,al,c.olfilJoi .rue~~ , B,Y ll1!mg, up' in 'Yll1:~eS]lie~ i, it ,oss[ble: to :imPI@V-e the sna,pe of a !at 11ort (as 'i:nd'loated m &e third sketch 'b)i' do,tled, 20
j j,
L ti -

lliDos.) m, addition. 'to illcrea sing 'dIe val ve·area, but i'~DUty_be better. to lu'v,; this, op~l'a;tiorn. Ilntill ,I, later s~age~thu s 'beml 8111-' to· p'llil somet:1tmg, 'OIUt of ··he 'ba,i which OIU1U!;IS ·m:ll.:fn'o~; ~u5"pect" lrl any c~,e, the vlll.ve guide must be SICI t!ea'~,td,~B to O,f[lef the mii1l! im,urn 0 bstrL1ctio~, 'we USlt:lll~ meth,o d 'bWDil 'lC eut it of[ ft,u,sh. with tile rODf the po.r~, This s'Qim.efimes, reduces, (b- gu~,d-i 'length r.a:mer· 't'0I0 dr.8strncany;;, eqlu.d" good ruUlU Illm he ,obtai-ned by f~uimin 'we gu~dJe' IO~ to R I ,kId'!! edse on Itli - ,eot=riAI side and, 11::iul out 'the SbMpl coma ''beLweenthe 1m c' and po·rt- rlil:u,elol the .guide wall thiCkDl~~H, dCWlO to .~- in, or so 01 $= lid,es,~ 'When a '~Ilpr'iwe't 'Vah1e :i'f;, 1'lte:1_ o'r so~dmes lev-so in 's:tat1dal~C1 heads, a certa1n,amo11llt,of'mukinlloll ,m'wfmptlom, '~O s'l1:oo'th aas low m;IY exlst in. the area U10ttilUl fbe. lower oop e,f

or

'~he''valve w:hill.c'h.may prevlemt tWl l;fe8\ beLn'. rul,· e'ljective ~


I li..; :51 I

. n-tis

CURVE DHiLECTS
iE'lil:L¥~tv£

CH",~GliE

IISlNlL,.AJ&G

so

TM FtO'AT

TO

:iYlT IrAI:G CJl V,"lV!E

Belli' 1fj~'JI(Jw etlt~ 'e,l~fJ}IOV.fid fJ'V >MJarglri, di~ mtt;' ,~Mc1' I~ .,J'l:' d',6Iggu Mb6~ - T'.~_ diJl;tBd li'\te3. iluJlcale 'ti)lioert' . ,m~t'QJBfUlrtW be ,remtJ}'~d'Jl

,21,

,C·,A B OR A.'fll,OtN A NP R

ftmdbie shaft ICD,tlCi:" md a, strip of em,ery cloUl 0"1 better' stffi1l~W'lQf"~11IL ;~lbt.l'Sl,',~, tape ]S ~illi:p.,ped, into tbre s~ot and
diameter. 'The wOuDd-u,p tape must be inserted Dl'to the 'P'O,," before' ,the ,power' ~s turned an a:aer 'which '~~ Oymg' end ,~of~e _"tape r'01](I'b_"'potishes, ~ha 'patr.t v1ery rapidly,,, l~o,r final 'po.Jishil[lg~
USie
i

..

iNDU C'fl OtN' :ltA. C'T 0 RS

wrapped round the rod

"D'p to abo,~t

t 'in,

CAU~ES L'OeA t
CBS1~I(JCT~OW

1~/16; «lllig m q'ftj:eJ' fJ/ iflt~ hl!:l~d' WId ,~jin.r &tJr:,,1 ul/JUilWlllJ tl~ t(IJie'l
;Slft!lPjOg _ lj.1Q,fJ ~,;

im,NJ'W1R ,b, re-

G~

/ltJrw

m1J_J!

be

~--,

'to

GAS FIi,OW

. reU b~.elJs 'moils:t,eDeW,~'L.u; 'Ol,~a.ry' 'I~ , d' "".L _..:aI,~__ ",_1 ~I' 'Ill.. meuu POWIJIIJI!!' OF oot~OD m~~er:L l W,Ol1!H1d, 'F'0111lld'the slc,Ued bar 'Th~1! is; a some' CODtr,~,.'J\SISy r,eBml'r~:inl 'f1U!~ v,a.lu,e of 'an ,ab~,olutely mirfor ... tike 'surface:, 'bu,11iter-e W!, DHll doubt that il iitdsh, of ttJius 'Da'tur'fl lcamfl ot do u-y tilnD,1l and, rus at ,~~EHU. aoueee I, ,of' mvy "to chance 'beho,:~de-R:11 howeY-Oft' J\~,(JfM iSi 'Of grea,t,er impor.tance· tbao mere pcdish; Itde- _' ld"e 'fi1]e I' 'P'o.,.·

f"ffflCU~A'~ i!.l /J;. or LOW VA~V[ LIft

a19:o,j and ,.,eD0PI!U" i]]lpe ,ud [S,11l,?o'th 'OJ,PIthCl 'sur".' fua so that, las,oomiD,g: ,PEtS,! 'lblG: scat, rs,CiialJly 10 ,th= valve is, ,FD.tly pided, :trillO the cyllnd,et, in&~gadof ~plD,~1 a,pin!t ,0 luegU1lAr sllrfaoo;f ,or ODe w.mch 'is too ImOSI, to, 'thl vat'll '~:O ,permi~,I-asy lentry';; :Far dt,e.s;~ po~t,ud bead~'m.'~~,~
'ba;r:R[
I

It is o.f!em ,p(ls!Si ble, to let] t, Iway :9 orne metal from 'lbe head and in :SQ'mc iQ8,t~nces, th~ :maMg ledS~: of' 'the: ey6nder

The treatmen t desui'bed ~D:r' o, b",v'lI lmlel ports, ,iIl,P'plies equa.u, 'Wle.U 'to :sid~'iaIDve '~YIl'e5~ Exeep~ im~ wote eases 'whm~ the '~'or-t hsa baeD purposel, ele,vlLted, in ,or.der to ,oibblrun,cleaj';i1II,n~e ,o',er II rl~aJ'''''mo1mled el~ctt-ieallDs'aU~;tiQD'1 lmN)Sl s, V',~ ports oa,ve :m'~jonlb~,y els, eurves, ~ ndt, so .fa'l" as
'tile, Ilppr.ctlcb o (be ga~
~-O

Ajfii,n; .':'-it'llll'iRU ·l.I1'~~~OD~,.,J'O'~.J'

abft, ir,om, In eleClric mo,~or me iD,va1uil!b'~eJ but, tJ]lllame eliect 100.0 'be ,(foduecc1, m,'lb "Il,ritlllem'tt or 'beil;t, Iles'i

,mea
~~I

Of

!,,",,~I~;I;,f

1IIi'i'lif'l

aif"V

W'&.. i,lo'IIIJ' - U'l!oiI'¥j~

'W;.Lrr~

..,I"':'=':ra-;n

Lv'

u,J

,iilII.f!T1I'b'11 I!!I.~~ . Ji--

e:

Uie llDd~nide ,of It'liJ~' \tatv~ is, eoaeerned :maJ"be' as good or better 'tbM the ,a,Y0f,1,p Q,!i1..v, typ~'. As to 'Yal\ll~ shape, the same rules I\'pply: a ,Haltiisb
G~.,NID ""WAt
(i Ive

tiIIHt.Ero

SPIt) C'iIlH CU ~:\,fE

Ordinary round fila ean 'be 'DeBt to shape; tfter hat1:o,g '£.0 redness, and, n-b.lldGIled '10" plopS :mm w,ale,';: 'Ifter tIllJs ~UDao.t '~e: Itt.~ Vc;rJ hard md brIttle,. bUlt if DOit iB, kliock,oo about, 'tbB '_lb, :nmta.m, k,een, ,for a, '10:0,1time. From tb!e' 'OOfbUfettCI' ffa..nge face or 's,mD' up tn, tiHJ ¥,ah~le
guide' 'boss there IhofUld be~ a ,gradluaJ mper ill] 'fLhe, porti, eD;~rely free from rid,ps ,or 'ho:l1iDWS. ,a:md. afl1£r' the W:001.l:

a satis[~tor:.f s'bJ.~ it mus,t 'bel polished 'with rouglJ, and. he ,emIlY clod) to I diead, I,mo alb,
pOirl by been
t.QI

'Dr,ougln

cilUih.. 'POI' rODlP, ,po.d ..pom:mml. 'ODIe ,of the hanwest, '1,00,13 is ,8, piece of 5teel rad Islatted ,acrOI!, '. diameter' with ill hac'k ... , saw :for alOOUilt i iin~in :fro:m, 'thel endli 11ds [,ad,:m 'Jie!lld"in, '61'1 22

I;, Q siii~l"Qfv:e URU tlie ,ga.~.IliJ Il' ,,&. U~lj.ltlrbe ilTiPNJ irt#i ,w:midf'l'Q;f)f)' by gr;'ldl_t~g ~ Iva)" ,netal' 11.1' the c.J~,iitnil!J" iMa l la, 1,~i1 ,PO,I$lt i'mltc(i,t'~d; G:n!.Qt IfJilN is r-eqUi,.,M tlif rh,i~ oJptrr1do'rf.. D'D
~WI D"~

it"

"''l, ,'oJ

TU"N :.N"!l' PO II SL".BID'

port,
rO@JI

Icqtlims

at'Satttsh

but tho Gffe~t ,of the' 'mast-frog CD be reduced by clenring m,wI,Y the rebut wan 'Mtb a port,iiigrindu ad elrnmiINl!,~g 1;5 f:'.,' as :posslb'le a~U slle:r-p augfes'i' rEU1ber AJI; 1,0 Dre _ .tl!ling ~,
c:fut!!lll\8S
I '~Il

·thfl 'best .resuljm~, The "3. 've: ggid"e can be, sbortened. s,.l1ittle GJ[ evm eD,t ,off Suah with the p Dirt wttlt,out d;e-t:.rinteo·t.but 'the, ,tutIllmuJ,' ~ tOI wme]], this is done d1ependi largel, on 'dll- pon sl1.apc~ I!~ m~lY be bet el' hl :Wi:ve '£De gtl~d]_e.fairl,y liang and :s~, it ~y 'tll~g '01" to a "elY' 'Ibin secd o1ll rI.'~ 'the llPpet H.d:.. , Certain V'..,wm. enl10m were, b'llil:t mtJi dle il'lmct ])otm :lyinl, h-o,riZ'Q:ua]Jy' :m olider ~o emp,loy :8 p~:I.iD'T-s:baped. indulCUI{)D 'm_a'mtold" bl1:i an iDcideatal :adv:an'.la.p ,smnetd is the reduction m. the' angle of 'belld in the port. i'tself~, The fironl iCJ'llinder of sueh a. meter mounted on a sm8~-cyliDldm er,uU:~~se and equipped with a, !cflr'buretter armllgoo, te w'or~k~.~ U,P\Wlld. incUnaUQ,m, OliefS in'teresdng 'pos:$:i'bl1i.'ti~:"' 25~' It is obft,o'u:s, Ultit af~er' p3l,'s~,mg [tIle 'valve 'the le·half. bas to 'OOde.;T,IOI ,anlCrWcr ch.mm,l,£ ~ndir'ection 'befox'e it aD I\eae'b, the clVtiocirer t a,nd. 'tWSi pbml 'the r.~,ct 'ma:t ,0 ~poflibly onel",11 aJ r~Df fhCl val~e ope:mm,g, is partially mu'ked,by 'tile valve chest waD ,m bOUDd I'D jmpair {he' Dfea:t11LDIIl Tho
i
l

of' a. s,w,'{~~p:it .P,OIlt

'DlldeF.head, pr,o:IDle, but a, ·oombh~Ml mdl ,3;. :8eoD~tuiliip. 8Mpe ,ot v~~ve gi,res

m d),recti 011 CBIlllJD,t 'be :g,'I{ID"ided

In d1etacha:ble.-.bead en,IiDes, ,cac-elmut be hiken to see that Ole 'mner ed(p ,of 'Ii~ ,-_ ,-t me(l~ _pm"e rl" widl 'the mterio:r' of the bead.. .It 'ma;' be Isdftlable 'tJ@1 ,cut at :ew ,gulet, from sol s'h&d iidumbrlum Oir' 'ODPpe.r.!', which ,fits, the he4'l.dstud s ,acclJ1fatdy~ aad '~ 'blm it u.p to, Ule correct ,int1er'l1al contonr after Daitirng 'to, fhc head.. , As a. fiurtb,Ci' wd to' ~Ol i.n\t'''~rednee the val,c~ bca,d
I;

diame.mr Uf.Id.~'the SUlt. wiiJ'th, is: on1iJ ,Il_llid round gift: th~, Icdg e1 of seat and. ·vw.Vet U, pmVi.IDUSly' described.. O:b,
l

III

'*~~,
ll

:m1!lch use 'to !lttem'pt 'to 'EJ~~ a '~MBer''valve" a]thcm;gb. it may' be posan~~e 'to do so If:' t~ber-ei.s. am~p'~~f,OIDm 9 vaUDbl~ !UDiIlndJ

accomt of the

.I1l"'oximi.ty

of tOg. -ehes:twaJl it is :rm:-ely of


24

.p&rformanc. and t j.a keepm.g: w'".'tbrthis .idM am fitted 'wU:h s.mal~'bo 'e carbnreners, After due a'l'teld!i"~Jl to the indue.... 'a.om tract and ttinUlll; lea JHlm! still to be' dealt witth)~ a hl'l~gtr IcadJumlle1" ean 'be: used, 1,~ltbougm ls not p.c9)s·b~e to',e,o up· h t,o ,quHe the sume size as ;DD o,.lL'''~ 'wt wlU take" As a GOmmcnce:mellt" use 'the mcx~sJze lDwer lJO that reeommeaded for aA o.h, v'" engine In th capaci Ity cbeke scale 011 ,,.1£ J, 1~ Natul,aU:y the Inlet Ilc,rt mus,t, 'be, incRa5ed lD djam~teE ~!o ,milch up with the m~,'pr","'bo\fe car bUite1"t'er', One of the .. dlmc:Wlt ~esassooated, whh the 'obt81.~nms 101f' ,go 00 breathing, .in 3" sJde-v,ll ve engine: on tile lines just described is thalli if amPle l,a~'i1"o,w MULS :BM 1,f\Oivldm alll'ou.nd the 'va.lve he-ad, the 'CfJ,m,pr,essic'D ratio may beoomc::m;ltu::h. too ,kg,w ~ A poujbl:e :1J1'nD 0'£ develo,m~mJt worth PUrsW.Dg only IDf v,al,~~ m;ing: .m.odi6~:ti,QM can alsO' be carried out 'would 'be to tega:rd
1

'the h~d'i o'r lll~mmAnj:yely' it 'fhef!~'is, BuJ!-ru.ejentmeg~, in, tbe. Icm.s'timg: 'to, aJ low fO'1 'the: neccs;JaQ' grimwn,l~awa,:y ~ .- est ,Iide.-valve engines ha ve ,u'slow ti miniS an d l,o'w V:ldve Uttslj; with the ~imWil1tiOD '0 ' Ihlin.1 good low;,.speed
'I,ll

",~
~~I

1"lJ'Nn~Ul :!ENll,R ,SP'SO,DI

iif"ii .ii, H ~~Jr!Ib.U

'tili;

U" "m oil T'm'n 'N,"Ii ..:: ~I'~' ,~'-:l. -

~'ii'D-; ~,J:'!~L",

1I1~-~J

la' ,"''I'

O'I;-U 'C'''W'i 10. )1:. N· ".::'.Ii '


..

:.., '-.n' CT

I,

0'0~!ioJ1 ~,
-

that 'portioD of tn,e 'valve, operun,!l: :furtbes:t f[~~),m CJlm~d~:t 'the as being rela:rtiv ely useless I~[l'ywa,y~, and to re-design the combustion chamber 'with the space 'immediately above tbe UJJe~'~;~J:VIe;machined :p,I,f,aUel '[0- a ram:U.8 on[,Y sUg'htly' greater iJiBn, '[Be lar,les'~, bde:t valve 'that CliD be 'tv{lrken in.. The de,p~b of'this; pocket should, be about d, 'm.. gIDi~[er-'than , the m'mmu'm, val~e Hf~1lInd the cam contour modw,ed '~Ol s'l&m ue valve 'Up to fb~~lift as rap.r~dK~y pos~~ble and, hold as, it ~t fun ~'ift or I. co nsiderable perliDd~ f Tbe 'p 01 It ~kely to' '00 most 8B'eeti ve ,in, this 'mstaD'V0 'would, be lOf Ute HaUiS.!l typ~, IS :sbo,wn 001 the, ,wargf,aJ,m '0111 pa.,p 25~, mr1eetin:gtbe ,gas,stream main'lyim the dlrection 'Df the.,eflecti~e :f'iI "f I,t.-" ~1""lI'.tio, '0- on -- " til' _,.~ ;f'II'~ii!',j'If!'~' 'W'!iiil' ,!tI!0@' t:IF!I' '~.IJ.lI~'D m'm A if.ill'll .... 'i-.' ... .t"DrllJ.l,~n 10' W!e: 'v;a!!l.'¥~_ [l~n,."'J\~r. T- 0 ~;;Ui>JL di~ectio'n to ,cot,er.the l~y1Jind0' the head may '00 b ldlo'w,ed out 'Stl Ihdy il'rnd the l!OP' edge of' the ICY'LWnder bore :rl,dilllll~d 'Dff~, I dUJugh lnot so ,fa:r'dOiWl1 tho boee that the '~op;r,in,G is dle:priYledl of th. P lOtectiO,Il, of' the up'per :ri.m,gtODd ~
1

,p,tetcly
;iJb..... l~

order to let th,e, :maDmum poetarea ;,'by s 0' d aing, mere g,f 'me valve wiU be, 1c.~PQJ.ed. om,0 oU'tgoi Df! gu, mid, ~
rn

$lio,u,8b which most of the 'beat picked, up has

1i.1! l~

~t;i:i.-,

w~n
~

1Ii...... Il).l;, ,

rob _,'L;Q;..::I 0. ..U~!U.


j

!II"iIof:y",

m"iliiJ"!oil." _. Ut~U

UO'fi,

iil..-I.. '''-:tr£W. ;g!um

mu~

~"'" ~uj_,

nta ....
':~II

iI!

l'

I i"P'lWi'B i!Ji' II

'EO

be

100(1];,0,

d.uc~ed;o C,n the. Dither' hand, 'ir [be pc,l1, i~ so shaped that a ~iJf'ge pm:npGrlJo:n 10f' the exlm"lemely hot gas rus ICI,]JlJ.ed. to .impiftlfe risk of fti'~~:rail'uF'~ 'tnrQugmt o:'e[,h~tinl ail dI e ,jJuntti on of 'die :item and bead~ '(!uuins, a'w,a_y side, 'walts; $('1 'dl~i.l tlle ~ ·'d' i dj' - ,: ,':!I er t&#! port IS Ictl(nu ~J.illli,'b-' m"'d' thaan th' e mame tocr a I, tIt-e dJIna,'[ reduces this cleel, 'yery IClQ,n'si,d1er,ablYt, and is im faet the onJ!y 'COUIrSe 'Dpaa, ill, some tli~llnu 'WlmfC .for ~he'5;IJ~e of eo:m:pIJcta.t:S8 'lh ~ port hats, ,wposely beem, _~ep,t ''D iJ!' ...ii~~, t '.... b ' -ill.. ... L~,...1 ... _pet'eml d-·' .,oillns muenL mO~ll~iCrl u' -','O'JilI )0' P'OI,I~s 'a,pl 't~Jiet.UJi."'~ UIS, ,of metal b~~tw,ee;!!ld1~:pOf1[ and aei!blbolttiQg pocbg, :s,ucb as rook:Qr:~balesil spriD,.bo:xes or 'the :W,CIM ~o,med.mH' prmmded. ',,0 IBceom'm,odate ,coD 'y,wve :sprJnp~ sb'Otdd be
l
I ' ", _ ,, 1",~--, " I

OD

the stem wit'llout .' 'n'ee pa:m of lesca;~_!_,tb,ll31l"e, ~ Ir-~'


I!J
I ,I' ,

~~

a graV1e'
III

,f','

'_

"

I,

jo~ """, -

'

'1--

T"ii

i.l..1iIIi;

C";

,I!JI.II

,'i"Ii

[f.

.,t
I

The' 'EQaud,

,on

iiiIiiW. - 'ill -, ="<A IWAl'ii:CI'~l!I

The ,wdiUUS,t v,a,lvle: and p'cn~t s,'tilll i[iC]llUin to' ., D dea]}c wi:thJI and it sJ!Jowd be apprecia.ted that (be' ps~fto'w con dj'ti ens are qiU~~e lft!~renlt from these ,c;Dsl~io8 in 'the Inlet, mn 1tlli~: d latt,er', th~ !flB ,0pl,roaches frGm tbe ba.ct of the' va: :"jl ,and, t'llle p'ressll!lJ1e~di:rarence 'betw,ccll 'pion and C1'~'indcr iii (:01" sh auld be) of the c:rd'cI oif 5: 'Ott' (1 lb. per 8'1.. in,. only as a, '1Jf'JxtnJ'titH' 'va1t1e~, ,and mUI'1 be much less rIlJUI 'th,~'s, at 'tb 6:n~sb of the! iDd.~cti,o(m, strok,e" Wid], me exhaust 'Ym,~e'j bOW'e1ref-, the gas at [be mo,mem Q,t openill g i'~, art hlgh, l7lr-essu'!'e--=70 cr $0 Ub~per S'1,., tin.;IDd 'ws'woitlng aU rOJund Ole pen1Pi'u~'ry of 'the h0.ld~'ooa.4y' to Ie$CiI:pe lia,t mOlmellt, tbe "al ve be,gins to Iif1::.. Tbu~lw:bl;mvl~~tl" ' 'thm port sh ape. the 'wb 0,1: ,of' the Itircum,rcr,enc~ '0'" the vall,ve, e is, IO'[lemtwv~ .Ed] d SODIO of the ,gas can es,ea'pe s~raigb d.own t 'dae port; ol1l,r 1ttaH of' the ,gas ,~:s obstructed '~Y' the valva st~m and ,gujd~~, (;()'D,sec),uell,tly 'these Can be permitted, ro, occur" qlUJ~ a lot of S:PBC'C wl,tbout detrffi~m;t.,

ibl.t, tlu~fe,is ,Qi;lDp!te mell] 'preSell.'t:, D!O!£hiorg is mom


(10'1' ~pe:m3i,¥ei)
,i

'J'iI ~r.6~,;;],b rIll ~J;~~"g

'IIU'

1,J''nl

m; ;Ii."" ~I~

mi'~I'::ii-'!cmi,oj'';iii'IIl~

- _~!I;;"~'~

IA

~1UlJ'F""''''

i!lll

'm '~t:~~1f!i _·0' iJ!~Ji _

,.!FIJ,Ii"!!iii11i'liiii
'!I;,!'~

UI~,I!o.!

,'.,-Ib~· IS - .. , ]01· ,'"_ ne:uml


,

than to 6Jid tltcJ port breokiillg throop 'iJllJ:£0' a p1l'acl: w'b,re i:t :sb,owd D'ort do so" pi,mrticubtrly juS'~:0: tile
.',~iU"11il loomplc
..... ,

I:JUlO~j

01

U'~=!i'

~1IloI"~

,Ai.'I n ....

1~')iD ~_ :'M~Bn d... ~ -' te:_.u

.'t; ik,.d. J ueDuS

'I~NiD NU1'
~AO'I\II\ TING

~E" T'

PROH POR.T

rrfSU,iFFICJiNT tAC~ I...alG U,'E.H~N!D' ,EAT RING,

J;;.U\ 'SpAC E ElH::iW:EIE;N Nlil l' AND POR',~

I't

is; a mi;st~u:e to carve, awaY' the

S~];wdf:a.nd boss lC'om,'"',

(RJ.lh/'). n,fdetJ,l,pktlW;l~J)orrl ""rm,ge:mJ!nl ,dtol~l:ngrl.I,., c-o~r:I:mn wl:t&, 11m -,fMer lJk.e~~'i'Il~ ,riA!;' WI1It ~'I'(:).tted tlJ~ '~l'\~' ,u~. IN¥},$!SfJ';(fd' ;Mdt

IrQ~.l'te4,.lm.eA ,qf IIJJiI1" fmlfJ ~'fj'e


21

t:t_ [',fF ,~~, t~/JQIII'"

,26

'TD'NI:NQ, P01~, SPEe:D

o A K :B"U'R A'I"l
,conductor' :and,

0 N A,N D I'ND

i(Jf CTM 0 N

.r-A.CTIO

RS

neve.r fie.m,o,vc: m~ta.J m' ,8:IIY' but ;[be smru1e~'t amooo't from tbe 'seat riDS itseJIf~mnd alko leave, plb~\IJ:t,y ,of D!,~a1 u:mder. '!.be r.~:n,G; hm:e, m'lt ;3 ,c1()ses:t to t1tu!tpDrt~ aill there H, :I poss.l:bili.ty w 'back, due 'to lack ,of suppor[ 'ff there h; mSD,fficien:t port""' metal 'bac.mc u:p the :ring: at this pomit;: the 'valve, will then, eesse to be p,s-..t1gnl &D,d Dll'a,y' shortly faU, 'tht.,ou,gn, Il:nrer .., ta:uSC9: ,of 'tt,ou:b~e in W~s1:1; hea t ah8orh~d 'back into the head, any heat. le't. Jn '~
beC()nh~'!,

'poHslled~, It is bfn~t mc:~'to cI=_n to aUow a 'rUtin Skin 'CfJ remmn"


l

am

carbon ,out of It bu,l


';s a, pOQr heat ,of waste bea"~ by'th'e

ICarbon

tha:t t'lp,losicm,

pms'SUle

ma

'Rc!~j'll11y'

to:roe 'me :su:t... ,tmg

wmen

liCIt!

,DS

:h,e~nitJ,l~ .,t is 'Btlt a W~JS ap:plecimted tUurt ODe 01 the most pro,lffic

'"

! low~~d,be' as, Ibo,n a 5, PQSSjb~£:iil [and tb.er,e SllOuJd, be i\ ,ath :for ,beat coad'Ue_'·oD b. t,WetO Un:! port and, tbe e:UII:t!st plp_ D'UtJI fbla,t not between lI,ut :Ind ,pipe.. These eou,ditigns are aD a ~rusl! _d by \lsi.ns 3( :nlale.-thr-OOded ,nut :'j th a 'p~pdb~c c'~earlDce bclweell dill bore ,of ~bcnut and "he pipe; at a.ml time lODl1; p Olr~sfDlmishe.g, 'm tb ma ny fins, to eeel 'tbEi P D:rt d OWl]' 'w,ele [mdUo,ma.bl£ijl but. it, is fa.r 'better to, pm"w U:i'c heat -_~ill.S aibsorbedl l",other ;t~baD 't'D djssipal~e i. ntlcfW,lU'd's,: an c~am ~natlcn Df ;ru.m,ost lev~ry eDlgi~l]e wlu.ch, 11as baen Q m,oCESifiJi perf oI'm u on 'petrol} gF' pCjtro~..,bemo~]e w,ru H &how'
'-' I
e ' .

bl'~o the 'Ingi.n~· tbe 'bet1a'~ C'Qlf]l!S)e,quent Iy" eabau fit ports

a '\vas[;e'

'Pl'O dlUJO-~,nnd

L ..C.. e<Dglt[HaS .itS the lar,p: amiO'UD,'t of by the 'IEa.n.s,t..port ¥I,ang ,aDd 'fed, Once '11m exhaust v,11'\16 has ,opeJlcd gas ~-ases !~O' be: 10\1 am" Y,al,[N~: "ad]
l

't11e

less i'~ls - !r.~absor:bed

Python lengines; ('dle: name 'under wbf.ch Rudge p'o,wer units 'were supplied. tG1 (iUl_~r ,mabr.s:) 'we~ s emetimes eq,uipped W,tth ,a,da,pWrs 'forced mto tlm; '(Jtlwb w'5w.'i IJ.-iin. pi pes, (:,fiu' too 'b~g'~ even for the 5.00 c. e, models')j aad tbese 'Ih'ou'td 'be Ie'moved.. This ils d:o,j]]'e by' rcm.ovirn,g the: OO:xa.gDD'" beadied sctmt:reM 'w'bmc· lot' " '~br adaptors iOJ plaice:: 1:he 13ner ca:n 'then 'be twisted out 'with t'be. aid of a lIarge Fo D~iIIl prin't, 'pipe~wrencht Elm, operation, best cond !jete' - before de'tacbi :ng '[be bead f~om ~'b,eyl~rnder~ Tile ,rigb~. p,ipe ,5.L~e' ~ is that whlc'h ,jm,t ftts, ,inlEhe COUJlJlt-e ball in the parI f,'!olm wmc~b 'tbe adaptorS! b:a:ve 11-1 removed,,> , s,ea,t: the 'h"t.ter ~d]JIOIIU'~d" 'th!ere~ore', be 1't'IS'O\!'Hii!bI:, 'wid~bet¥t,ooD ~01 ID~ and, "OJI ift~'1 ,0 ecord in I, to 'Yil l~e size" Of' s,pri.o,t '\¥crr .,- or c 0, '~D _n,es, whIc], wi n be r-egulariy ~'trip'~ed. dc'w.o afbe:r -overy C!,en't'lt IllS:rf'fiO\V Cr se us ItiD be used wi~'Il safetJ'j' but more frequent valv'e~lea .. lllce adjustment may be necess:w:y~ ],t may 'PfjJY 00 m heads ariliinaUy designed] witb b c,'tb valve, -of ,eql1 al swz - '10 reduce the diBm'~'IJGr,cif the ,elbau9,t "a1l,\'1e) and, tbere~Olell the; seat ''Wid,tll" in ,order tOI :6:t 'a, :~ar,pr'nlet "1\)10 [and still, i ma~n'tain emoug'b c~ean"IllJCe'be~w~~n tbe ,two to l~mveTl,t m,utum - :i!ltle,[,f.t41~;nCleln the o ,elrm Pi period WMII1 both, are partially lifted.. A stigThl'U,'eonve:· bead II pmfCc;rt1 bl ' '~Ol
1 '

port, w,a11.5.,

helps'

quite an effecniv.e imsulltor~ ,..

tOI

]limit 'the absorptioD,

aw,oy by coad ue t~ tm\Olil h on

Mlbl,cb ()f ~hebaa;~ atbsorbed 'b,'

-dIG'

*~

.·UihUS,t.

vah'e bes d ge,t'!,

diat £bey ,a,']J possess 'this ft~llJ.M: of sbor '" drn:ct porU" The po~nt is of'-!eJs ~m.portaDc.~ on en gjm es des:wgrtIBd Ipeci6,c..., ally lOr' al~tdlIO;~ fuel, bu.t, 'nl!~,'tdoes mot lnl'palr tbe e.s·~eDd:al eeereetnes s of:the prine ip,me~ D,CH.lb~e3:pDft heads wbicb wer.e 'poptmlar seme yea rs ago ~ al M. ~ '" ;i"i"m a,r.''e,j; genesar, not ,O,ea!1 as e~uCleot as .'1.. In y ~LOI~: 'WW:w 'slD&,e: ports, and most engines S~) de.'5ligIled. wUI peffo,tJD betttef ,W ene iol the ports lSI bl~Ulbd ,off c'olmpWetely' 2d]J;d!as close II' to t~0; va.~w a:s pessible, The term ~~doubm port i t is, used here ,1lS al'plybl,g to a slngJe 'v'a,~,ve,; if 'there are two exhaust valves, It is usuan ~br eatlh '~Ol ]J,;"lIUl Us CHvn, ,p D(rt~ and in tID!, event tb,e ,cri'acism", IDl! C10UB€',. dnu :not applJ~ 0,0;=' ,anema;ust port :hu boon cor:rect1:y' :s'~ped and 28
j,iL., '

smiBh,t, Increase in wclpt.. The edge mus,_ ,mlOl be "00 'thin), .,omen/lise i~ wUt let V';fY' ,hot and :ma,' warp lout of s:ba.pe at :r~nnlml ttmPl~ra.ture ,;1 ali 'wi UJ, inlet V,BJ,1.vC 'tb; tap, edge shou ld be s'HghUy rounded 611" to impruve S8..£'"" 6 o,w and to Ilvojd, a local hot 81e/l~ If 'there i9, MY doubt a9 'tei 'UIe q[uJi1tJ' Of (\~e of 'IDe v~:,e~, 'I~ay ,9a~fe'- ,discard it ,aDd. ,IDI at, :n,ew lone o,f K~B. 9,6S lor s,imUru- ,IJastem'{j,c sb!~e~,oo:nfo,rming 'to '£1m ,British ,5,peci ... , '
H,
1

OD,C

'wille;":'is dead :t9at OF'

leVieD oonca,'YD;t

a,lthougb it melin,s

n~.e

,2;9

C,Alt]:rU-RA,'T,[O:N A".N:D lNrDUC"[IOJ~ IP,lCTOI..S

CO,,",I!(:-twd il!'Cfj'Tuct' l~cb;/tJMeS!

QIIMI,nlc1a.e.ilfl1jllillt6IMj'

(j"'eJ:iJ'~-

m 'flit Jll''(}ces~

fica-a,on D,~T~D~4'9b, Better I'till~ it pio~sib1f'G~t ho,ld, of a

!oclium"JfiUed 'y,alvc ,of' 'the ,ty~ ,commiowy :6tted to aero'eJgiiue5' mud used 'b:y aU,[' leadins ralting moo, dud.lill the last t\VO lOll' three 'Years, iD'r ra)cmg ~ efore the 'W,3:I", Tlru00 e "alVes, an: larjer 'tile s:~em dtan, the laIDid Q'.lllles: tlJ1e:,' replace, D,d OJ consequence the' ,guldB?s will need 'to 'be

diunetef'~ and ,ha,v~cast ..i:v'O(fl,,guitie'.s; an improve:menl, in, b,ea~:du;si,pa'tin, can. b~ ~B.ected, 'DJ runcre~,liQg the :st,m di amerer by' '9 m. 8i.nd, using wlllmind.um ... ronze 01 b Barronia ... eh~l]1gWldes but it will be: ~ry m wi"w these 'metam 't'D ensure a, s:mIQ,U"though pm;d~w'su.pp.'II,Y' ]1tlllrl'cp:t ' of 'to pre,~el'Jr~5·e]mi'~'., A k;s,h-coa.ti:~:1:1 O\r bard chrome pl'a:~e ,.000.51 :irn,-~'OOI in, 'thick. OD, the 'YsI.v,e stern 'w.ill: 1150' .Dsisil 'm this direeticn, Abr!Hltpti'OIn 10 he:a:t by 'tUe :bcad is, b:lsmed b,yeo'Dto;uti'q, the ylJlve, ,c,[nest S(J 'tbat. the! D1llltgoirng ,lIS is, ~dl lOwed 'to, '1I;ow i,wa,,' U :smoQthl, IS possibiie':1 'this ~I"- ~hme:,,-r,~b,' cJimina,tl'" a
ill :6ltlem
1,

~Dgsharpi oomus in the ',alve' chest amd aUowing: pl1en,ty o;r


f\Ci,om O~-f ~h.e (lad

:~n

'i,"

[1-

renewed buil.'

01'

bored out,

the 'sea:ts bu "DB

should ill;. ,__ :,,_~;id allwatf:~, ~J!J'_

parent ,!I.ilJ~~~ .., 'o"f II,'IL _JSit, ~._ .. IUl~"" val ve,. as s:hoM] m, the dml"BJiD ; it :m inad vis'a,bm.c tO IUIse haJd,,f:acing te mcrease the ,dilme~er of the head lor to 'lnwld up ,8 Uoi:JIru "'A TIli.S -_i!',M'if!i,'l'lil 'N' imJ!"llm' 0'1"",, ,~t,II On,ilill 'f"""': ..-,~ 'bl~ld m.,,;l' wnm lII.le~..:Iil I~nyi: ik_' ~nlJ.U.lliA ~';:"lll\e! !i;!llIiiII' III;" ,. \w.-, -:. .·.1' .y' .....
'L ..., ~i!ii!
~i

~~.Brlltl'trs;y 'n ~ Both thesleJ rlUoys, are 'D,Q'D...feR"'iIJUJ1I:ud, lIa;',l Ibe ,B,d,vDtI\l~ that (bey' De very rcsistent ee I\~:tmck'b;" Ute 'Q'·:,rod'lalcq ,or E'm,,] -Ilid,;; ill, Countriesi 'WDele :beaVc[tylea;~cd luc! is QI'bbl.illable; ,aud. 'penD hislible ,"Oir' 'r.BQ'LOB i:~ a ,:1 wile ,preeau'(JloD IiCDIDIve du=. \"iliYes l ,Stem!ilted ", before the, bl!tomt; d.m.ma"e:e4, b,Y' l'cad ,a.tta,ex,. 'Thew ,lU't otler mfderiBls, such as ~,~ o'baIi;te, ~I! C can be M8oo, ~Oir ua:rd-facjng, yaht~i f t.."",. -. .. ·iL.__ d' w8·. _ t·, w'e 'd" 'PIO\Sb,~, - - ~" .... ma.te(ria:~ b U 1_ .must .lKi· ,flmlcm~re··, _ , -.' ~ ", ~ II.
II

mp die; Rat, wilth,

:am o the mise,

Vl1y'BS,

'ml.'vle 'w,am 'UUn :ttleElf SOMd ea.D. '[be fiCO'lmilme-d, 'b,

wruok

exha'ust
,~ ••
0-·

[of th,e valve w:he.n l't is al~ lift. 'Tb, :geb~1tlepl[i~,vious'~yIOiU;tlimed fOf' dellibe(ra\'~eb' masking part, O(f: 'the lrnlst 'V3]V~1 is de6ni~e:~y B"pip~i'ea,b~e"JOI the '[not
Va11''e'll roil fit

run

1- ~

Stdll'te ,~, 'Nlo~ II' ,gradm or

eemmeneement of ]]t\ m, om.r


aa,s,

is im;pa;r,ative that the 'WbD'.~BIcHCpm,iiil ee ,orf this, 'oo,mpone:n1 is 'b.nHJ"iht in,to ,1,ctio'Ei aU, thQ
tal Djlbel',ate 'tbe.m,p-'prHslure'

immcdi - 't~"l11 " "~-~,

Vd¥' S -·tt .Alo ,'_u Tbe, mal'Dri~,yof "lIve sests are 'formed, 'at 45 a to tb," Ui8'~, brut s'ome ,maker,s, fl VO'U' th~ fll't~e-F 3,0° ,seal~~l wmcb i5, m,Orl: deed ve at low 'lifts blta\~8e ',be: actual oplnh!tl,g bet.wreon 'y,al~~,and IM,t is, ,greal'ttm' by 22;,%, 01 in, the r-8'I.1:o ,of Sf) to 1'O~This ad,antag8 ceases after' the V,W,YO has lifted by an ,&100UQi't ap'pi.[,oximl( 'e~y mal te t tj:Q]'e.5 the sea;- Yrid.[j~, aad eq ii" 'iberab,fll;li of less imporbil1Qe wildt :Darrow Bleatsl tb"Q(o \Vi. wide eaes, but with the widths, ,commonly '~mplo:yed 'tile, pin ls w,ort~l'wmle beeause m1:lcft of·the :blieatbing 'W,tI'st, 'puftarceJ, be aa=omplis bed, whea either 'y,a]ve 'is, only pa;rtiiaiJl~,.. 'the 'tsJ,vc and may gilve, "be't'teE' MSU~ tSI DlJeehlnimly 'm heads ~tb short ·guidcs 'Or. these m-'wmc:b~disto.rliouma.y' ~ecur at b~sh,tem:per&m:r-es Som.c engines are made with ' lOP :inteu :md ,ts~ ',e1hausts for ;tba,t reason,
Irdect
(lD,
j 1
i

w'mcn

'l> I;

'.

'."

,;11.'1..

,ji,L.-·

b'ii'i"'L.rli)1I 'UI,p uy ,jI,'L 14e:l!!,~'U, - - -- 'iii.. - - ',U1~

1_

.,J

,I;l,,",

!,_

I. _'

115;,

'Ill,;.

.....

2\ D.(Ul ..·fimous

fOf exhaust val v,~~~

mck;el aUoy~is another ve~ ,good, matermlJ


-

!iO!1~)¥,"

,i;~

JFio

Slde' 'EdlaDS1'

'vary,.
~

:6ft.ed ~ COD'V-ers e~y the 4S~ ~iCa.t.has


til

a gFleatCf'

seil:"centrilll,1

SidfJ e:docand. valves are 'woroo' lOa: tha.n 'the o\o'h..,~ ty,t as n:ptOs heat,., becalBe 't'flQr ge1 little I~ODIIlin.I:from tbe momiml, e:!t~PI' ,ud. the part ,o:f'tb.e 'seat neit '~be,'b~1 'i'l
'Dauud'to
run 'very bert ..

AlB 0 they are IlS.uaU; :ra.tber :Slman 30


1

31

ATTENT'~ON

T'O IO~B~ V", 'CY.L,~ND'BR. IIIlA.DS,

the earburetter and port hOl'iesl eaa then be bleoded inte 1~1J]eb. oilier- ,and ",ou 'will 'be sure that~, GWJll if the. c~]'bllfetle,r 'bas. 'to be [~tred lJ..asti~1,y ,ail !Nlllilt= f1l!tilD.e date, it 'wiU ,g'o

'back
A,. n'IT' ,·n:iPl,,;,1TI' Q'N··''",, ITIO:·, ,0.--· 'H' "V'."', ~1;"·· _" ·' ~ '" ,~
Ii!! ~ _~
"!~

nlr.,.. '!!,., ~ Iny ." ~:tm'Bt''Ui!!-'Qugb VIlb ,r,a:u,om ..


I

eorree

t1,

and cannot pm,sibl,' wor.k: eu t. of POSitli,OD,R t

,~'1'1fI·ND·': ~~ ~-I, ~ _: '·,'1:l!R" _


llG:.l
I

....:._

U'IC JrI.~

,tA

""S'

".'

So :[a~f 'we have .progress,e4 tJO the: sta,ge w:he're the va.l'fe :sea:l! :aDIU p,olrts na,vlE been ~t'Wfided to- -at le.as[j; S0 far II, tbe W'ritl '00 "'liAflord, is cencemedr ca:_rryin,g out the 'work. j'n a rlCaU, fbO,r,OllgD :maOl'u:r takes ,I, much m 'C![I ,leI' 'WIIlD u,d

..

BefOI"B prl(lcee.diJD,BJ, f1JI1lhew'j)' dle carclW:'etler showd 'be S:'~t-d,termp,o,tLarily to 'lIUl'to SimI!; 'tha,I it llnes up ace-m,s,tel:, wiJta, 'rtbl, port wmtho'~t rI '•.•s~ep ,uyuihere ,9!oW1ld th,,: ' cifcwmfur,mce., If the mi ling eti:ul'mher :pu-5he1 OD to I, stuib I or has I sp,lg,oted Dmll~"'toe' 'tw,o bora, alm,ost, bound~o be, ,eoftcCJltricl btU a tU 'ste p I'~ 'Will ens,t, ~f' tbe dhnl1etef.a, Irle utieqUJ&1 or. if' the pon. bas been, filed a ,trine ,out o,:f :roliu'ld thu'1ng 'the' c'iesl'riDg,-lJp proeess, Osee '~ined 'UP"I' ei.ttther o,f dilse ~yp~ wUiU ;lhv;l,ys;reB.S!emb~c COftttCU.y ~ but the stmda:ni 'B.s.:n,.ei w'bic'b has 'no' s,pW,IO't,.i is, S(l'me;times_ rather ~slack 'Hit on, ib two studs, If me studbO;~e8are worn cr b.:n~~e eea m,eiJ, IOU.t [I,t seme timet. it: [l~,s, b '10 :I}emm them, out to I mn,. ,lll'lUm :6t bushes on te 'the :studs;
't'll

faJ m'or-e paliitmce dlan sj.mpl:y descr,~bl.8: it..-

u,e

TIlII IcyIDi:lldier h ~Id s af ,m'dy ,modeh were fil;ted 'with Ictewed, ..in stu IDs 'to ·ta :kD cHp-:fitd.D-I !cq'rbu rct~-eIS'~ d tho 1:1 1m PilI, ,maken loo,nce:m'l'-d 'Ci'D onen -su~pp,l"long,!, pa'uems ~
:11 em,ativelYl' Lo lo,rder "CI use a 'Ba[j'1 .. 6'tUf;U~,lear'blll~euer~,a

studs, 'M~~ena b~e '[he i.nd:u;Qt~,o'n pipe length to t.-b~~ite'ps up, '~!O2 b.l~, s

'ClDS, :fa,ullmust be 'r'ootuloo by ltnling: up the face,. For use :i:mlater ex ,perimentstI itt ,is; wOtrth w,blle m.akill1 'IUl];" s ome ICXUDisi,om bloeksto ,1)0 'be:tw,ee,nthe Dm.ngic ,tates~in 'I],def' to :y31~' the ~~rrugt1~ f t~c irld'uctm'DEtSfy,s'tem. :~ the 'eMi)CSit way o 'LS!tio mlIClline thetD from aJuml'jmium ~89Itin~ made fn'JIlJ a wloa~em psuern t:he same' ~pe as the -flaDg~ ,Bnd !-,m.~ finished t~ictn es:s,~p:o Ul'l" of tbese, 'plus, the [I,aces!ary longer
be

So~edmes these flanges, become beDtt (us,nally' tbrOTU,p, 'tb:e I,SCI ~)f , Plctm,g waIdler '\lib.iclJ OJ too ~o,nand, 'thick)1 Slid I

v~ried m

:stGe'lbD,S~

--

'illlducti CD s:r,s'~mna Lamn~itbm 10]]1 enougb D,or ~arg Inoulh Ferr 'muim;nm power ~,t mlh 'f'.,P"Dll,. (aiSle' CiitJ'Pte, XVIII)" New p~pes
a'D

,ratbe'l" ~thalilto 'llDod'ilfy '

],~ 'mo'y be ad Y'j sa ble

Cim

b e weded

or brazed to 'Ibe

'to

old

ma ICeup

stub,

:It Dew :ILub

I\l't,o,&~£her

ODe ~ mall:)"

..
T"'~~O
J:'IH~

I!liS,if

nf~'f,iMDitn,

,AnotJJJ:er Ump.~e :meitbod Is tal use a pilJOe ,of lei n'vas--rebdomed, hese litachad to the lexiisli Dg iwdllleg,On pi,pe al,d '00 ,0 aCeuj,(lD p~e by JubUee clips, Ihougb some care has 'to be, 'mk .D1 to I voi:d a nas '8 8 tl)P 'or ooango In. diamm[' at I~£h change fr.nm pipe to hese, pP1icular'~ly it an inch or ;fUJ of hose i5~e1tposed" tha'l case;
1 1

c;a,n D£' mad C! . np, qld'te 'bf,ued or we~ded on,

'~e~"

e.U" 'f:r,om ,S;~,-,1 tllbe

'Wi'Lb :lU!pcs

mdaltie . bl,be 'to '1)I,m1el"ViCa ,1':,. lc,omt'mtt ,dli'ame.tm~ This scheme' ~~ . '"~I, .lilt.. 1.. . ,,'•.
IIlSrld_B/tes

the ~t

t1birng £s: 'to line 011 hose ?liUl, a third pleoe ,of
IUlIe- 'cm',uiIHI_'Usr J]~f,o,m the
I .,

in

bip~pecd 'wb.r4uoDS whlcb somgu.~~, "ea,useB 'mys~rii[n~!s of r .. .,m., 'tlJ'ough :I,MS, p uns1J:sp~ted 'I,ooding at ,(1, eenllo, O:F..w~j,caJpeed aad '9,0 ~s' s
referred
'to ~~
MP!'Iirin __I~---:D

irni C:b,an~"!IP18:' . .,.,It


~ Y'. ~ ~~'tIl,

~t'H'lt'UJL:Ii til...Y.

3,~,

TUNING

'FOR SI'IDD

ATIB~1:'Tj1!OIN TO O~Hf@,V,~ CYLIND,Eil

H'!ADS

,AmaaJ carburerters, ue made' Jim both 6ange- a.nd GUpfi.t'ti,ng, forms, The Iar,I,e;st bore which, ean 5'afely he uaed, wi~ the standard 2.. n .. sWd 'rentr&Wsm.DOO is 1ft in., ,and, i,
CY'ml

underl,ooe cans:i.de,r.a,bte d-eslgn modmc3ti(HlS bef~,re :Feleh~ ,m;g (heir pii,es~n state of [e'lia blli,t'~ M(lst 'ports m.ode~~ t
iii i

i.e, thMe, 'which :fi'~ stubs, do ']]O,t save 'OD this limhatioo, aDd, '\vnell :f.o'f,' ,re~;S01lS lof space' Ot' ,tJO e:tim~ftU~\m bauds in the ind UCdOD s,)f-st.em,the miixitDII chamber has eo 'be, :mou'frmd g,U'l of th~ 'Y'eru.ea], the !cU,P-'1ltting 't~ei is easier to iu!mlll beca,lu!m it can :stmply be :!;.'wlyeUed r"oD'Ild, the s;mb 6:ttEngoarbutetters, is iiIrima:terial 'w~wln Umi:t5~,. :p,rovicted tIlel !loa,t, level is, eerMGt lin rda:~j.oIJlj tbe j et II' rtlHyg,ghif tile Inelina bon is ,pea!~tr' to 'than .Sl@ Bood~D,1from, the :pll.o't Jet mn.to tbe engine, 'wiD
j

"lmn UlGre ls ,o:ml:y

jillSt

clearance for "the: nuts, C~p""

Biola the correct p05iti,oiD~ 'The ,B-nul,o .of' ',b,re, OOD I, ,ebamb~f' m

QCrCllU':'

'w'hel~

Stu- ',utl SiIU,'b dmme~m;, ,p,e 1.j- in

studing

u. the Eue} s upp'br

is

D)I)£,,tu:rwu~~d, 'oB:

o,'!

m,

8Cf:Ol'\CU~g 'to Itbe bore 101' the ml'bUfClttcir;; ny lor Ithese djam.c'£eJiS, ICIA, ~asi1y be

..

:sUindb~' bn,i_ S:I1JdlS~ hut ~t i-' _!l,t '~,O '~H soete~:head SCr;lCW9 (ff the Au.~:m or 'u, 'Unbmlc!Q '~I! ~ mdl die' h.lr,iel~am te a'"oid :b:p, ving (10 cut tOOl fir ~DtOIthe .11] 'WI OblliD :Ilta"d cleBJ"ance~ By this, medled j,":1 alae pelS!Jii 'tOI ~ke up 8 bll~

,Ad.a;pt,o[[" ,st~lbs! widl :made up iJD I't OB

i' 1m.", and ] I ml'"1

5'w:b ,of' :1 ~422 io,. dia;nmlQr t'o ut:ffilim 'tbe 32 ram;; ,earbu ~elter.~ A:rcrlun~l :~,'9S0t .9, ,0 _W Imndard, Amal lange, Wltb 165 mJD,.,
over,~ I'~is poyillle to make a dDUblIJ flaD;pd ,adl1ptOI With ,2 ~m"ho,ll:i 'CCDlJi1:S eae kDge ,BOd. 6S; mm "'in iUte, odtet:. bUlt :W, the 'lu,I,cst bcre :),0'0 esn ,c;et ~thoU!t ,harviDg,Wtl' leeal fIIntsl t a~jBceDt to the AJ~eD [Sorew h,e.ads H; l:& In,
COiD:1b

b Ol~teentrcs was mb'od1!JcOO fo!' "e:ry' lLarge eariurettnrs B;m,d tlUl paint, mus't be watch~, w.hen ~aD:t~mp,latirnu ,cbIUl~ a

8m-pm ,Sprin~p

,HIlr''''p!iD spr ~[II ~9,ltamLe :UJiW use '~f )'ems :ls,a foJ" l\-,3Iclagl'-1 beeause Itbe 'coi~ SPl!iDIg8 in, use ,at thaI period, we:r.-e Dot aIW3",S, :re~_ia'bll~ ,and b~me 19s so _,us eOlgme ~,peed5 '~~S.I: a:,b eve 6~,OOO r. 'pl~m~ and ",I.hr~ llif'ts ,mcreasoo, a.bov,e .1 :~'D!i:;
the ,cambi linidon ,of 'thes,., ,two rl}c'tors 'Cfea:tets; a Idifil:lcu~l t sritua'uO'A ,fO,t, any spring: amd. eve'~ hair-pm, SP~IS: bav,e
],4

and, gt(Dum"e rl'cetS, n of 19 J4---l9 'ViIl,ta,:ge Wer ,fJued 'M,th, hm",p,in. springs ,w.tb the D.'o'ta,bl.e tJ)ceptioll of It be s peed'W'IY .J~A"":P!! wl1ic"h has ,al \~"'Iys:~blil1e-d Cll)IUS.t!fJleselbei I\g~ in any case, ::n;dficl~nUy' reliable far an eng]n~ i~~efi.ded primarily 'fOf' short .. d:h;tanc€ IffveUJts,"! Since, :1.91.45- there has been a Ic()nmderalble change back to, coils) ]aFleliy beca use of the ,dJJBebltJ oil eru!losing hm-...·pintS wim,ou~ !ierii-ous, hfl,te;rruiP"" Do,m :,to() air-eliO'W thrOH,gh, th.e head 'ins pa n ie u I ar~, o"n a liuaU~l ~'~'Il~ Coil-sprJ~1 'rr~'ctv~e ~~'nmy ~'used _'Ijb~l1o:~:'h is, ,I ~ sW,gi:og' n or ,I sm:te of .ralnd VI br.ilttQll, Qf [be' ~n.u':~ e~~.is~, aDd the wa'1 to ,overeome ·this ~3 b,y' '1JS~I'ng 0,0 ~y a I1mi bed DJJlnE,ber OrCOJ ~s; all modern coil, springs, I Fl;ll du'plex or eve:m,!trfpi~C:)l; with, :D0', :m,Q,,.,e than sjx :[ree eoil s in 'the 'Oiil~eE,~ T.be:inner :s,priQI o.l\'eD, has one' or 'tW,CI ~ofe eolls of Ugh'ter ,ga.u,ge wire and l't is an a~v,;mta,~e_(:'Of' Lt to ,~bca ·pU15 D ,fi:£, m'thitD iLbe ortHe.r one ,EW "Ibis pf,Qwdes I, certain am}ount 01 :friCt!CD damping :lnld 10 ,helps, to ",cven'l - ~'r.,ginl:_; Side~·wlye engi'Dcs, are usuoD" leqwppe~ 'wiU~ siL1lllg:l~ a,ools of fl\~~Y' Ugbt poum.doget sO~tjtUm.0.~, !Ol, '~_he'I'~' t1.'~ppy ,type·. with ,a, large Dumller iof Icoi1ls.. These ,sb D~dd 00 [1!'" placed, ·b,y others of simJls,r. P1lopofti,o:n!:l" te I. hose jiu~,~ dese!ribll:d~ wl1:ic~L1. ,,;,wn l~(ljobably' ,en l§!:w11 mpb;l,ci ng 'L~I 1_0, ,and 'botto,m S11'i18, eaps illnd, tbe, :s'plU ,ooUe~5i~ It 19, ala 0 :probl,bl,e tho t p,ieccs _will, be required 'EO' ,m' :ke ~ 'p' fo(H~' 'the [-educed length of ,splin G- J~nd t hese SbOiUJd he made wLtb 'the sm,IlUmt '[l:, osslble IUU in CO:lltO.ct W,iUi 'tDB head to minimi~a': , ~i~ transfer. 0:1 bLeat to the lDlppermos,~, eous~ Wi th r-e!ud ~JO! spring 'preg;u_re,~ it is I, mists ke ,to I ffilj·nt '~bBltt eIIJC(fmouS:I~' strong ,spri ng.'S U6 S lirw qita 11001'; a 111 pressure 'm, excess of that requmd '~CJ' prc,vent 'ytd'Vf! ehatter up to the 'usl!b~emaximum revs, Stmy, ,'·000 'rOIrD"' a 500 c.e. 'a1IW,t" up to 19~500:fo:r. ,n 25{'1,c ..e. plot~,i,m;ply 'waste~,a mOf'C p01wer' and ]0110S, uptbe 'va]ive gear 'Ululeaes:sardmy. _ The :acma], 'strength, requimd 'at full lift dependl upon 'file:
'I
1
1

[U

lime

lcam

ICODJttU,lf S'OI

v:al.ve' ,gea~

it jus~ U Doot 'po,ssJbT;t


,35

:and, U~

well

IS

dn8 re\'s'~ am,d weigbt

1,0'

ftive :an,,' ba~d:~.I:Ddfa~:~, ...

,of'

T U":Nj~: G F'C)i,B. 'S P'SED N

A.TT,H,N;TION

Ta, 0 ".D,~ .. C},'LI::NllBR V

H.lt.lDS,

rule, but, ~p'ut fr,om. these ee .• id.ie'l'&:tio:ms",i~: is, uRal .m lwO-'V8imV~ heads tCI pwovide II00-12()1 lb~ 'p,ress1l:fte when ~ _~~ve is, s.eaoodl; ,~d, ~le-8s the [cam .d-es~gQ. lS very :P~~~;'i _~'4~1 ,~O ,~.b.il5~O~,d ,s,uftiQe;a"~.,~uiI1Uft: ~the greater figuf1ei obVl.'o\1:~l"ap.~I,~~ I' to' the ,~gF~Sia e:rnpmes).. F oUf""'wa~'1 dt:t;~PI 'With tbelf much Ii~;ter. m.d.hlidual com'lPonenb~ require only' u.boo,t :80 lb, seat PJrCSSUtiB perv~w It is, poS!Sib',e, ,t~ make UP' I, 'rig to t"e~t this prl~sur~ but ~~etS:I' genuine 'I'e.plalce,menu can, :be:: accepted as gim,g 't.hr: c:orrec:t a,~'OIUD:tpr,O"vid~ ~b}'BJt notbJin,g: has ~a.k,eD·,IDGe p ~~ i9Jl~r 'lhe; ins,'taJ]- d 1enlt~._(lit dl8 spr.,jn,I, ;Ipp'mciDbly'~ BIi~l~ seat wetV,~ or passj.bIy a. st~etebed exnIUS,£ 'vmi'Ye, ~a,' ,p..eeouar ~~r twa, Jenglil 'bei.ng· ft in Of so Ii)npJ! '(b,anD

much lar'ger dia.mete:!' ICoils, and :EdtiJJ.f.tiOl' 'lep .. 'Further the desip is s.uch that Blver me working rln~ of the '~prlDg~ the loo,p' m, conta,ot, 'With me vaJ va mo;~es ·alm.ost ,iD it $'1J'Aig}U, lWei parall~l '~O tbe va!ve stem md 'tbere;· ,'" Jitt~e, or :0.,0 tr.JUdlCDCy ~ as ·the~,'wa, with eartier desi gns "I lor 'the Sbl'd.oPa.ry me,p, to ,move m. a'nd. au '0]] tb,eiI' ,abUJtmeDULO 'Wbm .for.
r-ea~o,mof s,pace ithas beC's nece5:S~' ,to iied,~Qt be overall, 'width ,of p,eJr of s 1lDn,lJS;t as, 'foE" instance, 0.0. :paralfd twms" like 'the, t\Vin,.;,cyliDder ,AOlJO1S,,, 13C~g; m.a'chine;t 'the c'D.dJii or each pair of' s,ptings are O'Vteda.:p;pooj and careful de-si.,p

the·

It s_bDuld 'be. I,n,d dl~S is is u''ffi.~I]j't ~IO"_m'lid'uce the pr-essurc by :se,v,eraJ pound:s~, - Of wc,wksll.. ps, 'w,mICn. do I, eo R'&idera b:~c o ,~'mo'uDJ ?f UWJ1.i~1wOir~1 :i~tm a 'wIDse pla'd to aJiCq.'u1r£'OQI or'
the spell:aal lS,P:~D~g..testing DUilcbm~ 'tba'~ g~;'8 an BCCIllf3,tJC ,mJeat!j,nmmern;taf'tbe poun.dal~ given at amy parlicu~bJ.r ~e:-[ilth" !b6' ,llctual ~stBncd ~ollDd-al:e tin then be dct'l1rmioel:f by t1rs~men,unD,! tb~ d~s~aDcc:bCl~leeD 'the tOPI and o~tom ,5,pnDI collars ,and tb,en d0'terlmining the pressure ,of lUh_ sprim,p at ma'~Ie:n,[(ltth on the mQcbb~B~ ,Apa1"~ fnlm bei~,g 0 bV~(J'lI:l8ly bre ,en con s~lin g'S ,of~. n ~ubiOrlenor sctt!e ~nd ,5 lose ·therur e5ec~iV~i s,t~n,gtb .' itUWDP~'"
Ii

is, DecesSl.ry 'LO ensure that n,OI :~erference ,!JCCtUS between m lb..e· s,pringS, art any 'pm o.f 'tOe, vlllve moy, m~Il:L W1ien fitling; thes:e ,ove;:dappinl; :!rprmgs~ part.icular]:y 'to an CD g;Jn e fo'r wlblch 'tiwy we[>e 0,10 t origi:rn:r&U, designed I. care: mus - be, 'tU;en 'to' :9. ~ that. the· end loops loollclear cac.b ower ,B,t :__-i]

points ,f[om clOiCd to £Ul- .tat..


io'ops ,of hau"p,:in sprlnp..
i

.Mter

8,

w'hllQ, w,eru' cce urs on tn~ sunig'!!t piece o,r tl~=


c&t1JScdh~' ru'b'bmf5: ag.wust thl

SPriIDl, rltmm~r" aDd r.plaeemmot is, calte- --, fo m: :ir tb W' wear 8~L" one qJ,illmDI' 'Df the wiFe' d.ia:met8r,~ Ta, force um-:ted. by 'the sprJDII 1m e,a,oh sBotdd ba ,equa'~ to ilvoi.d dltiJD,l: 'the "ai, .-, tmle'mf:or,; 1t, is es .' lOCal 'to re'p,l;aoo in, pairs, lI,oi j'IiS'f, omL £\1 ,I tfim~ When ,they' d,o 'bf,~I;~, b,m"":pio.1 ,;s'ualJl~y'

pm

ing ~O' res [.flO ,-he sl [uPUo,n by 'packing up 'the lower :e.aUmg i~, som~Umes effeeti vel bu t t D then GSlen 11!~ '~o 'Verify tha'£
lt~

~I

tt :'-jm,t. where tb;e ~op 1151 lC!a(EmDe:Il_-~-=' ~o band

is'P~P are not

UtI'

w'mcb the rocker lliltJ it, An~th~r ,e;:Kpedi,cnt 'is to :pll.ce the weueI' s,~tof spoop on tile iruet. 'Vll,~.ve~, insu licient, ,!ur-engch 10:[[ ~ h is icompol:um'[ as
'm:3lXJm.um :p (liwt
[0'

'ift: to do 'this, 500 :..toe va Iv,e IClJn be _raised a further Tr iu~ beyond, the
'I·

ru

coil.-bcnmd u, ;td ([lU

fb.., 'clll ,an.d! '~,e:l11em, ,mUlt be, 'ken, to ~ _' 'Um't - 0 cats, Q.' deep BCf31tcbC8, are made in, the wire at thia point 'w,b.en 'tmndiing sueli sp inp.. , it j~ - o:ften. :~o'D'Sidc~~daldvi8a.ble to convert a 00 jJ...sp.riag enp 'to,h,m-..piIl3 and Ws 'CBJ} be done, with a .~'t le W;angllim,1 ',m"'· ome n __v. ,d'-JP!C:Ji'Im~;:!o O to Ml.'__··'.'.V····· and '.lY~ .._ V'lo'!iilO"\l!iifj.,aQ, o·~ s .. O ....If.A,e, _~ .. ~~'!l-1L''W4 . t. !I!I! u. h~. ~~._ 'the o"d[dmoJ, des.rngn wi,th bolted-en 'Mc'ke;!!,' boxes, standard
I ~

,~DI~ nd

iDliO

-e!!

~_~~'!!!J

!tj"Il

win

meQhaui~l

_,3rt ~o~t

on the exba UlS t. ",aJ.,e~,

damage mI.,), result :tjlo[m lack Halr. ...

onJ,Y reduce the top

'~\~l"mll' Hrt~G~ a bui &111"_le

,or sp rinS' s'trengtb,


-

'm
,316;

S,prin,p

.. Hair''':pi:m ,spri_np 'w,er,e 'D"rlgina.ny' mll!i,e with faru'rly ~mal1 d~a meite]"' !coils and, J,t;J,nI lrq,s,. 'but 'tbe m ad-c,rn y,ariety .bas [

bOix exwnsio~rns ''l'meh 'liIJ(j,rm~ruIy S,UIrTOUll.d the spn.ng cups ha,ve't,o 'be cut ,BWB,,', l'e,1lvw\g '(he, outer 'ends, lof '[h,e ro~er-l, C'XP o:seQ" and! the roc'k;er-'bolx s'Land.fuds (i,n 'file, pmsh!'".f,od sjdo :mus:t be 'thin ned dc,Vlti. to' lru,eal lLle spr~, which !in 'in~~aUed ,au a:1l8'me~ ,ft t Re'ID.oval of the coil 'v~hfe l,pOOg ,ene].osure hi'S du) leffec_

'kIT :s,prinp~ sud spring

CO]1;II[1

can be used, burtthe reeker-

,3:1

TUN I N G F~O,II ,S1r 'B:S,D'

& ft.ll

fijJTUN'".'" FE"f'llf"i ....,~ ""~Ol l~ _L,IJ,~,:L~j .1.,,-.

iIi"'Ii Vlil

'R .

III'~Ii" ~ T'

I'"

'i'l'i' ID! '~.~ 'L!"'I' 'I' ~'!Il.I'·.1 '-.&:iA

N' D'

- ~ ,III, iEfj g.n~~~ i~

,;:nher from, ,3, Sn]BU 'extemla) tank or :from the no:rmaJ. 1.1lhbrieaU D,Il] SYB~cm M'ch nu:t'ering' jets, to Umit the supply;.
wh:ill,ch. need
Ofl~.y

n.'cles 'tmrQu,gb tho bead inro eacli, v,aJve .I1"l:dde to recm\iJe'loil pipes which can be supplied wij1tb ,lubri~.Dlt
'CIa'drill be

gf depriviJl(g the 'v~'~,ve ,Imilies, of Iabrlcaticn 'whlcb ilic;'y :nonn~ny re~~ruve'by '!eata.ge from lffim rocker 'OO8r,mg:s, and ID.'t ]f:B~ tb.erefore", desir,ab:t~:t particula dy Cor hJng-d rntF!r.n:e w,ork~

MEAN! ~ ttlW!M,ij,"1
, eQl!!.$

orA,

1~_~.~rJt~~~.~
~W'r NOT' .'
" CL6m UP :SCLI..D

:m~ D:TM
'ThI t.c: ~~!0'1~S~

,& in,

sman.in

q:uall:lJ't}!',.,

i,UXiiI' ,iII..~ S •. ,". U'J', H'e'-U.l;,Iit,'prlI,np


iI,.

,cJea_m/~ll' _ b,etWi!'lfm Wllve tIll/ide ,Q#td ~'l1:ti-",~ lJM betJMt2"'.; ,', ~JJ.!i_'1K (co'iis, (/UglJ,i) {J'itJ,~.fHJ'I~~ 4fJ-:l JI NfJte: lw i~ tJIg' {j'lI:t~'I' dlflnl!l1U' ,(}j llle lf1,i~rJY cap is 1:I~(ll;'q/,':tJ.e. "160~ dJfJJltet.f!'r' 01 r~'6 O~le.r,s.'p.riJm,.,

(LeJr)<

(.s.:ee ~re ,42)1 At "wxln,~Mm'~al~ IVI tlJ.ere

rij'll.$,'

ba' 1(j,'Ilt!q~,~~

..

S,cIJme:diedgme:rs :pire:nU~to llltili2:e return sp'f D.gs On: the n}~kcl"~ or push ...odsJl tIler-,ab, altbe:r :~educmg tbe :s-trengUl, nec§_$ary r '~n th~ valve ~p':rmgB o,r~a1~emalJ,vely[j' ;PG'rnl~tttinl '~1igher :reys :fjo" 't[le same sp,rin,H, :stlengt'b ," '$XU":1 ples a re the bllJi.r..·pmD I,(lfin,gs, surrounding the. [()cter -.- sses OlD, K17 Vel:l100~t!es: o &nd the s:prifilS fiued 'OD the lower' ends at Il:be, push-rods orf Qe,fUlin J "A.. motors, The effect, 0 such s~rinlp is to' P waill1:twl[I, tbe ,cam f"oUo,mr in 'C'Drm~~,Ct w~tb the cam COD"!,
Il

amounts at pfes~nme and ,,'b,ereby '~O' disOQI'Vlt' 11lhetllc:r l:tru':Dler ",IJ,ve s:pri'ng_;s,are :w:elq:Ured,.~ ~o£ lIe_r'memo d ,ii· to' ,ut$a:eh ill tenslon S.pMg 'to, ~ ,s;bort,
1i:';t t: ',we ,e~a:us,~ varve IS, e 1-· '081DB',. ;Ul!el ,m~ets ,m, tbl,S: al1~'j!u.i'M-e~:or.e,j' i tble '~e.lilsjD;rn in tfu~ Ipd Ell is illCfl~UOO j'Ult 'W'bOD 'm:t, ,~s m'OJ't
~..t.. ...,'L. 'Ui!i;-~":', .- m ~

~l~rlWiCll!larm (Nl eae, lIJ


' -~ -

t - ..... 1
_A'

.,

"1 rool!l.er ~ tiU..::: - mea IS:1'00· d ' ,,,;r... .. ,w! ',"",,11- ., - - ;I;,iD.,
i' , .• ,i

ilk

ID0CiD),Wf: ..i ..,IL

"'-

-- '16, -

Wl~

tiD:UOUs~y,t

,~th~lnk lb one end :ixed, ro the reeker arm and tbe otber M atmche(! 't'OI the :nlck,er enclosure in sucb. a wa.y that the ~Bpi.r'm,gC\ID I,~, W'Lo'UD,dup to any desired ameunt: this ,scberme bas, U:u~; meril~ ~a,t it is, il%ts:y to experi mlcn:t wi,l11.'varyi~l,

lea,ds, !01 1(M:~~B Ii'o,!, and I hea \¥elf of the cam-tol ~o'wer [oo,t unless ,B ro:IIJer ," : em,p~lo'yled~ 8 A neat wG!y ,of addim,g R'tllm sprh'tgs _,0' engines '~lIIitbbo,Dow rockers '~I~t'DI heusa a eoil :sprin,g ~'D oseJy ~Il nne bore IOif the ,Ind
elc~ss~'~o' pregStDel

" -..;II eneet . :IlSltam~,,.iII Wll:wout e~c.s;~VI t:It'. ~ ••11i.. ~ cam-follower 1,0 adin g' du:rims adler panl of rthe:ICJelet _ In Bom~ dMigns the lnlla'JJS~ SP',r1D,1 S1eules V6;fy qwc'kJy be=~e the colls, near'lst dlle, OUJlUS t port become overIDiea;'ed; I r-emedy !CUD b ' elected hy :i'iJ.cSuIatio,g' Ute, foWl!' sprlns coUs, 'bY' _miC\a\ wasbm"S'~Oit'p,lcking the &pd~I,Slat. up
'Wa.DI~KFU:i' :U\.iI L' ,c :r,tqWlreu
, 1 ....... 1
-

II'

i,

...

nmr-JIiO.iPii,'UiI' '(nli'liIl'i'~;i'j;'N ,iliA, ''!!iI''.u, .....,g 'I V n '~',g..wWlJrw&..;!i' ~vUo


iii'liilRi

tL~t

iii,1",

.- ", weEe m;s,

,I:ii.. '

UJ,le

Iru;r:f!ia!:f].J rel,'J:f_'J"s/Hrng a~· 1:lc\~ ~l,'1iJJ'lJt c'real'-· ;'*lK e..:cesc81'~' ca,l!'I~ \


u~:Jljil!g

A _me,~ hod 01

Q~

"-V

"

'"

l<,dl'o.'~wr I.tJtifd'i1g~

cODta;~t .I,md the: lnIlllxUn,t] m ,oC ,air space between, tha 9prirn,g sea't Ind the b,ot 'port metal, Ge D,fmHy speabRl1 !8IlC] csed coil s.pni'n8s 100:0 'be, ,kCiPt as co o;~ Of Bv,efl;eCH'J~er -"tbln lope;n s:pw-iuJ,Js b,y.' the expedient 101 'pouring e1JJouS~1, il aver them Q tllfOi[i;gh jets 'Co CBl'fry ,a;way the. heat, _:Befor-e 'lleav~:n,G dli:t s,m:~ject or springs, It mI.,' be well '~(li ,~1~'~n~1 ''''l In0f1~~1!1I'i.1i' ,--"., ~ ,-'.', W"'r~~ 1t."',t"'L!llll:u mlsconct:p t,·:,-" ,IS, tc 'we-if 'f",U'Il.cttOD~~ some _:UJEI " , , 0 'dti'~ 't'OI:t l' 1,13 Cc,3rm prCl'sb~ the 'I.~.ve, open agaimst; '&he spring dgh,t tlP. to full. U'ft and after rtha't the ~pri'ns takes, cb,ar,p: OEd pel1b(rms. the 'c'i-OIin, action .. ln fact, the earn eperates , against 't~he:s:pring pIns 'the tuc:rtin~ of the valve for tlhe ,w-s;t portiotJ '(lIdy' ,0," £he tWIt ~ after a. oorWn 'IU),int and u.p '~:O :fUD ~ m,e ~p~imtl: hl d.oill:g aU th,~:'w1orlr lo:fs'~Jowing the v,alve down u1U!til it is aJt;tua;:I1,f Sl'OiPPOO, by the 'tlm~ fuM mJ:R :L9,
'Q,
',I',' -

mInImum
- ,.' ,~ ,-

'f - , -'1- .. ,111'1\:0'_':, me{IWLWc

if,'[U.;

.. ".

3"

TD"}UN'G ,'01, S'·.BID'


l

·of'lthe miDl;I' the 'vabr:e is under s:prin.g:IOOmO:!" T11J:: ,pnzsme beltwee:Jlii, 'the eam IUd ~o.Uowerdtll"mg periods 'of ,~ ... onuo,l o ia, equal to, "~be sprmg pressure plus. the i11elrtia fOfOO D:r' DiiomeD'ttli:m. ,af' the· va~,ve:-,par~ whllst durimg 'rite periods, of sprmg c OJl:b",C;~j) die ~,[·t!§tmf,8 g 'I.bBJ _ s,p,~g pms~ttm nDmUS, '0. V91veinertia,~ and 1"' ,I,t ;,oy pomt. 'the inefti;1 bec,ome:s, pester thau, di_., rsp:dIl,g :pmsur-e the ea.m ,follower 'WW :ieave dle' tim ico,nlDDr. gi,ving, rise '~O the condJd.OD. I010'WD as,
..

very low 'vB1JCa'ty,~ In ·otbiel ·w·ords~ the ,al¥e is DUlldef' .e;: m,..eoDb'Cl fot' the firs: ,and ,hU;,'tpo,rt:i,ons o,f the motion 'oo,t fioir. the .F1fUllUlimde;r ,of the; ;l!tCtio.Di~ LI~~ ave)" the .. nose
·I,t B

o,nwu~ the 'v'llve is ·1:g;eim.g .~iolweddJO'WD ,apin b, pressure betw'wn the· Ica'm~roDoYIer ad eam SOl tha.t :;.t is e'~entuaiU:y met down. 'OD! ~o the Se8,'l
TH.ItUSr QJ:.IJ',-,,"_--r.....
G;utPlE.

.[~C'bedlO .Afte,f tl1a:,t" tbe ~p'!r.mg, oee]efaJ,tes the v:aJv:eba'ct a ;9i;lain UD.tU a certain poiut is reached (lIn 'die lel.osling' .IsDk

A- IT''''il"E1o!1'1'-'1I,iFIi,'i;o1' III .L.DJi''11 = ~,U;l:,

']"1" n, Y
I J

IIi"'ii U!I!"

H'

Jill

"iIJ'
~
r!l

C'U'1I" 'I '!;;.ilD"'II'J'''D I. ~-,1Il,r. U~


"_.

It'D

. .c,I1L

"'D

It'" J.:Jj

'Of' thB cam ::'from. ·b·t, pomt

An

t)'~-p;J() .. ii;alilo<~ rt(11ti ,mweS tl1l"tal

10

tile' rig"'",..

mean diameter ,of UH~:outer S'prlQg I nd tnUng: sea UO'P8 ,n, the. ·~d,g~II' thattbe sp:rin;g bears ,ooly on !Bx or eight p,rojeci-' f9,'O
1'). '.

hendei;aJ

1fIIi C~,

valve;

:i1,02l'L, ffllm

BII itrtad;-qua'W
tblC

This

OLD_' 'Dot

in,

'be ~ery'

It

]ift or dura,ug,1\,

Queea ble, in

f8;C't

'pOW'il' ptodUC'iti'OD pom£,

orthcr valve and ,suffm ,in the p~css<, 0'1" els-B, ve~ b- -vy impaei, loads, ("as md",cnt:ed Ib, 'lIe' omet, Qf ~eeul~e 'D~Ue:) 'wiD be .t,'UJP SOm£WDMiG in the WtiV8 par' 'M.to. the'ice.rt.aiD;Qolf'fmlurei :if the ,canditio·]U ae allowed, to ICO'D,tiinJl.1ell

[bil' s,pced. risa sti.lill ·tII!thcrfj dJl! :se,para'~om,will become SJ1eI'tg[1 and p'ea(ki uotillhe: vidve bi.'u '&be pb~o!n or t&b!e

of 'rie,wll,~IU.t

may'lcvlCD me
'."

if

&1ld '~'D' ~~iry ~hat

tiDns~ ,AItema,tj,velYtIL ,new m:ps can be, wtml.'ed ft,om a 'F.,~",,",jL >£.11··· fn -._t!' . 14."1 S~TO" l''1,~1I. fJJ· oy ~r:w,ef,a.u,!!J.y. R ..'D, '"'']-' 'i:.."I". ' :m,'" Ili~_ 'e' .L,. A.. «. Ollall!.",_ p]L [gD wl.I!i-1I' ]l. I.., ,S{)'t or D lIfalwnm B) to [Ile &ame d ~mejMf'QI! as the Q,[~iJinal steel Q,lle8 except _for do,wjmg II linle ,extra i~wck , .. ness wbere 'the DSlm pi merges ru.D'to tbe tape r' ba'lle" DDd, Ilound the IOO~letbess, TitIW,u,m is ,31Ol ,9 u ~'ta'b]e'i S U :you, Dei feJUYeIllti'og, an old ._ nEine ,and are UsID" IL'OD.iii .standar~, 'v,dves 'the 0ui~st way to relUiu the 's:pr,ing m by' Dsinl, a 's,pring ,e~p'~, ~tts fltmld wirre eircli p of' J. A,. P~djesi,gllll' eo] SJinoe ~'U llC' machinJ'I,g,ca1JJ'ed for is to lIm in each :stem iii lIlIIa.rruw' semj<ircU~~M Foo,ve to accemmndate the: cUcti,p~
'1iJ. j,

'6sih'euw Judiao1Bl, b, redrMll~wl ~,

T'oucmDI

OB

the ma:twr

0:'

rsprl.ns

IcapSi

diameter to Itb,~

mq, can be

• I"_B,_" ut a'['~ 01b ~ bl W.U:Ill yore' :BlZe3 ,GJIl. 'm' m~1'11,1m", an. dll"' m ~ "t.I:Ullll, ble ~1a..1Jl,. ig Tho P O,Sil~iol11 ,of 'the upper len,d ,of a:n ID,~b'l valve-stem is ~ m.., "'h - "AI"" .. lmpor~llmtJ " is ",,~ iw.It to C ~ "k"'"~'lmeDSl,O]] ... u- -- ~ilf1'", . t· u~n~ d· Ai .•,1"' l~e AJ.~y Wll",u.O'U,,,

the

stems aocIlm'tely fu the

'COUc13,1 'wmic'h

spl!claL!measuring I~X'~,lu;es~ it \~IjUlleed Ito, be' done '~y eye~ so .AB_sem roe llite~ to cker gear on 'tbe bead, and o;bstC'lNa the beb~lYW,o:ur ,of 'th.e roeker ..,jp' relative ro thtl' val "It S!fU'Il as the moohaJiWsm ls o'para'too by ha:[u:l [ro,m Uite ,clo.sed '~O ~he' :fUJU~· miTI' p ositio:ll" If. [be sb:~mis: '&00 w1n,g1 the f;om,ta;ct point wUJ

f:1(J/'tf!l Q"-rJ ~Jip

C_8~1$",'!ICflO~'
(i~

b.tI' ~ed

'mrir)/i,S rfa.lf:es'.

~~em~ J'.:iLP~ tiM

f!{ th~~',/!f
jMrr
O'~

,f! rli~' s,rem ,f~ too


OIJ tlp&

,Ii~e,lli'r~~r 'Q!i"ll
oppaJltf!

rlilff. "(:)., #rat Md!OO,,,tJ by ,th~ abo N1 .5Iu!s,c.lJI.

40,
,

III

,.~.TTBNT,~cni TOI IO'~H~,V", C,!,'LJND13:'ft, HH,AJlti


. • =ea _

.~_--=-~~+'~-

. +:-":1-

~01U~,ilE R 'I,~ LI~ E Wi"fH VAl(..v,E;

'. -

CEi'>JfU.Al

C.O,~T

~ct 'pO~~i

~VAbVe, AT ~1~~L'ifT)

Te 'W.I\L'''iE

corr-ect rldiu;s.,

been. fHilc'ted UPi to lnerease 'the, ~p'r:ing,P ressure, or if iDeor .. r.eat sprin:gs ,m iru,W[e;d ,j this poirrtis nrl}S,t im,p D(IL~3Jm:~:i' , As a I:~Rera] rule~ ,it is best to cJleieiJl' the. assem b1:, of the ~Ciad'~DtJ~.R'D, neoess,ary alterations to the barrel Or piston alIve beeD!::eft'er;.ted~,th~ s:ubJect is dealt witb in Chll:p-~el'X~ StlW m.odifie,atioo'S ma.y be :['equired 'to 'obtain the correct WDl,pfe8sion. ratie, or '~O ensure that the w;[v(>a[~~u·a.nce I:' ptu::km, ".• im; the: :plstDi~l rewn are deep 611H)U8b and of the , e

b-eu.cU:y :iu llne with 'tbe: 'y,w,ye stem :in t'ne IUJ'f/-li/l' :po9ition

cud of"tlle roelr.. r ls fiUe d wilth a 'screw~d a_dju$~'er~, rsh,omJ.d, e thiiB,

m'DIV~ment· 'wiII

move'

,OO:IIi"W3I,u S! 31;3,S 0'9111 lD "u~, ..•. U!!grI.'m.; Ili too :9' OI~ii me
~;.t.."...,
[i

;IJ.....

b-'

d'·

;'!i!'

h-

;1:1.."

t1e in

the Qlppos,i'te

id ir-ectioDrP ,If the

oumr

with the contact point dead 'CeJllt:r,uJ to ltD = s1;~m1:1 'De &Ime·

s;mnd.al1dcom,po'ClenU 'Will
..
eEL u~J~el.oessi
v,s
I

Thel,e is Ii tHe .ut:eUhrH'J,d tbs,t, a fairllY new engine '1lsml:


'1lIO~, be,

Cl[J:ttlIJ,g:ii ba.c'k; tbJe valve seaitsJ) Itre:~c_hed lor in.c'orre~t "a]'v(s 01' d&W_SlScd :roe'ktll~ box,esl'"""""'m " aU ,contdbro:te 'Detr quam t,() illoormc:t, ,(lU:pnle[t~ in, o,~d,,ower lllmlUJ. 'SomJ~rtime!i,,8 cure can 'be' effectrd byan!Dn mm.,g'tbe tcm oir 'RUtin·, bardcmed end~aps ,or the a'pprlDipria~,e tW.Ck,iii ness; io' ,other eases pa~killB 'up' the roelGer bOl: wiiIJ de 'the
.,~

or

eerreet, 'bu~

l,um~rO"d

'Th~ c0r~edeQm'p.r.,esli,oD [,amia depends, t],'POJD the ,cyUn.der ~.:pae~'~"1 of fUJe'n~1Il11'terti al ,of tbe bead ,and, ma.Q ot'ber t,ype i~'CmJj; sueb, as s,tn')ke--'bo~e rati;o, efre.ertiiwnas! of 01;, induJe\,,; tion SY5,tcm~,Qnd, so ,ro,r 'btl' b;tI:l 'the foUcnviJDS 'ta.ble gives, an ra~~,ro'xi~a'~: ,pU,,(.h=. "0 tbll fabo~ which CIJ), 'be 'DmDp,jQ'YtdJ 'W:1tb. SJafety m. Q\"b ..'"II~ engines under ,racing 'CGl.mtm'DmlI, WhCD nsi'~I, SOl SO',:. bol~b~{d fueJ,~,olth,ough ,they b, :~ means 0 ,mpIeSelllt the w]l.u'WJi'le" . er :Decessari~J the: ,meJSE, lui'tab I·· M'Iiifl"!" ,~ .. .. - -. '- ' -iii'
1

I4~~Jf~'~-

e=

I!!!!

iQrilhlder caPll~~~;Y
:lSCI e,.,~. . 3501 c~c~ SOOt C,CII

'.~
•~

.~

~,--" may seem, I~'DL.D 'O',~ nme ,'" .....• - . --,iii,' ne ]-,.~,~1. ... ~mpaE~Jiee, '-b t _UI lt must be '~e.m'erm be:r1ed '[ha.t however strOll g tllJD s,prmp 'm.a,' be, as 'maxIDmt1m, 're,s~ue approorchoo tl1~ h:iVl~ Ile58
u,~,CL
I..

Th"' ~ ,_e

POUl,

';rn,Iii'iI'

ll,

and ~.es; :muJrgiL6!c!f sttcDgth


.iI.. I ,..

me 'YW''M'esto ~~~F nus, ,I.m, 8; mQUllI,J!,. ,0,:1f'· l'.ru""'Mun ,uywbere :I,'mtblei w'bole o'r the '"alvB gear,. 'wbd.ob. is bllely' pe.roeptjble a bBnd<rl.nkim"g speoo:s~, becomes ,2 leD;Otl8,
'I.. !,., .
'iII'"

,11;'1... ,•• :',

t' Si&11.:.a:li':L.
., "' ... ,.

over' that l1equired to


,-, ,..... 'jIi;

re!'l;llm,
_-

I'"

"",i!;t;,-;"

~,t-- m,~ !w'P ~em


~J ,~,,,,,,""

must ttk I) be chee:k~d_" This Sihou~.dbe II full ';\r ln., otltl!enrise. if the: 11~lO~O\r.:) oycr:..te-vverl the pma i may' hit~ a:nd, DO' "sl'w: 'wijl stand m.:p 'to impact of' that
8p\Filll;g;
COUS'f
1

revs., The eleara nee at flill 'lift 'b~twe~.D the 'Valve guide ,and,
.

pb;~~ 61JJ' p' lost' if l:he,nM,ulttlJd COm/;'uBl!. WifltllJl' jJs,lter


,lQ'WBF

IIJghr:, lr;jm.p'e~dQ~
fJ/~~ ~1!4:ee.6~nl~~

r/r~ ,hsre/it~

01

IQ

blf. atl~m"e;d' 'Ivllll #i4


tl~Jf-Q~'6d h~'I'e;,iJ:v ~:

,mul:,:s wilt

~rQrl~d",

p,is,r,o.n ,dnme,

nature ,..w~
I __

0- 'PiiO ,;;_~'I'Q'1i' llll"iil ,p[f' cell 't:'lnilin,ni;!! u 1~~_"=l!J '8'.'·~~~: . ,JI!.i 0r-I.......a~:~, tEla,' must nloi~:be ~I coil ..banllA,' "",e.,!, lCiDmpres,oo ,'U~tid, ,3'~ fuU, nf~f .m'ch might' IQ!Ocut .if' the bo,tto,ro W,mdl.,r'S: have

e: iii' "'!f~iIi"U' ~lla~· 'T"~iI_~

'I'\II,'lIl'iDI,

~1l,1~

·1r1lC'i!llli..;at ~~~~:Ii

do'S,ted ltnfJ'.,

'Ii

'~.£

)II'"

'T.UNING fOIl
rOI'

SP':HEn

·TT~·~~TION
, JI;i,lI,>"'I",
'I'

T'O" In. D· .. Yii .~ _


_'.'

'I!

c".~.L V'Llll;ji'O.11.:"11.

:B ~n,

Elf' It~

:.II'D£I ft .. ~

St1',Ok'l U'C equal, or nearly so-tbe piston may n,d W' IBV such Ii -r,o.olUDced d,am'_ Ion it ilial the. ;5,00-' ~~ of the co·mib111l;,1i on. chamber becomes nma vourable '[IIJI ,good
!OOI~

RadoS! as hj,gb ,as 16 J) .m. can be used with fu.~~9,8\lcb as 8.h~Jl,u A'···~ ,l.A,~Pjj uel,,' If I,me me~~, f ifr,!! '~':-.c.thre. of the cylinder sitzel} 'b . 1hi ~. square ~,~nsin~i~·. ~ those fum. " mcb e

'VeTY S: O.rt... iS·tanOB ,'vents, d

IO.r' wmLll

win .. de· bol fuel,

,.1,

lb· 'barre and

After ,grinding: In, 'was aw_y all traces of brasive witJll petrol Off,.QlaBin, smear a drop of clean miaeeal oil an the seats'j and assemlbIe eaeh valve in Il.u:ro"---'nrst app.JyiQg some ,graphimd rlJDmng ..in oom'ouodl te the Bt' - SI' 0 mimim'(m the risk Dlt'seo'ring o·r -,.pwclking~llP - wh,eDthe cOline is first
i i

sial ted,

be met! wilh rati .:.u_habLi 'ir,uo,l mzo l, b t the e:D~D will 1]0"1give. m:ucb m,o_ plo~w.·:r-.it will simpl~y fIlD Ci ol~r' and .'~-,1 .... ·bJ~:. give .~ b1' it· wa1y.,~ 01' p~u. :~, 'to -Or ITIMs lubject 1& ~ w~d one aDd bas· :1 :5·1 ion de ,oled 'to ift
m
l

sbus ·OD .. 1m SlICll cases b tter results may be obtained by kipiD = m,~ratio down . Oil 8-",y, 12: to ,1,.. [O.f course)J deoe ~..ftl!.Js,e(1])'
.1

T!I!ffY spx:m: gOmpre$&Dr~. l8Ssem:dal part of the shop cQ'id.pm'B'Dt-'V ~ -rily tbJlllt . oth IC1rJr.· ets lare 'bu'd againd th L,.",. th . s_~m ,BDl' thd ;-,I!t·w ,j,1,. ~ .' ,UiU_- ICDi IOD·~. llU. " ca- ,. fi-' '. lSI ~UiD mm -I,· Dn the 't-aper; if I-I'.10 - 0' e or IlW,Q hght 'bkllws willi "
_

Make sure '61a, ·tIl spillt conets are paired up oonecUy'. and~ after fitting the springs 'with, the. d ef ·the imv~uabie
I.,.,

'v,alv . ,eieanU1.-C· . z,-e ~OffCct ·tbtar~sta,.,e· ark 011. tbe head tan be commenced [,1 polishing U}]·~I.-_Jvestems wm'tbd:.ld ..smooth cOLry -:~o·. : (nabbed Qlo:ng the lur-ra='~[jlnot round ~t) and ~h- . grind~ll\gin im th . normal maDlle~~but 1.1 in·. 0, ilm.. abrasive,. 6nishi' iI
~ '.1

~. £h~ fLXt eba.p' . rill fUl mf " ':' tb . eempression rar ~ 0

,BDd

rea ]~y sma (lilb S 'inp CD ti.rtdy fte· fro'm r,jd;:e'S ,or I'r[Q'OiV1eS,. Durin., I ~51 P oc 'IS the ,. ct·.. ,aJVI_' seal.,. ·.If'c·· . n· .·,11 lii.-dD_ d t.I!~ il1~·, ide through, n)UI d~:'S-oW tb~ ed ,S cI.f I ,~ and per t ise,e 11Ige I gl)~will, j ucrease slliighUy in - "idt,h [to 145 10 SO thous., at " hlch it is . tid DOU' b. to ,rWI Jo'r 8om,e time· \Virtboiut undne hammcrin,1 bale '.• It is best to use 50\', e fl~ -·'''"I_·vi _ : ra ::he_r than '_,rigid tool ~ r oseillati 'g '£h.. valve SrI!) Ula'l it taa . eat imeIf r nee~y~'a nIb,·' .r .SltIICtiOID cup DID" wooden b .ndL" fill the 'brn;J though :-, may - e .neC'C5l58fJ to it p,I,,· di,opi of B:'-,',"_ the polish.ad \iaJv·' h ". ,0 to d IOlbta:w lu:licicn'n .gri[' 'tol tMI] it.. Another n~eth.od is to 'push I; plie.ce of' 'Ii,;-,, t...;fi_tung eaa'\I!)' ·,..,tined hose on, Itb =.- nd olf tb s[~-m moo . cil1ate it eillhe'r 'biy " _ulinm, "euveen the nan,ds lor .' - a, bam· 1dd:D~ _I'· . I IfJ1Illding b~Vincent v~ves Ike u -~.: pide nus.t b_ in plac:e, fOf' 'I-h_,lo\\',e:r ,one iSI '[0 0 SD.lort to ,locire, _. e w\lre ,aetUria~lJ hy~'t.se1f~nlld is uot in,tended!
1 -

off

."Lhpowd.red TI r'l;-e,y~tol ': 'or ;~'et':I~ poli'sh to l~b~a,in

dJ;ldn:' ,assemnb' Y~ Spl11L Ie'· ets, are often ~upplied in pain" B


'WJ.!L·otllll~' Th
.'[h...

Ito lapl ". £Sit cem "'oIllIMb to:_'tbcf in posLtiOID OD diD sterno I Q in _ or-diDDl"Y' v:ah"""pdin,g, :Plli'~:, WI tho ab ,: livLI ·· Cll-Q1~ ~pa ~mG·m_·:.::. eeome 15'L;LCILCU~ WD ~ ..... " "".....1 b ,~·lBI: W lti.:. ,·W!(J.VIOO and ~t is best ~o Iclcso mem up b :fore 'reassemblJ' :... _d then tOI - ,I~e· nso-ute11y 8\m·.1~,I~ Dl by using f .g: '[I S;~ 'that' I '. ac· is: aetna]]] 'Y sea' d in the IDO.. ''II. IBRd aes.t1ios . ,1I)Is1.y in die rec 'S provide -,in t .• 1m ,. .' spU~ tOpl colRea who,D. the rL -=. P ·SlJlfe ol,f lh_ v,_J¥a'; .rio,_ ls Ion theDl~ 'Occasional. ease of valves d:r-oplP~ml ill2 wit Ithis· fal' ol'i C~ ...., ., ," -;i;f'·· U '1',",,'k.1- ... t':-~~[ ll['. Ii· b··-··· ..b:: pOllili t' ....• liL!UJ4, _ B r US,U y _". WU~IG ~O t,! lJJ tell serve IU"US
I. ,_ ,.'1' ",... li
I .

:usI0mbt,' wnto ~QSi'[tiODII If you :f'e:.in IBD, (lcrub['. as ,_LID, lib fit of !be ·co.Y" UJ i' tl~ spri_i,~.: 4P it is I~"fl ab -. b_for l scm ,tiDl t__v,wv - . C
cap
r.
I ~ i

.ide. 'maltl

t or ':'~,..:.: ~. of a , ,smmeroollu,dJe (MI . .-,",dve '.tlm) wi] usuaU,Y jar __

ODI ·tll. s.P;rin,g:

_b,

- '-"

r-cquiredll thaD s_paratedJ mod the small. burr ort im W, . cat cleaned up prio to ftUing~ Mix~g up split cell :ts in... Idb~rim,~DaJte]y i1Sa froiitfw source ·or V,-"VBI ,.rai1lur~~though
'~t may

]'d '.·nOD! _ a
ill..

. '~,t: ,. ."'L..~..con·· -,.'DOD' .... ~ '.yl be Iwt .m~,

p'~y

QJli

.~
u

Finally; dOD,'lt lea:· ell'm" 'Iead on Ith,_.'back gf [tOe· I - Ie :1 to.' .~ie~. lUed orPI mtll dllst iiUild swanll Smlel!l' oD miglltly "lns:iall {b.le pO'·, aD black: the' 'with :pieces, of Ct~8 ill, 0"1
'b_1Iiiii1i.1:.!C:r :Sw:t HU=ge. .n.+oMI ....- c<i.:in ·11 ...._l'I,j'U~,

tate s·ome tim.e: tOI dewlap..

~bo·,n.

to

w'L,~ .... :IL, . weD.

Q',_' ~;;J;~A.!l...l..J

.tI,,,," -

'I""'....~ '1li'1_A1iV

'Jiio .....

I!.U

'L..
L]I_:_

11..:!

lL-~_ _

JrD':
I

,dOl SOIl

pla.- . w~-en tlJley sbolU]dl have "been removed.,


45

..

GA~K~T' (J<i" l' HICK f'O'R CUARAN.C.E


,~
'IJ....~

....D"fiI~n' '

..h &:I~~.

.L '¥'

'l'TI

'TIm' PIeViOUlS

v,ano.

eBg]o_m; nreeds: ,a.mp\l.iimtiion ~ In llie ftrs:c pJace.ll the r,B'tlio'S, Iqnot.ed are for [aciD.! !on])J"t ~l-hl,[g,f~f too ]ugh .fo.~' ID,ftdin,;'ry road WIO'I'"lc, 'with

li,ot,e 'OB lco'm,pRS'sion

m;tios !iW.·la'blle . .:fD.r'

to one and a '~fuarter ra:tios, 'less, being a:boll1' as hlp, as


;,'1'd ItOU_jJ~

snc:uoo:r ,and ~~, pump


b 1I1s-e_:_ d ~e,
',0'
'I 10,

~,!!

f;uel[!!, 'DDI'-

pi:$. TON lE~Elb W,fIN TOP 'O'F

C VUND'E ~ il.,O ('I!t

:s.,!)JG W'f RAC tus 'ON COFl.NIEilii


OF DOIRe"

ci!n~,msw.oo~

"1-. tllie. '1- t!l!o' _a Ilief

,P'DitU3 '~~IJt~1.InUSl ht1 ,ch'fk!f!-d w.he]r;l 12' sirk"1!41'1!;! r !t:!}I,tln.itl'r' IJttau h~I' ,h'eS1J"utlf:ll.in,r,ta Fa ,r(Ji$fJ .,/1f: ,~O"1J-'
pl'!eJ:1lfJrJ Fa t,b,.,

'tbe :s])o,:--:11 of the lC)om.busrt]a,n fJhamJbel:, it ~9 im~ p os.sible ~D IClbwl1 su,eh, ,w_'
riadOl
i;1l '., sid.va 'witl~,o'll!t :fe'S

Ow'lns

,vc:'cylodel -neall 'me breath, ... i~.,fJ ,il bUit:y ......... a1bo,u,'t 8 '~O I 'being as b:i\s;h U Oill.e carl ,actua~
f,att,OI f"each.---Iand it Dliust .:IW2y3 ,~ 'It.. 'II!... ",t·' *~ rememl!l;tm d" ' tU'~:. L ]lS ,Ill0,:", ,1'\.",,",
:nletJaWeil

'bdmlllce 'D1Ulst be s,tnck be t'W'eeD 'tile im terh)f' Smtl'Jf I wml c'li siva 'die I~,t IM- fh,w BUd, tho ~whieb ,gjves the 'llUghMt ra',o", Mas! ID!iI'O:U, ~.!Fe' ,g,OW oif the d,~ta,~hI,b~~ead 'P~'r~,em~ h w'ilb tlJe, ,com,b us~ion ,c:baml)er COl1;ce.n:tta;tled, over' 'tile' v-:aJ¥es t ad :m dlis ty -',' ~he'throat 'between cbamber aDd bam] soaetirmes IClllls~i~lJ.'teS::_, res!triiCtio'R~ 'pubcular-t, ir mueR, m;ta] bas,~,:.,n :mac.mD!:Id off' tbe, b~a,d Ito nU se 'lhl ,com'pMS" ,
1

,I,"'~

~,be 'oQ,mpmS['OB st~ol{e,", This,

",mch 1C'.oumU3~ but the prefWR q/ tl,'€' lim ill 'the md, of

CQ~mpIRs$iloD

5jO'R~,1\, SiWt~' ra(rU~ !Q'lll

depends as m'Ucb. u.pcu_ the ,pedection ,ot cylinder :611tol ,IS, 0(1, die rau'o; 'lte:rrefcme: 'S!
Sl~j'~)

stJ~l$la:t.l(iry ~h~

~f

de.Jtp D/ life J'92~~S:i' ,s;t11il ~

.RnnJirtJf:'1

~lt!utzcler,t"/le
~o(j/~11fg

m'l1,rlmJ:wl,tlm/J

lIS«;,

f.'imillll' f'll'-BJ~ ,QR'

., osed, 'The tWckness ,of tile oa_wt: Is sllmel,srn clearance 'b-etween 'the :~lat'P Oll'ti:OD Off 'tb:e 'bead and the p[s:ton cr·OWD" w1!Ucb, s'bould~ t'befefOf,~~ 'be' jl!!l st '[e~e1wi:th th-_ ('DP [ace of 'till bane~ lI.'~ t.o .e, ,M, aJ.u:m!U:Uum bead ;~s; p\aJ.rtti:el1~a:r'ly de:suabll!j ,exccpt', perhaps, for ~~co'hol 'fufllJ 'wlu~n the~ Icooting prob~erm,is DOt. BOi I,OUt!!. , Rle:wfting tn 'O,.o.v. en,gin~ 't1le ,aiimt is to 1(]-DULiu' :,be loarr-eet ratio 'Witn t me. ~ea'5~, pos~ible area of 'm&tll~ e'xpD~edte '.DU:~ H'owcver jlmp:ressiiW~ i'l, :1(N)k~,an elcessi\,e~y domed
pmto,D CFO'WD, i;s Dot

caJried

valve, chest wiD im,ro'vc 'the low linall, 'but musn


10 rM

tIli~ 'top edIt

of 'the 'Il.'UJUcl De:l~ the


]][0"[

do,wo t'&,__£, tb,c. top rmg is, m daugcf' lor bein,m: ,

be

desw.,abl~, partly beeaese -its 'exposed


~lJ

oi'i11--:-

'TU.UNG

f'1[lR SP,!EEDi
t

COM,-PR~.sSHJIN

,1,A,'FllO,S: AM'D'

suar,s

atie'a i5:grea:t,also because the !'~um,,' h

gation, and. ,BD,ything in De ]l;lture of the ,convergfmg, p'Oc'k,e~t whlch is formed by the amgle b~twe~n do,me 'U)~ 'h~adpro-

hind,e_rs fiamc; propa,""

tlMek:nsss and fr,e_e [r',o!m ~J(le.JJ hI aSloded t.Wd1w~ses~,II, I, large

ducesa li.kl'_~Yl'Ocality in wmcb ,deto_tiofi can. b"kr; plfu:~


_'11;. A,,~j:'I'"Iii" l~' ~,IIW!'L~
i'~

Do't 'pro'vide a

'tion 'c.hanibeF' by '~jU,'l'wting' melted 'Wu :mto the plu,g: hQlw 'with tbep,j stOD at ,t;d .e, This shDws 'Up m)" ,P ook\e~ts QF' ,['eStric';;; ti ons, and, the wu C81Dbe, S{J,f!emed, and mmou~ded wru,th, the
fin,gera after d"I~llch&t,g81,s 'head, to give

0. :=~!!VU.

,O':ji

'a''''''Ii'''iI.Ji

~~~

......

-.i'Ii.;'IiIIom,e :.:.

,iIt';iPij
~,~I

~1!lII

make

[t!i;""

g of a """"'~!Jl,. ....;.'
1ii'!!.;;Ji'Qiift.

,L'iIi.. i!fI,

W'Ii.;!'

.,..nm'i!..,"",,·",v." 'I!.i! ll5Y"'

im;frfP,~d shape with the same 'tllume IDI, 'wo and~ there ore, 'the sme c o'm:prmn:;,i 11", .AB quilteR. number of' d] fimr,e:n't maken have 0 used the same bore dia meters,- 74 mm., ~or ~ns:taJle~ i5 a
,3D,

,type. heads, and in these the lap 'Mt~veen, the &t b.nd.s oa U~U3pitW\ml cnl'W'm, aad tbe :s:teps, ,lI;];lc'lnnoom, the ,ocl,mbu;s:tjo-:r) . ehlmJle.r TI];rut be: main'taim:cd 'Mthin tbe U;mih of ,4.3:and S:S tho'1J:~ This :mS113 '~.Jl~l~, signiftoon't .O.ltMB tru!OID m tom .., s' no
by s,bimrmm,g the -barrel" but ,om,),' by Ch.aD\gin,g 'the ,pi.s'[on" IOn tlie1 ,oIL, er handjl sblimmi~g to obtain this olpdm'nm c~ca_fa'ncc a be aecesm
press,ion ra:ti,Q can be obtained

:fO'I the oy:llind~r," Sh,C(Jl' -streke MaLO N();:rt'o'D, en,giDC'Sare fitted, with s:quish ..

nrm, ffowdll,tiOll

and, should 'be pl'ovid.cd number of tbin IltIimg d.ID

3,Si('jIc~e.p()wer JJIDb;-j't Is often po,sli ble . 1.0 utilize a fom:tgn 'i'l pJttO'l[L ,of di1iefm't 'praporli,Q,ns te rep~ace a stan dard artie le and thelie'by 0beam at beU-elf 'popular sise
10(['
~!l

sary

change of rom P Gil ants, or dllfte'nsj,onal ,a]tleril'tionb.as, been made, Tn' same remades a:p,p:ly to ti!M:
tal ny

ailer

A~J~!t ud ,:_ a;t.ehles·s,G',SlOI engines. '''tR ':

a l:am,ber~; Unle~1shJms are alretuiy '6. ned 'uIH:1eT ttu~~ bo.tre:t fi a.npt the usual 1Il1!ethod,of 'ffu:!laU~i'adJust; n:l d,,e, f.l tlo ws b,' sbolt:ening

shape lOf eembustion

'.'he;bltm1if!l~ A great d ,·a~ of La bID'D'D'UB setoog-u p and rem,uuting can - be :slv1ed by 'wakUrug up a Wo~COhDmJll table showhl;l, llille C__ .. and, leqo.i alent Qo.m,'RuiJCiD space. R, and, de~etltLiJmbig; :8S 'fcl~] ows,- lbe dift7eRnta in butcl ,length 'wbi~h iUS leq~Ui ~o ~ e,e, 1
Do~~ 60 ,1JlUI'I'. 110' rillUID ~ 10 nUll.
1

:Qli"nU'nMg: Comp,rashl ."atios , or 'maximum ,powe.r;- the: RIle M, '!JOI 'mD:P~'o)' '~'h.e hlgh.at ratlo Q~' 'Whlcl~tl1e e1'Jgilte will' "un '~flt'lJo,~u: i.,tr'lssli OD 'dJe ~U)el d 'w:bieb JjJ: Ip~ified, for the rae - m Iq'UootJO.D,,. 'Ther -:-', are, COU1Sl~ mIlD)' fatton~, both h1b:mal and u! mIl ~o ,die IImgi ne~ whlch ltS1V~' ,Ill dg.c ailil m= :Ir,arlo,wWeb ean be IWJ;r:d 'but the .p,rim,s'fUCitor ls the Iqula ty of the' fu. e]

0'"
I
.

'm

'. '. •
i

~ ..
~ ..

e.e, J(n ·4,,i n,


.,OUlil :i m.
ln,

Jl!A"pi." fuel, mIErli,a_D():~nd simillu rv~ls co'.,pos.oo maJnl,' a ,of ,arcoh,o~~ be rua at amymin-A u to liS £.0 ,~ IC'~D.in 'can
eD,giDeS wmth Wren hea,Qs ,Ind 'barnls amd, sea.D'l, Ilnniti,gli tItUs 'L1;,iDI PI rt1,' 00c'8,,11. ,a.l coho'1 :il, allmos,t klu:mk'·[1iee aDd
1

90

mm.

'.'.

,006 :i.o.•

JlOS

Knowing the existinG ria,DO" a ''(ter)' lim,p1e piece ,of ui'dt\ ... metie will sho~:y 'bCIW 'll![l'uch '~eo,gtbIJ1t:eli~:tion iii req 1:dfe,d 'fot MY' o1!her ratio, Skjmmi:ng thebarrel :fI.an,C is, Wl aperauO!Jl 'w,tUcb,"bas to b~ d one 'vel}' ,accuratel, ~()I easure tha t th_, n JW

cl'eralscs, a pea:t j]l'kFfl'fU cooliml_'rr,cl~ ,~II!gines :~or use on amcia!. dirn tmcb, are, how=ve.r~, Iimli~ed o'Y' de rcplSltioDS '~O 14 'to m ratio, Bv:en m event9
'whe!!!

'pa . '1,), hcmittlse 'fhe lu,!c mDiloun!


tIUi~8.C hJ'l:-

IDr hea't [lcqnWfed til), ',g,poria


DO't,

~mrface is!dead SQuare 'to,the bore, and seme ,prr;£el' to


the top jc"in't face 'wbere .sq'uarenesJB, is not
t

b1lr.D

Qth~r lum.d a UiU:].e 'Ofe 'lba m ~,~es.rJ' a the moment ean 'be turned oft ~be 'Bange and l!:Jl:u~;[l~ adj-ustmBB'b!l '~,Ol merell/sel: .' decrease ['b,t; I,I,tiD 'CaLm,rea.dUy be mtlde, b,' :s'hlmu;
i1

Sg

'Vrta1y On

be, pined by gioimS' ,any rugher' ,IS, very often rna nbstrueti.. in dl,e c1ilmbuJnOD chamber clllYed, by' IDe high pis~om en ...
erewn

~ere is, ]]'01 sueh llmita:dOD~" tlJJere is

much

_!I]'

'[be

re,quir.,oo, t~o 'C)'btam ttm'lil1 iU1U:.ra:,,;mgI;J, f,ati'Ql, mer ,·'t'bao oB~ts the :s.u,gbit U1CfeaSle m 'power 'w~h 'mllbt ,othe.mise,
Ib-ill! 'D',~din~~1 _~ ~'~U:!i

The..s6, s'hou~d be

,madi~,up ,nom I,ao'd, 111!ljl'eria. ';OIf 48

eVBb,

'Wildt petrol or pmol,·,b~M(~J:~e, de;t'O,oarrloD, w.i!ll 'Qee~' 01 mmch, lower.' .l1l:b,OSl [bam. are lDabh} wlJ1fh ,alcohol. the ,highes!~,
,49

T U N',f,N' G

:r 0 It ,S' l1IE,D

CO!!_1!:P'R"BS:S;U:H~

I.,J\,T:I,O'S,

AN,DI fUELS

r"El.1.iO' that can be '!U~.tj$tB!~;toril-Jf m;,_PlloYBd dJ~pe:ndmg' ~,:pOD e the ~,ileetane rating "1 IClf the fuel and the de-sJ,gn of' tbe engme"
The

. :~C~ fOImS

:lllorm.aUy (~'bnima.'b16 in, the arm 'w:hem me maolooc wm be used; U an inst3l:nce Q(r the effect, of octane ra:ti.m,,~en,gmm;, '"due'b looU:~d be run a1: 'l(tS ',JO 1 in, the, 1~9,39' T'~T~ :r9lces 'D[llng SCf,50 'peb-ol-beu,(l,Le mJUx;L"ure of ,a~oun.d, :8,' 'Qcta:nc r~\tlim& bad, 'tOI be dr1o'pped down '&0, 't,j 'to 1 wilen, 'lUS;WS 'POO1l p;;troi !of '2 ,o'CIbm"Sj w,hicb, w,as the le,mIy fu@:~ parmitted in ],1941' '~y 'the F,.I.M,,, :reguil.a'tio'Ds" Sm.ce 'tBe;u, the, re,gulla>tiofts bave bee'll :(PFO,gr-.essjvel, II'-' mea,l.od th,le' IlIquiremeJlt in 1.95'9 is (bat 't~~e :m,ust be r'n!Jel onI" of ithe 'belt, ,quaUty oommer.ciall;y obwD.a:ble .m the
t;itJ''UD'Uy' where '1!1l~ raee

varies ,fr,c,m countiy' to countr.y'~l\:od:may' be as ,~iO'W' 1() .in lome ,aDd as :btg'fu ;85, 100 ,m iCI'tbefli It as rast read W~)Ik'i~,the main oibjectiv'eJ~it iSI bener to choose ' a" ratio wbJcb, '~__n ,SU.ilt the oCtane: Yfllue ,of 'lh~ best ,fuel
ra:tm\g,

oetane

the i[ljdu~1i'~):D,pi,pes" Methyl ,al(:{,]m~ (melba ~(1) .., b~,s _ greater ~o~liDg~ I~Ja~~t th am thee: lles1i~r.,'tlSJed etlryl' a aleo.h,o~~, (ethano,l)~ but Ul ,eimer case the rle-8~dt is tO ,ru.h:nv a ,grater wfei,gbt ,of air 'tel be h1,dueed~ since cold air is! bea'ier than hot :aJ.ir~ This ilmprocives, v'oluIJrj,etri,c effie};. . e~~y D,l the eagiae, g~d, as t~,e mixtnre w~m1 'tolerate 'vW} ,ruSh compression ranos I~D,d~.blll can b~ 'b urn t at til s
0,:0
I

'me

be run b.a. em"ough 'to gmve. g,cHJd buming and 'tbJs. ofl~eUt b) some e:xtent ·tbe cooling leHoot lot the ale oj) IOlm'i Aj,c~ibo' enlgwnes, nJ[c-,~rone to 'b~ ~lu~i:s:huDd]' £~l]f w'lrmec1,~'JJp &nd US'UIUy p~rf,f]'rm best '\Vitti, ~.l.tm'tedJ IcyHJnl,cle-f' '00 Olli:Dg'~ SO UUL t tW~ fuel is, lP~'rticulmly :suitabJia for seuing a wghpe:rfo:rm8'uee from
,mltlSlt
I

'bj,l-her effiCiency. in 'tl1eo,~ ~ P':e~:tJnerease in power sbo'm~d. b~ obtained ~ In practiloo the mC-lfa se is IJJO;t a s ,great :IS,

mngh,t, be Mpec[,ed partly' because the engine

:101lm1

OU~ the

UJO/,i30 a vio"lioiD pSDliDc wbjlch il pefimitbed rol" Fonnm - I. car mcm,g'" but leven ~H),aJ~~OIWIrlJ;no9J lof UJ'i" to' be used :W in fact '~,OO octane tu-c'l. it; avanBble" Thi:!;! may' toot 'be sc, of IccnJ'rse~, ill aU count rles :md, where 'P\mllIPI
1

i:t

cond'u,e~e-d'[j bUltiu, 110 ICI;se c:xaed 100' OdBDIe;, ltesearob method" This :rwes

i's, 'being

I~~ailln,e&wjth

m,'UJo ,~,n be 0 blJl:med cbnmbe:jj" sh a',pe'"

or~HiD!ary ICilst-'ir.OD ba.rrels ,~lD-d beads especiaUy if' !lles~troke is lonl~r' 'tl1&'ml 'bru_' and I, wgh tompr:-eSd,QrD ~~e
'WI&,OU£

~pIDilin,~.the ,cD'm,bTJ8UOD

m~ell, to di~eo'verll weI in advl:nc~ the OCD!J'oe :rnt~ng: hich w dl'e ,a,,'ali'fa :flied p ~lsse9Sfil,a;nd~ p.cssibJillil 0 btain a rsamp,le" bl'I The oe~allle.fa:ting ~s ~mplr,ov:ed lith", ib:)i th8 Ic'b,'anical f' ,;L., - ,R.., Iii _ lV.· ~Bei wWu,o. All- '","" ,il'timiil'lP~ BjI;'i:..V'Ni '!Iag;.... ...,A ...tl::'t';: nf' • ,BU 1 - ,:YS:~I0;, 'IWC! .1 u:e-.II - or '!l..'1 ;,~ '~Y'Q,"lI!!!w,l"''""'J,~Y or ~Il-Eth-yl fluid, ", 'TblB ,.dJ[;litive Da:9; the, d~~adv'Dt_qe'dt:QU, as a bJ""'PIOd'IJc~ of,co[fJ,'bua'b,o(fl it ,fOm1B lead,,,.'brotrlide wWeb attal1Jt!i 'poo:r-qooti'ty ~l(hau;st ~alva 'lvitrb. CKudtJ but willJ r 1ha:v,a:little effect [lrm a we:U",ooo~ed val'y,e maltedal, eerrespandim\@: ~o 'DT,D:4,9b Of' Nimo,mc; 80~, Con~Ht)quel:ay TEL

'-i!ll;d;'-l 'IJI~

'II~

t!I.k»

1'1

lei
~j

pi",ift,;:t.;: ..._..:.1 1~ I H ~~u.I_l_t~ . 'u


j.:'

iI!;L.tIi IIJiLJ~

'!I """",;g't JUlu~11

'PriDo'i1"i-~IIQ '~::,n'n'i!!' Coil];!jii~ lL11W10~ Q'L~~~LJqif . _"~!I! ~

~ ho ...1dl , .p" UI.·-·

I"

be ..~

Apm'fl fr,c1m t hls aspect, 1b:e amC'J1mtlt IOf BDer- -,. mJ'oorl:tedl in,' _' ' .... ,~ilnder ~erIcub~c wncb 0,' m:~iluti ··I·e: -~~- '. i . : 0.': -~ is 'vIe,·'-m,-- ~ some 'w:hatevu eombustfbl~ ,SU, -." --,:_~-~ ..:.-~',;': ~" m(J~ml'f :arl' W"I~--0,[ . , futls wm. ,al~er 'thb ractJ, I,ud. tke use of' DI~[{, '~l,e:11(I ~ ,_ _ m,creu'es ,~',c -QW,er ior t 0 realolts ou'(iiru~d ,abo\/1e,. On
-I..

eD"'~iOiY=-

Ul,e, itbe'or:"[ic-',

I~-U

.i"

'~-lm:--

I :<--',-~r_--,-c

e:'r\

1'_

ier; ,'n~ 'I' f'-e ea o.:r~,-~o ue 101' IJ co '0 Is 'rsry ,much va ~LD;wer u!u,n that lo,:f' 'petrol and f'o:(" the same ,amount of power d d!elVc~!D'ped <the oonsum,ptio':tl lsi very much high er ~ u,p to,
': 'I

Qi

[I,

ad:dirdans of

,to li e.e, pc;rglUo,D; caD be 'tgtelt.l'b~dl by an, good raGj~1 ,c:rngin,e fUied wit'h suclJ val""'~J ~
M,,!,

even thooe ~times,,as gremJti' 'Tbm is na tumUy a: serious matter im_'~oln,g~ istanee 'racin,I, as apart from the maner lof expease, it, ot;@Jl'ii]s, e.mther a 'ast tank ca,pa,ci~y 0,[[, too 'mu.'y
tWOI 0",

...~'Si_iide9, mile -en't freedem from det-onatm.O(Dfp.' MceiboI its 'I"eq~s, a, ~~t detl, Q,f heat to 'yap ottrim and if:no ,cxtem:aID heal't, i~ a;pjned.~ the 'remf is, g, ,gree;:t reduc:thnl In, ,cb.argG'" tempenttlll,fe" w'moh lean be :seen, by' 'the ra,'piidl~ywith w:bi~h

'0

benzole and 110'pet c@ut petro'~it Of' equal pa rts of me'tham.,oi~ benzole iindpe~r'c'~ wbleh 'win run '!l~ g~'tisractor1f.y with ,S reasonable Ict'!osumpd.on I:t r,~ti.os;,ot' ~,O or i], ,to ~~ The v,arious ail companies used 'to ~upp]y sueh blmda ready~
S'l

ccmpremlse ma be sliected b,Y using aIDe:ohol blendrs :s'U~b.,a,s, ,8 .0 per IC61lt metbanol, I 0 ~pBr oont
Pl~t SOOPS"t b~t.
I,
1
1

I U' lil:N e ll"O:lt SrPIlE,D

c elM l' :~.·BS,S, :U)I N' R. ,j. T.JIO ,S A. ,N D P 'liE L s

'~a~s teased in EDglaud. bRtea.:-~."..c!_' .... ' ·,"'~~P0Ull!lll,PPUes :oo,w , a s~lnd ard llIsDQ of mc\bam"oi, and acetcne, also qUDted[ ill. tb~,table of rudsl,~wlUc1ll 'ean be b'h~]lded. with petro,i :dd/'or

oo'm ,,~rio.D. fad

mixed ;,ita table of 'the5J~mJ1h their IlP.pr oNima.w, ,analysu and


l

D,S, ,0.;, : ~,Sl

(nn _I,Dge. 181'tbut, this, pim'et~ce

~n, r-eqtUlrOO mixture. Blc]IlJahie: meJ.thauol with petnl,l is, Dot IqWte: :I 5traip .. f'OfWifid ma:tl~cf~, 'mg1hBn.OI~,:m.us:! 'be g,t the CJluali~y kno,'W'Ji tile atl ,anh:Y1d:f!o,ns" 0[' dry blendm g and even dum, it 'wUl lOW), mix 'with 5,ome typC$ IQf petro') if :0, prolpomlon of ben.. , zol,e: equal to tha.t lof 'the petrol i~,ndd,ed, aB, we.lt Aootoue! be~,ides, b~m\g a fuel iD itse](~ is a ,help ~D prev1mtimg 'the co:lstilble:n.ts frem :separa:UnI o,un mfl~er':mi:hiIi,!' and. SODU} o:f '~hl preS~Jlt-dDY pgbiolb, with this: h~~p~ 'wiLW. IIJ.lx with methlDol witffilO'ut the' ,add wdOJiJ IOC 'bebo[elt The 'point e;;ln
WI make
~I

belUJole

j!,!

i !iII

al W[ml,:YS be ehtckBd, by rmdU!rnS ,a trial mixtUB in a. bottle and lobs.ervio,g 'whedier 'tLu~nq(wds settle iDl~D two la:yers er
Dot

'"'

Ila&b~es, :much, larg~r

,af~ef.'5,t.a'mdi n,l fo;r ,I w'hUe. F,oM: sprwl '.clrk. wheTle ,9 hiP. CO'DS,lIllmptiao can. be tolerIttedt it became ,ra;s'hioD.able to empiory 'mtr-o... etban!c ,18 :111 m Bddi dOD 'to' ,alcohol fuel. this ,compound COI:ntams, ltDlIe!"CfiS, lof o'Q,gen \\vbich is liberntl'-Dl diitrdng combus,tnloo and ,tbus,
Ul0i~U'l'bof
1

effec~, it :prcar\/,ldes a 50 Ft ,oil C~lmffi.CaJ sup erch a:rgin S~and as ~uch ~t& Me H, ~rlo'wn£d upon by some raoe or,pmmfs:" ',t i,s,~bow,e~~rt permis&~ble alt tile time \VT.it~g In sprm.1 leventSJ"I but it feE] WmSI Cit reful hMdl~nl,at all times'l IS, ua ...

I'l.tohol

tOI

be ibl1ni,t ~ in

or

an ,equal prop Od'lO'l1 of meltha'nol; even thell~, ~DY c,?I1 'tm.ne[[SI mu~t be de-'pJi!ssurized, Dcel sionally' by ~oI),se:mim..g the miner'-mps~ Drums, ftlel tanks and so' Eorth mJD;st be
1

Uke pe£r'o\~,or alc.obo']1 it is Itb,emicnlljl nn.St4b'~e~ PO'!' 'tbat reas 011.", ,it :lSI DQtt sU,ppmied nea t, but diluted 'W'ith

01J

present 'wilen there '~I B,. ~rIhdweLe'Oc,' of fn·el attacks' and bu:m~ a hole in ~[c pb:ton Ci'own wIth. as tonl s,b~I1B'ra:p!dw,ty. 'Great cals mUls:t be taken te ,see that the fUel ell B,ow 'througb, to' the car'bruJlet1ef ,aJlsolut=~y :ff:e-e~y; i't mlY -[Oit do :5[0 under severe aocamernti'OD beeause tile fuel - filcD gra,V1i'~'in~sto the,_ r-ea,r. Olr the '~anIIc o.'Dd 'tbMe may 'be. p'lact~caU, :00 .Qead " of: 'Uquid, eKistimg OUI' ~!H~':Y:I' 'dle froD't carburet"ter 'of ,a V·.. win and t bj;, m'stru'rnH~;nt wili1:l .t be. s'talffed, fn COl1seq.'lJ. nee, An l,deq1!Ja.~e breather must at~~ be 1Ui~ed 'LYn the ltan~ pl.[iti~umrmy j- '~s ~ic·f 'the [tim, ,sl?_nnt va_rle~,!, Tlle8e may s-aem ~QI be loibvioUJs PO':WDts]ibut al~ 'too' lofteD they:ate ovedook,ed].; . [,t must 'fieJver he, fOl'g[(lU:en tjJ1fJlt the ,rd'te at 'whJc'li iUe1, e:.aOI ~f:u:ef tlte f1,c}.'t.,,~ow.l ust 8l]]ways,'be mucb grM;~e ' 'dlm'D !Lb~, m late at whicb it is, heIn,e us~d, O:tbenvmse ~the]e.~el m 'tile bowl 'J1Ul,y at some ·1Jm.S be m~ loYller 'thu it should he: 'the PO!SiUOD. of ,Q earburetter ill reJardon to the 'wnk ,Dnd the Clon.d~ti.onIS, Ie:xis:tin~, dnrm,g v1[olent aooeb:r,ati.Q:n or'
t,~

the 'mtnJ QO':nm:enl down to 2'5 or .20 per 'emu, !:'hlJ:h_ sheuld give a '~heOMticaJ.'power blcteas,e' of ~,Sper cent, !:o ulili'ze the ~be_fa:t~, ?x)",~en, much more Cud. is, fieq~d. ;: i!I1 ~~y~ I.OJ 18'001 mal n jet IS neces'sar,Y' f;c!r 'straighrt A. M.!, l ,f~,etj)it.~a~'_,~a:'f£ (0 ,be., mc.~easod lIDO 25UO ,f,~iF2·5: per eent mlf~" !D. Wly cm~,et.ll~,1~ '\¥:WIest to' err en the .~m_[,G;c id:em s p~U, bec-ause Ilooi),ol flJe~s gl\f\e their best ptrwe:r ,at rich ,mIX.tme s'tfengUls" and 'partly because the fooe O'ltyg'lem
to f)rwlg·
1

'Pet_;')'IOl'~'.pel'_ eent, provided 'the engine ms strOD,S mDugh t~, s'tlndl,lt" 'but it is mere euaJ '~O dilute 'the· Dame miUu:~e· \Vi'~ ;~he-D A.:lvl.~ {94 pet 'cen'tmethaDlo~ ,6,per eent a~~tonei)

Fif~ 'per lomt mttl'l":metbane, can 'br:. used, with a tneOf[,ed.... eal 'power iru:rreas'e: (at.'Qofdir~!'p 'WI W,., B,~RO''NDh-,R'Q. M' In" ~ ..,
r_' ~ j . }~-~,

~j

'~II!·

.J...l.i.tIl

II,Ii

bpt scm'puJtOlsly :f[lee firtCHD,,fUllY COD,tlnrlnants~ and dle lentiR fud sys'l'em should 'be draimled com;pl eJte1.y Ifmt each 'c·y.mt.! Soule' ,i[idle.rr'S are in 'tb,e; ba'bllt of Ius rullll UbI 5,YSremt t'hrrJ'u,~]l 'with petrlo,l but :if 'this; is, aCtio all
'patrol bleR,di'
mtJS't

may

be, rem.oved,

oofOI'£:

s,tartWs ... u.pI

lO'lit

'tJIewWI).'

n~il:y enqlty 'u; so small dia:t the B,ow wiU be, in.ldjcqua;~'e ~e.s~ t~ ¥~_ la:r.g;@ 'tapi ,ilE~. pipes, and poasib:ly twm
ftfia:t~bow1stire ·fil;ttoo.~ AJID U1ftd~I'b.ndci~G· CO'll.ti~j) tbe

: st,~pelled to Ifjl'btam I, s'fI'aigh:ter .inlet pipe the bow' ma.y be l],rongbrt 5,0 close to _illetank that the ,h'ead of Uquid. P~B]]J't when 'tho tank Is:

dOlVD-dr,Qught

se_rJo1IDS~Y' :ale~t the rate af ftow'~, Uri' "o,r' .iru;'tan,ce,~ £he,


illgIe .is ,upprr,oo"

br~king

S;3

TU NI, ".,6 'Fa R, a,p"E'i:~

CO:U:P'R,ES,S[ON

HA'l'"I'O:S

rAN_U P'lTBLS

outlet :ma,J be uncovered as the: fuel surges, forwilldl thereby admittinl ~ir into the pipes and tms ml,st 'be' g;ot 'rid _ ±n 0([ some wa., befol~e fuel ean ag;am eommence to oo~;er_t.bt! G'w]., b Lack of' 1l'~,teD'tWn, to these mtL'U-:ef.S has more than IOiD'a" 03. used '~Touble '~~ihic"b, has b~n wrong[y attributed to t_he
c3rburette<r 'i,tse'rf~

~,th Ic:ylinder& of' ~arious _mp~oiti.es~·b~e OOrvG5,eprcSlent t '~~'~_:~]l'ost:comm.amy 'Used, ~1lind.not t'Oiml Ie'lagm.e) eapa( eities the 115 C.,C.~ curve, ,for lexampme~ applies, also to 2sn iQ;:o"'t'Wims,o.r 5(11) C.lC .. fO'Ulf-cyooder etlgiDJes~ 'To, :b,d the ra t~,o
j

gI"'IO,

_mlinl ICoUPfimilOD '_"Ilfios "


pIge has been, drawn 'to p''Olvi~e ;I;D leas~l' method of':ffin'dmg out the e"it., !j}\tiC'n by any pa:rI;iiCD!i11" oomb1ll1:s1io~nspace v!ti.,:~,'tPne(or viee versa) in loonjUIllcOO"[I,

a~tl9_S ..fi'om the 'volume fillITe.: to the iQ.:unfe of'th,e ,cy'Under capacity ,canoe,mea and! 'tllen, d\o'WD.wa;rdll '~O' the [a,tio llne, .' IColn,yen~:1y~ £,0.".lind. willt compressj,cm. splice, :'S, mqu ired .

b:y
._

Iltj ]m,Q'WD IG'Om busnoD,


chamber
". . ,'IiP\iI;

wn 'T ~

ume w~ ~1"",g.1I!,J; 'r1!:li'9,AI

'Th_te Il"ap',b. on this

[I

~e m,'tio line to 'tme: 250 cb:l'Ve, 'tbw across fOI Itli,evolume lLme" _wh~jja ~,t,wmU he ~eeD 'lb;art tb,e f.cq urnred DgiUKe is, ,JB C..C'" If it is, desleed to r.amse the radio to ,8~:for 'wbiich the' v,obl'me ~o:1Iidd ,be, 3,5:, C~C~;1 the ~OUJlt. lot' PIloting 1('Or. mmt61dal ~Tih1c~ho, to be n=moved fi,om. 'tbe, ~ylm,der bitse) ~an 'be :rOtlll~, b:y, ~fern1noo, to the seeoad graph:. 'wmch- 'wu.m 'be mlenUoifled :m a la,t,f3j , pa.ra.gra:ph~
m~ca;te :r.o<upl,Y'tlw; maximum faltblS, whiCh can be '~sed witb_ v~:i"i'O~IS,grades, of fuel ~ tIIougll (,s:x_,Cspt,m, th case of 11100'000 mdiCI'ltiOl1 is.. De&essa:ri y only lap'prr'Q,X;inl,l\i!te' ,o~~G ['0", the ~ror~meD/~{jfled'varying bon ~ An ,cnaint!i w'!lln III Irion lli.ead, :and burna :nod ,poer' ftnnim,g: CBD:D,'Cr'~ leJD"m,g, Dmtr:~' am high s, ratie ,II O,Dt.): with, an ,alumffinium head and 9:oonsive Inn~!~ UD~ess the bU'ttr",9, b:reathinlIDS

ito:rt saYt 7, to 1. :m.a ,250

C,,'C,.

cyljndel:1 read up fr.om, '7..5' oa

ill

, .. "be_ dmlo~~~ lines : 'r"B\YD, _ ,EUJr,OSSfb,;

ca.pKi.~y'

ICU;r.w;s

"

.....
~I

ill
I!.Y

m,e

z ::;..
E
;) ...:!'
~,

r~c

o
w \)

:10

~ ,iX:

< w

W,W'M ,aile tQI be raeed ,a,t hilb, ,altituJdes,~ ,3(Dd consequsJldy lOiw' atm,os,pl!:u~tic 'pres5iures" 'will stanCIl • 'Wiper ftl,tio tffiul,D
'W,!~U~D run,

poo,r 'that 'the cy'Uo.d£r diCJ0S .Il1J. OI'_ 'lUI p'IoperlJ a:l m wni urn :r'~p''''fO'i!' mdl theo,_ its Qc'tual COJD'ple!&tlaD prBSsure: "is 'very m:u:cb less, Ulm tthel m.S,JJujid 'value,.. , ,~~r' 'the same. reason, fedl,~,eed c,lmder :lniDg~ e.ngim.es
1

at sea ..le,v'C1.w,hick, is worthremem'bering ID, seme eoun ~des'where co'm:petUions are beJd 1m m,OiWJ]'mmoius
de~onarti.on ~
'regffi,ODS~ ,A, d~ atmosphere also

helps

tlO'

"

lOllCOM P~,ESSTON itA 11,0


I~'~

10,

112,

11:3

15.

~&

!J'

18

suppt,e$$ -

DetmmtifJD 'Ite :UudUng' rlleb~1 .A _peculi~r''thin,g abn,ut rslm,ns:t 1,0. engtmes, is th&'t wii:th ,MY particullIl"' fuel there, is a lIimiting ra;ijo, .a,bov\e 'wmc:b, one ,!1: !i:,~:

lkI1111fIQ'n'~iifJ Jer,u~~ ~,n.llnt.ftl.f)'n~"'(!fce W'J/ume (1J~dClJnfiM'e$,f'(')}1J f':tlli;(), in tke mb!Jl roJ7[mbttbJ Ifl8t:d -,C'~lh!(:j'er (:-o.patit;~s ,is ut:ldr~, - __ ,se~tJ'from rllu ~IJ~
,,.1#;1'

~ii,

C O· ;I.~,~ !Ii ,~
"'.! 'JiJiII'
,

IO! 'I!l!

D~j~,ll

1I:".c:!' m' Iii"Ii; ~.'i' ~IA:'

'n. ,I. ~

on 'T''1J,iii"iII Ii:!' ' ··Ii V'~

", n

":" 'if\'i; £". 1U.ir

U'

'D., ~~

L'·. ,~ ~

\
iii'

I I ~

I'

-,
. .

highcl' 'tha the, en:ginc is willing '00' aeeept, 'This is pwr.ti,eu1:~d1'true:.in.lc'Dg~iltl:Dee 'racemin whi,ch.1he dtrotthi :lS, wide o:pc.n ,most of tb,e. time; fOrI' sm.al1. tracks: and sand .ra~I' .it is, usually 'poSlsible 'to 1l!PI a UJ,de in 'tile n.'o,oj) 'because ,IS the '~gifu;;; ms not run:n:111.g· f.or '¥sXY'lo:nl, .and in. any' ease is being :shm: aft" .faArly fre'fuJeDt~Y'1 thel imt,emaJl '~;emperaulms d,o no,t w·ye· 'limo to beeeme dans.«cn:miy
,31 I.aUIl)

ao

.... ~'D'~ · UJ-b[J!I!

'005'"
Ilt!fe

·r

C~ UNlom

"0 ~D"

"'r-, I~
.
1

I I I

'The grallh om pap ,5a eDabies ~e amount (If packing .~ h~ll .mus,t be .r--eDlovedl or.' I\d&a, when ,adj'illS!tm,8 ~lthe 'moo W be detu.mjo.ed 'ft:ry as.ilY'i! Refre.rrmg' "g 'dtc' pmriOD& IUI'Dll[pI,e, "i't wacs fOlmd 'itha,t tOI rai se; a %SO C.iC., cylinder from,
1

8.",,'$.1F'ACKI[N,G· EQUIYAI._E_NT fa' I, COCO OF CQ,M PRlE:§:J.101N1 liP-ACE

;011 :S'

II'

'Ol@!
'

...

'0'25 ,"
..

h.

"OJ~,
:'

IIJI

-03·,5'"
irJr

?i~S,'to' Ii '_10 '1 'the,oo m.:pl1essiaD :&pue must 00 :reduclld. from, ,~o, ' ' ;1,'1.. h, . Q 'to '''.ijj,i!C' . c.c,., W·m...b. 'IUJU;S 5~nU .... .l, ITlq~~ supposms: i~1 be ~,~.; . '. h~Q, ,.:: .' a·reg of-tI1be ey.llWde to be 68 mmlJl' if we read across from 16M'mol" ,CIS the 'wrticaJ line to tile cune~ 8ll,d '!hem. dcnm '£'0 the b,o'lizonrtal tine, 'we 6nd 'that ,,,(U:(,5· in. is ,eQuli,valen't to " c.c ..:
;;J ;It'.... ,...
J

ts sliOw;IJ' 'Ii~ IJ!~~'e~f tJ/ ~I~'

Bl¥iIltl: u'(J,rtJ dlnlImllQ,fU;"

~'l.tllJl~D 1

ClOt!.

lI'O) 1S;::; JJ29

themftlre the. dllekfB~5,'Sof pacting mu& be ,reduoed


D,y leadmg, jin 'the revers,

lE1~, ,Dr' JUSt 'und~r

1 ,-

due 'Dot 10 'wj_'tb,ou't M 3!llmoste~[tain n'sk, ,of'piston 'ttrolilb1e. -, -' ,.,L ....: -." !L..! ....:.... ...L.'· .~. . .""'~:~ ~I - '....... ,-p,.]' u yet 1y;L :m.\U"g alL W,lII!J,~, I;110 run lUil.P.,·l 'J' ,r, ,It..... ' .Il,;'", que nill, OD~Y 'wry :s:~1ightl:y (,ower; !ckoppimg fr. 0m, say ,~,9",8, ' t,o 9~§ :my md:,e the diUIi fCnee be Lweeu, suoocss. ,Blld fai1uR; 'with bllt Iit'le· 'or 'IlO dmtmlu'tj,on i perrormall'Oe·,. Apart. fr;om atu:lihle 'Ilt .~ljJki.I.!~~a;~IPsthu d.eW'ootioD 'the 'IS b- ~B 1OCCtmiD,1 a rei llUlDUsm/kable 'WelleD '£D,m· p.ilsm. is elamim,£d,: ,IJO 'the :s,idG of' 'tkc Cf,Q',\VD, ,retBO'tB, .rr'D'm 1he :ph~1I\I, lame, 'Of' 'dle 'C3:1'hD'S film win 'be 'bumlt :9,wa'y ·and.·ifhI surf.ci ,of tb~ atum:;'Dium 'wi' _,_:_. ~o.can,'p,ittcd :andro~Pt f~r 'w~'i '
-I

-,lUI'" '''~'~

ij

lin.

·the bo,ri.HlmJ 'EiBe~ then. K 'Ost ~ 'the diffefC:noo 'in YOldllU3; .~ ~I~dl 'b,. mmovin.1 OJ ad·eG·",1,a kmown th_~dt_n68SJ of plcki.ns' em be lead ,af'd~l!ootIyj!tnDl! Wlving a ~iotof eBtCIJ~ ~ ~~ '~\o. ,m1a:~'lln'i.W ·,1,'1.. ~,t.no Ulu 1 C'J!iIi 'ii''I...: ,PPi!tI" ,0. se r~ - 0(, 'nii,~'i .~. llli<lJn IlicU'WJi WJ~r nes .r- orlaJlj,w'.. ~'!lIi-n~1 111... ;I..,. .. '1." ;liil'...·.. i...'~ .....JI" ... 1' 1 eUI Y' ee ma~ UPI so 'IWam: 'IW,O mttol can UC :!Ehll8fLSU .fl,pflu Y' "0 any desired 'IUI,e .. ''r,tC'' ",i:., . ID" ...:II' hi-'·b. _'L.. ;iI,·L..... ,u, wei L.... wfR 1"~s JiO . ,'.dOr'W1Jl 'L rstuu 'W.' ili-w go' ilfJl....... . -,:..,-ld' WUl,DD,p me
i ....

,cfilectioQ. ~c!e .•

in~

b,),'

2, S~x

UPWBlds,

f],o:m

t'ij

!c' -

..:!!

~ .. , 'II..... '. 1 d .. " "~"t... t ;i,'L - •. ,oomditi·an, ..Ii.1ii!j eo l' :JOq_IUll:B.. '. fiCfl.pbon '1,8, 1U!!L_;a; ,- me m'ilce J!til.vc· been at it..tt , To some ,BXWDJt idetonatioD. due '00 an. l~xccSi9ivcly .rush fmtiO, ,CiUll be suppRssed by' .tetaJ.mng (ft~ j,pition. ~d; a
iU
~,;;"i"
,

Jet .ltiYiq

very rJ'.chmi:~et but ~e :reSll~~f,. d.imlD'Uli.OD lof :pa\Ver;: in, od1er 'wofds", there 18 :t[tOitibilQg: to be ,pined. and eVerything to 'be' rilked in :ane;mvdns' '10 llS'e
:8.

·~m.· win ~~, be

,IJ: fEr i~a:dwsaJjl;e'to .r-emo~.'" ,me-rat from "fi1J ,b~'m Wlreiff ,t'e;'Ilf; SlUC.!' Q:G "I1!)-3~; ,'lltiutrtu' :.f I~M Ji'fffflJ 1'18' ,Q.,:e,

tie

·rr

jJlfJ

bcuNl

{,s' (J,_ttlc}~d. l,i?i

·c.-ftj;jlk,~."

:bJlI' shwt

s,ud.;;

,bo"'"

,tU.H':!.

~~I

,Qnw'l.lii;i

.W~(lii

~I~!J~

1)8' romOi-"ed_friQm'

,pl

w.l.t~ ,rop;p.,

,S';

51

'T OCJ'NJ! )Ul

'I' OIl, S",rmmD

C o ,M" It a S s J'('!n~' 1\, A. T'~ 0 S it N' '0, P nat

mansc ()mly~,care m'US:Ebe: taken to 13m dtll't Ole :1a.tJt~ris ,D,'Olt made '[,0<0 tbrnn,~ as i,t, is in, ~. :bJ,ghly' stresse d lom.ll'~.y:~,and, In overhead eamshaft co Riues wIth "{me '~j.l'stud, Oldltam oouP1iings 'the verulta~,$ba:ft there Is B, lIi't~.ultood, rthA\t_ lhre small amo'Mt ,of elldi ..loat, nQrmally !allow~d ,ma.:)I' all be: 5,w,aBIYwed. lUp---8 st;r~e oi' ,affairs whioh will pun exms'!dve' &Dd,-'tb:rm~ the '\perrieal oove;'l shafts,., Th:il pc'mt must,

On '[the o1il,c:[ hUld it ;a'tsome 'futlJI,e d3'~etlU~1 'butel is sUmk;ed, u.p ,8gfdrn'Mdl shims, by an, apipmdab~e tlnlO00 'tl' ~h: ma;y [be Dl6cessa:ry' to: ,abta~~l a lODg,~U":s11afl or a pair of cou.pbg ... discs ,or g[lW,NE thi'me:SSi~ IOn DiD 8.COOlln't mus~, 'theSe IC(MtlpUngS, be fllln 'with, 'the 'l:Olilp.u~1 ,only haJf~npg~e~ In the 'S~QU'l £h,e ~metal is Urucn su:~j~ted ~n r& f0 11». ,of stress wb~ch 'may cause faHute'i It goes wt~Oiut :sayiimg that the cylinde:r bore sb,o'~ld be_in. I"lPlneC:E, 'C&DfLi'd'Ofl;w, '~ltrticuWvlY I'~'dl = up'per end, where! ..the ,P.!'it" .' ~lml ,l1ea:w09,t W19r; m~'m:iablY ,occun~ The w~ar pmcUQ~Y _ b '~I ,Ul,. • up, men ""arms ,luS t: ,; lceases, about an .im.'N~h Ii' so' . ,elow' me 1'1~l W '1i.,~: h;f; o l'~vel wltb 'Ole top ring, .'t t.. .e.'j'but, in erl'tct, over this d sherI ~,engtb, tb'e: barrel is 'tatperecL In 'tbeir' aUempb ~Ol
t

theref:o,[:e'I' be 'veri6edl~

Ion

'pos8ibffi.t")', fouUQ§ exists, This J'0~'t, hIS ttlrtad,), bOOD noted ill 'Cll1W,p~ei"T 'ibUlt j s s:w:6cJlenUy' I im,pOrCttan:t to ~va.:rranlt repetltio1m ~
:remOVer' an,),'

se it is al~~ays'wtse'to (em(b'VC' every 'v,estip ,of r~dge by 'vmy lcuerul worK: with, a, Sb£ltp Mud sC.raper or a .rim:g'..,ridl~'

to cause the pri;stO,D, r.ms; land 'bel'DIW Ithe top ring to bred a,way~ 'Even a, cha'D'ge, from on,e' 'type 'pb;tcn to ane ther m a,y~ inl'trodlU.u~e 'the same reffe.JOt due t,c varying rin.g be[ght$~

0,'

it

or

Bm'''''HlluU6oniDI

'W'om, 'B lU"1"e'b;


1

as

to lex;:dmd ood ICD'ntrlctl, ,B, f:7ea't.'\¥,hich may b~ bey,ond 'thew' ca paci'~y ,ilbove ,3, ctr~a i11 speed! 'When dl~SOOOUB, gal, Win 'be' able to b~ow'past and, _ale:'o oill CaD, 'wort im way up into tbe 11Md", W'orse still, jjf 'the rate ,at 'whidl, the rmgs, He, 'hemg, fo,wed in and ,out OO~I'2S'" ponds to thejt m,~'m,Rlfre:qUmley' of vibration, '[hey _ ~ln I~~ m'l.e I, 'S fa te :kmlcnm as ,,~, '8ut~u ~ :ud ~f~er a 'while will 'blte;a'k~ u~~~iW:y:8t II point :(aidy elese 'to 'Ute ga.p.. ~'t11J3 'fing
t

COniOlml

to 'the vttry,jrig ,[U:ri;m~te[ tb,e ri[l,p t,

hlv_"- aJte~~~teB"

by' lin.. lng~ th,Qugh the rust memhod is: r;amyappUca ble ,'or ,mein!t as mentiened in Cha.'pte~' I'; NOlt.o.n~;Il,8ines, ;of'41tO e.e, ,8 re 'ooe e'llIeep'U(Hl 88, they can b- bored out from '1"9to "'~6 'mID" before ,wm;eediJJ(1 the '00 e.e, Ijm'~t~ Not an 'barnels :!HB 'dlict Ie:mou!h to stand oolng nDe~gd'without dang~el'of 'fraGtUfc III Ute IMP" IcUiL,O'ugb the type ,m II 'wbleb , 1011 g; bole eN:~emdfrom ora_nkcase up 'b:J' the be~d, sri: m,ucb. less 1like~y 0 [aH, ~an, 'lhoa.e witb, a bol~en ,klll~i' ,A.],s,j) i't 'm:us'l be :reme:mibered, that howe,~ ~. ell the nner w 'Ib~ i'o ,j Wlcti,OD with tbe bafiie'~ reoosrh lutes an, adiclici,ona] Jlel,~,:bmaJ".~ though 'lltisl m, o:f less me melt t 'w,i:tb wcC),bo 1 .. tba:n. with petrel ~u£l.

B:adly worn, barrels 'm'ay be rcjUV1C Dla'ted, 'by ,reborms or'

n,e

t.h'DIl.Ib. dlis is a sp~ital~ized process, as it is neces .. SllY .ro'f. "the 'pll.ting 'to, have a, 'pcrou!, 'Imf3JCO, 'Ito prevlde a :rtlultitude ,of' oU ' ~Br.vair,s,; 1h,e ,proce~s~ ,u- knQWl1 !by
vaF~,'CIU;ij 'trade names

pl~n twn!"

Barrels Can be bre u dlt back to orm,gkud smzc: by chrome ..

d~esi~, is, inoo'Roo~~Dutter' ma:y oceur even :in


0",

O,mlUlDirf' eemeresslon plates or ['eductng base ~.~ RaDle IS ,~r.':'L tlmi.t 'the pruston :ring Yrill b:n~vi'mbID,y s,tt.l.A.;e any nB\~: :nu,p w:hleh ha's formed.~:O:G~i,onRU,y th~! bas eveD, beern }mQIWIJ.

barrel dis,t'Of tion ,of ;a~ ~Dllu!:,~eCEed, D'at'tlre~ which ,may be ea used ei,'tb~' by tbe,md mste([iIlO~,Of '" 't..~ ;' ... , ;:1, •• .~Id tbroiu,gh the base Ilaog:@ or cr~lml:r~ faee DC)'i' ~~g U~ull~t., ,An,otUe:r 1M! ,Q,boo,t, alltmin,,1 .eQ~pN_S9JlOD, fllti08; ~Y

may he

3l.ar~,a-ea, b, t

a"

perfect bore iii

'me'

Herst :patieID.'t adminlstered iD BDg:km.d,b; It" A .. ~ister ,~D,~~. C'0'i'~ L'itd",i' DUF.sley _ Gl'OI ..fl slid ~'I H(Jneyebr{)!me:,~~'~i8. :S~Cil"" a'UtJ' lOr M,O,noCihrolme" L't1t A1C'ester,~ La"staU Engiaoenng ,J!1I: L· ",!kI.. iii Li"iiI"l"..1i~.... Ii]i~,c,~I_ ," n:ulrbrt;111._3, fa.1Ill ,~ of:'lli:l)i2'1\':S, under 'Ill U~~ 1I,;I!.I:lU.Uun" __ ~ ;t:he' ,na:me of i c, Cromard,i't) these 'bejug 'v~n~. 'lbid,_ mild",,, ,st~fd tubes 'MUl, 'CMome"'pht'ted bores sup,pII:ied. 'fW1s~edl ,00
t Ie···~ 1dI'.. 't _ 1f",..;1 ;iIi'Ii ~~

's:u,ch. 1;9, ~~'L;i,s,tardlJ:~1' the Van

der

511

" .' t ~O.i'6i:we sIze ~: &1l!!.Wa:t ,;.,,,.."'" to 'L d-'D,ne IS. '0 b ~ &,1.... V~n"e '1 t""'" ~.'LI. - t'mll ~'L ~ ~e .... I_-~ w~ "oUletl !;me and P.[iCSS tb~e. Hner [uto pla.c·e~, :mOi sU.bs~ ql!la~t 'berms' belt},:!: :r.equit,ed,," wc'1uded in, the FaII:ge ,j!il, ,a.
t, ~
iI50

,'9

TUI'\,HNG,
I ~,.. . UWJJ'!o<

'F'OR.. iSIPm.e.D
,~,ti4',"", - Jib -

litir III ;,o;n_~,"'~II'II'\1' uesll,grme:~. .lw. ...:J " ", - - d "".... . '. 3~!!>I~,l~JIL~J

00 g;i'filero

_~g

,,,"'Lg ~ow~

o~...:I\-'"~"OJI'

.:Iir,••.··U.W.g:J ;

J' A P-,'" ,,,,-,,

WEAR ;)I-IOWI~[ IE>LAGGElIjtAT:E,o·

Lng ·s,~epin the berm", 10 thflit th~[e ilS lll'OI possillillity, ,o:f' thf!' &ler~ wwch hats DO 'flange. ar.t '{be. tep, being: l"uUm ,down
tnto

end and the l!;yJilnder must be :machined \\;rJ,th ,I, OO.'Ire-3l)O'l1J3 ..·

Th;s· :limer 'is, :sH~b.U-y· reduced in. wl'meleE' near the ID.iDwer

'We; 1C'rI9J)kC\lse S~bOiElI.d it eome loose or if 'the "pts!um sei.z-e8 ba;lUy., Such:o oeetrtfell!Ce is notllim.g short Q,f B. 'ala:mity and:, 'In.ere 'ilssibl~, liD!er-.s sD.lo,Uld .aJ,w,a" be proviJded with Bl fbml~ at the U:PIl er end 'w,mc·b C~Ul'be grIpped berl,weeD! 'die bead and barrd and 'thus prevent. the Inrufrom mOlmg in a'01, diIeCU"OD,. .ii,'iL. '. 'L!' -h ~ ee '~~6. .... 'Ii... IO !!.1III1:r' '110mb 'w.l!ile~,' m.ust - net t.. 'ove:r,w.oo\!lJOU are me ..Ji~'~ ufu.. 1501 ,of any ,ojl-·b.'o~f.S Ddt IC,u'ttinl out I.I1'r· leDU"OOd. c~cmanee d'OitS w'hic'b ma,,' be provided lim the 'b~ne,~ gf~11laU.y~ om"
...;.'11 ~

WEAR ~ItACTIC;ilu:r 'tt;~SE~ H£~,E

. OIF ,~f!l.OOVE. MUST' 'EifE Ir-ACIEO

E . e Of L!~E~ A!NO '~ItCE.

I
SiU)Ti

, OH

Fl!,J'iH TO A 'I,;"O~ 0 G~fI'


,{~'IJ'

fA. N"r

litl~

,rrJD:' br1 ,~

'w,ltil0Nl

ill

If t.b_e:skirt: Q;1f 'Ul~ bllT'lie~- w'lincD. projects in:wa r,diS iDitO' 'dlre Icmm~=;se- ~I long; ed of fair'~.,Ui.i:D ~e-Cl;ioiml~aSJ iI Is for m:stm~e. in 'MO'V &Bid MAC, V1el,ooetbes., it is a wise' 'pInE to rednm th,t '~·'[ilerdliamDWf ,lot ·the IOWOl" end ,0, tlil.t, it hi just th sm-me· l[ze ove.r 'the lengt[1 of tb:~ skm_ AI "me
bore ~D.to' wmob it is pr,e~5Wed.. Thi8 eUmma.tes Itbe dID,g'Cif of ·tl'me :5,Idr~ deveJopm B 's, emiC:k' when tbe -i;mcr is prfe,s =(1 ~ ~ mto pOIU10'n. .. Inc Idental ~yI' liners, in alum :ini1lllm e;ylindlcrs ShOll_~'d '~e f.'airly ,thick..........;o'ot less 'than i: j n., and J,H"eftr,n.'b1:y more-to resist mltQ1flio'D . , bu 'wb.em ~8.ed. in an moo, barrel dley 'may 'be. made H, thbll as in, ,P-ravid'6d ;8. ~OCiJ!,[dn1 fi;g·.tW ~s p:r,esem:tt an w.t'trfereICe S:t 'whleD. i~c'ld,of .001,..,.00 2 I'D.; iSI s.u1icientJ, i:rrespective of ma:me1,e-r as the llneris bound 'to be b0tb~r 'than 'the ja,cke,t whe,n 'mnmli·l~ :Iud i~. wilt e,VQr ~oosoo. lu. ,ul.UJmiJrdu.m. j.ack,e~5 a. ;greater "Il;t,em:r~,fmce :is rneq.wud. and allowance must he ':iltiILde fb,:[' tllJe ·bJgb. exPMl'''' SlOll, OR [the :following bU1S~,OJOOD'ldim.g 1-0 ·the :alla1:Y ll!ed ,:

~/ng

.sl""'~IJ'iftl! IlMlt

V~Fji d._eet,i'~~'J -for

Imrn,t rq",o'r:Q/~(JJ.m lkJ~ /fDnp'~

*'

.i

cnn 00 made from any' g'Den' pade or cast mon but prefer'''' ,~:b;ly' Blft. aJ1(1·Ycd. ilOll GDIl1~Mrnil1\1 l,t to 3°;{., of nickc1~ The: im,p-ortBnt po'int eo '.,atch IS ,sq~luu·~n,ess f the sh!omJd.~r and o Unet· to avoid, aD!Y smnblanee of ga.p .:: ~f Pf\OIJeI'1y (I,OIU= the' jemt. wnL be almost iDlvl;Sibl,(C. and will. ,mnunll ,S.'CI I~rvh~ie~ in TJh,l8; uiekes t nle-thad! of,truin.g 'up wio,m, or '~apered b Q,fe5 q is, by means I~;f a ,cyllinder hoae whiich, can be 'rotated and rit=i.p.roOl'ted in tile b OR, eitber under 3!. dhr.iLlltll.g malch;ii~lle w·til I. i,o.ng spindle. tm;vel or by W'SIDa of ,I sio,·w"'Is..pee d. dtetmc' ,biD" ,A CO,pi01JlS and IC'D,:I]tDlUQUS ,supply ,~)i:r kere ...
eil .18· V].t~ to :pr,event &wa'~rJll1ngtbe :S11r.., is ne need. to MWD, a. mirror-like finish~ The iderut surface eonsjstt olr e large number o,r '!f,ery fine
StDe, or para:m.n i(a~, but there

sometimes bed down a ~JI.de and elkdibb c"Uher tipt ,!i',pots er boUfrws ;n tbe bo(~,e,; ,it is, tRerefO'I'B ~ wi~e. pr-eca.'U H'on t,o --,one tbem lout initially :2 or 3· tb.o'JL1" smll( ,ud, re,,,,hODe or ,~jliPIOI~n'~JCI eorreet siize Bftl!r' a short P0Dad ,DI,r IUll-ID.im,I"· trle, :ilu 'M'm an o~,dor sUlbtlJ Ii;uld,erl~d [pistD~~ ~ _ Siho\~n. Q\bove: is ·8. sw mple melb.od. of Icrj u'\\'e»a.tmg a CM'~... InJD. blllU,e1 by bormng it IQU't and fl~ting' a ;~fbturtUUf" wmch

M~peS!i'llm1W Al1o~s (Bt~ktron.. Map[uDrim~Lfml .. 01.5 pe.r 0


,d1~[cr~ -

U· 1"1lU1W~.iI: ~l ~ !!U~, ~'f'!.('I.,.l. .~, ,I, ,ii,n,....

n~nJk ,.. ;~iI;:: . ,I £U6oU:fuUlI:OO:ll1ll

t,'"L- ':ii "'li i!!~ A' ,L,1"--1: ,.n· ~i!!. 'T, ..... _,_u__ ~~;7........ n~r'ln ·n)·' _NlIR,. -l'!!! \. ;J,;J~, b-V~_~:w,
!lOt:' u;, ;1:.':11, ~v .... 'i'..~,;;:J.'IP
'I·~VlifU'iOli,L.i niM' ~.' ~1U..I1,litJLL~

_~II!_~ -' " 'r,-"1Il 11'1,'. ,Q~1. dJ~mM:e~, -100,1] 'I"if'!r' : .. f' .Ii .:

_,Yo .....

I"'"r

!I;i!L!!>~"."i!IiOl

.A~all"ll:'ll.;n,:l"'-'
iO

m,.

,af'

A;I\-et ~ ~b.rJrt 'per.;!Dd of ru.m.;run,~~,iners, in :ai:tlmmium 'she'l~s, l


·ISO

ICflSS-cnJS5 ..m;arldngs .. f' ,~ 'OJ 0' tbe rings~

which. :~gtaln ,oll and

give a

qu~ck ben ... ·

'T'UN'ING FOR S,PllS:n

e
tj'
lU:1~
I

n-'liif l~,

p.~

··'n''ii:t~'~''f·n'fiil.'1i 1 R!. I~ !~I ~~


I~ I~ ~

fi ,iI..y-·it nl~ OJ f.l, I~~ii ~

,h

~. n 'k'~D i",":

IET1
rl

I L.S ~Jie
.

Band ..la:pip[ng in o,bmln Il perfect tln~Sb.OF to clean up a sJi.,gh'tly damag,ed, 'Il OMit:: can be done ~V:i• a d~sc_Qf1dedp.rustom . spl;.t in ll1~lvesand expaadad by two spr:rings, su.pped! over the pdg~OD, bosses. MOM.ted, 0'0. ~n. old. :1:0<11 or ,I. piiee-e of 'w'Dod~ 'tl,i's ,de-riee Is 'pushed up, and, dO\m l[h,e t},m-e:l "b,y mndl and ·given a 'partiai rotatien at ,ea~b 'su'ote-, the ,a"brra's,wve be:in'-. Hour ,emery m;xedl \'villi oil If milch, .metal ha-s !-'.(]I be OOnt()wd" and Dle.tal poUsb, fO.1" ·ol~J~g 'the final fin]:sh~ ,A11traces, or ;abrr,asjjy-e 'm;lU.'t of ICJOlmsc, be, finaH.y elm'm,i_muted 'L~u ~"'!Ii~pr-·Jl'Ii'1 ~ t ~!it..I:·'" 'mit!· """-~ olea I~p~'~It. UJ' o'oIi~,,"~i 'iIl.!Il.J. .~A._~UlJ[I\~, [f' this itrCtd:ro,ent, is ,Iprp'lil:ii 'J) side-valve barr,e~s,3 h·oUow ~"ru'~SOlnBE lmes be D:oticed .~D, the su rfaee a dJmJ'ocn~, tOI the ~
i~

_'1:... . 1~ iII''''''::'' exaa" US'l-V-~lby,:e port .;,nus .IS a. :~nsn..1;......, W h en bOll tlb.e barrel that,

..:iI~i!'+.nr·ts: iuw:a.rds liu .'


'. ,1

'betmr not to oontmue 'liappmg In an ,attempt, to leii~ate rut If dlIt,t :W'S do,ne, the bump 'Willll!'~p,pear whem ·the· en,gi.nc

the ~O(rm~E b~m:p Ie," now a"ppwrs, at. a ih

and 'the bumn .,.!, ~A llhv· fermed l"""","D F JJ..~-.;J beaD. :mbibed, aw,ay by (he: p!~1l0'n. 'When 'ooldLjl of .
t.. , ~~ .,
I...

,I .. ~ .

fiill

".

..

~Vl

-¥..

'!'T'il .lul ",,~-, I.J.lJ

~,I

bellow

I': II

and ~~. is

,!3ICMllfSe"

fti

;;,:ii, '1Il.L.~.

'W,aImS up' and :milYcause trOll ble if' fWl-lthroule its ap,li,ed] 'wl'thOtU, II lellgf_hy' prelim.htD.1jI ftlllnmg.-'i'n 'lpttiod. .. Enc),osuI0 of ~dde 'Valves, in. .lm:ge 'box:es, whlch. ,ell minate a :to,1 b. ,area is 'bad fr,om the iDOO.tm,g: ,aspm;t~, and ill s'ucb eases t'hc :CDYCr,fJr s-hcnilf~d be 1ibenllUy drilled, and :fi:~ted.'wlth scoops m orde:r to stimulate a 'Dow of' I[r tluougb the ',11'Ie ,c:lu~s·t:;the :lns.: som,t/times, cast en the covers are not r,a.Uy el'~tl'v~, :~!i the ,stapaD t pook,~t of a.i'r is 'the ",1:1 ve c'hest 't'be Ra~ lbard.er to hea't diui patio]]" F'or !mort, ..distanct! efWDrm vrith aJctJhol ruel-gfass", and dirt~tr.a,ckimg, and :s,pritD;t w'ork~eep ba~'1 ~M:S, are :n.ot n~=HaQ' (rea d e,I[,S,'win remembGr 'llbc e'a:r~y dirt ..b,aek J,"A.i'P',~p()'W!~r umi'U:;., 'whi,ch orlpt almost be called ,omem.. sha~D jt)~ bu:t, "ihc:m, read raeil1&"comp1ete 'wida mudguards" barrel coari'm,g b -~ -o:m.e-s WO'r.~9~,as the speeds become hl,gber ~ ,du~= to 'the ~,il,dead mJ' ml;~om 'belli'ltd the ffiO'Jllt ...wh·ee;]

0,'

is

iii

Ilil

,slsem'bty 'beeoimmu more and more pronounced, 'lienee tbe use olF 'tliD~ 'Up 'to, I, In in d;iame:teri whi~h wcnlld be, of' pro,h.ibiuve 'We,igh,t, lin ir-on and are~ '~Jtelerore~, made ef
,II ummmm

., rare mSlaflees. :map'ei1U,m :MJIOI' ~ ~ .,.1~ 1t 'Por nyone MUJ a nUle skiU in ladile: w'ork 'tbere ;'s 1101 grea~,dlmCtd'ly in ma'kiOig lj,P lao 'bi~mebl baIl· 'I o.g~ of a so lid casting', lor~ 'better' stillj.. a fo.fled bu' CI." Ugbt aUoy. ''lith th~. 1~;'-iI!!I t-'ni'iii"n.tl~1 ,cr,111,'1:;,."",. ,1fj'OI,:.;a1 'T"'L .... +j""'"~1i",~-d ,tft.orm-·_r .Q~. 'ha~: LUJIl~ .I.J.V.JJWIJ_ l~~ uI ag J}.. Ul .UJJI. ~ . 'fleeq '~awdbl be tbGi m!OlSt ,effwtive:i,,a.lthougb alittlc' mate ...1Ii:'.. "',y;, .'_ . .'t...::,.... ,',;", .. &L..... --" t ., ,~;_tU:ilC.U~I!; '~ m3!CL!iWe msa,_ I~ paw.!d.w.e 1-' VBlrlC'ry., '''ir''il.'·b i--ore 11ne . :dtoUild De, ftn1iIhed ,at as hi,gb. a speedll'~ 'the ~13:the'Will permi.t~ us~g fOtl pEefemnce lao 'mnp:ten carbide '£001 a:n.d; a feed '0" ,a\bo,u.t Jl@,31 per F.eVOlu.ti6D~as :s,m.ccesslm~ boot '~g'IL['MenOO iD~ he~;weeD 'liner and b~'rrel de:pm~, 'very Iarl:eQ' u.po:n. the'
Q,r.·I, 1m,
IUJJI..IlI}~IUI \IffloTiio'ii
IQlf·

·~

WJ-U-!l1

lu;l¥~IP¥

.. '

'

!ill

'AP!r~ifi;IiI':i,n':n1 Ir-¥~ 11b-~IL1,v-y

of,. "

lEi...."t. ... ,'f:.. ,IJJUJU~

Iw. 1

The actual !com,positialJj, of tbJ;'~,altoy Is o.f Uitde moment,


6,3,

""'if'·'L lLD~
A

'ii'!\~,n~~.A'~~'·;pjj ,g Wu, I .IW~l~~

~l;:JI'I:'j ""'jlil·.fQIl't ~~ .. ,~~~!!

1" U HTN G FO It IUHU!J)

exoopt

:So' far e. "tbe IGoeffic'iien·t of thermal 'expm:siOD. varies .. High. expansion rates Me .D.Oji~ ;adva.n[ta\I'Oous~ and m. thls respect 'the ms:gnmi:Wl1 ,aUo.ys:md the L5 aluminlum alloy ~).)im.mon1y used -rO.r genemlleal\S:ting~, Lm the ~'Dl'st 01 the lot at ,.0000261 ill.. de,grell C, Eligh-S.W.lOOD aUoy,! to per specm'cadoo 'L33 are lb~e:,~·owestat. ,OOOO~I~ ~~~, but do ,mot :E1IiIlachine wen.. L ~l-ex tbe ;a.lloy from willeb mest DiuJ!la,r,~ I ear ~d!StOID;S are 'mmdell, has the sante coeffie:i,cml as L33 _ :but, ma'L1Wne-S, Qlflw'te well, especi,flUy 'if m~'1'-l I, low·..:Cem.pemtuf,' h'Ga'l"U'eB,tmefit ,or 10 hours a.t .~, ,c. 10° The bes t com'pnlmi.se ~s,aft'::otclccl. by' Y -alID.oy 'Of :It, R ~50I' with a coeffic:ie;o'- ,of ~,OOOO,22 mi'l wbile the IllI[l'mil1i:um mapesium grOU,~iI1llm:h as ~~,B~r.fljSa,br:i,lbt'~'ii 101'" Hi.doftl'mrn:~um. ~ ,omY' \fIery 'slilht~y hi:gher and. have the addJtitOl1aJ1 ad.vantag'S lof 'being, vlery resistan·£ 'm w[l''Osio~'1 eVeD. by'
iU ~JI i rc.

m.

CO:lh/UP',ftS 510 N I

"R.,A T I(JS

,A. D IFU ar, s N

poor, and, moreover ~movement of the Iiner wiU ~ e rl~8islred. maimlj ~y 'the tnp f1a~[I,ge instead of ~y the ll~P of the j,~cbt Tms lSI likl~ly 'tol cause the Ban8~ to break ,away and 'the; Ilaer to drop dk;"~., so if looseness is, suspected, then. either a lliar.,B'er lin-er' should be obt~ined lot i~he·o~d one increased in ,siZe by copper-pTha.ti"D.,~, :~r making' ;q-W,te SUf.e the:r·e; Is

no sign o,f',R eraek il-ro,mnd the Dang-e~ 'Vinoont llners tam be S1UppUed ...01,0 in". ovenize on ,dmmet~~ ;s·maUer than tOO liner
I'

:Befote ,fI'~'IinS 'be j:scket s.no:uld be re ..bored to ,~,IC06 irn~

A pr-ocess which M,S, ~I~.'tety ome into pit'OmmBJloe~ m_lS die ~ lioiJ AI-,Fm It· s,ys'tell'l; ill wmch 8. t me m,etaUi,e~ bond. .is fOrmed between the iron ud ,3 llllmim'u m, so' eUmlruuj~g a, kI,'en:t'b.fe~, at tllis ,~DCiU[y,. The process is bandIed by 'Wreit1;wlorth.~ L£d"", Ly,minstoD,j Ha:[J,m], who I:re ,plf:epared. ~o eut lS,ol~d jlC~!.lib on to barrels, 'the Dn_Sji '0" course, ha Vlng, to be: subseql(um'tlly turned 'by' the c'Usliom,erii ~clDS N\o~on a:~d. J'!iA~P enf.inea lltav,e b-_ eli ,eq_mppoo for some 'uma W.l:rJ] AI-Fin 'n barrels, with finra, cast W' size', The. mam_~tents covering dl_,e, plGCesS are :tHdd '~y tbl Fairchild ,~via tioll Colf[pOlmli.O,,IlT Farmmgda]'le~ N~Y ~.I 'U"S~A I ad 'th~mare ley~rial llj.ccQ!cees opsm'adng .in &bo.t -and ,~tber CCI~atnes, ..~ ~eeeD't d!evelopment hea been tbe 'bonding-in ~Ol,~ alW!~,etU:~~tJ cu:t~ir,o:n I("'~Ni :resii,t ~~Jseat ins"m in cyJlind~r hMds~ thereby' orb:tainimg --~ ;ttc-r oo,:lduttloD. of :h'eat, filum, 'Ilhc e :illBed to tbe head 't_han 'wi-[b shrunk-in ms:ertsc~ After considerable us~-!t'.; ~e bo(~~ in ,aJ.nuii:rrui.um jacb:ts
to

!iloo-water"

•.

~iI.

i~,

honed, 'Wfu.,Enl the lengine ~s at running 'tempc;DltW"e,~ the -bea:~ cond~tiv.lty be,twee'D. liner and jacklOt 'vnm. be very

someUmes '~nere21se in 'sm ~D suC\h. a:n 'eX'(etDl 'tba:t It'he grip upon the Un6l1' is msuilicilent; this ma,. ~;']1.0W up by ~LW Ulmer 'lumin.g; in 'the jael(je'L either fun S8wm6 or 'w,hen b~g 64-

ICJ1]!: CJ:C.fN0

P ,1ST'IO'N ,A, N:D III NG

W lBA R,

If"'!'UI'.A 'b'T""C'1ii':'i ~~nJr' I·~

''[j'

Yo

"1ClC·· . 'f~~T~ C'D.r-~.··A....I_J1.·.~

P]·s··.·TIO: N'.,.'. A....ND··.··, .'


I" /',' .....• "

Dr ,","T'n 1\,...ILr,'\.j·

W:PA,-, fi ~~

10 -"pg.~r. ia se do,UtJ! ..

·"d&;U,I'j,~b.e.~6fore~'that ,nea:r:ny :h~K power' ost JJn inbl~Il:UB.]. the ~ .. '.. ~s 9. bsor'bed_._ 'I]),em~ ue kll·.J! U no meu;I~S are '. ~ by ~ '~DCIJ'DrlJl .. ". I\W;. r.ded for moonm;ftJciu ~1il,eDce,ill, la'mol 'the probilBm ,of ,~1iminatingpig ~ ,QID,-.slap dIG es M"E, adse ': tbus the c'le~ran,te.s 'which, give 'the bes' results ta'"' be msed :mrespecti.v9 oi ,III:, nolse wm,cb, ml~' oecur,~ Nrtvert'helesst. it is a. mi':!rtake to
t
J

...I:: •. Il'u!CS6 eeniponents war. k·· ,Lii!FY luver,se cO'm'UJ:~lODl, U1 'b.'~'i'I.~I·A All .L 0'" rugh and. tluctlJI~'tiDB tem per:,att:n:CJi hip pre.ssllr!es, :ud Lib" ..... A d "" '.. ,fUuu:Ulg' iSp:e!:Us arOI. i!CI:R~Y .1U b'" .IJ -nel.bOD;, I'~ IS, [JIrIlrt SUl~
o"

UJI,~

iio'll.. ... , W· -

As eacla. is, dependeI1~,'Upon the ,o~heri1 to ' . pe~;~er. iess e:Alten'~ '~eJ can be cOimidemd ,a~ 8. or Httle family ,grourp in 'wmc.h 'the' be'ha;vWla u of one ame~tl
.I!!i~'i,_IkQ~np ~u WJ;G
~'~J

J'cJ~N'tty OF' s1n31Y. the, '[llstoLl,.:rin,!s and g I:lO,I:eO'D'" i 11, p have ra Dumber ,of j~,bs: 'to perfoJ .. They must plre'~eut m, leak~B~e 'ItlS from, ,IUd. the p\~8sing of oil into, the wtu-:ki[lg o part of the; 'CylindI8t:., :DDd also ·act ;:1S a. cross-head III realist the si.' e>"'.'chr~st,o,f 'tile c-'Cn.. red and, a.bser('lb '_he millimum -

~',

nr-'

'it:il..~ 1iI!'~-m--ifil~·n,...:II-,
_ u,~

_~ W

"_~U~,~

ill

'tinnk, 'lbat ultra-wide clearances are esS'CD.tta1 or evea 'ben'eficlal,; 'the, reverse is the ease in faet, for piston :riap eannot function p~op~lJ in :8. 'piston wi:(b, an e-X!dess~ye amount ,of ~'s1!o'p,", Whenever the pit'tOD ~s '~itOO;t 'the [ ,rtnsJ~ mstead 'Olrf 'being J.n cQolatc't tP/er 'thelr fuM :faoel'" widl'th, wU~ 'make ,oo.]y edge contact OVe:Il"' a large parlt of their ciIicumferenee Md. S'D cannot seal properlY,j m 'Um.,e: 'the ,rings. 'will. w·ea,r to a 'ba¥tcd sbJlpe and mils will dJindinls.h, their. a'biUty to prevent the up,wa:rd passlI'i@' ,e:f oil., Also, as 'lbe pbitoo a:U;e[Dlltes in p05i ti,c D fro,m side eo sj,de of 'the IbalTc~.t~le :rin,gs.1l:av,e a 'tmde.Ill~' to 1ilow s uit (djut) 'to the fIiction between them and tbl€l ring grOO~)i ad 'e'v,an. if their contaet wi th 'tbe wll~ D!Ot. 'mom,en,b;rlly is, 'brJQI~ren~lh~_ ,~~ti~_~ is_ ~o_~je_~.. I.!: ia, -, ~i.,: ~~rlf: ..'·~!rILl. -Gf' These: e ,ectJ ~;m!' WDPi'E:m~d. by skirt clea:rances iJl tlu~J ,wamel:ers measnred ,U' rig/n an,gks (0 "he IPldg,eel~j1!llt 'belo:'w the lowest 'Om.,an_" at 'the b0 t,wlm cap, o:F tile 'stir rSmoo th'eIle~_SJ!o;~'sh!cndd! be" 'Vl~l,)" 1itJt~e on preaent: ,ab-o,'ve 'the rmgs~ the l:~nds 'between, tbem CDQI1'0It b~1 ,ellpe,. ted to ,t~J ami' i,old .IIt all and dt,Qwdl. run j ust ,cilcar ,of tble barrel, A,' 'there is :0 SllDIp! rise in tlem,pera:t\tm, as the CflDfWlli, '~J,WpprotmhBdi, the m~n,ds must be ploglioosi YIBl~Y aller It bu~ nlawn ~,t j s 8m 'UII.,elab"a ble '£0' mllSU ~be b)pl land mo sma U[j.s iaee 'this wainio relltpose the 'lo,p rb~e; te the fuLU :fu:r.y 0 'tbe oo.mbus ion; wber-e-M 'a c[o~e--'tIiU],,! land wIll sihield 1_.'to s:rJ',[nJe eCl;,tcq. t
I'~
l,
t
l

'c
j

>~~~._ ~
1

i~

~'iJej.

'i,

[I,

1;

IRII N'~ '~lIe::PO:SIEO '1,0 F,LAlME

De~/bel"(Jt.tJtI BX,&g;e,'''·
.A p'l.$t'Oi1; i~fii:h extfJS_~iR ~.nce . 1u,,.-1 il:!~ew~4'jr. _ .i;r;m Ike !tI!_~', ""
,.,j _..

d'llS! al t',d. e,'''t ~h,uJ~ p_{}s'ng lile fOP ,~itfJl'fJ jIlJm:& eo'trt!(fCt tlfld ;r:(Jlmdllff,' 'llie; ,edt's Cif

CRc,tlieit Oil '" i1u;r-/ace ,Dltue for cllXlt.(l,j~ and' to'!Ic,~ttlcl,r:y~

l(lt!rJ., ,t'iJ~' illlJ~il:r.~'t.{tJF~ "f.res IQ:n' ,'~ if)/lu} !~' rUlli' [(uub C(lj~ be·

0
,

I I!'.I!

,a'il. fl;IC'&.

''Ill N: IN G FOR ,B;:PII:I~~DI

'CHECJ:m:.NG,

eannot 'be dltenui:m,ed :simply 'by direct, m'Qls,w.em,e:.m:t 'with a. micromele.r"11 It, iaJ cif ct)1lF.,SG~ poss~hl:~eor :I, p~ston whieh is '100 sma1] f all over' 'm e:dlibit :B,PPStl'F,UiCe just de!Crib~, but Wjs ICiD, be: ,tie~ed:,m 'Che pmsenoo ,0 tbick mrb ern depOSits in, ~e p,lane of 'the gudpDn ,pml er by 'ltbe stblt :sho'~B atR3;S, Q[b.,..,' bearing ,i't the, 'w,ppar:and tower 8lJC'tmmiua. 'am.d '~igh,t bearing, in, ~e ~u,e, '\"m,ch ,a,ppe.anm!:e is ,mused by' the !piS:I!OD mnDiD,g; Dp;.od]tedil in, mn, pCJ'JIDjl[JMI' dI;e ring lUJds to 'mak,~,contact. Basing dawn these areas Q,f' hearvy bearmg 'under '(_he _ ICII\~?DeOUSi mmJ'pre$;SioD 'that; tbe.y ,aE~ ,. hip

tlve tba:t the re1a,tio:lt~tsmp!betWeen skirt and Iands is oo.rmt~llt is. 'to' saY'~in addJtj,(j'Ei 'EOI '~eml mB, n:Plt ,r,ailllu¥e 's~~es~, lauds, must be, !Conce:ntric with, OLe, ~kirt~1 wmm, ij:lC

A,,e~:rrl:e~.y ,ilted piston, afte,r' rtmJ.tHng 's.t '.icing' 'speeds, fDr seme tlm~, 'sh~olllld !blOW a:n even 'beanll,I'OVe,1" tbt!' ·tt:hds!t £a.ces erf th.·. ~k:irt and, jus t. the, f.ilJlltest wi,t~ess, 0'[ n,b'bm,g C()nrtae: OIl 'tb,e,:,rll~:11ands., To ,obtlin this :result Ut is :im,:,~m ...

,~d"i

it, can ,olli, ~=,al,pll!e.d by stil] l ,ilmg'" TIle file mms~ 0" ,OOum;" be used, 'with a IIJD!culu '[lDt:rUO\R 10 '61at 'the 1011:£. 'w,Mh~ om :m1.I(]O~Y' 'to ZCfO [I;t the 'pm[imGimr o,r't]j,e ar-ea ~I 'Worbd
'G~

~~R' fiJ:rths'
~e, ~a~t

P'J:8Y'ON ,AND It,f.~-G 'WElA .. , R


IC~~Oil,
1,

be: ~~i:6ed

OBi!!'

liD

b,

me'

1,"

:spolm

1:1'

Perhaps at tml juncture ,ffi:l might ba 11:weU to delil vritl1, dna matlU' of easmg doW'U. the !Ugh spots, 'whi,en, is r,~,

'will 01D1)' make 'matters, wone.


,miS1l1uctmltCHld ..,
j

,mmcalm:n, of 'wh~~:b:0r r not 'the, plston ,is RID nml' true o :m th,e 'b ore. If the m_uki~lp, veeII' to one, sitdJ! j1B;[ b-elow tbe ,o,n ring a ud to the olhe:r slde, at tbe b crttom of the :skirt;l 'there is, 18 :fiemoOO, p olsibUity tha:~ th~ ,s'ldrt was 'not ·finish.. ntllc'Itiined 'true 'to the pdgeoo .. ole, &11:11 is, more: litle:ry h i't rtba,t 'th_e 'COO"fOa ,~5 bent, FiUng, th'e s.tirts to :[Ie;m,o,ve the l\I'llloven 'mandclng is, usetess, in tbis, ease because the orrilinaJ error :still rw:nai:n.s ,and there is a likeU hCiodtbA't the m,1 P"~ wbi'cilt ,s:t:Dl{'nl~dl ICl'ULfSCi 'be ,8',hso]thtc~J sqlUlm to 't'be of rsUs, of the pis:~01l1 ,and of th'c bO',[IC will in rafJt be ItyLog:a:~:a sUgb! an Ill.. T,ms, wiD 'pm'Vent 't:ho ,rings, from sca:HDs, Ploper];,' aDd ,after a 'wmIe they wHIl wear ba"!~,"lbJ'lXdtf, a, Icond:iuOD, wmck is ba ~ both f,or ~Im~ ing and oU...oo\ll!l't'~ol!l and, e.Jimmate ~,t.,not to Id~~ tt 'b)"r~liering 'the s'kirts~, As RgIlds, l£be ,aoltHl IC~~l.neesli' condition "ory'IOI gtel Oy '~t it, is, 'v'irtum n" im;pos,~ Ible 'KJI sive: ,Bny :b.grd~il(Jd ... ,[1St niks; ad, in ease of doubt the ma.m.uraJet.~l',S ,avd,i}M :must 'h~ :SiDlIlPt,. lual!e!,tUy s,pe.aJlrm'I'i 'the t~lllpeJ';a,tures: in, [lI,cinS: I:o.PElJESjl ~ttD. ' ..,~'d1J, SOf'D f\ta~j) are :D,O_, 1\ gMa,t deal is, :ahnos't alJJwa,ys ma:kins' a pm[Jty 'rm bre:eze lOr i'l5 tnm~ As ;1, Nl~t dtt:refo~e~ an :imt:re&se; 0:1',~OO w...to ~OO.3n.,~ i 8;ooordiml to dbmeteJ"II' 'will s1'lJllieet in, 11108& ea IIIes wheD 'me 'PB,tOR 'being 'fi.DeJa is, t&!~ '5·I:me one 10\ is ,o:r the same ~JPe iud, mate:rial las the 'Dfigbultt the
:m.ooF'
jl

'The :appearance of fme 'W'ear ..ma,r.O,

'OD

tile skirt D mho

T1m, only

iUJI~'lldDlm, is

to track down the cause

,at ,thm

Crllo,r

'Obviolu;:ly the pistQiD must touch 'tb:; bum,i lom,ewb:lm htut ,If ,eViery dme the :m,ottlt is, dowm ~~~the m b marks Ui! m.refgUy ea!!H!dl iltr with 8, me~ [the 'pm'u),'1 win slm'p'~' become sm-.aU,er and sm~:Ueroodl ,i~ i,G, useless, The 'thin,1 is "01 ,disitblguislb !bc'tw,ecE], 'the ,ap',r,;aJllnQ:e~ of nor:MfJ.',1 and (!l'/;n{},:m1,ally hea'~, eontaet IIIWlS,~ Toe la.t~er'are ':potem ti 11 ~DUhN5 of :se~we, :ind Urlf~'8ur.fa,oo DlB]i' be ei:ther' torn and ~Ol.ilgh r(,i.D'\V'bien eveD.'t :mome:n'wily' 'sei;mre· bas q:uel1'tlJ
,eal~ly' visible
cur.r'n .... J!IiI_ ~ __ ·l~l~-"'I!!I

..

higbeE tJmn 'IiDlJIl&e:50"mmbrm'lCS e~oor~r.ed, iB t:louriog' ,e.l;ginM Iha:rn.ts, to' the !LlS,C of open lema.us:~, SY5:~ms ;Illld, 'the, '[act t1lui;t,

~I

aetual ~Joccurred)1

by y;,c,vving' tnl1,g-en nall,' ;acms,s the oon,ed,


:p.FBos;s;:m,f) ,M'1!I'C

or pOS"Sle9Siii ,sm',oorrh,

polished appe8:muQC
duU-pey matt

'fBC£J1 ,posd.bly Intersected by w8!ebme mar.tS '(If tdBin,g depdl~, mind, 15h,()uld. be, "IDelt unmst1D]l"'bed~ 'but tb~ 'poWibedl are.-as\~ true ' !I, hiJgbo;alPO:tsi, n' :$h.ou'1d, 'be, eased d.rllW1l1 wlitb a or ~lettd.. mooth sioD,g1!e,.,cut, 0,1 S,ws fi'~e used, ',ery !,:paring~,y~ s :Fo,rit is ,8 ,mmpl~em,atter- to eonverta ,Wgh, spotm:to, a h.('iJllo,w", ell

Areas

IOf'

DJJQ.!rma.l.

SUI,-

,m tOe

f.li1Jy' heat ..truted ,ooluiiti,OD are p[-,gr~m'b1e to, ,~ 'ml!diiunJ,\-~ti\C~f~ low ... expa'H:srua.D, w'tieueS' bawn. 1bJder

Howe,v'ell! it is often, lIdvi.~Hl'b'I.,e '£01cl1a.np Q'ver toa differ .. ent du~p' tOI use a 'More :SuitIJb:~enmter~al w'heD..maximnm 0:(' : piDwer 'be!ing son,got AlI1oys, sneh as RR53,b IOf Y .• t'Uo,y a

is

dl

T D.N~[ G' FUR is.]' :B1!,D! N

..;m 1~ '.'It ttI::., C to. at mg;b 'E'empemtl1fes, an~ 8~ghi~y 'II d~~58 oewCl'Bot 0 :lD)ct]on" o
'm· ~

varlous trade names 8m~h as Lo-ex, H"plcx et,c~" Oif t.b"c U ,,~~~t specijicanoD A m4,3~because o,r' 'their ,!rea'ter' s~-ength
1
1";,

made. As, flD, lapprlo(Xim;:t,e gmd~'- the following '[a,'bie, gives, tbe clearances per .ineA' ,fI/ dia'},neler '1I!J1hidL '\ell,iiI be found, auitable fOf' Y,"'m'Uoy Of' R~II.~ ,53 B pi~rtonsrwmm"g: m iron 'b'urek ~
js
;S~omd

'Bx,p.usion, if I, ch ange-over

hu.t B~Uowance' most be made 'or' theh:' Irceat-er'

the'fl111a([

S'lIfge~t.f

T.he. slir1ded'

pis.'lf}1l, I~A

t~' f(j,~'U, ,tJi a ,sj:ippe<r

lmw

,/?'()r.lfOR

tJ~e el)/II-

lie Te,Ii_e. ved..

Top 'fwd

Top or',&lcirt B(1Ittom S'kJrt ""

nud I~ndl

blld

I, i,

~~

'., '.. .

i, 'I'

l!Dl!i' '.. ~ ~OO'5'~in,. . 00;$5


j

.. ~ .. ~

i,

I!, '-"

i'

~
i'

!, tli

.'

.,

.'

,.003,6 jn.• 'i00l1~mi -' --

,(005'L .' Jill.

~~._"

meMurmg the bore wUb :1,111 ter.lla'i mieromef,et Of ,I ~dud m garo. such as the ,Me ree r, :and su htraeijn.g the. 'WaDOUS
- .. piston

edges, pam.Cl\dilrrl:y ,just b clo1w'the ,tOop rimg~ ,as: iodlcated, ,in 'Ibe ,cUagr.am I[),O the left _ .. There rare two ways '()i,f' me-asud:n!t Clear,ID:Cas ,: (a)i b,
~'" liU.~ame.~e-I',s:IS

mea5,1I1r.~

-,.

, ...... ..:Im

'k' -

The lauer' is the; means 'w:b1cb m,o~t ptiv,at~ G\VIlcrs, will ha,ve 'to a.do~p~. nd jl ~wte a,OOI1fB't'B: if e~efllll~l, 'p~rr,alymed,!, a PlOt' th_ wide c'lea:,m'flOos round, the tD,P' I~amds.t ,il 1lest, 'tOI I use m. n um ber of th~Dtiee, em rrdhef d:m3J'D one or 'bVQI tmck
i

(b) by' dkec~,

-', iii" 'iii' . ~" t!J:Y' liIi, '~'k 'j iJ' ,Oi, _"Iermer .",I! m1'~
'Vll'ri'OUS:

,a ii'Ii,AI

Bi,IBKuremeDt.t

'using

fe=!,e,[ !~1[IjIes,",

~y

.-..
"

--

..

,~

"",_ '''"-..,--

""'--,

......
I I, I

II

(!bid ite::r:c'
h{JW tfd,fj

;rl~fJl~ld:ntl!rg~' Itj~(jo,'l~'cI)'

Ulif! ,dsjJl!~ of n,Il,t/

i~ hliJ{ootl8t1
"

wllell' W!lJ,tk Of.I' th~ ~llp-, pct typ<e ifJ[ pi~rOl,r 13~'mpJel~d.

fhe'. Cotzr:(;lcf .fa~~

..
"

THAN D lAM. .Ii;T' ,A,/,

"'(

IP

TUN I JliUl

f'(H~;, is,P:II,[E·D1

CllIi,CKlNG, ,p,'U:,T'ON A.ND .itl N.'G W!AI,

ones, as the ~aU:er:gjve ,I,

false ,Ileadiftl 'tfhrorlll,h bemg tOOl stiff'to conform with, dJ'e b.ruel Ic~a:rullt. As mentioned, the I,m,g, lands, 'most 'be coneen,~c with the 'stb't~ i.ludl 'this is, casUy 'proy'eel 'b:f plaein!: 'the piston On il ,s'nrflce p'1ate ;a:nd. DieasuriDS: by feelers the gaPI 'bet\V\een
'p'~ale and lands, whrue'b.sbould 'be I!Q1Ual fQI co'ri',e~pondmg 1o ea]lities, ,on elch side of the p,istOrD (sl'e ptJige' 6'7)1" _

'nng-,groov'CS are sIi,ghtly' eh~ereld,~ If' ,D.Ot,., a fbJ,e. S1~lll!a'f,e fU.c. run ,f1JIUD,d, the ;!I'0crvesJ \ViIi do 'tb 'tDc'[c" The p'mpcIse (i,1 these Cjhmnf:eiS is p~'[tly' to :pr:o,vido: a am,!1;Ull lehanneil fe,t
,sbouid the lauds ha f: -e . . -- _- .,~',~e'J!J d,,~ L'odkllf,· rinlS 'pe:rmi;lt 1oca:l.'bJow..,bl to IQcCUJ" :~ ............... d ..U1e1tnJ.re1JIOiJll 0"f 'Lie PI., ;:1" •• 1 .. ...iU.. a:o_. ston ,m,~t .. ,,' I.;['ca.may tnen OOODf'
t:·or,WllBt9,
1i;.'1I6.

lock!gdl ioto th~_l!orqves:__ b, Aleta1_llifltwg 'pulled oyer

oa dis:lributiID{(I~ 'but ~-1

to, pl['eye;J]'t the, rml;~ beW\I:


a.f-

'b

J't is, sO'metiml~~' ~neeessllQ' to

..

to fit, a stam,dard bore or to finish to :sbe a Ie:JI,i ... inis:hed f pjj~Oln~.e, ,one 'with, BIt m~c)]d i nj'~._lOO'mpl,~t~d, , ,fixe~p~, h,e ~ ,(nal s.iZ'],ifllg of 'tile riD,g~laQdJs and stm~ This, job con be dOiH~;in ,BI-lathe u'smg 1I lIF,I~ 6{1 !i'! COD.e, cen:tte in the Ojpen, ,end with, a loose, 'pin or D,lad.¢l, 'b¢fl1iDg: OD 'tm.e ,PQ,ICOD bosses to pr(vride the di,il"~,,md 3.. fCgUkw:r eeJl'ue~ b~,'tbe;· iul..1\O~k.,-A1I'tem:muti:vely a Sioft ,s!pilsot can be turned io.be s eb.UiCk ,ttl, Ht the, regiswr bo.fed,:m tile open end, 10,1the p,iSWiD ,,'hi,ell is then, pun~, lbag'k:on 'the &pjl:at to)' ~ 1'~lo,:!jc_m, p au,d bcilt pas:dng ithrol;t}lh. 'the: haUaw' head~s'tock!l In either iiI"'Ik. "' ;ii;,'1!.,- -t..-d'i'i:h'"'1.. AI~'_iI ease 'ULle ,rmg-!I'oDV'0S, IOU!'t b,.,,, I~ec~". 'nll'U;l. ;g, 'WWJ'":~'Ub''''' 'to see 'tbl:t ,they rull [:rae· It om, w'~lbbb~;:wr'b. .any reputable m:Ik;'e lor :pist1OI.n~ th ~s is an iudica.'ti,'OD that th,e, 'piistoD U ;1 'w,hor·' is rU:liuull l true amd finilSb~tur,nh'jl CIon COmmJ~Dee~, Ca:m1Jl ;'m'i;g, or m:elievif:l:!~'~])e sides. as just d.escritJed is _ bes;£ done ~'n one of the IlisbJ'D,-'fi nis,tt;i ~\g D~1»nes used by en lIme re-condi tjoDers:~ Of tile :rarnp o,f It-ams -dev1clo,ped ,~nd,widely 3dopte,d, for thea ~" :rnac'biou tJP~ _~C' ~ is u~u.a:!iY m most ~u.Ltable., I't ,81\res ~IOO9 in. to,tall iDIY,ali'l:y and J11J m. 6 0 red uctl,oD in dii'ometer 'measured lit 'the 45 pl1 .lnts!, Fru.tmg: ~~MS 'U to'Deof these ,devie.esal camm:hlll cam be. done 'mtilil;:~' 'by ba'ild or' ll1i 'U~e blth_e 'b,y oJls.e ;tIDnl the 'piSit'OD ~OlO in .. i,~,the IcU:nwcti'CHJ of tho p.O:geo,n and re;1ievlng 'the 11.1gb. ~de: s 'to a Ide~prtlh of .OOS run ~ ItnenJlepm"Uul the p'r'~cescs IlJD th_e other side, This. 'will. l!ea'fc abe lJ,t, half 'b,e s'kirt all ~, f!llm,st fsce InD, circular and. the sid.es, ,or t1b:ese areas g,ust ,in~lly 'be 'Dlkgcd :mto tbe [ttHevred 'pom:ons, by. hud 1i1ing~ A prec-autrn;o;]] wblch :mu'st alwa.ys 'be: 't-ikJeB11 1i:r.'vtD..i~tb; ,Illew tgcmr~-made, pi.s,tODS~ is to see th~lt the Co.l.m:c£~ ,of the
1

,[educJe an overs;tze, 'piston,

ill!;

!UIlf'I~

'wit]b starl6fig rapiwty" Another' 'w,olrth:wm1e. idea is ~ocham rer tire 0" en end. at 4,5~ almest bJ ,11, .,kIlJfe-edge~ This has 'the ,effect ,of skimm:iOl a0C~ I ,oil oft' the b l1(IDS and dlr,~cHILIg k 'up '£OrWlUIW tlU. PUW([I, erown, wbereas ~ 5'qUJar-e s:bJotd.der' jus:t ,r-o'lls 'the ,oll up ahead of ;,meUij '~reat:;'n,8:CIil'""~ag md ]D.C:rWiDI the wCHrk: , tiCl be, done by 'the ,oU-eontrnl dng!; The ,s,tjn: ,cielmute-s ,ot two .. troke '~istD,nB ale of ,Ire>at s im,pOf'tance 'beeausc the pirs~ODhis to ac,t as the pumpim.s: element for 'tlle m.dUCUQU, QSlt,em_~ p-['8'ssmes of 'U,P' to' I ,~,~ .. 'pel' sq", :m, are fD'f'C,lved, ;'0. tb crankcase bli'ea'tUW n , ,eyel, ~ aDd, as there ~B very JliUle oil present and ,D,O ,rings, at al glD the ,:ddl:rtl, lmkilge CIJ:D OI,W_y bl pre:veD'ted, 'b" tb.,slatter betDi a elose fit :aI~ round Its ImfQlYI,mfeL!enoe., ,Bx~ retl1~ fl'V.lmJ1ty lads, 'to 1051 'Lhl:o,'IlSh 'the tmL1sfer ports, ro:uod ILl1lJ~1 pu,tLlll
P1 ,,00,3 in, camming]'~ ;and tlYlt eOIlC'em!triJ.'~ed. ill the ,le)0" OD ,or __ the :pd,8~CU'lbQSs.es~l :lea'lin,g the last: :t, bl.,~ or so, 'Q,r the skirt paraUel ,IJ],d. w,ith, a Iclmrucc to,f [iOOlS '~O JjQ2 In .. per' hlC'b, of d1iameigr~ TlhG·bores of ,ajjr'-Cooled :spU:t..Stingles ms;tort qw'te considefcoo' 3.'b1y lOB aeeount 0,[ the ,UtB"tll1ity ,of coooog Itne metal he,'tvv~em 'tile, 'boms"t payl to ma.ke these pjstO'IU a fmr'ly clIme, ft~ th'Hl" af~e.r·a warm"up ,eriCJd~ to ,gi"e the D!o,tor a short burst. [at fuJl..tllroitt]Je" -shutDn;g' "xtl :i:m~mediat,eJ]y at the &fit indit~dion of tigbteninB,-1ilP"- 'Th_~ dlis:m_u'C1e the engiOe" ease down, 'dle sreas of' bl'Sib ,PI~ and, Ecpea:tOl
Tf..'::al tI......IJJJIl~

sides; a,Dd OIJ't thro{QQlh the exlt8USt" ICorueque'lltly' -m:!IiI_~y s:ucb. :p.is~!ons,are grround ~[fcu1a r ,or wiUl ,Dot mere than

md

,01

":.2.

,m,p nmil~m,a~tJljghlt j'ca.d ,Ind I,orw' '£e:mper,a"tute., 73

'n'F\t"ii"i":';j,];'S r,<IIiJ U~~~I

"",':;:11; ,i!ii:'IT#ii 'IIfIfri;if'iA~""

\V,IIM. !t:t-lf-.... .~'lii&VU

'i:,..''''.~.p'1'!'
1iJ4C~1J!iii\~

1!'i0i3'fo~m~'iIt-il' ~ ~IM..w.Ll:llj ~~u.

"1f.I~''I!'iii

'"1iIii!'Iii'U j!II'~ii"!Ii','Ri1"il,j; l~' ~~'Y..Ul~.

~I

'The m.os~ :s"a.tis£ac:tory :ri'Dg ~qRi.pment is. two ·nfllT.'ow· fJi,essme rings, ,and\ one iS~l'l!per~tls.u~U.y of ,th~slo'Hcd type" 'wmcb is so' Ie-fleebve 'that S! ve~~1' o:p:~o'us. np,p~.y 0" v~~CRD. c I 'be fed to 'he '~l. Tlhr!;. :pRssme, Iirnlp S:he,u]d 'ba.:ye 'sera.peers,perform, 'theu' W'(lr.k be'fier wi,ih a'bout t:wic~ tb~t ,anlrouaL iOll wiped, Ioff: the, 'bore is (b,m,eby lena.bled, 'tol pass
,,:ri:..,'
'iL,
j

..

00

111

,~,.;I

mil'
'!!.

'!oV

.....

ni1['ii -1" -" .,uu~ .".' ,'"d-'e G,eaEan.~ m, 51

in ~

:'

,;1,'1..,,,,,,-

-,' gro,oV es,

1~lIt

!!,,;!,. '

..

0'''' 'L.... k r-' 'iiI.... ,, d 11,;._ .' "wOO1!l.SlI~, te ' ne l!J.d.e·· ci 'tu!~ rjn,G an ~', QU,t 'tw-lu'ogh the; M,mfiboles SomeHm;es a, ~c,'Wof drain holes ls :pm,,-,·Ilded. bel.ow 'lIe oU~r1;rng;'these: :sbo,1ll1d, be lil,oia:onml ·amd. DO _ driLled do W1DiWBrds, I:t liD, IUilgm,C as the 'rl:ll~d,a,JQCCl]er.aOOI,I1 ,of the p~st(jn ,R,wa" :frilDl t.d.o .. then bas the ef[-ect of driving ~n:y DR in, or near, 'llte holes 'ba,cl( thr,o,ugh the, pistoD ... , On, 'the (YUler haud f'b. prj m_a:ry jio b o.f the upp~r tm,,[§S ~,., ". "' .~:.. ~ ,.,t.~,... '" d ]J~. I~,O! 'maI1l'mJD G8s"tigJJJib1e-ss'" luut tms m '. one D,I{)'t se much by' na.tu,r.rut press lI[\e (I,t ':tl~~rings] 1,~pjDs,t 'tbe walls, as, bY' dl,e aetlen ,of the W,Ch... ressure sas :passruDI tb,l1olJ!gh, t'be p ~ltarlnce'betw,mn rim"g' m:nd.gl'oo¥C m,to '~.be,clliBrnlDce spacr!
j j,

, n,

~IIG'~~P~ E:SS!lJA.E G,~S , f!:A5 ~ INTO. C'L~R;"I"I cE:


lIE MINt) R~~NG'
-

De: C:LE'A.fitAft!.!! C:E

p.r-e:Ufttl
, '"

CNJieuiflg 'p1'~St!lllm'0/

'i~'5

The'

effecr of

Ci!)t.n" 01" (!~'f,pantllli,g

ti$. ,€I

"IJtun.s ,r,J! ,iIi... tlte. mdkll


p!fd'fm i'illf1.!

/' /
'/

agQln.~t the

(:JJ'ilndJJl'

lIr(J'I.U.

me

be:l~lGd, ,Ilnd di:U:9, ~D.I:Jc:ln! tl,e dog ,o'Utwuds l,aiMt the '~Jnodler"i If the ~fde cJelrn;rnce. is; mstrlicien:t-I:Jr;, ,las ,can~.'ot Se.- thro'U\p 'slulle1end, fast tOI l'nnd. Upl tJhls ·vit&'1 presiun~ in, ·tbe "e1Y short 1limt1, 3vaDab~eJ but :H' it is ,grN,'tet\·t.ban Jl~~.OOI4l mn~ there is ,I li~Uh,oodl ,of the ,gro,eves 'bej]],~' quickly '~ammlrc,d aut wider' still ;~'S 'tIle 'rings 'cbn,ge 'r.apid ~,yfrom lon'Co swde 'It,IO ·.'he,o~he[',8 t, eaeh 'ood of' 'the stroke 'wHh :IU).:t mUlch oil :llmSj~Dt til pt:ovid~ a. etJis'b"',O(D~
'caneo'Usmy 'be'll]rndl 'the, dngs Ithe

Te assist

:m

brldlding

11])
j

ga,£-o'presure awest s
WOI("JVes

,~OOd·-.:O110 in" deeper than

Iue. rings, but mneh

allowed, 'behn:ndl the. QIU nn:ls, to assist oil to leave' 'vh~j'the d,min holes, A sm~ c·~ear.a:[},oe helps 1~Oi dm;p, out IUlUer w'w~h ~c)'metiIDescauses top-rin,~; b.r.ieaka,~ and in 1ll,ca;3~
tllc sides of riDgs

'th!Cl ra,{U&~, tlUeklil.ess, of ,tho presmO(m"3Qhmriuloe· than tba't ShCHlldl be

sborU1]d

instan-

ODl~t

be
S~D'~'l'~ BE ,IllE~t)fU1' ..
'R~C1Al'" "

,AN 0 'PAre IFERAiO L;'f


lAf':f1E,~ TO lit,

IPAiRA1Jl,:E.t. '

·l'HICKNEl5S. '
D.~~ if;OIt

or 'rid.ses ~ 'These 6erects d10 net often occur in 'the

3.lI.d

grooves must be .fru from '~v'a,VOJl,


gJ\O (]'V1e8

MI~~,'oJl f:1N~St-9

IUliic~a
W.lIDTH

ImprJ'I','i'mu ting dJmil1SifJ'f!.!

nmJ.ess the pi:&t'on 'has seen a 1T~;Jt deal of service, hut are :sometimes mOOeeable· on DfJgS; the 'remedy' is 'to! _ruarp the sides ,rJDat flmt Iron p,la·te· vrittb 'lfIjuUI':emerY' and finally me.rul

,"

•.

sro ..'TIM~SMC~Al,

:~P.E~·GAIP

"4

C.OI~TAg f5A.':;E MUrST ~E 6~O'w'N :PATtH'E:5 I,~ DleA Tfl ~G 8l0W",iR Y

~l~i' Fu\OM

'DEPTH' .fftPrc.11 ,r;{

..

w:htch: tru,slt ,fJ~1,I.{JK.<en in'~(J1


{H~llce tJjfJ.eJ!lb,~

,~r:tf.).~llJtYlheR'

"he la:li'tJ

til:

l1!Rce,;, -

'15

"
TUNIN'O
:POR. SPI!HU

fail il short ord:er ,. The; ,00WY C1JII"e, is to 'skim th,e gro,or"~S' out paral lei and, .if wider [,hlgS, are not :a·v,aUa.bleJ1 ito fI'~'tw'CI rings per groove 'by grmdiD~, dawn standard. tmgt;1 h,y the req ms:ru.'be am OUllt; There is'J!o,f course, ,8,limit to how' mneh t3~ 'be ~a.ken.frcim the, ,gfO oves beCal1USC the bnld.s, C'WD;tUally figures are hard '~filsjve, 'but. II '8 ,genera] rule, • '~n would. ~ be ah out ~1nesafe mhl~mu m ~I]ld width and. th~n OWjt 'it

r
..,_

beeeme too thln and may' break

und,er' load,

Defimj,tc

tbe p~s,t'on~8 of' s:tt'Oillg m a;terial s.u'elJ,as Y iioaUo,)f or R.Ri 53,,. Bffe.cnve lU, _ sea'UDI is ,achieved 'mllS'tly' 1by' the, tDP mgt die _second. a'c,tin,~ as 'i, stamdbJ s'h,ould rille tlop Q,m~:rail,~
,and also

'" ,iS~,(jl/;

s!D,D_]~,engin~s w'ben, tbe~ ,is lilt]le rcaom ~tH~' rimp, it, 'is p~s,. . ~Slblle (J1out 'tb.e second nng: and. use Q simgle srl00VIC'~ 'with 'WI
'[W'O IllrITC'W

II

en oU conf~'ol1t:[~P'or spti'm:t 'w,o'r.kji ~ide-l;~y_~ .. s

IC\f

in ",'cry

flf. fecla,~~,nlu;slu¥ wllic,I' ,'~J'be J used It~ ~e~ w/~'re Sl'QY<~ Qre ~'f)',r'IQMiiabJe,.
CD r.e '1IWJJI'st be

rings, therein as j usf described., By pllCillel' 'tbie' _I~~'--. 0 i fJiite mde, mii:nl;l'te leat w~['OUgb. thiJ~ _ -oint ~n- be a~IQ\SLemltTfely eUm'hulltitt. . ,-, fi~~'t dey,eio:pment :s, Ul,e Dy.kies, fErnB!1 W --,db. B 0," Lu ~ee~jonjlt.be 'hor.izon I[&n leg pirovidin,E; ;,o~-s;tiOJll in, 'the ~stO~lI' 'w~~le a 'ccmpln,tivdr tll,pi ,cb:almn,ce :at 'tbe tOil' of :111=: rUlI allOWSI a c~ear path "by 'Iiblch lUgh""press;u[,e ,gas '0111, 1101w rapid'~,y'_ hl'~'O' . be 11pace, bemmd the 'v·uti'cal p c',rtiollil mild
ti I

'L~\U

'p~~to'mW'IS, emp~lo,ed bl the n9'$4 A,J..S~ racrung, t'MIJ, Ind 'this p,r,aelice, is OOD'tinUed, ~'~ll 'the ":' and 050- models ..

Utpand i ,apjust

t'l1;5 IbOl·6.,

'O'oly one stloh ,ring per'

There is lilt' e tD' 'ChOOSIC) bet\\lem the varie Ul9, wen ..ltn'oWliI br,find~ ef 'r.i:ng~ e~ch, maker bas 'pe.r.r~ctc-d types. gpecia,~ly but suitable for racing, ·'G.o'ta'bl,Y the 'Welh;vorthy ~,~. Thermo~Mo:m . aad .. 1'_' L~LmaUo1 or H,epwo,rth and G'rtlDd,lge ti ~'Fbo r m'~t'I~;ji"it, - 'i"!lin..., it'L, u. r @"'L. '".na:~e.v,er'I~ue '1... "t :mQ!~VlSa~1 to DilUtlJD 'ma:~ei'~''" A '. bl e - 'L.·
i"

_~s,that., beiug stim"er" 'they 'will ~,~t c~~o~,' t~ n- -w,o,~~"0,1' OlViIll lbar.rel,q,ui'~e as freely' as, wj~~the ~ishJti!r ''W1rietyi ,met it .i~,~d,vis~rbleto :ltp' them iu Yell reate fuJly to ensure ps-' tjsh'tness, if the barrel is] not so perfect ,IlS it. 'DiI.i,Plt be, In, ,Ilde-.·valve eo,gines and most m'lof",s,tr.1(1 ,tes some 'bau~T-e]
j
1

'~akerl to see Ul:at 'tL\ering"'",po ova 3fe deep Cllil'OU,lb ;1~Ci aecemmoda te '~h,ern., 1(' 'm,~.yare .m Um in 8m C'Vl~S 'o'f aormal d~- Ch Ute.re irs II tikeffiibO'D II dla:t '[b .-r; will stand PffHll!d 10.' the ring lands eVCD, wben forced down, 'to th'l b: Ci&itom, o! 'rthe. Il"DO Y'6S", KDd., in lierrice:~, the rinft-fa~es wi[ ttLm be forc~dl C'O' earry the .side 'tilrlUBt 'wbdcb 8bDU~d be, borne by' the pi81.01], skirt, This 'eondiidoDt Imthough eas to oiYl!do,OI,tll! Is 've,ry' bad inde=~ and. must be f1ectified 'b, deepeninG the grooves:", ADodlel PClm! t:&bout tlu~~5erm n,p'
'~he1I!n~: sed u

iI....

iii ii

riess, with le,:p.ped. sidles" since they malnt:ain correal, sid,e c'~e,u,anoes, for LOA"S periodsi' ,Md there :is ·m.uct;i, '!,ess :Frie:tio'n
between the ,ring and. ,woQve w'ben, subjected to bea'J' gas
pressnre,

'The' UI1l! 01 ,mdimJj, Q,ep-th o,f Eug1lisb or 'Cerm.'ltln'e.l'IDta] plstDD riags 'is ,Df,30 (.0 is the 'ba:_[1[.a~d jam.e~e'f), but ~afielym,gh press'lINrings, 'O.r greaef radial depth~ D /26, hIve come into~'U5e~

,mstortion, ,~Ibound. te oec I1r' due 'to, uneq unI Ws;tribu:li,ol.lll 0 metal a:nd 'v,arymg t~mpe:n.lui}es, around the e,UndeFi, and w, 'these motors It is ,:I. .,ood plan to peg 'the ri DgS so the't, tIley ~-a:Rno, :Fom;~,e in 'tb~, greoves, 'They the:D bed-ln dose~, )! b 'tie sma pe which 'the cylim.der B'tta] D:$ 'whe'Cl '~·ru:UlDG: Dd will a nni1lWn. ,I,ood. g86..·tigb:mess ,and! oD co [l·trol ,e¥left when t&,\f! C]r'Under has wOlm ap~preci;a·b!y .. 'TW'(l"'S,'t:r(lke' rings are ilso pegg·ed '[O'I' another relSOifl-ito
1('

.. \.." d'" prevent t- me enos ~nnSllfig

The latter type a:r's mess prone

'tOI

'Hutter at hllrn speeds, 'but if'

blokeo), :a.md'~ey' Me also graner,alIy made 'wide_r in l;n~opomDD to their depth thB-liIl.I,nmt:-stro:k.e r:in,p ,of equi'fale.n,t, diame't.ea~
71'

. In;tO

d cecommg " 'we pOllftt aaa 'b


;"'iI!...

',6

TDNINO

F0R :S,P,ISD;

,idjaoolllt to the pegs, ¥~ "tb,O'IDU,gbl) otnem.se 'the :dm:!,s 'will 'be pJ"lopped 'up above the lands: and either f~ey Of'dte 'bure~ will 8lTR'er as SOIDDas thl~ e:mgiDe ~s s~J!j'~~d ~p.; The tblI" tips, 011 the ends lof'the Puch rm,gs are very fr,all and CHU ea'sijy be b~a~m lotff IQUriU:g;' asse:mb~y if b,eld pro.a of the pmto:1. by tile pep or by earbon, Wide dill, ,gaps are a.dv.h;a.t)~eij' puuewilrly' for ern,gimes SIubjected to 'rap~dGo':~dsims;; ~,o In, per' mc11 ~f' dimmeter -ID
I)

to enable fhem to ILnltveoe the ports 'with less ShOCL, 'When fitting ,mew rin,gs I~e 'DlUl~J,'t be t~ken t,o, cmean out the corners

'MeUD"

pppin"gJ. Iftp tl__1e rif:l"p in tOI 'tbe barrel wltb, 'mel-a:~, polish until they are "bedmo,g' uniformly aU 'the way round, ID,d finally fi:mjs:b" 'the: gapS! to the CODOOt after
fOlU,p
l

i's

I, good

,figUfte '£0 wo -:k


1

tOI,1]

TOI make

a rhorou,gh, job,

plie,fs {~ I.U)1 f!wdltJb{ji til" "r;ll.l'tS' r;/ OJl ,(Jill prJi'f ~f'sdsmtJ 'Wi' ,fj~ rr~~iddOWI,' tf.J'~'l/II~',,~d ,t'(j' f:e"MlJ~ ,ti.rcii~ of'
I'Ile S,~pr type.

,1/

(I

~et.ia} ,,(lir ,oJ

..

. ~l.. I;i, ;;il'''' III" ,.;~ ;it.. t.. ii,'iI.. ,~: ISome: 'mali~,arn, ill'! 'to ;u'twcm ,a.lU1tl~e 'lL<le;..'UW~lt1:t 'IYlUS p~wer GII,tai]s drl vlli,g the p!1l out with, II d:r.jiit" or WIJrrnlm,1 1;1 p '01'_'. pmtion w~tb hot we:~er' ,or a bit of 'met2, ..fue ~in 3, aooo\l-llN:l 'l~,.ii .. IiiIlle tn, on'u' li"Ii'~I!il1!ftl ~-_",'i:"1 "in 'will ,l~-_ vie a.lr-Qu" !l!U'02-f.-i:n 11..1 I -1Ii1I ~~w _
4;" , •• ·1JI.Ul

Reprr.ding ,pdgeQD. 'pm:! l' i~ is a gte&t ,aidl 'm :als~mb~y '10 Bui.ke dlies'e: -am !e~,y'hand pusl! It m the p,ist,om 'whGD looht,

chrome steel such as ~K, 2 K71, ease ..h19l'rdened~ ,025 iiI~, E~ ' '",.!03"S :io~ deepl:t i9, an excellent nl.o"oodn [ ror 'me' 'pmp·o\Se~ . The' liesl ,fo,rm of' 'e;Bd loca,ti.'on ts by clrelips, ,~'tbcrof the
sp'~~g:..~'~

clear,anee 0:1 ,mnmUml '£,emptll',iiL1lrSJ) aDo'mer JlOOS ..iD,., wittl make 'very IHtle dift"elmce., 'Tfu,e hGSt wa;y 'If) take a thau., Of'
S.Olout
to f

It!

l~~

~1!0

I~~}~

[I

.1111 11 III

,~

."

..

I~

..

II!

_III

wi:fhotDl't l.eaviDg 1m aU, eha,t~e:r'''ma~l!'ks 'run the bore: m'!iuiJeed~ aome:timm: a bermr j',c,b can 00 made w~th ,I tria:mgnbir ,b;I:rnd

Dda,eDlOJ type., using 'terg~eJ'ile, er par.al1n ti be-r.ally!, It iSI D,ert leasy to' 'take It)iu:t smallamounts m'tb an {'i'm!d na ry rmme,[ i

gudaeoD

pin -h,oles is, wltl1

g, bOlD e

gf the SUJlJ)ICD or

w.bic'll s_ometiD"H~~S 'bre,lk OH)I or 'the 'seeger 'pluoorD~ otthoup for ..fi,mtln,B ~ ~att'er ''ladet, you m,u.st ~a,ve 'dle riGb,'t sort Df ,'hers~ a ~I~l~'"
(wrnth,ot1'~ bent ... ears, jn

~,pe

.able ,quite ch,0a'ply fro,m 'the 'm~akefl o~ t~B ctrcliips,., T~Je wi re 'type iSI pe:rfeet~y 'sadsrIICt'Ql~ pro,vi.ded 'the ,ends of t~e pd,p():n are C:hltmferrc'd." M,d tj),e ,overall pUll, b~nll~h ~8

"m

'The' main attr~bglm;, o£' ta gml:d:ge0D pm. are s,liiJn~~ a:nd hip, ,s,m-fa"ce, hlU'dm,ess,:: • w:bi,cb, m,ll'V'G' becolmle u, b,:I'llld ;are ~oRened, ,and s])o11:I<I 'I]~ replt,eed~ Insufficient pin rig;imty :;s, a flui.t~ul ,iOUlI'rCC of cracked pirsto:u bosses, and the
1iDIO,st

;sm,pcF'"

'II'

:;B,ti~f!@,ef;,ory ~gEl;S have ,R. central bore n,ot :pe®'ter thfl'D 0..16clf th,eir di,amet~r ~ A1lth.ough this ea,D be tapered out for ,om~-,tWnithl~l~ngth ,of 'the pin 1I~, both ends, the 'bore '

,must 'be, ~eft:so,fjt sDd,-b;, '~)I~er.orably' lJlii'shed 'to remove sur... p rae =. bleDl'~shes f ;,om which cracks ma start, ,A 'w,ok1el ...

19

79

T.U!;UNG
S~~ ~2t

fcOR S.PlHED

then aet as retai ners, met theJ'l is no Uke·]!i... .· ho nd, of the circl1ps ·ever :manazIDnB' to woEk out of the grOBV~S~ SeeseI' ,circlips reg uire fl'ia.t-·b OU'Orm.ed. gro ~)Vi~ 't~ riled to acoma te depdlS in accord anee with the tlb1e '\ ltlieb covets, the mq;e of filj~ most. likelY' tOI be m,et~ This,
t;b.amfe.rt

~J.th the pin thms t. hard tl;aitnS·t. the (a!pp:osU:e one, The

the 'DnaJ circlipl can just 00 .s·pmng "into place

and LO'n 8. short ~eriod of rnnnms the Cllme[5J dig, 'in~ iUlre rucJip becomes loose ,alld ,cventuaUy comes riS'ht CfU!t g(f" 'the groove, w~dt disast-rom results, . Wire mRlips M[Htt[d a'l \,I.Y,I 'be s'tretehed ont hefbr'e re .. ·'~:n:wl·. '~;O' m.ate SUIre 'that ·tb.~Y' wi U :fi"t Ugb'tly in pi'~aCCli

~ypeIClr. cbrt!ll:p must D~V,eI'be i,tted in thie hamf-'lound, gtO'Oy·e;s used 'witll we ·eir,cUp,s beeltlse" al'thougil ilt .mlY le·em 'to! 11:£ lCorr,!cLly, in fat; U. wloWd only' b~ ~atillli' on' the c:omeI,B,

T.HlB fUnd;i,crat of the ~JW'hee[ assembly is, ·ttl) con,v,c.rt the stn.dgbJ-oo.e' motl;oD. Df 'me p;sttom Into l'Iowgy motion at. th.e en.giDJ. :sproek'et~ The erankease also fOitJnS 1,. vital ;. LD LJ.uJ.51, 'Il~'· ~ ,. .'1.. ~ i'~I!' • "d '" [JrD, k: i .. meeaamear 'III Quam b pl'oV1U)ng :a JrJgI< Iii I :'Y ill~lcati'oo
II

for the· ey'Under :and. malnskaft;beuil!}.p~ whil:s~~fun ad'cHdo'D.i' ilu)us,ing -timml 8em~,OU 'pum,s and, :8 O! fort~,t! Refert.ing: I
I

back to cna.pmr I!, it. 'was :po!~n'tedeut 'tJba,t 'mu),' aLreas, 'wh~",:
undue wear ha:s·oec~d

for biOr'~b :S(j.1I!lJU'eoess . nd


'bDi~bh~~

m SUlch
.If
I

OCIliI.sion.;. y an mains 'wiUIe1bJbIt a '~:eDdency-,.0' baunJle:,r the cirell.ps, 10 ose, more :so oln op,e s~de.tbenn We. ,other:
a ease exa rni D·e 'the a,Up men't -of
,R bsence
ttl!

,of' ~~t'Ms,t, '~j'.;'&h~ Ia Uer is dl~.cll'~·t te ldetect but m:I:Y be the uns;us,pac~edl' tllSe of 'Ole:
.
i

ISm aU.eod Dusm:

·lu.'brim d.on or &u]~Y'mmtentd) mU5'~be, :i,tnl'Vejtip~em wi'fbi an .~.yeto its. CUll'''" Thls advice Sb.Orlllld Icome .m uc[ul at 'tbh;, stage, :mr the ms;i n jiob 0" wClrk 'to' be: bl'ck1ed in 'the ,1lI1 basemJent ~~ WilU !c·onsist 'Of 'tbe' ,eU'minn:t ion, of rricDOD. lilIslndl,
,...:1'--"_' uue

£b,e ICIt\1U se of the weat (wmc'b ma be m.B]lllpme[l'~j l'ac'k o:r

am OIpet1.

~l)i

li~Spicio:n and ·'tha:t

'be \'Inrglmb'm.~ a DeW' '~-S~gD can be; Blade bO.m. a loUd bar \rflth c.wy a ]8\'tbe, a dtJ11i~aud 'the UlS.1m,1] Mad. teels, The p~'G'C~s .:is latbe.l' toe lOBI' fOT inclusion heJie but :[1,1 a guide: it will .1l1lp 'Eiolnoee that the best material is, ,alumrnuium mlloy R .R, 5.9~ whie'b, ml s.pecIaUy made 'fe·l' :piS:tODS and
, -=_

,spare is UJQ,t Bqila ble a:~mill] ,o.rthe s·tfl;l1d!ard audiCle ls

t·0 m",~,""11: .. ·- men! . _ ~",gn__ .~


I

O'WJl flo

r.etaj:E1S :StreDlgill ¥II"J


,n.wll1caD
..... 0;0;,,0;

IE

comm.lfciallly as 1-48 3~SO .is:very !w'table, A.Uo:y<s :S:lJcb 31 R;.R" 'i~ w~eh. are e,v:eu,str'OD.pr at a:tm.lcn~·pb;erlG fem.parl~ tares, CODwn zine and, 'tliel'efo'fe!Jare not 801 good. ~u mg·her ·tem:pe.rs:tutts:" .
Tire

we.D al rugh ~mnpemtoms,. n.e, i:ii' .Mi. 'lE:j!-"ii.L:n, - .::. :m:a:~rJw to :~I~OU Ipecji~CI:li:o:mI' and :knOi\ft.
4-.,.,. ".,,;,!

./fJr tiw rue ,r;{ ~ fJM'C"I;a#p 11tj)(Jffied P.k.'faJWl~,1 (zydt-Mlitc


-lbOI

~~~~~l!e'slo1¥-$f!Ptr
dh.IlItMitll~1ig
[ji'j!

,~mlf~m~ee.l

~~,mb11

cat'lf

wl:!irn.

fJ($/I) (!}T T<MS~~lng .power· {!J!rR.:1!St u.' p,;a.t/tlli,le:",


:En

(~J.a,t)j ".I~kJs

T U,J_;--': ,IL 'Iiio,"IG .. :~~.


'Ii;;.~"

'lC,jI!"ii,lfi;,

r u. fi. I!!" '0 'til"C"1Ii"!j; IiJ! E",J;;i ,G.,u.

THE ,CONNIE CTTNG- .!tOD ./\ N:1l) D, I G-,-rn~D


'Of,IJ

,0'10" C~AHIFE iii. o N (:(:rGtN~P. S.

·Q'~iI\A,"tUS
,;1\

~.~.U~L~II\
..

EilG E OF ellL. HIOLE


.<.

._.......,;t==~' ~:!:-. :;:::... :.! ..G.~·O()'VE

A ~t(?nJ h~~,ttl _Q.pt:ln~1J!_ ,CilJft l3~ ~t1O~t£d' .by, grinding tJiJWn emil. Atl~fl#l Ig .pre~JiI }j_OjF-tI~tJ Il:e~Y:e u, tire crifJllk...p.fn.. Wlte~ thl ,il~ i,J 1J,,!1' ,d'F,llledce~Il"Q';Uy for id'fJc;fJ,afJ,~'t ~ltt., lee'~'fj,I$!wxi'b~' ~ ,p.rovided ll1i~'i~: ~":ntl_ftw gI10"1'llr."f. (.Ifill ~ tro,,,"srersr;
1J~~re,

and if' t11.tt!:~ is, a,ny sign, however SlI12lf;, of fia kW'I!lg; of 'the toll .r 'trRe"!l, IDr' the c rank ..pinii that com ponen't sho,lIIdi be ..JI.~ ...,............;;1 - d .' . ,.-'.- -.-Iii.... ' UlmlYUue_,~wear- on '1'.'1-·, -.. areas ., ,[U b1:.. ..;I' I:.. -ue .....I!!i,:- - ,." 110'11:." ' lJle ·.uCu ~!.e ,~s ., -. 'lit. 0..

d TI~ ..'~,er.,.," u~g"'em:_

,.s me most t'b

"b'

'1.1.,1 d nlg,l.w y-ostr!c-sse-.

"L,

DOOnll,g 10
II'

....

,'11Iii ru~il

su-ch tpe&'t detriment as


to tb~, track,
Lt

,~IDI~I

as h does

u, not

st-OOl (1.%1 'elrbo!~ 1:% dHOndum)~i 'W.hicb. llaJid.'eJH: -right tf1roulflb 'bu' til IH~DChhJlQ' ~'noU after s oakim,tjj at i:20Cl Ie l";Q'I \r ·~.: .... 1f.~~JLW an t...,n~,'i'1I" Aft~1iO m!I,lJJ!nc.mnn" I~J "~im_~r Illf b.....,~nl 1..0iUI'If'I' ~,~ i'&UU ;_'II-:t" ~l ""Iii"1i1"l;,O ~'l~~ _ fL~ Il~ _ ~ .,t" '. ;Io'l..~. 1! ~.". ~ C~,an-,d IDeOJ liD ,EUr,;Lili1S proce d .life r--eJlJeves,m,~e,rIill!aLw. stresses 'witbo~J:m~·te:J!:~,ny· flecU~g ·m.e h;!:rdumn.;:. 'wmdl. ,showd, be a R,octv:eO ICj 6i0-64 or dJIl;m,ond :budtless number 'SIJ ... IOO~, 8 If !h'e ,ommkpin is alt,eady' drined eenrtmlty fbr' OUi aJ, matinS' n:.. -1 - ----. "",I lI!..__ d iI' '-l ~.Ji j,.'L". -1 ..... _A·' ,u.D e .BIDS' - ,wS I) l~ l··f ~~ :~m we s ec.ve 'b eiJ;;ore Wt~;Uemng. .- ,,'if: ~e ithe pin fa; not ,driUcd,j) an, ,1ftI).m]ar gm:oo,,'C :siilo:uld be f.ormed, at g'D or both. ends QI:' 'tB.e: sl.oo:ve '~O i(a)'Uec~,IDllbdci1Ln'C from. the 8ywbeel oil .. olc, a. sba]]low 'U,RDBVle11"8egrOO\1B with. h eentrsl 'blciUe ,finally deU:V1Innl: h ';;0' the .:roUt;ln as SbiO'WB tn, an ,800(l,mpmymg s;k,et_gh~ After har-oemng the :sleeYe ;mJ.UfSt be w"Oum.d in.'~emally to 1\. dJl-me~e.r ~OOI~" m.. rS'1!li1aUer
- -'~. ~ "1 ~ I .,. . ~ . - ". .~' .!l ~ I,

'1. ., '.e b: - .

'm~'~",,:Iail!ll_'li~ ..:L01'lltll~ p. ~Ilv"""~ ~- '.'"d,U

"iI"IITfi':,t:i- r,."lIlu p ·d· 'h, r. ".,.,[C[ '3.'-_UJl", b . 'I;;,I! 'ml,;'io. _~ f'flom ..... -

. LWWl":r,ace
'b~~I~1 -

~.

,m,U.U._"il

. __ ~

~-!W.

g~

,i

'e'Deloach om

tban (h,s :p10, then forced. m,ta POSID'[J(Hl, W1der'lIl p.reSiS., Fmm~l.Y~ it, mw~, be pOlq,d exte,fDIlr~y and IJn ttbe tw,D 'eDd~rDces,'
squamaus, of 'the lBue{~ m ptlrt1culQr~y im'portan II as the sJi,p,Ce9t error \Vill be ,weatJ, ma.,piIBd, !I the maim:sbafm" .J f CQJl'bOD<hrome ste l i$ not a,YHU9b]e~, a. case-hardening vuie,ty can 'be tDl~d, m which I'ivm:~the bore IcmO b- left ·f' A • .. AI mus 8l'Y()JtlJUl,g: th Ie DCOOSi~ty ",Or mterm,a~ "'.J," ~~~ 11 sO' ~, 11' ~esUi~~ iL'b. ", grJndiml'~' The sc'11cme is ms:t to rouglptum 'the 'b1ank to StindLDI :sizes, mm.d!8liBD to 1~l:rb1;nize for :B.L;x, houri to o,b 'I.run, a ,ca'Se~dlepth [I.-It lcas;t ,,045 in, After Ico,oUns;, r~"u&b,-bore
,i;

(e..,g)l in certun Ve~.lgcette~ A.I.,S., and ..41 ,., ~ •b i,...1' Ma"oowes's, S!1lj1lifI0S; mIlifB.: !Daue .m. two pieces W,ll , .3;, ,Qa:wu.ene!J.iiI! .. : slG~ve ,p,fe8sed en ,I 'o-ugb st~:el'ceD;trej,,and, if Dew oo,m;pIIDete

Some craakplns
~

'\

.pins II-e' UmQ,blam able, mu'!w'51ee¥eJ

true pr,e1eta.'b~y witbou~. feMOV[nl.g it fDjiom 'the rod ,-,aft'~r wm,ch ,opBrraUo,n the pm... leeves can be po1.uld, to s '(be: particular o,eM's,im necessary to suit the o'tti shed Icu~er toe d'iiIl'mC~'eE and wha,teve-r rollers am ,av,a-nnb~e~
out
EN!0 ClIEAMNCE, TO, ",,\feu 0 ROlll...EHt'S B,EING' N'IPP,EO IF fUNG'ES, j(,~£ DfSTORl'[O
,

all, pin :~n, w~llch '[b .. cen't~d p'o,rdop 1:$ leonsi,~eTI,b~yla:rgeir' than the ends ,CD, ·be· "epllired 'b)' ,grind.mg dC"'wn t1ds por ... , ti,OD ,and B,tling ,8 tS'i mUar. s~~cve., U the IO'u.~6:r :rBC~ in the ICon-red is also WOifm, this sb.,ou~dmst b e gf'Quod Of' Iap,ped.

O!.l1Dl

be made up~ and,

Wi,lil;
Iype

-,';

.......

nn~~ilbq (!-ntJ...jl()'(Ji b~ hVe-e,l-i ,'iV/leTs. flIIlS


aiWEdditl'5

0/ 'f~nJ;pJn ttLU~'
I(;J' tl"frlotd

t'lJi!

SiJJ.ll.lder,ed:

bore 'to ;it ,cle:p,'t'b ,ot ~: in~.I' rlDUleJ oil, boie and finaUy heatd .A.~L_ ... iiIi'..:Ai·· d '" * treat, .n.,tIleJ ~~,um1m!-j ".'L ,!h,ee;w can b- I:,.'~ we Ie uJl181~J.e~mterBIUy eIther 'by b fJ!mtl: a,r grim.di,n,g:"flUed to the pin and. 'then 'im:l:ish..Jgr'QQD.d ,exacny as, p'F.CvlousJ.y deseribed, Mild ,s'~eels Do't up' to the arduous natnre 'l)f this work" ·tR\C i case 'he~Dg' mia,ole; 'to 'fIDa~ea'wily :from the. ,~U)n core; 3%
'~I L

then,

feteo.SS

theend

faoos; to

t in", larger.

dJ meter 'than the

.. _ '1 . :'C ".' 1:11;C' 'lilt'k'e· '~o'~pe;c:uJca;ll;on, .L'-.' .Jjl Of

oe'C-mniR,!' '''~p'pirJ WIlen,


~/iiJ' tJilJ l,!'

.~g'e;r olIJj,~, PI1J."fZF


,fl_"~Jlpwlu;;el'r ~

EN "],", '01' stn&e-quen,c' b 3°/o~ .. A:l . ....•... ../ lOr. 3~% :mcbl wID be satjsfacto,r:Y fo.r. modemte~y .b,lea,vy d·bili.l',~but better ~arjeria an. 882 S-90, EN 3'4:~ 3,5' alJ,d~,ar9~ ..~l.. ~ ~ ~fi of'::' . T1.",..· 1... -, 'UIliB. .~ t'~,t~U':oo b.WLnS w,ammm ,~aJS' ·S,.pec[_'ca.~.QnSi _:n~ JUea'~.. ..
~~l!' 1,'

t,t,l;tr~tdin

t:rea;tmmu, for .aU (h,ese graid,e5 is practically 'me SmJ]£i' vJz..: carlbllrim m:t 900 ..·92.0~ C~., Refine' by Que.nchins m. oil fr,c;m

:13

'TU)rU~'G' ,"OR S:P,UEyD

THEl CONNECTJN'G-:RO'[)'

AND'DH3 ·',IBN D

III

31%1 ,and. 3,,% mct~l :siiJlglC9qU~t'h gradmm in, wbiicb 'the efj [I i:ng and. hardeDin,!: cam be: .effecte.d simmlJtameoud.y 'by' qW1enchiDg in ,oU lOr 'w,ater fJiOI1U7160~780° Co, Eqmw],eDlt Amerimm ,s,p.eclficatiens are S .,A~B., 511100 'fOl' mrbolHe~ome b~.U-&a!ee~£~~ S~AiE;, ,23IlE1' 3(!% ni~ ,(or ~e;.-.hardenm,g It~, ,and 'S,.A.& ,33,[6 :tOil ,3'i% me:kel'''cnr.ome C"H'~ :G;~. 'If it ,is- ,ft~Sil'J t'DI make up ,3 comp:~e®ely me,w ~, eitbLer olf the E\YO, ea.se-han.'lallo, :s,ee1s, memtioDed wiD, do,., TOe pl,am m;me'tels~te~L!bJough ha viog; 'less ,core IUoDgdl, t gi'¥9 8, ,s];lghtJ~,harder ease tnl.'U the wckeI-chDomJ3 8tm. ,StalB, 'wJhie:h, ha.r.dcD, .right thrOUll\i sueh as the b\alU, meD ,s:~l, m~nti'Dned, or. mmwJL1fl1~ci!l'rbo:n diteel ... aarder!tin'8' :steels, b ,uat '00 used [bE' c(iml",lcve~pw, bem~ must :not O,D, auy IIOCO w,ben, hardened RfficienU, ,011 'tile mller tmc'kl, B1BlCh dmls are ,ru ~OD 'InitEj,e: :mrn. '~be core aad are cedam 'to 11(Fifmk:!'n SerYmoe., any ease '~bB'tllreaded .~ 'Ilcds, mUS'E 01w,ay.s be ,le:ft soft ;lU;~..d,tldl lean be ~ebified 'by ICOPPflJf-,p 1'atJng' prior' 'ta 'mrburidngl.nd, hardenwmlg~ ,MotmU:," metbod is 'tOI "rugh-Iii] rum, £he 'UKmded pOm'OlJl ~'100 hllOl oV'era_~, mrbli!lnz,; dle 'w'ho'~e'pmi 'wm 01 'tbe clu'buriized, s'klio lOa1'ffily' aDd sc.rew~u~ ~e 'threads, and ~-d,J ,har..utl:1 ~ EneJdenali1iYj, ,grea't ~ mU5~ 'be, taken, b~DI ensure tlli:a't (he, tmead:s aJ.fJD :sqwa:re ~D tile Dis, otherwise i,t may be dimctmlt to maintain tightness ,af' the Rllts,~

;8;5t).Bi!5Cio C, 'Harden bY' q,1l.cucbil1;g' in, ciill frem 76:00 IC~ Tempe~ 'by ..eooJjEllS iEi. air' ,110m ] 5U-:1700 !CEIl' 'e1tQept fo:r.tb.'c

extent· ~ .

·U'wO'ri'lllUl'ii,gf-.m'ill't]'.
_ _ ~ L"'iIIU;II~~.J'

m,t}s difficult to a;Ua:hi 'thm 'fiDi~h" bm'~ s0m,ew,hai !the. 5~~


':6.Het~

~rt'l..
Hoi

IIJ

~.IMi""_,

!FII,Ar,m'1 i~,'11

,m'lin .~ d..J. blli.""",",'WJU _ if':f':II~~I" ""'"1IM ;pm,el!h...

'''''~'-g'

effec~ can be !sin,cd, bY' tu.min,g, :I sha.Uow UDldleJICUt ~n ,th~ faces whlcll alsQ' p.r,ov.irl,es a Utde exti',~ :r'Oo'mfor the vital

rn

,~~~.;,;:~jI,~.~~'.'

,_~~~~

..

: . ~~l~:vR!JUND GllOO¥E f. Q' gmolf,f. W'ld

UN tl ~HellJ! ~DIEIR

TA,[s,' "l'8i'llcui oj

l~f~
PJ'{P'

..'

-.

duein'[l;

Irltll:ngtlg:ff),Mtisllt),'UldtW', oo\J,itires ,rr tJJl~ '~,"1~'C;23 wit ["t' l'~, l"ilgtJ~,rJ.j SiPwo'l'~
I'll;!

'tile corner of 'tile :SBOiw"oor" caIws,i;gg ,I, local, wealmeas: :ftom, ~:~1~B. fa~Jsue,,craiCJ\ 'will start. It i5 :~'eJt 'EQ :m'odJfy ~g 't'9 a',okl '_~s dUler~, i't ma,y ells 0; 'be, D~Bal'J' to a1'JIl B-Dotber hole m tb"e' fl,ywheel to 'com~ide witll 'the: Dew' POSitiO,D lor the ho,~ inmre pm (see ilh.u,tra,tioD below)'~, W,bm :f'elSsembIiDg 'the big.._ new l'o1JeE',s! sho'llldl 'he nd ~t~ed fQr ,p,refer-enloe;.: bu:t old- ~Des,ICi:.t'il be U!«t plovided tlleY' are :a;lblolu'tel,),' free :f1'lC;M, B,a'ts Dr ether :s,uda.ce blem.. mbf$ ~'~~~,ch 'be de'~-DCtc~.by 'CD'mhJ,ing them 'lhr,au,gh til I~'n ma~yl_n~1 Sb'ss, nnder il, raidy ,Gtl'Q:D·I~ oblique Ugh't) and ,8 re ,all of 'tlle sam.e d~llme~er.' within o,:ne or .-wo,tenth" of to'

SomeUmc~the ,oil-bome in the pm 'il driU,oo, 'iD:wa~cts fm,m

'tae

~!fiCrlhr,Ji

of crank ... pins at the sh,oUllde!>edl, ,type ,alm,o.s,t :inv~riQ\b~,y occurs 'in the corner of the sllouJder~ and itji dcs.ir.a,hl~ 'to' :na,ve a ,d~fimieMet io t1ilms ~om,er~even 'at 'the expense luf' li',edrucing, the I,eugth, 'D:f 'bearm,g'~'I, the :OY\VbeeI.s,~ The faces IC," the sl!l,cimden should he' -~.lightly' CiQ,nca:ve ~ on no :aooouDit may 'fb¢;y be: eonrve:x,even to' the sUgh*=l B:~~,ie

'MD'M.H. C,R FUL~:E:r" ~~~. .... · I'N C:O~J>:IIERS I

- ,CO',I'>!IVD( SiH.O:1JLOERS ~G,RIEA,TL EXA(i.GIe,Uf1ED1 Y


A'Bl~

ut

.JDQm" 'CONVIlii

XlTV ~5, ~U:FR etElL\l1i

14

8:5

TU'!UNJ'I(ji FOll :1 ,th,O'R •. O~C IlJf."t!"tj IO~r8~ _ :rollef' b~lD,gJ' thU;1 lb.emg'

[SPlil3:n

'THE CO'NND"CTltNG" ...aon

A~:D B,IO"c'N'D

n)Uer8 will :r-apidI.y' min ,any the reason wby 'DCW and [old 1,0'116[,9; shoUld Iie·V,i:r 'be ron. 'together'" __Caged ,_rl~UB;~,a,~~9Cinl'~ablled in 'p~id~eI by 'th; ~,pICm! b~rs. md" If 'Ole'pm, IS ,g,f the sh,otdder:;ed '~,~, me rollers ca~ have, se:vu,aI thou ~~ndl c'Leamnce.==..m, f~t~...this ,is.. advis,a,bl~ odterwise ira;ny ,de~tion tak,~ pLa,te Qie :s.how.ders

'~'~u:m,

...i'

'II"

'M,.W,li.l.le m;\OUers~ '10, Gllljhn)es rulllniID,rw- \b. at '-DOni , '~,t'" O'.Ii'-:' more 1Ii"', _' ", .. u r-~1i'ii1 '~ f:b!~ of 'WC1lr.ett'll become: very serious", and it may b·t :advisa,ble, 'tl.? mrd..e"hra.m,e ..p:La:te the f.u.'bbing: ,a:flOOS:" ~~O(U 'h)' ,,002, ill!; thiekness. wW be a:mple11 bu~lUte d~pout 'muSit 'be
'iWi!, iI.lLIU~
'__ ,~!I;;,II',

~a,y close in fl, 'bifie: Ind. ni:p 'w rollers e:ndraysli' f me p,m is without ~o1!lJde[,s~ thle ba.rs, of 'the I lcag,e S:ho:u1d, be ,I\e:tiev~dlo~ '_be :fu:lWl~ma.1 d!ameb:r so 'tha:t 'the ca"ge 'bean on '~e. ']D"i~:~' o'utsidJ:! "tb'~[oller ,path .. ,'fot ,alth'IJftl,gh tb.~.·cap , n; ~O(ft It will wau' a way the p~nsurface, much rum.r tb an

made from,lc-I'st :1J1~muuum ,'f!ihl~b '~~Ot"gh, ight is, re]a'liv~1J l weak ,a~~, ~Of seaeus ~o'[k. should be m:eplaoed by parts ma(le of bar' Oli' 'wbc.. Fi~n:rt'ory~made 'Clg:es have th,e slo:u formed by' broac'm'Il,,', a method, 'whi~eh is not avadtab~ to ev€:~onc; an MteM'lti,v~ process Is to lend... 'M'in 'toe slots 'a:md, 'eben machine the lends out S'~l:Uare. A ca,ge: 'm'lh rela .. D,ve~,y .~~Dg:_:sIOb a,~Cl~m~oda,te ~Oftl f~:Uefa sueh as i\, in" to ~J i\ IU" (a, very' useful S~) or 't'hr~ short rollers pi;act!d In eaeh sl.ot' can ~sUY' 'be made by DJ iIUog the slo~s'wilh a, s:m;ndard, W,oo·druff: k,ley-sem:t CJJI:Ueril:MdfinishifJ; UlI! ,e.11l(]S., 'tnmed 'wi~h11 sbo·u~,d.er,or.,po D,ve ,n,t 'tl.el~ end to m ark time
t

[~oys, SlU:~ ,~s RiR:, ,5:6 '~r 2~ S'~ Som.e eages, ale

,.~

ii~,

c'u~, by hand usmg a sq uare ~fU!e rOund te wid h g 'that ,H does not da:ma,g,e '[be m3!tbJ'oJ'd, siCIDes,. TillIe' b'~lmks'houild be

'0

.' .i'~,is in otlu:r WilYS, ~a'rd,..chrlo,me, ca·'llDa~!tallO up tD 'dte, s Iclllon _ hoo:vU,Y loaded rollers :and, 'will ,j me,vU'3.b~,:8aike [0:1 of if applied. to ,tbe; '~I' cks, , WbUi'l :mm:~es'tD,e nro of II bis.. DJd SQ S1rn~n.uo\ts is not so e :mucl\ 'tbe sp\led (l!' t'bJs loodw,B bu:t Ute .rael tha.t 'be, '['oIle:r.' us.~m,b~ydces Dot '1",~'m:te (!!Ound the pi'n at m s;~eldY' ~peed:I' as it ,dOH in a main, 'karing~ nstead, i~.liu ~'~blrmate'~, to speBd 1.1 p :Bnd s,~~,w' d,~~ 'Ib_eca,mse or 1il®Sr t.d,e, the S;W~Dg a:t 10lf 'the: eoft.'ElI~etiDg-:ro.t1l, is ,in OprpOsi,ticlD to the 'mc:rtio,:n ,of the 'p~nJ)whelleas, a;' bottom de-ad. centre th~ twlO mIDril_[O,M are in, 'the same dil'l13cHoD, tbolg'h 'o~' COD rse net at the ~ame speed, .'j'ke aU ,cibjec-t.s 'poSJeSsi D,I wel\ght,~tfue :ro[er ass~mb~J o,bjc-"¢u to this, 'p~'oeess and ,re!lIUvc[y hea'~ lo'ld s ~ 1f;Jl}mted, 'hetw,cen 'tb,e'r~l1ers ;and, tII,~ 'bats lof the Cl,ge and a certaiim amount ,of sliding 'IDODlll11 takes p~age_in addJ:tio.ll; to .normal :~ollins~, 'lJJe~, 'tile eogru.1le speed exceeds a. 'fi,gufl~ at which w "me' 'f:dc:tiOD, 'between, llolHc:ns and traeks is insum:ciJe:n.t, te overeome the inertia of the roller as,emhly.. The .m Pte_r the 31ssemblJ ~ the less, its h1,Ic.rti~, and :~b~r' ·that rmUU:~Q Eating !ca:ges; are 'made~ of' one ,of 'the st['OQ,g wrou,g'h.t ,86
1

&nIU, ground, to it, td.ud-smic 00 IRish mnd, :m;~ltom 00 IOC DllJlllt 'be a1i!lo'\wd, to ene roach O,D 'the ro]]le-r lfacts'" V sd"ul

lb~~1Jlse oftle' h~vy prlSSt1fm h_iw,oo.m them due' 'to oontrJ ... IUled. :ro,ooe~ Tm SI :rOfQe 00;0 bel reduced '~iO' tilt accep!t~b~,e 'fi\lure' b,' u.siftB roUers which Q're small in ldiameter' and

'mJl ~I] :g maehine and djv~din~ bead hi: essential, n ,LI;f,p 'unC3,gt:d rollers ;a,[~, net ICUld :fior bLilgh~peed W!rJrk

bo~ev,e;r ~ is, Uta.! '1L~e. _slots _'must be d.'ood 'plral hd to the, :Ul!i:- otheroJ:se t]J,e 'wbole -roUer' Isse:m hlv \'YW run "d J o~~': ~\()iD\DIC ~i,_,e and;!, '~l1~~efo~ ,aCC1Ur-a,~e seUinS""UJpl of the
im:p,?ftall'ii.

l~,gtb ,Of' iibe,IloJm which. i:s net "bally ,rumpo,:nan:t Wb3rt ls

[IF I·

ru Ii: N~O

,M~!!.~jNGFlIUl' ~tO'T O.i,J'rr~1It Ii, llJff iI!IM 4'K IN Ci 1i'ill~;JO;lJ·~11 IiUJI;1NIt ..

'IM"flNIHlS O~ COlTiEiJt, Ii.r !ENOS OF' ~l.lOr 'i-cS 1C'1MAUiklJlitl.,

TI!lJ'e,e .si,'($g,'ei9 .in, 'l1~JlJbrlt(!IJ'Il.otlJ O['(j' big-e'nil: r:olliJr- ,ije,{;1r;/~g~~," UBi",,' 1m,. Qt' ,,'l;ie .ral1N.:ia/,.
D

8,1

TUN 1N (i1 Ii[lR S".:8'8:0

1":18:8C'ONNHCT1NG=itOD

A.. O 8,]:IG·"EMD N

..

eenseq ~u!n!dyUght 'The VIncent 'bwg,;-end! uses nUl.' ['OWS ,~rrollers 3 mm, di ameter b, !j, mm, '~(H].g',gr ro d~.separated by parallel rinp wmch, ·~~u;;ey·e:m.t"tlru! r,oUe~s, :S\~gwiDg ~ 'the' total end ,c'~eanm~ m.ust bel heW te U'fJIlit! bet,wecn JXJ4 inij ,3 ad. iDOl in,. if :slew!lDg or hin·.diing bd,;wa:Jg. is '~iO'be I,'yo~ded ~ The. 250 Ou~lZi alse used small rollers 3: mm dliam£Mf' by a,ppr'Oximil.lteJ.y i in!j 1001 IWftb, :00 leal~ 'but, :m this :msta nee, :the bigrend :is .p·1i'~ jUlt, M· if the lud 'ba'. a plain beariJlg" Plam [Il~g-end.s have been suc:oossft1Uy us:ed, for :so\m~ Dml: IlIJO\V on hip·-spood, mngmes, 'th'Durh th.ey' 11U~= 'D~sml,. smaller and, more :bea,~,J' toadied thlm .their ,ooum~rputs, in the a'utoDl,o'hDe wo,rld.. J:j:,lid:l~J' ICJf the m"etal S'UlfttUll1dmm.g' the h~:.g~nd is of m(n~e ,im'po.r_~: 'ltl1s,fl, ~~pl'mmSS'il 'OlerertlN 0.0 :a.~lem:pls ;m'. UghteDJD,g 10 . aUe~l; the' desip 10f' plli1 reds :shol'uld 'be I," t,empted wi~~b,i~lq;I'coa:' ,s~ta,ti:Olil ..,~dL lbe. mak~f8j wbo in. so,me' imsmnC6S, suppJy . .r(lds o,f ddlerent. desjgD.lTor r,acing The ccrreet cl~lDce for ,..1mJim. bm·a,\;o~1Fti - ~s, ds - ~:'D- '.i~, I.UU1 I~~ in~ P-=-iiilii" ,; n,..... w- :~Jl!lin ,~t.·A ·r..... , 'to;1 ..I r - al~' II .II!J _1'IIJ1i m ~, r, '" 11J.;lJJJ~ '_-_Ut~M, !i.u~ uU~ ~lIi~. c!:d~,t!ho,~p,a 'much pater r iclelfa.DC~ :~spltmlsa ib,le PI'~ videa 'the o:i.l ,PICSS,UI . is :main'E81ned above .,he: ,aUO'Wa~b]~c miEti'm.'um npre: ,EU~ q.uoie~d. by 'Ul,Jr~i makers. . In, s;U;l' desilill 01' rOIU01' 'DeMiD : '~hlll' is bOUll.d Ito 'be a

of

willi :~(nu:,' It!Bl0ry' and a miId,...;st-eeM lap, but ,OOl 'i~ IrtOCQUlB t IIIus't ,any.a.ttempt be made te ease .,1. dgb1 big-end by fio~a:oog; it wi'& ,abr,as:iw a;ppUoo. 'to 'the' :rol~ets 'j; such. a p[,oced:u m will. :almlOlt ccrtaio1ly 116ad. to 'rapid b[eakdovrn 'tin servioe;. .A. piece of' betd wlcod turned to ,5izrt!,makes quire an I~:ffectivc :~a,pfor emergency' use, But w-ben ma:nJ rods of the same !WlI: mete:r.have to' be: :tumdled, It 'pl\ys . make y,p an exp~lI.d, ... '~EgI~p," This teol ean lei' her be held in a 'vice and the rod '~'lW:r.nedl haJld OF' i~'=D 'be used h~" I, drill ; in either ease tbc 'by ~1i"Io.Ji ... 'L. A~~'d ik.. '~! ---A I U ~'L'n Ian ",.d be 'fiii'iIlIi .Ii'VY i!aI1V!Y!.tI· lliJ'~ :mIlw, ,QWleu, 1;;,.;,,0 U.,.;."""ljp ..... l!tct.ll~··. Vi ~oLIIIU.~· IlL",",,'" IqUlCIiJ;tly' removed ,and ['6yefS~d, o flvo,jd b.:per.inl the bore'", t Whe:1ll SP"1im roood.. with tMKt pin he~d bOllUizDIi,mUy 'tbe ro d should lU)t :~bow 'the sJ.igbl"est ,sign Q,f wO'lkln.1 over to ,Q'Jm 'sid- ~ ir I1....docs el !her. th~ 'n;n 'air' 'the outer rae is ~a'~Eedl e t_ _'_l._ - lr',_, . ." --"_ ----r~' " OF l'lle, ,sJorts, W dle eiIlge au B.t a" mjf!Ult~ o:g[e., 'Rewe;rsin,g the. 'rod may cf['oo·t R Icl.f,e in whWeh event mut "he eon~t p.O'SlrtiDD of pin, rod andl. IcallC': .i'r aet, the· caUSI dl.ould be
J

JOI

i'II.

'~A

,1i'I.t'iI;~.j> ~ II!

A 'FIll
.l.1li

','

"_

l_

•.

_'

~I

_,

I"_

._'

!!

.100'·

..

. ,'~

~_~l

·~al.

i1!i

~J

spems~!

leerb;~D&mOUlD£ ,of

s.ltfti.ch:ntb~~i to ,caruse seizure un ess :i't is carried ~WllF' by 'Ib.~lubricant.. "QT reasons of s:trenlQth,J the o,U... h,loles '3M: Dev. V1lUY [a.r,I~~ ud eare MJL1S'l be 'mk}i!n 'to ,Cb.t!(lt that [tbey are e:]m:~'-by feedm,g; on '[brougn, them, with 9! force :fe:e~ can, hlcldOO,bllly,j) wb.~n (to~nl up a u, 'win ... tag@ ~~.m.ode~ 'it ls o.ftGD 'llessible 'tJOI !ClbbJ~n. Ii 'mIQ'l"-e u.p ... .. to dllt,e &igooieDd, wtucb, will. fit. the ,o;~d.pa,ttern wh~ems 'w1111

win .pnerate

nJI,b'bh'lB soinS,oD., 'whi,cb Ii

,a:t ultra .. igb h

on

L.... .~' -.'1:.. ,nl;", iIio..... '~!"::'ii!il smee I~I remova ]- IQlJ!i 'itJ!tc flOU~. O:IIl'~r :S'~ p81,Uy d~m:inishes the chance of r3.t~,~e",cr'llM-:k8devele ping.
'11'111 fl~~ lov:e"j) • ••.

.JI ro~

loca'Jed and .roott6e4.. So,melim.es, deep grooves are Formal in. the lY\Yhools lthnlillil;gb. rods :'unoring" over, aad if [these lOLl' p:r,~e.n't tby' Ihouldl be, Istl:m,MluJ. OU~ to 3GCD,mm.c [hd'e ph·o,!i.'pm.or ... tomze ,or.' iard'''lt:ec1 qulJ.ers Glr' suitmtile, tmc:tneiSs~ b ~ , ~.he; cormOll iB;mOuDrt, ,of' s,ide"",,'~enrul'ce ,aries ~ ·ording. to the des ipj but Is fSlre1r' o ' gRa'l. .inJ.pmrtlnCi!t., .,0lO :i D;, te .. 020il ~bGinl a'bout rigll,~ in 'most, lcasa. 1 ~. .1i_AI de ',~ .. ' A :i' ~~ ... ~ _~,.DO! . a,WJ-~aY.y_ gll~i ~.~ ].~, a. goo:d. lUle8, po III~ !:a.. ,1101..,1'0; con ,,1- ...iii, .... .

'iliA

1l;U

.Mel MSlBmbUDI' '((ire f,OUe[S, ~.th oiJ (neU grease, whiCh is ~·i.keiy'to bloc:k 'the i()i~...bat~,) the eOD, ..-rod should jus,t. !'d;idle w'uto, :J:d;l<#e~ H it hrts ·to be 'IHllshed Ij)f Sc-teWOODD the fit is ·to 0 tjght~: ·if' 'the.m-cis mom Ithan Jl021"'.[jl~ w'.I,metral ctear,ano~ it IDStoo loQle~ The best 'WBy 'to pt an ,eDict. 'fit 'rus by 'lIu~allS ~_r.s·evCl,a]l sets; of :f\oUers' p:ad.ll18leO :in. ,sb.~])$ 101' ",10001 'm~,btU ir these am ·uu!obta]:na'ble 'the. outu' nee· can he lapped cnrut 88
11i

Utde or no me witati'(Ul~

~1il'Io",,"1

i'NG TO it-'! I5, _

biI.

iflr'

.Aoaourr '''''_

_,........--J... .

.l'j.ii!t;rdl~ of

(J

,1([lp'(Ji'n:, 1'(J()'llJf,ths $lllllo.Qdlus,fo~if!' o'pc .!lllitabltJ./Q1" the' ctf!anilJt li.P of the bfg~,ujd' t'JAe,-"

89
1

:-T T'r 'liI;.f:r ',IL·~ft 11'.,;; . U !~.'!!tI, ~ y'

IE'I,n H~ .. V'(~ Jf"1

~.iIr" .GJIi:I U!

!il! 'O,BID Fii<

T:H.~ C:ONN,BCl'·[N]·IU ..RO·D .A.ND BIG-END

jun:ctio.m. oil the sba.nk. and smaLU-end~, Th'cJ can be ,de~eckd by immenmDg 'the rod in b.'ot p~'r,af1in f,ur' some tlme~ _ and, after dryingJ d'd.s,ltinl1 'the surface w~th mnch chalk;: if an,Y' !o.li,acks are .prese;n" they' w,in be iIl,w,mted b:, 'the clmJt adherto the pall!Jtln retained ill tbe.Ul~ ~'b, M,I,,' also be, de~oo~edbv [the", Mla'A<m'fi'R--'~ or similu' me:thcu!lc':!I' wl~~ebare " ." --"_ ,J ,5lILllUJII,U1ii: I, -- --•. Icom:mom:my lemployed in ,aircmft ma.m;uftetwing or main .. 'te.l!u.tm.ee e,tI,lbummts, a:ad it is a ,ped idea to!a:v,ai] Qn~ rse]]f of l!UJM fGWdes, if 'tll,e,Y-are en.sil,' aece~sib~e~ Sbo,ti""'poouin S 'the s:ruf'8. ce .j~ or' peat 'va] ue W, pl,eVelltim,g ra;dlu'~rack~tb'e rsyst,em is to be,m'biu'd, 'the smace witb. s~eel shot, ,proj'ee~ed, at lrlgb. ~N:IDGi,ty by IClCmpll}S1300 air Ul1"0 D,gl1, 0. nozsle. Thls 'prOeeJSDl\:1St 'I.g~ 'be, c'anfu"d w~t;h ,s"hot",blastm'llg, wmeb uses, sbarp-edged ,grmms and remeves a

Altbolugh,

r.a.te.:, cracks of this, nature usuall,Y' occur at tile,

O'bVi01Jg~.y.~ s.bo~ peemng 'must be, dC':M, aft~e,' poillisbing_, as .... ~;oy work' dnue ODJ the surface aBer' peemit'lg Mll remove the I~O.Pl'P.9f,essed laycx' :IJld destroy the effecbve:_.mes.6 Q:f. tbe
E1P~[ime.D;IS in IIghremng ro ds e':Clteosive'liy am not l.d vis.. able, unless 'the m_aker~9l lid.vice ha!s been obtained~ There ls

precess,

ml

-,

certain amount or mJe~-a~~he sm,(),f)d~ :sbot.used. ~ 8"ho"~" T fl peening rem10Vl-S, no metal ,at all b1l~~'·;man.p lu 'com,pletimJI Bct; 001,,-pl'~loe5:tbe ~urfa'Claski n o,f t,be me'tal in eom'p[eSSh~Hl!l'

mea a~.d manufac'[mrimg m,lcra:nce:s, and 'much of t~~i8 Buelly be. removed. by mmg'~ CM. As tn,s stress concentration f-:Ml,'S· :msinl,)J on. the ext[,tJllitl'ej tca':f. mI,au]I ..cnd these should 00 len u nt:{Juc'bed .., I'~ m:a:y the be lltOssible ~'O' o'blain, a ]j,lnter red made S,pecialJy for raeing from .bi,gher:gr.stie sEecl:; IS one exa mple, the ,early KTT .. Vlf:] ocette Fad ,e~lm be. uS1ed,'in 'the push ..o!d, MOV' em,gine~ r Ma.nx n 'N'Ct,rtcrn reds canal GoO' be used ,run '~:Inte:nlaUQ,na], :aD,gmes" and V"i[[J;cefll' rods, 'with the bilg..ends ,Iluf\owled ce;m be used. in speedway J~A~P. S
I'
~'I, 1'1
i

,!o,meumes a fiUr.'

GLm}O!tlD't e:1,~ of tf:trnd ,dlue '0 'mp~r.~ the, forging D

:me:taJ ro'U:oCll the smlU"

'"

Q~m»tR',of mJUerml

H~Jw

sm~ll... elid l~yeIOf lig~'r6n'nl1pfjrl'().iS:e:G~

:t!C:d n,ifo;e l~;;

'0

,hfJ

Rlt)d s m.ust be tes:ted ~fl1Uy far aiip:menl in all pm~'fiJB-S .. Cb~Jcimlg a,'ll ~hes~desof· ~ big-end. 'tile sml~n~nd.IBOln],d D,eJ be ct[l,traJ 'within ,.6OS m,. to .. 08 ,j a, The 'bi,g--end 1.{I:d :smd~ 0 ead bores mus - be dead pnrilJlel ; :aldlDu[&b. it is. p OO'9ible te [tIny ()l~d, n a p·proxim:Bj,It;e· Ch0Ck f,b"r this, by 115l'ng the crank a plm :mndl glL1:dgcoo p,m. as nUlndreJs[~ ,8 better way is 'to mUle ilJpl :1 pEti£ of bars, it leaS"t 6 m... _,orn,!l, m 'whi'clJ, a:r.~ a ·tight p~~h illi: 1.. . .......il't.....- ,- i th ~nul_" "~.~ rd 1]], du~ ,lresp·60tlV'0 eores, "Ot pmlttw,mcej "'_,ey. ~'IIl..'~u'l'd be budw~d ~nd lI'ilmtd" but soft ones wW. ~uf.t1c:e eat~fiuD.y if han dled " ,ColDDleraal bld,gh~dmWJ1 bra is, Jl03 ill ..
,i' . •

less man,plo'min,a}

and Iqui~e,efi"ootive mJa'flJdre1s £O'f Usei

tI~,

91
'"

T ~JB 'C()_NJi4JBCT~'NIG-,R..'ODA"N,D BIG,-.m N DI

"if Qff-.centr,e; and .mclincd JiB th,e same direetion, bend near Ute bi:,g,""e_;rn.d-~ The, 'f\OO,should never "be gripped b" the 'bi,II:'"' gild sleeve 'when being' ~,~ ~~';'flUs, [acllon ~glll.J wt ,cant set
'I:.. '., tne n.liie S''I ee:ve, in .tt."

uQi'6

il,.,

. .. 1Id • an d In erv,~,ce:oJ! WOUj-_,revert to Its,


EO,_ ~- ..

ori~ posi:liorn" ISetting dti!oU]]d, p.relcm'b;ly be d,'o.n,e in a str,m ~htenm:g,. press" 'but: r~G' tha,t ,B, s:tr-rO,m,g V,]'ce and 'three; bomts ean 'be: 'Used" 'tw·(lt 001:11:8 plaMd, 00, oDe side, c,f'the 'rod. and ODe bet,wecn them :at the p0ml 'w'bere the 'bend h; 'r,eq,mred;,the balm should be of ~ar,!e diamerer Emd_ ~Qfl to
,Hv"o:id, ~,loeHj idama,ge
.11: II i U~ol,ki"!i~ ¥J,W,tllOi/

iOJ

the red,

ffltl~Al~Ji' t!Fro:tl~s'llown

ft!~li""

to., ,t~v'iJt

tJl

iil tAl!'

t!ls

Q'

If} ~]e

cl~"QmR1~ b~/w,'Clt':n _ and ;:l~~ Iif~'U:iJ"fdgG'iit·


nl~i'iitli'i!J

in

be, made ream suc'h materJia]", 'ba rd .. Ichn''Ome plate.d up 'ito fi:nisbed- S~lj~., Wi,tll. these mandrels In p lace, {hie dlistanae between t'h,e.m.
is mall ..enid!
CI,I[t
'i

measured at the ex,t"e.mi'ue-s sb,otdd. not differ 'b,Y'mo~_,e tha;ol ID02 in, ilIn- he absence ,0" '~heJ]"ec~:ss:~-ry' i~asw_['inl eq,wpm ,m}cni [a s't_e~ bar leM 'be 'filoo, :~Hl,d13;t;!t will ju.si~ ,fit btw,een ~h,e mandrels :at me '~lgbte~,tend,; 'the !ll']J' at , '~II,le['end can then be measured by rooler g1Lugc·s,., The bearings must allO be :f,ee, ff'O,m' ~,windt ~'IiO',F.'['?lI~s't,te." 'the mandrels sbJloiirlld be -pa.fallsru when vi,e-wed. ,along the length 1@lf the fod S''" .Aeclllra~' in this n:s',J1ect 'ca-n be' checked q,ui:te eas,Uy om [a smrf~c-e-plata by' the 'IUO .of blocks 3J1Q ;B druaJ pn,ge '0'1' :fee~er
j

me

Itn"s of 'thick 'bros 'C3'!] be used 'with mUlch less 'lJossibi'lit)' of da mlge; " If these errors are in. OP:P D8i'~,edlreetions, 'the r-od 'will ~uJ..V£'Ito be se't at beth, ends ~ but do nOIt. use the eheek~:nl ouu:utrrels, for "the pmpc se WIl'I,d bcmui these H 'w,~ll~ S~nm'the side eleaeanee :between :simrdl..ead and, pj8-~oD bosses. eun '[befairly ,Ie-nero us" itis permi'8sible 'LOfBW- ,of DnG side of'm.be I m-ll,-en d if thl! ,13rrers CRlmJo:l he: eo:mcted otl1'Nise~ COfLside.mbtc pa'itie'!lloem~J be rM}e~~d"'bUlt m't is 'v~'ta!ly i:m"poll1an~,ttl at th,e eon .-fC d be R.'b!alhm:~ely' 'true:; evea me slil'b;~Mt error c~n have I, Se:r1'OU& ,elect, at ve r)" 'bJl'h r ,":p'~m Rods 'which, 'Ilul:ve been set, lon:ly' :sUJ;h.t.~y ormn, sho'w I. £eJI,.aency' to rr,~erf to thelr ,orie;i naJ plo!si~iom,11 so [tlli,e;: 11 est

AlteTna'~i"ely" narrow

an

,!

'lD1I1GOOSsari~y,-Ithe Uuec checks ,should drst be made and fbe si~ua'-i,on, carefllUy ,.ve.lghed uP:~o{b,erwise O'De tma:y cure ene error. by ma'king ~notba WO'JUl!~~ As· s, ge'me-,r[ll rule first 'eliumna:te MY' ~,~ t.~st ,and then. set abeut ,~'ntml the Qcm:uali~ya,ud, parallelism of '(he $lmalD..end COITOOt. ]I it :ls
ji[l'

It: is q'U]~,eU'kely tlul'C,a.;t :~east one of' 'tbese errors '\vi~~ b: .fOUD~-, P ossi bly all fluoo" To a,v,uid prtiUm:g '(he' ro d about

PUltfSt,

ceftt~a:~,'but jn1cli.nedt 'bald. the

!rod

'close: to 'the' 8mal1-end~:

,A tJdn/ rn€I~'1iid'f)l'clutclidJ/r.fb.,. hm,~d.fntl},~ md.., ,Dklt g.:atsg,-e' SlfQ'uJd s./wW IffJtIr'l! ,~dlng wl~~n. ,f$' f-e'i'eT.Jd:, ,-ad

'92

~g3

T':[J ,_. _.

Ii""1' .JHll ,;II, ,,",.Iur

",,''!f''''

F''''''" g, .._" & V

,m '1:5, D rg 'I1'\; ~.Ji:- ,G'~'~

plao, is t,o 5,e.t 'the rod tee ffEr ~nd then correet 'the amoust
manner

,ofeverset to bring the all,pmen,t ri,ght:~ Rods cf-ea'ted, III 'this,

,Istile usual mtl!'tmaI 'but aD;y of the llgbt aH0YSi sueh as It"It ..56 O'I' R.Jt., 59 or. Dumlwnbn H~,which r.em.;ri s,tmn,l,th at mlh 't:empei~tIlleslij mJm~e,ery gleed bearin,19, ~'D!d, ave s -Dtrha'b'lI ~r P· Ii"i~ 'n ,0,~~ti!iiii''';ji; .....,r· r- eelere ,,Ii": .... D' 'n ~~~_ It 'Dooa'si~mal1y becomes ad'yJsab'~e to make ''Up 1& iCO,m ... pJeltely m,ew cOJmootim,g-:rodi ,and, Illtller smm,e tl me 'to f edefl1lC) for 1J;~®er ,rigidli1~~ In rtlris eonnectlon 'lue be~,~dei~p ,"! tb,e :s~imp'le-st~ tht ifLtul21 of the ,I-'S~ction ,sho,.~dd 'be ltamipndal to 'tile small-end boss, ,and 'ta.per ,outwards, to a. 'Mdth, eq[uaj, eo the bore ef 'the bil~en,d !eye'~ Circumf-e,rvm:tfa~, .iaiiml, of the 'b:ig~Ddl is 111 Slt ilrn;po~t:ant~ O Bnd[ to obtain this witho(nt eX,oelsiw: weigil,t tb~~e s,b-auld .e ,ei~11erODie ,or two, Id_p dbs fIlOO1D,!J right: around Ute, e,l/,e" Fo,r 'mlrteril,1~1 III Vibmc 'tl' V ,]01 rus lextrellL1cly- ,good; and for bes;t res,u]lts, 'th,c' ,;'0 '. ihould be,rough 1I1acbioled in tbe soft state, 'tben heat . reated ~D R51 '~'ODB '1~e,:rn~He,.AJJ pOlijsbiJllg 0 f '& he exte.ricn~ :Sbo'lddtben be ccmple.t!oo and ':'be, tdg .. and small ... ends fin aU y ,pourJd, to size;; Rods, 'whie'b De: not ll keJy to be rlJJ,DIi ultra ... hlgb .r-eV8, do not requhe a" s,t,ee~,of ihis nature, &EiJd , 1t;:;fJJrbo,:n,"JlrlaD"prn'e!,e ~tCiel to Sfjec 'EN ~EI,beat ... treated :to 65 [1(lDS, 'tensne~ ,!iv,esa very good resu [t ~[ is, a ,1;,[nndud s~£e1 used in m,any Englis'b macmnes btdlt after 194!5~, It eRn be :machin ed In, the funy heat ..t[e,ln~d :s~al~nd, 'therefQ'lI~ don , a not teq1ll1~fe be;ground in the bores after hardening, w,hich. 'to. makes! 'the ma['l,ufB,ctura som,e;vfh~t ~jmplet.. Where extrem e ,llllJJttl,essis sougbt, fh'el we~ght of' th~ bi,g:--endl :sleeve ean be sa;v,w by mrudn,g 'the rod ftGm 5,%, Dickel or ,3~~ mcke],..;Cm,ome leas~:bar-deDio'l s'~ee1J' rca'S!' .. %, hardened tOI 11 :mimm,um 'of ,~04,S in 'the bi,l~end i:Jy~ ott1.Y~ in, tbe [ct:S;t ,glf' 'the, rod, 'b~1 bpt soft b:r copper p1ati'ng 'be:fo~c cmrburiziDg., M,au,y tw,o'"'Slr'O'k,~ rom am ~de on th:il, '94·
1 I ~ ~~¥

..001 :in. elearance b'ut mDireJcan be' ,allo'w,oo w~thIJUJ.'t detd-, men't c:xmpt fox' "e :OOI1se caused, N,orbJnI IGaB be permit~cd 'Up "to ,.005 :Wll~ efare lleplac,ing' the bush, Ph.,olpho(f bronze b
j

'The smallil-e:rn.lli, 'blUh f,cJlf

are uWik.el:y to lose allgnme'nt


E,B,C<tJl,g

a,gJ'jD~
tOO'D

..

bd, WELD

:mus't. Dot ha ve less

,-

6i:'h wEt,~ 0'

1:h~(lfj:III(jI'·'~itlaa oj

,t'Bnsit~«lIE(fI' /Sleel Q.Jlillll1.~fl.'ctJled

e~nMfttiRtl ~t!

6y w"ldl:n;I ~ -

iJtlill

of ,j.igfj ... ,

ii':i iOi:U

1Y..U\.!~!Ji.I!1

"'!iit-gWulJ.UJ.~

#'i;t:i

'it't~, __~

1II!~!1

,prittc]p,l~ .fI~d.it 'WDiSslandard, prncnc6 In .Rud,lrCS fbr'm_EUIJ ycacrs :and is te-d ar' on ,mamy , ta;Uan Isnghn1e;,si -

re,vol,ruJ:t1OnaI}' Sl11,gges;tioIl)t'he '~~ikr sees :0,0 reasen 'w'hy :!:~ ~haulld. DO't be- poss.-ibJe to fabricate a rod fr-om bip"'~teru;j]JemIley tS~'1 S:b,I!.~~l 11lDli:ted lb)"_w~lding~ If the s;m!faLU ,aDd ]{l~ge re:ods lire lecm,p~led

A1tb,otllh i~, seems,

il rri!'tner

ida1,. wwcb is not aIwa~ 'the case w,~"th o\f[e~j)frlutnd ,forgiilgs", The joints could be made \""iti1, JW'er rod of th . lame anal"si~9, 18, the '~Dmparnent$, iand, the wbo~e a,slem'bly

\St'ri:ps !eu'. alon. tbe: p'~ln. o.f the: s'teeJ ,andl bent '~Ol shl:p~ Md, 'the '!uges, or U~e .. eetio'fl are itarded '.D,und as s'tUJWD in 'the s di8Ir,a;mf :l:he gmtn :OOI\V in rry,ery put, or 'ille r;od wo,.dId be
---

,or

bel:~'beat,ed, before :inaEly maehininS the rod to size., .. AI,umhdum rods are not D,ormaU, fiJ:tfed with s;nl&ll-end DI!.1BllGS~'but if' b~Id1,y' WtOrD, the holes -can b.' opcDed, !(HIt and 'fj.tted. 'wilth aluminium 0" IL.R.,j.6 bus,b~s; bronze bush@s 3!lmas~'m,vnia:bly' come loose in tinte, IS'om~ st1eei] f,ods have been, maJJle '\,ithoutsmall~~d b~lbes~ 'the ~ye b tJ:mll I' citl1er haI-dened, 'and. gfound, or sim~ ,te[t ,6,oft. This ~d,ea,Is satillsfactory UPI to, a paint, 'but tt at ;sei.ml',$ LO@CUU,. i,t ma;y be rumon 'impossible t!CI ex.tra'ct 'the pln, A load 'way '£0 a 'I1i\oid this, wiilhout in~ ~ring 'lbfiJ,eX:U,8 ~e~lbt ,of' e. bwh is '&:0' adopt a :sy;tem de,l{,elop-ed for tbLe hea;v:lly··,"(oaded utic:u1abad cOIl, ..... vods of radial LairC[,aft
• 'to.:: " f ~1D1gmes~, WiuCla L C'Ons:mts 0:-'b•ores, 'M:w, i:luVe:11 to a 'lIUii~ess ~4 ,~,t ..1..,~..-f-",....

U"' .51"

ver-p ].,.she,g,
r- :nn"" In~ uur..£ .,

tIl.'I", 'me

:SJllU!I:LU~JjhJ

..... 111

..;:I

0:, ..

'TIt UJ NG' A !fD' RALA, N c IN:''IG ,Pt. YWH.ElEl,S

~'A
~~=

'if!l;-~n
f.l~

'l;nrT ·"',,ILI,

the holes are not lapped 'ou, ..o,f..JqUla~et ~I!l wbjch eyenft Jl$ smond, state wmU be w'orse [btl'll Ule: 'RrSlt-. Thi's, proaess 'wU~ cause the wheems; t,C) come :3, Iittlu closer ~D.gelher and the !i'~d~-,e t of th0 com ,..:r,od win 'be' f'OO ueed by 8. 1 kle. 3JRUJun:tll OB m thus the c~ear-l,ooe must be eheeked carctfliU)' O'D 'Mml

iSi ' :: t:in.g used) .-he fit sb.'ol~.dd che(;ltcd by means (ll, pm'lm!d,DD'''' be blue sDle-amed. '00 the, pmil' '\vweb. Is then '~i:lbt1y raulted. in the ,hol,es" .If ,c\cn:rwcl is '00;£ made over tll e who~." ln ternal ,fUllf IGe of e~clit h,o:~ he 'parts. can be ~~ .'~~ ppad. 'toge'~be:r,. 'U smng 'fine~,If]'f a.brasive but Srelt eare m,us~ be fJiken ~D' eee tJ~alt
l

t'lu~ pirh and ,to puU 'these Into the w'hee~s, Ill' &el..i~m;d nuts, This m.,sthod. 'Df cormtnIcti:oQ, makes a -g(lod job, pnl'vided 'thlt ti1e~ta.pers, fif' reaJ~y I,O(Mlmtcl),-: th.us~ in dOWI"UPI sseh RI. engine' (pnr~jcuIDrty!r'D. new' pin
lOlD

rstee:1''mpcm

of fi_gjcljty in tb~ ft.y·whwl nlHI crank;Rin astiembJ\y is e5$on . a - l~ - avoid '~I)l\·er·-W~1:s[,a!,etlJJi{JbU,P in ~rnal vibfatiklB,~ This is obtaiaed :pa~t~y I), pro'YidiD~ heavy sections 0" metal in 'the :r.'cgions -0'£ 'mWmum ;s't!,eH\J ,and, partl,' b,Y the ma;nnof' 10 'wbIcb ithe ,ossetfllbly is held. ·toliG;.eiliQF'~ _ ,51 me years, ago it WM· eomm.OD. p~r.aetwce to grffind. :r~~ o r]1Y
TIll[
U1:1':1

ma){im

'.

~e: pm in tb,e whelt1Ls, . .If pBndlRel~ 'rnllese am uswaUy' made a H,Ib,t: driv.e fi:~(ie~~ about ~(Ij in, IDalger 'than th~, hole), aad if :fo:r.' llI.y R:tdl:80Q, the fit is :muCh looser thm 'this,.. ,the pm ean [be hatd .... :nic,k:ei~~'p]ated, ,WJd ,pound to, correet size~ BmmyVeil'loeUe·pms are' ,~OiODd wIDthan afmos "i'mperce,pdll1re taller '(Jf "DOll in, per m~b JengU\, and 'should. push in, 'bY' bud :for half' tD'r= dep,'th o 'the Iywbeel ho~.e:;'the nu ts win 'then do the rest '~--'ntif'the pm M.l~.mOil 80 in so far as: that , the ,shQ]l],dem m,~,. .D.oIlbe pluUed 'Up into wr:d. ceataet wi 111. the: Iywhee'- as :m:tetH:ied, by tbJ8 makers and. not louly'wiD 'the !ls~emblJ' lack ri.J~ruty hut dlJcrc 'w,liB 1b8a ,gra'V8 danpr
,,'I.. " j,'L ~:n_.., ~ Ulal~!Wle crarrtJAI'm

..

depends, upon tOe D1llI.'nS w'llJ icb sil,ou~.d be cDmlm,ed ror :[JDSSble ldamage, (H\ ,dijs,~O.liti'Ofi of tbe '~.Wcads i ,ud. Icta,PlX'd, if 'there is uy ,dorw bt abeu t ttu;~m_ The' abutlimI, faces must be. sqtta.fe 'tel 'We thr.e,ads ,I:ud 'man, be ,chookBdll.lI!ld~, if D,ecuiS8.'ry[J' .fectified by !UmiIi •.:_· maudfc']_ . UP'iS 'wl th a ·t]u,qd tlgb:tly' fi,ttmg '£benuts 'wtdcl1.srrre them. ,icmcwed ,on and skimmed up dead .at." ]f U isl D.C~H'a'ry' '~O make m~w DUts, 'boo.Q,use, spares are 113Dobt:d tlc~Jlel mild steel is, JUliE, S,Qed, eH/Jough: 'Do-'hmg less tIll_Q ,4!:S~t,on rtens:Me s ted. ,sbo,'U hi be 'U Sled)., elnd. 1U0)' steel of ,S5-OS tODI STnlith 01 K .B, 80,S :ils bet~ef' s till ,for rlJcj'[fil,II' M·ost EDlIHs'h cram kpm nuts are tapped '0i:tfJer 20, or ,2'6 threads ~er JD'C~~ Wlutw,orth fam ·the 'col'ttm:orDest 5~S, be;h:ll~l'!':iD'!'~1 !,in~,and 1 ,m, Ilid. 't1lere~ l '[o:lle" ,it :i',S,often pOHn)~e to, utiRze auts 0" another make if
IlJ!wo:tually
I l

Vilb:aJ.'®ever ·the form and fit lar rubepm. rtJw: whole Bssem l~;~.y

';:1J wu
ii~

t...

l](f\e-M m 'Se.n"lOB.,
.,m

r... ~

,.,

S,eD tn., spnr,es, fi.e·

ale

... 1 ' 'lei! ~ no,' t. RV'i1;llllB'b- 1

engin,gs -a;r.e s.upplied in three lengt1ls- standard, plus j 1U" and pilus, In., '~O'aUo,w For ,~J],yerua.,gemen~, tM't mJly~, ,in 'iimc.~occur j Q: the holes, B,y 'sclectio!: the' correct ~e;[I;@th of
1

,a-s:sg_m ~

~ - 'L·l y., :T1L .. "apereu...:il eUU1,A'"'PU]S., ne ","' -.'t..., ..

,<ii. -.

IIlseL.t HI

...:I".

J ,,,f'\,JL-, J, 'lD

11:1 -·j!II;"".,:II~!lI LJP~~;.Ih~·g.,jl'

Rooon tly there bas b ~en,it growln,g tendency '(0' do I.'way with 'rDIUl'[;S, aitosetber and "ely ,Himp:ly 'Il) pon ii, press 'm t. Th is. Vil~!" .1!~,~. :sys~em'\f'3-S Ull"[,chJuceu, on 'u· oee·tl:ean d ,v iliJcts two-strokes, 'i,e
'. ..;.'I ,....
<1-

'-he ICOirreot Iirnlts ,of' ,~om.sin.. to ,0301 Jn. , It is: .now more usual to pu:1 tho <w1]]0015 up ~i'nSl substan.tial Shi01lll~der..s on tile pln, ri,.I'rdi ![~1eing ga.m,ed more <by b 'Ibis I.CllQI!I!. t·tum by·-the a.cnl!l fit 'of 'the f\eduoed porti.'on8, ,ar
'96

'pm 11, the ieo:ID:.,-'md side-clearance caD be m<a~:D;tain@d W,] ~1J!!'hJlI

and s:b,.ou}d: push a ,]iU]e less than. :halr... w,3'y b, ]lam,d, ; 4 tens pre-SSUfe ,mould ·beit be' 'r-equmed to force the 'vtlre • hard a.~ms;t the shonldors. -,An ,mx~d1.ient, method. ,of ,eUmlin~ttin~' uts n ell. iB 'worth ~oDaid'er-a.'tiOl1 'by exp:e:rimn.mt:ers ~tS the S,,,K,,"P,~ sy,s'~0m of 'Using

eettes, In tlti 8, ease, the'

and

]l],a,S

been ad opted tor the 86,


pinSi 'llte

fOlur'-strole VelD .. lta,perled lIIOOS' in, per melt


mm,

wm

91

TRU:ING, A,ND' m,A,LAN,Cl,N'G

FLYWH6Bl.S

pammo1lDt rumporUm.ICtt, but :for road WO,:rtj11 w,tu:re fu'U use can be :m.ade ,of't1Je ,1~r.'bO';:and ebl,'tlch) 'there is, not much in i1~ However'iJ' I, gem,s,raJ elmnmg""llp of all surfaces 'will DiCit be a W'Mite o,f' ,ime, :andl is olf decid~ be -eat, pn the rim smfaees,. -~l-d[;ag is ,em:e tlFJl _ - d'~eed ~l~' h~b
PQ,~ish"

riders fimld, the,)" ,gel[ oottler ieSUUS with Ught flywbeels, OD ShOlt traeks 'y.ibJM'S aocetem:tioll, lout olt the corners is of

11,'0 ':Jll/J'

fJ/ 'MIH1~ld6t:-pf;j,'Q
tliJ'IUJ'I.'

c'fDnkpm'.

jiUif{I, JO'

'ti;pul9;-~de (J

CD",r ~'e~

,_"xpand,er plup, in a hoUow pm or sbaft,~ The sel1,e,m~, tD 'w make the, ,sbi:ft a ,tllht, ptlsh til in tb~ llilal,e ~o tha:t initial assem btJ is, 'elS,Y' wi h no danger !rJ,f 'scorin!'~ Then I, hard,
I l

loumid~dia_meJtt:rn" ,or tmle! ,~m.j leaving only ~ nart,oW landl. DC"XI the inner faces n1 0 rn 1rugim elose p'n)x~ m,itty 'Co'tfu,e edge of ,the c-raItJooa_se SC1,ap~e:.rI' Ai, the 'm1aj orilly lof the CD to be 'sJdmmlW 011 tla\licls dawn. '[he inner faces of the lywhcelslI, 'rhe sora,pin,l:: action .is,not 'unduly im.'pairfd, 'but remember tba:t, tduri:rng R~s~mblY_1th~ wheels, cannot be i'Ougbly aJjj"F-eG, 'b;, II, ,Itmightt.--ed,p a'mD~S t;b,e ,rirms, W. C'h'is m,odmc:.I'lioD is, 'pe.rtlJrm$-d,., Tiu~: onw~ fit uf '~: mm'B,~boo.r,i1DI,I; iDDer races on tbe c sba__fg,"aries leCOitdlnl'(tl type; in, nll,citreums:tan'ceB 8houdd, '£bClIl be eny acwal iidsQk,'present, but If'the :raea ,rare locked ~Pl eod'ways in some ma.mti'£r they 100Il, 'be q oj:~e ,a:m ,eu~ m~~ If mat so ,remmoo'lj there, must be suflitlcD.'t iu;te:r.fur:erllGe' betw -1:41 'bore aa,d,ishalt to prev;e,Q't creep w'hic'bl, OIROO it leO(mm,~mC£.S~, win cause the, IShafts to w,eU!11 particuta:dy' i:f'
j llil ~,t

,An,o,'cll.e:r 'methodl,of red,ueing' ,oU..d~a,g is 'to IcbamfeJr' the

Isteel expslDJder plug iri 'rO l1ced. mtO' the bore. w"bicb :is ,a,bDut one 'third, ,to"oae half 'the. mametlcr of me sha:l\, and the b:tter is ~thereby £x,panded a;n,d, ~IOCJt,oo, ~Y ~n, the il,w:heets~, D:EsgnJm;s, :soo,w two methods by wmcn "tIDllS scheme oowd
be applied.. ,A so mewb at, Simil,H idea was used in the 19i54 ,A"J'.5t :frlciml: twin "thoUlgbj in IthiS. ru1lsranc,e the lexpander pl~gt mttd,a fi:u~ys~eep''m,p~:" ': e,g.a:.rOing 1;ke flyw eels" "OO-ri'the~: -f,e is very JjH]~ p~oint, ~D g.oiDg ~nfor a hiS' ceurse of wc{gbt reduct 10,D, ;; in, fact, It is possib le to reduce ['at~heJ than mCfOOBe the perf@fin8£BIC'e: by sueh s p.roooodinl", ::tq:;:~·~'rhap;s 'or s,eed W 8,f,J lHIk ~ Some. 98
jl

..
"YWI"~n AU'E:MIllI!J..''r!f ,L,COSlE UEElVIE:
ffl'~g~

SpIll' {JuJl.er.l:ol" ,reJn!Jvi~' S'm.et' ~~'Fii,lg

'99

,",

T''U]~~rn ,'0 R S,P~B.D' H'G

T.lIU~IN'U

A,N'D' :DALAN'C'W:N'G F'L,Y'WIIEI:L,S;

'whi:eh

'Ithe;,!"are not 1~6J1iharde(Dled,;: a U,gh,t dri'y,e fl tis


tVI

One lna,,1 aboult 'the-s,; tish t-fittin,g [,a=s is tlb,g diffitmlQ' ,~),r'removal 'wltha1lt, (l8'11J 0p,; ;B,pp~ym,. 'two ievets to the 'r,oIUer'-eage' 'w'j 11alm,ast inelita,blY' dis,to,n; i'~,hus' ,'nip,pm,1 one t 0[' 't\1tOI rellers endwlse, and thIs defeS'~:s:hcuddl 'alw&,,1 b= loo,ked. for ,in olin I8nsmM~ n'B bes't s~he:me -s to ,rnai-e up :9; :spJJ~, uUe:r wlll(ib, CUJJ,ot, harm p 'tbe' ca,gej 'bu~.faiUm,g '£ba:t.,t tlYO sharp-edged eWs.e~s gr,Qlmd bJI a. 'D9.ttOW' 'la'~r 'ntO" be
1

aim.. ,

Ith_ ~:,(J.eal,at

~1~;~J1U'l1 m~ u_f~~y,j'lJirull~

101

'Ulftti1, tlt;m ~s a p;p 'wi.de tDO'Ugh, to msew:t, a pajr of-)eveu,., Of eourse, befota re;a.ssem,bliDg'" [any bltTlS, ra~s~d, on 'the: f_es, ml!Il:S'tbe filed, o,'ff ftiUsh~ 'On all 'models,. ¥e!,oc=tte maill1&hufui ha Ye, :an 31most imperoo,ptihle 'b"per IOlf J)O 1,:~'n~-cr mcb 'Dilltlll~ b-eadDI seats : p dIe inner bead~s:races are &~SO ITcP.'1!lulli, t~OI 'the sameJ mp;r ud to I, dia;m,etlJr such that J~ey have to be ~i,o;hd" dDVeD ,00 :for the las't qUJane[['~iDie'[~jor SIOI" If ~!ooslnesl dBve'lIOl~S. the ,imnetfrace m'l)" a;ppea:r to fiJ'~'CCMrllct~y if it ,is reversed 'OID nIl shaft 'b~l this ,dlUSt ,nat: '(3~, done 00, il.n;)" aCCNl{u':nt"
,IbOIl!l:t:under
1',1fr' ~il,-",",'I,",,,,, ,u. ~QWw,~,--~,

-e~~~~ i~r. :lIf'i~~t-~-QXA~,~'La~~~~n,'UJlJ~ . ',~~ ~~~Ul :U.~"!I(i·.u~-~ nnp" V~!Il pY: ~1..'~'-r~~,~a~~'~:'1 ,n~~!i..~~'-lunVIlj~_'& ~~l.H~UJ
~jj~

'the race is, thIn lom:y

~ol.d~

'm 'C'-'Olm'tact,,I't ou
..iI.~ 'DA,,"' ,Ii':jj...:lIA'i'lliI' Uu . JY'~I g_U~~~

end ,;;uld 'will


'l:i.Q'lII'b-

I.-', rGelt

'tile '8ywh.lee~ wI'ch. the sball! funning, in an 'Bccur&te:~y,.bored 'bush" . 0,1 eV,CIl,in, :i~ts,1()"Wfl 'bea'M'bJl~'~ If there is, more ~'b:ID ,,001] in, run ..out, 'the Ihaf ',wU have 'to be sst,~n 'the f\equi s1 8, WI~'
,-'OitOD'

te 'the ,outer side (l,r the wheel. near 'the .rim 'mdl the shaft

for :f.itiUer rsees, Take 'pameulu' ICB:mto line up the oi ]... oles h ill] 's,'ba'ft. and 'wh,ee'~ :lQcurnrl~y on the, thl1iDg sidle) and I' as, I, pm-camdcfu" cheek that the $'xllil distances Qf'Ule, hole from '~e i":iceof' he wheel :and, from the shoulder o,f 'tile :s,l'llft are th.l~ sam'L\ o,th~SlO: the Ci,Ui,o'w may be l1e.s;tricted~ If ,a:n,y '~r is, ,roumd~ji fiuD t90w'-&r-ea ea:D. be o"b"Cai'noo, by ,Iro o"im.G: ,io, 1111;1:: :I'lequuied: mlec-tio'B \v1 t11 3, balf"'IYO'lJ nd 'c'liIse)]~ M't Is ,uscmtis] ;Mter ne,", ,s,halrts ,bave been 6'tted,., ,a,mo ,aidlv,js,able '0'i[en if 110t, to ,eheck, 'the truth. of each wheel befbl~e ,fill,aJ ,Bssem'bty commenees, One method :is to ,H,prp~ya dil rnmditu!tor

ift l'"A.p'~ eft1ghles~ [etImWM is tJl\t,S ouly course' open if wOO.1": s'b.o,wn 'by pl Uing of the roUer 'Uaets, Is,l)rt,Se.l1,t As :prevJous:]!" n,oite:d, cbr.ome-,pla,t~n~ cannell b~ used, ,81a [,eelaimmg pre eess

supported between lathe Icem~reSI:: an,adler is to

iif'i~

~.f! li'ii"iilI1-iii'iI...II .lrD ~lutlllillU~

il,LA

,U~~l .

a'

rRn'~'

_oj],

'lU1l~

'i"i'l'lI"liIl'YJ;ii!'il'I' ~'&·U~~I.J!

Oif' ~'[!I'tt'e-,puDi~lu_lOe 'OJ" chis - D1ne1' th,g slu:fEIi l,oDd i~may' SCi!m at the timej, !CGa5e5; ,to be,

'v"~r1 ,sbor-t -w:h~Uc;]Bidding,..[np, the l~haft ll y met;l 'p:lla:tifl, 0,1' metal spmyms: 'wi:tb ,zinc are 'both eliecitive ,a:m.d tailing repm'mc)ibods a.nd ,8ftI neeessary (lor these ,I-Dd ,simila'r' :slndls w:hJo!J. are fe1fwd ~I!I,to'the ftywhOOlSJand pcus-m8Dcultly locked 'b:y ,lTlU.lb~el.\e'MS,~Th[QIU,1h. the 'CDUII'S!eis, DO!t ad¥i&!l'bI~,Vi neent
r

'Wh1,e~ however ,elfec'dve ;&ftc:ra

tjjOD.,; j,t wiD be id,pcH~slibll to tiue 'both shuns 'U"Paa::l!I_j'iR,~lyI '~.f J ene, or botb,,,-, are DO.'t dead, sql1Q'[le !O' ~.'b.elrO'lNll wbee~s", ,StlieUy :sp-aakingt am, balaB~_' w.ldch is 'dlQupt '[0' be n~saf'Y s~bo[Uld,be: do,P!!! st 'dris slap 'SOl that, ,each wtlee~, can, be deal ~with iltd! vid,'lfally':, i'~,iii ,bowever'" 0ui,e(f to wlo.d~ '00 thl w'b.£e~s,tl'fler 'dt~, am llss,em,ble-d" 8:0 UIl111et8 'two ,odd Wmlee'(s are beiios [Iluads m,wl a :pair tbe Job can slrel:, '00 left unti'~ la'tert on tho ,B,lS,5lwnp;li,ol,g rtlat they 'were lad i'"rh[!-aJ.~y
L· 'IIn"iiiiiii!'li.G(...I 'Da:

Ibafta am be ':p~wedout lifter driving, C'Uit tbe Mnla 'pliD fllted, 'tbI'OUgb at an $togl(\11 The correct 'iDlterferen'te: :ftt ,b;, .100.31'~I1~ and ttDs must :be'verified, be[Oi'e p,resslng-in fire, Dew sba~tls~On the driv'e ,side, p,~~£S,in the :D~W skart, hard UP' 'to, the shoulder, 'with the 1'[t~lle;..h'o'e ;1bo'u!: '600 :a,way fl\Qlm,- '(hI (urigd.a], ,positi:on~,then drllJ back 'tM,OUp, the shaft a;t 4,5~' with a IIm,. orin" 1l1.Q, D'f ,a u-w :Mllls p,m.~, 'Wh'8te: ,the main be-arin,. l[oUers :nm ,dh~eet100D the s'~laJtSjas

After aU 'w,orle, (.11,0 thi,~ OOrllp Ollents! has b~n, eom,p'leted ,as'sem,~b' Is a ,Si.r.milht:-fo,r.y,M'd jo:o-w ,aJ,thoush, it is eas:-y £,0 orverloo"k;, the ,obyj,,;)us 'p,~U'd;on, 'o,f ,em:S~I, thB,t thiE Ol,ru.~ .. bo~es: :m 'the: Cnl'okpm ,R,nd 'ti.m~D,g :sfde wh,ee:\~ a,ooum\'~~'!, ~m in :]lin:e.. no plliecliunoD H, Do,t leq'w:li'ed. 'wbern, '6uimg piin,s , 'M'tb, 111nuJa,r oil, gfGU]iVUj Il'bi,e~b, :shou:~d b~ p]~a'coo Ylitil, 'tit$. he,le leaLiimg: to the: ro,]1ers [I't 'the 3, !j)i,c1Gelc PGli:tbl~ looking '~Dlw.ds 'ibe, diiy.6I-Iside with the pin at the' 'tOPI~ :thlt b!in,1 dIe pMU:ii!on, o:f ~,e,as't. io(~d~ Cl~3~,esS mSlesleDti~, '11()'~orm],' fo'[" the B,m..k:e o"f Uu:" be3r[,~g but, aIDso 'to e~ tbat 001 ,paJ:'lUrcies ,of ,fore~gn, maU-c(r are '~f[lpp~ between ithe
tl,

~~u

~1J !!i.II!~

'i"L,olIJ,

w~, m-- ....'II.~'~'G:..

,_

':'1ii".Ii ,&-1",.tIi ,c,..... fiilc !I-illIo 11I,JilIJ.~ W;-;:!!

·t iIf"II]- !!iL''''''~~ if,


iIliiii'lliJIii

1.00

UlJl

,IbUWDg 'Erut

(aces ta, the detrlme.m.'t IO~'m3Umb ole' E1J1ipm!CD'~~, If the: P~D,s: '01 tbe is,~Ud·type U ei1iU 'be ~[[lImed and file i
fWly tightened
'OD

Jilfhll'" ,~' iSiT' of "R,~'I'~'8fs' ~wl ~ WlIifiltl'i lib /lJ'rwlliJel a!JSembt:y / nUll I~lf. ~u.IDoi't(f'd on ,~ pat, 0'/ /JeQr_IQ"_ {~ " :SU1Jplfl woo;d:o~,~

JIt~ ,~sta~/lH:isrJpltJt"
CIi~ ']

nrtik,z(J JOI' ,addt!d' a,(J,~r~ ..


,'L... .JI"
i •• '

!ut.. but it it is; ,01' tiL '~wo""pieeeva~ri£ty yri,th ,B, pressed ..em I~ee,~, ~t,i~111Mad,vi.·b~e.to 'tlBbteD elther D'Ut fUl;y 'umess
'be pulled. gv.el' too W' to one, dd~, l,eavm:G,insuftiieient tb_rea4 :for the nut Illn ·the o'tltu~f en,d a n!l.!l't, C1IJ must ·tJ~. 'mkien, IDe
i,

ene vihe6l on1:y !bc[gre 81'Scmblims tha,

ii.1I-.

iwD nms,

"i'

[aruim:loo if (be seeond 'Drut is not,

~lml ar )"1' W1tH otitillSf' uBI1lFS" rOlr

· ,II!..

ftt~ loth~rWDll!td

r!lId D.U't

alia w, 'p~:8cCej o;themS'C t:h~.:plu mD,Y


l

Yritb. tigll\'t "a gDe' ",llttmJI plns, to .a,ytdd. damaging, 'the hele when :fitti,ng;the seeond wll~e!J:1 widc':b ; s UablCJ' to 'eMit, O'va" due, to' its. o,el:huDg weight,.. n:c 'item.ptabll.lD to' :puiU't:he wh~, en with 'the l'lU,~· ·S,g.'ODas a c(l'llple ,of tmeads p;rojetrt'lhrou.gb IS
dlltSt

dlf.i¥e..side wb=e;~ ,alld j:().]".ced hOD1,e 'DD,dJet: at press ~ith II rWmg mpp,o;r,ung the :flywheel 'as sO'm,eti~es. the ,p,m, may'
I

& e I'esistoo, 8S so doiiljg wiD. ,oveil'moad~ and very pm... , 'ba:bly dHma,ge .• 'the '~d inside' be D,lJ'~," _ Th,e ~letc~'me prasred ... pin is best ittoo first te ,the. :im

project a. Ittlle~ Mt,et' Jitti_Dl, the COll~[od, tbc other 'wh,ee~ :is then partially' plle&§lerl'DD and 'the wheels lined up as aCC1Ur ..., a'item, \IS possib~ewith the Cl'hld ofa s'u,.ght-:oo,Je wd. aeross
102
..
;0,

AI A ,.JII .i'L," iIi,'l", ~tri''J..~. any no I~.amap ]['":1:; eone to IW;~ nms as 'were mr.5t'..~ 1!.., II : uS !;i," ,they' 'were stItwk '\vi'tlla hammer 'F ,wiLw, '~,ptmmll,at proptT.tU]" fii '. . b " .. 'I, ..- - - - ".. '"IOf e........"fi'!b, .,dlng ,~o,x~spa,mm.eJ' mill. Iii.. ,a.fILTO~~ t·ommY·~bu a;t least 2: fl..laDS '·,s, ssential,;: d];c normal , , e 'type 'o:f''tubul:ar spemer '~B, 'not :raJ]" up 'to, llhe job (umles_s: - .=~-,.:' . " d ... lear IWIwIf.Iir"" ...·I'... remrcrcen d U} ,9\ 'b ..1 :',.rg:e~OD, nn,~: 'I"ume:~, ',LOeli :,.;u' ;iL ....I", '~~'.ILUn';''ii'II' nut ~oUDi,erbore)\, but ~f' mOJd, (r,om ,.()m,e~:mo,m,'bden1Jm stee:~tuJb~,'dUs, tJ_pe will do,. The: best sp8:M~IS~of looilu~:setl are these made ,from BOtid :steel 'wi~h.im.tep ItJDlmy ... ba.m '.:bri;cn ean be purcl~ued from rIft"'S.cod, :&m:all.t,06\1. fact'Ofll . 'to]
i ~I

,hslS] 'been. ,iu:dueved The be~'t WIlY to morw,cthe w&eels, re'~I,Li:'e 'to' elch ,otbe is t,s bold the -alsem,b~y in both :ha'uds and. bnmp the 'rim. tltf (llae:wl~oo'~ a hea:vy lead block or th~ end. sr~~n or a, on .hfUlo,wood P ClSt; '[:0,,= :mmlertil o,f 'the W;b0~ds do es the 'trick
Iligl!lmeD"
i

'Fin,al, tigh'temnG,

pressIng home

mU1Q' dDmg..'u,p 19: 'Q'm'tel fully d,ghteDed",


M:S

1 m-

.,

..

done

,~rb;~r~ tomo,t

iff-

_.

j,

T..R/U"n~if'a .A.ND I·J\.:LA. N Cl:N G· F.L Y W ml]U1LS

tJ_/' diQ.l.R:l1llfeiJt!:J~' <e:rt~rllflily Br~lf'lld's/~r?~~1iwihic~' b' ~ '.U-.fJ~ ,Ji~G~ rJw ,$1I9Jr,~ wlitl pj'iO~" ,,/ "reot (l$n$lll~ce /IIJ' nlflkl~nl'
~lrC:l'lm·t,- Wfl.fU,'{J,'tl:r.utJ.

Wktf clllf;{fI:Jflf'

;Q

5p,lltt~& l'~r~ifUl«llJ,f,()t-tlt1.ll' w,i'tf~", .s:c·rli r l

·This. may 'be due 'ml ,swmf b-e;'Wremii. wheelS, and pm,~lac' ,of noa',iUelitm. betweel3 tb,e Olltltf foo.cs ·o·f the pin ,s;hOu'lct0rs~ Of. $imi1lar' causes, If' lIl,Ott d:ue to dirt, 'the ~rouh!e ean somethnes bei ,cured by mfiUim,g tile prm.in a dillen;:;'(]ll p!Osj,~ 'U,(l;D ~ould the o,i]~hob~: arrangements pe;m[t~ PaUma, "61a;ti~' some v-cry 1C2U'~~ul w·o:dt 10m be: d'Oine wi:UJ O! scraper i~lpPJ:tied, to -tbe .fiiywhee.~. fa,res, bll~ most 'people lIldap(t the eas,Jt wa.y· 'Of" :Dip'l~lm.g· the ri'DH :m.i9J, yliQeil in 'dle p"bu:u:= in Which, ·~tHC,{th, &hatts: aIDe ~- h.rugb.'~ hill :prcu:~e§, ls ,a.U rigbtif 'tb,·e heels an,,' of w ste~.d Ilmd, the plm is "obus!"i blilt Is DIOIt 1,0 'be ROl1tmmend!ed, if the pm is of Ugh SOO£i'OD or 'U1_'whee1.s ,DIe eas,t ,;oro'Dei
tJ1J:,~wa,'ed' d/~fJ't1J~iS .fJ,ic, tllte~'flil/"fI6wAl~ mo.,' ,lte ,dhc1J'~UJffld tll'tln (i$si8.wwl£;1B l;"u W.hI!8.l'8~ 'Ti161r c.aia'J Mli ;'ll'l!
Q,p,mprinl,
nWH

d~llb 'I'i(j!-f~Y ,''x-

Kw :9t~ren,ltb mus~t:be lUl t :;;1]'0 '~e final 'tig'fuJemf n&. some .. 'lido,. 0,( the order of 400 'p DWld~,""·net 'l'lej'n._':noocssa-ry,,; The· 'M.allche.ck must be .mad-' .00, Ute main Sihaf~s~1.11mB
lID

in·- j:G~j,~tUI' re~~1 to 'I;housandtlll, a'll j'n;eb~ 'l'f a lattle 01" .pai r of eentres ~ a:v,m;) s' 'I~b~e~thel ,~il,SSe~n should be b~y m,Qun ted, 'tllete,on" taldnlll cruc 'tha,'t 'the 'w.hoo1s are not" d_lect ~d ~m,wl;rd~ eJ~saive' pre9lUre, I.pp'll ~d t,c, 'Ch,c;eeatres ~ by Next app~, 'the JI.d.icator ill) iooc:h sh~ft as n~ as p~)ts~btG to 'me e:Dd_s,as aU too fttq1.We,Il1Uy the '&t!ID!'tres in, til;, se shafls get b,ocked a,bo'Ut: any IdC~0fJt witt :imm,tdia,tely' 'be SbOWD 'b:y 'lbe 'mdjmtor':p, ,and[ must 'be lecufied b~' :iCl"!I,pim-l appitDlB IDF. N-tlD1limS. 'dle iOe~D'~-eSi 1l1l:tiil, eomcwUi:ci:ty ~'s '0 btriiined~ A Dumb.:!" at e~gjne.9 ha." ione or botb. :slmfts spU:De~and
Of :

0'"

Q,~t~

,(f"~ (ill;tll~'et1' ,I~' flu]"~ ,r~.'(t"

t~medial

LOW

i:n w:ch eases s Upt~y:6tti;Ilil,fL, aceu~a~:el, ound p


s\l=vlc filted,
O've;r' Ita_dJ.

TIll;' D.~~: move is '1'0 loheck Ul,e :s:hafls, 'c~ose up to the wheels;: dus w]jIJ ·pfic;babl., :shu-w OD - shaf~ to, be :hWgh 'n and, the DldI,,!!!' UlOr. ~ in ,11dl:r.eetion. lit ·right. 3Ill,gtes to -[be ~ cr-a.o'kpm. If 'this, '~I 'the, 100n'ly erro - prese~t 'tht :S'ltuB,tiQ;:m. js, g}oJoal, ' ..~M'Use - wnpm,g the 'wh~b in the !a.pPF'Opiri:,-"I~e dinl~tit"lD1will (albeif a'r1~rquru'te a Dum ber of ~ots11 elimina;~e it: entiu:lJli 'but if in 8pitc ,of aU 3'ODlr efforts bOifb, aharmJ He' 1iI.i!!, 'lL,~ n'lh U : ,,,"1..,15;, ... n' -d~:riE>'- iii'" ;11;1.., .-. '-h· ele ~"i!!'ii!!'!l!iiIm·II:m.'lIIv W~J]; .!I-lU, ;Y.l;1I!i' ~11!ii;m,... . III 1~r:~J.'(ln!li' 'IL:u6 '!f.V. v', "'" O_~OJ ..... ·· !I!)~." b" .tll! e:ft'ect. 'bent in 'the· centre,
~!.

splime w.iU pe3 ftl:,· psi 5:1' m atmrs,",

~oDcen:tric

j!jj

-Ii!'

"-

IC'!;

,ij

1.04

lOS

"I"rf-""TMG ,~~,"".!111_~,,~·!!I!II.·-

'C.A'1ITIi<

run

'It:'DI~D'1I"'IO

iIZ!Il..I:',DGU!

l'R U l~' G AN ,0 '0 A,,,iL,,A C'lN 0 F't,Y'\'(H-B BL S N

too' badly d8mI~d. '110 'uB~bllf!(.t nother ,metll.'od ofichecldng be a is, 'tal :supporl, '_he' mJSse:JJlb~,. by its OW:6 or .I, sim,il;:r pail" ,af " 11... t,~ ~ 1 _'11 U meee mam~~eaDDgs 'resu:mg'.m V....,1 C~~ r-u'Ucrna;iiJJVQY,,~IiJ" 01,,,",, ' ''u ....,1..,.... ,iii m
1

Them is, 2 '~d error which is )flfeI,' met wi th, 'M~esl the witeeis 'WeI,e nO'f (l,n,pJy a pair;" Md. that Js when 'OD'e :tiWl is mgll and the other [,aw in 'tbe plane 0.(( [he;,craJ]k:pm~ II'Ji'i'L,!... ~ '1- t Ce:di.!.lfu,y u.1!l;e 'i'Ow,e [iU.lillU; 'Ill', ~-L....., pm,ii01lI1,o_e ",..,,;',~ ,,"'L '" ",""A,: r- I~ lU.., 1 lli.iUlii5 11 IB_m.lOS:_ one 'wb,ed rutlermg: ,ll:ig'htl) ficim, Itb!!'t in, tb,.c ,Qirther ud Call om1y '10 remedied by at maehlne e shop ItrpenntioD., If a. pai:r of cen,td'J is, ,mot :a:vallabile, or the ~baft-een'tres. I.R

is well,

II

couple oif squj)r1ts ,of oll 'D,PI tb'fougb the holes drilled in :6.ywh,ee,nud pin ~o Ic~ea;rout ,:my' p"QJgble grit 'Will finisb the job a:ff~,1Unle_s.:saj" lIllY reason, sueh las a. big: clmn,ge in f pwsb)s, wei,n'tj ,rOu. 'wish 'tOI ,mTh}ala.n,ce idle engffine~
a"

The, ' "alan:ce

' :,clor
CD

weilb:t, J8Dd,jt, ,tlol~e:t~].'el'm'th '~be..etankpil '

The' 'D'wer ball' lof' the rod can '[be, c~o,'Mid~I~d rotating as.

bm c~mp eW].,1

!I;..I

~.:

,;i!i~

,al hOr'l,gb it ,i8SU~ in l(girder'

O'ii'Ji;'1:;U _\1:1,1(,1

'[W,Q - -- -

bean -~n,~ ,fiLl!! ~-a-'~,;;;.a.~ i'te~,U!,o ~ - -, Iio"e u.;Ilo:::II".,;n;,,4_ IU _ _ U~ """[:.~ _ _~U!. I!!JI_ _uwlZ~~ is ri.the~' laborn,ou's, ha'lingl to s'eparlat;e, 'tb8 wb.l!J,me
~,'!!I'

Qo!l,;o

Iii

i_barb I.Dd :rotlte the as~~m,bb" w":1:h OD£ sbaft :fiUili:11in, 'ltie home Il'ui tbe o~herin, Itbe :air~, (Ha~ SftUP, fit~edto an arm a attacb,cd, to the 'block lmdJcalin.g the truth or:(f'othenvi'se uf the rr~e'shaft" 0 [11_ :sbaft, is, w,' 'I dedi and tben th=- o:tfuer" a nd tms method, is just as go 0 d as daiu,1 the job, b~ltweeD centres, ~iCep,t,tll,at 'ODe C.9,DuJlt cheek both -,snaftS at 'till: same
1

,ODe lof the lo,th,en; are UmDva.i;j:lb~e," AnCdj),e'f' wlQlrkshap ,me~thodis 'to b ore out, 11 block to I iclos'~: TJDitQ,g: fi' en tbe m

am t.,o ,fairlJ widely fjpaQed 'bearings, on eith er side ,of the ease 'tile job '·s II little, easier, as thea ODe ~jh.afteaa 'be mn in thae bearjJl;I~.~-f:rm.virn,l the other 'whee~and ;haf~' co,mpl"~ 'I), 'd r.. . .~-~ '" J!,u~se IM!lo I",WQ met 'th Oy;S ,ar-e, W1owever",JIll , ~.,_ e;:q:J09le- ' & or - e b eCN,~JJ~ f'1l"iI!...' only 81lgges~ed IS, 'm.akeshlfts' 'wbe;re .ftleilides fOr ,eD1p~!CI,.i.IlG
.'. .C'" .~-liI" ,~, ' ... " 'iLl' . ,_

.rum,1 pl"\c;gc$s~need~css to :sa.y" U, mS]a bad p,lu, te _t~em:pt ~Ol:s"hrl!t them while ,sltlpported. in their O'lIiW bearwlJgs. rt' '&he-llG

't'OI

bump the wheels

W h~J8t

earrymg:

011Jt

'the

,IeC1ip,r,e QI'idDI We:~shtll,this 'figure b -l~B 't'e.rmed, 'dIe balan e:e


:facWF",
b'i!iia:D!ce 'metor s being 'the ideal,: 90, many' I~xnuidera'd:()ns eDtiCI into 'the ma't~r' 'IM't it varia 'wiUl :olm,os't every Idesjp of
I

bwtan.;eed f)y an I~qu~[ [lnd, f)JPpOt~lle GQllli[kt'~r-w~ish~ or 'by ~em~ifig mew~ frGW:ll ~e era 11k p~~,srid,. ' ,:we ~t is !lot possi blre ~ .Qdoblswil:,~e-eI,Pl~oea ._g weight in. ,9. S~'I2i,g~~e,itiDd " r parAUe~ win: en-gjlJ,e;(;Of, if an e'ijua! and Op'Po'~te wei ,gffil t, . re, B" til . ,~, he b aJJ~ aee wow] cd 1Jm gor.-d. i. m the dueetion t Of fb· ",Under .ax~St but just, 3r - sit rjdsll1' ~t[J'n a "e at right ,ellil!1~S,to the c tinder. enee a, iQOl,m,pr,omise !Dust b "ftT~_m -:y ,ad(Hng oln~ a Oerl1ll;tn per.,eentaslC _of '&1
I

-t

~!, 1l!l1te q

useless

to pMtula~c lAY partmcu~ar

en,gine, or ,~Vi~ the '~,peof frra.me mwbic:h lel1U.me9:,o'~''the same kind are mounted, Thil'~ being SOl dOl Dot 'be'mtJ\~ed

~nt'o, FlsbsJsnem,g
WtWJ
1.'iL

yOUl'
Ai'IIQt!l

engiLlm just
t macu.w.c
'L.~_ r. .....

because

an entuewy

'.

Ii

WlWeren

tillrL:·_~_

'utllJJJrtS

ORe of y,our pais, ne L. some- m~a-i~ uas -, a:;y'"


L,A

~bfmula

The

lOr biB. own .. Dlnly' :SQIJ[O'e lof

rW'iablc :informa'tl'OIll, ~s' the p.aren'L


,2,

:SGttim,g~
~

,gii~en :8, last ni',p'"up " amd t:be shafbl firo,a.Il:,' re.cllecke,Q,

~ilm,b:~e' a'bou:t. TW,o-bearillg: as!emblig ,caD rIlIi, w'~tb, 18. glBfii'ter lerrol than 'tllosie with t:bFe.e Qf f;bur" pamcHI~lr1y 00- ". ,. ',_ rc I.e la 1m aI'e- _ OU~_· m a. ,ery:511 u"'..---t ~-~ - __ 'Ha,~,g ,' 5~j,1 he tb-' I '.r :mde 'the 's;hafls UI trulC: :a~tiL,ey' 'can b emadc the Dm:ls, must be
. '1 _. ' I. ' .

correct WQ.l1 UJJJ.~j ~u, ..;_¥~. amount lu.I r' . ~,..:m! ted .-;-UCI!IUI a.·I'tta"" ble ann ,~w. IUlQ sEim 0 f ".'Ito.... leiTUIrS, lm1w.lca~ DEl 'L. ;jj,i,. tama .. e~ .,~ ~ sbait8 cernes (ICI It'S5 tb.an JJOl in, lti1efe is, nOlilijnl muoh 'to
Ii ,&i.a;
19j.

Tn,eo qunsdolm now HisYS-iiow


~~(u.UI,,iO~, ... ;...,

iI''!i;'U IW.IJ.~-~r iO;ji1ii!\II"iiI' .Il~ ~;~, 4~.i'J· :,1 hll'lI'l 11 ':.~.I-, i -'

true should the sha.fts, b~?' zero It'L.~~ '].'~' rarelv


~~ ~~, Mlt,-ulll
I

'bJ-

,i·

'I.·

__

I· .•

-:"

••

,.

_ .••.

ts, S_ ,_i~Ie:.y Im'ou,gh~ rienne miters use ~ I· . ',er ,~~att'oror ,(Icing 'lJlarlli. far 'tOllllrill~, w'hUe lom,ers, do I~e f 'eve;rse;; m,e ldea~io III eases, b,01\leter, is to ,pt aD e_fipe whrecb r!UIU! most s,mlo'o:thID,Y 1m 'thiS' speed .... ran~ ~t which, :U; is mtefJldled to oper~'te fhr th,e rnajam,' of its :Ufe~.it does l :mmtte-r' mu.ch if ,the: Ie!Eigme teems 'II, rough ~t 4"iOOO 'f .,p~m.:if It, ..
f_'Stl
~'~~I

fBeCo~huJ'l, fmIins fIlvbte IT{l<m that dirnc;tioD~ .66 ef the reci procat lill weiAht usuaJ]y gi VGS

fatl'O'1!' ,of ,E'~"Wi1 ab~~

If ,aU

iii to 'ICe raGed ,and feds, s:m,ootil!


e~gine
-'WIQ;wtd

'1'1;

:1 '

b~' very nnde'sir,ahl,r:;

fio·,r fu~"olurlolJI wllem,

6l,OOO" WMfMS, such, en,

1015:

11011'

..

TUNlNG;

f.··OR ~dP:HED'

~uCh 10" the nUlmng is done ;s;t the ~ower .f",p'.;m",,A1~flriIIl: 'lUlU:. balanoe fa,et'of vriiUl usually ;su~d in mowu;ro the ['oug]!] pcri.od,. if' ,aI'J~, eD a'way {tom the mast"'u,sed is:pqCl w . The ~foresaid ha]~n~fa_mo.r ap,p:ni5~ of !Ctunsc, k1~ tIm .Jecip:r:ocatil!1.IC1' 'n~'T·ts, [onI1I"-i •. .,iii 'po tsi[On r m,n. :fJillll ...1'i'!IImn.p'.~.. e n .~ .1If'...... _. a"'tt. i!l:;iI ..... ~Eii--_ [3D~ tn" 'HlP' ".till o,f' 'Ibe -,oonm:u~ctm.1 ,rod. .A. 'lot 'wrt{ghmg and m ea_i~rm,gea:n be 1€l!~imjll~~,ed.b~' deaJim.,. m'thtbe com-:' " ,lete Iyw.beel assem'bb' u.nJy; ·th·us..wi!et~, ArtMge' i:t en a. Icv£1. s,uflcc so 'tnlrt the conJ"c"'oo.dl(m,i'Jjl1u pis~on:)1 h; :1yb.'1 h~rl2rm,tl1lly;1 with Ole [small ,end res;tW,g; 00.00·0 lide afa -pdr o~'s€a:~~~_ SllpptlF!:ed '~,y[ID, ,ao:ma·te li:gil'r4prilt1g llllmCe!ro O(f It 'the H]UC-f! pan ii, [other 'than b,t 'the r:od 'lDUS:t he,sup"", ported in the ,plMe lof 'the pdgeun pd.~ [Thili a belt done ~y 'plssmg :9. slo!r.t 'bu [thr:01gh 'Ib:_ bu!b and res;tirng the fc~~er 0,1. the ed"p_s af the ,pg~ ,Fir;st~ ,3 ,few' muts ;and. wa:smers IQaD 'be plm-ted OJ, die IOtbe.r pan to cooftter'bu'la:nce !be sh,Dn ca.r ,aRd, '~he'11'(h,.,e :1:&; '0.0 Hit)e'fihlood, of l·etWlg con .., :furse~ 'with die o'thci' weightts 'lllSW '1'0 ,find 'dle; we;i,gh[l ,of th.e
i,J' I -

or

I,

/i'(J:tt"

'"

~""":,iIE!t:I'd 'Lu, ,wj 11~J1I,itdl~ •. I ttW-\ill~!t;,U ,.LlLOJII.~ ID,.j!I ~;..i1"~ a' :i:iqu'I'iI' ~II [D!.to'tbIC side ot each lim" in a position, at dpt lII.gtes, to tJiu=, :P,UI M'~,I' of course [om the ,tl hea\ty ;1· 'side Jof'dle vedl.ca]1 Icm~ ,Wmem
''!IIiI't.. " ..•;~ ,

G.f a.~_eu:rateI, bO.rj~ODta1 WICtal stf;a.l,g'jb't~£dS~eI mer ,~~1ey,~~tuaJ~y ome to res:t. "Wi th the Cnl'ldrpiB v'efltl,calLl" c up,wards, ~~IUlo'~~,tB.ey :may &]ll;(]IW' a tendency fOI the, p~'m [1l.1wa,y,s, 1:0 be S:lIbt1y to, ,one ,wde, of'lhe dead eeDll"g~Hne. This, inwca ~~ 'tim t 'tile '~~b-W(dgltl£S_are i{lKtf~cen't~-e~ ,a,_:flUll't
'Otll, I.
l

sm!al), lemJdiJ' l~iwc'b ,,'!e will suppose ms fo!umd '~O 'be 16'01:., Ne:xn, 'wej~1l the complete piston .sembIy ~which eemes '10,,1 :5IY'1 ~S 02'~ Th,~s: dls to'ta'~, recipf'Oc~Uill',1 wlci'ght is :1S 16 = ,21 O~ and em:ll,:loylm,S' a f;"qtar "of' ~1156 the a m,ooo,t ,to 'be balanoed, ~iSJ 'l&ttr,e;fOfe.. ,]4\ Oil'. The 'wherds, are IJr!taoJ' bound, to _,~, balanced 'to some per-centa~;e~1 ad '~f'We)" IriS ,p-bu:ed with die d_aftl res,tim,1
1

,+

MMt~!l.re";j. IUUw:l.ied 1.riJ.' ,tm811 ..tJl.uJ~,Ule IIIe f:fflt1kpJn ICO~!~' 1!9 re!it in t.l~' ~1"Pfffll'(}~lt _ -,.' ~i$lII~OI;.. t'h~ IJ{JW'lI(JfU,~~gJI~~ f!i4tst be [d,.~['llKJ dS ~lto~~(~ ~~"8_ ,~;jf!., _~.w"..

,rJlifJW ~'Jw a~~ljilily "'0' 'tH!''QJ'~ /fti81:;". Il ,will' 0. ~r;BJ~I/~- tD ,,1'vl1 IIN1: ,~~~~i,-(!_d

A J.iIl'/fN' ,t!hJt.ek!flllJ' ,1wl'€l}1ici." (l~,~ hi!'~!~flif ,~WO' :tetfglllS oj Q,qttJ) .fun bJ)l[t~cd UJ' Ike IfHJr;cJ~1(J:1,{dp,rOlr,mafl'l8' d#,JlicitJftJl,l)1 te

,'/1:'11

,c'-Itl:t~kp.fll

:JttJ'P'EI

~I'

~b:ifJ'l!fJlftJ'fIt the' whfJJ!./.l tJdjQe',nt' I'D t;/ttJ' pin ..

~"Jt/~1

fJ8 ddlfed

p~

nr.m~

,III.IJII~I

iii"i'rIo~I'i'~'t·

fi- rst I!i.~.


.

'maldn:g UPI tnms ~igbt or' ,of a.'tt~ching :it ItCI the small ~n,d i5,pllre~y ma ner o'r ciboiee-~Jt can be, 'for iUSUiDce'I' ,a. bl;. fu~1,of ,odldmenls'l Of a bel~, 'wltb t'be req uJsit'C wemgD' iOlr wubers., ._ tbe bal ance ..faetor dces a,lCtPJaDy' eorrespon d 'to f the '(igmll'e 0e51red[j the 'wJrH!a1s wi.ll roll ,(reel, ,m.'l'CID[g 'the stn,~ Iht-et18~ a:uO. sh Q'W 110 tendeo1cJ 'm' rseU~ruen anY' onc i 'P gg]tW.OiD: if not, the 'p.~n.wiU gOI 'to the top, or bOUont 3oof)[diD:~ to, wbedlC1' tile b·obw"e~gb:t~ '200 lwavy' IOl' too am,

L,~

!I!,;!~

,:I~LJIi:..W~

JI'>;;Oi

..

-'~

JiF·t~, . Correcti on. is uS1llaUy made by d rill lng fb.e rims in. the
l

,m'weitdlt liJlCjllJal'to dJ.1~~mJOllUlt, 'to be batanood ['fliRW~ that o.f the fUlnaU. end[~, lllsm,g 'the: tlllUfs ~oted above)'(11is, ',yould 'be 14,,~ 6,=,:8 o-x. 'nc"maOOGf lof
aUacb. :s'mali] end

When symmetrical balauoo has, fmal]!y been '0btliDed-;

te [he

8!ppro p,r,iruc ltlens, ~bcinl careful to take equal amounts 'pas out ,of each w,heel amd em lead! side lo.f [be centre 'plat:ne\t but i_ lean eq'la ty weU !bB dane by 'ta:Ppin,B .an.d_ p['Uggb1~ eXlistinl hetes, If' a. bi't ,of laperiInen't.'iDg ~t-o~ find. 'th~ ~ea"_j balance. tl' pm 'Of tn'e tun.inl'prograll1'me~ 1~]!'_ a ,~(1tll 'Idea, £;0, drill or 'bp a few holes ,of~s:a,'~ie...j[l,· or dlameter,

r,m.

108

:109

TtJ NIX G "O,R S,P'iID'

into wlulch plugs Qfth~ required. wle;ipt cam. s'lll.b,equem:~y he fitted er w.m__no'VOO. In some engines it is! possibl'e tO arm, a hole; sam,ew:heJlle in ,each, cfankc:ase waD 'below' the main ...
I

'Wftbo~'t Wrwrblng 'the engfn~.and, le~perimeJlts tiDI find, 'the 'masl sa:tisfacto.ry "oolBHno~ 'C~D 'be, vlerJ r.:-apidJy condacted,

tbt size CfJmmo,O!ly emp:lt",~d, fOI' dtaiD p]up~ and driUl :several.ii,o~~ ~n tb.e fif\V~ ,Bi,t, ·the lame r,BlWt1:B,.tappmg these out i in... ,.S..P., Plugs of' varm.. iu'S, Ie:n.gths B D in &ted'O'F' 'bliom= 1~'~Ml then beinserted Of' tem,oved f16IQ. '(he ·ftywheels ·(lu,O"Up. tbe ·cran[t)ea®0 b,cd1e-s lin ,I ,too.pie. of miD:llItes thread

bea:r.imiPJi ,IDd '1:81' l't

'w.hien

.m

t ,iD.. IU (or more "iOOIrootly, I in, Dii,S~'i)~


11m ,pip'ma'~ d'u.~' of _the erankease i~ te p;fovi.de., :3," ri~d :m.(Ml1lDtmg for 'the majn b~lrjngs and a (rouQda:t[o'liI for

This, is a ,'ery S,ood seheene to ,emptro, 'when 8ld~ap1inBell,giDes 'fer' use in SOl C.:c"[acio,g ('ars. beeeuse the dJfrereDJ_ methold,
,i

..

,eqwpmcnt~ On AI.,S" 7'R a:nd 0:50 mode~s~, spec!;], 'aromar nuts are 'U&ed~wllich must be: s.pliit (and. Me thus destnlyed) to re-

,mg: this 'pom,~ but: fa-lUng' that a dea d-roun ,d.'baJl" 111!C'b. as I, piwe ,of sihve.r ,1~Ml'will 'prO"Y,8 'Ole 'I10',~nt; since it wi~, (Jlbvi,ously 'IJe.rui '£0 ru n io\~,ard,'whiche;vler is Uz 'Iower end ~ Mo,s't mKhlim.ie~shops eqwpped 'wj:tll oyliodriell ,plndem p ossas a, pwr !ll'" 8'braigbl" ed.ges 0:1], wruc.]D, the grinding w~h~'~s iLUlG' "balflnc:ed and, wi'[h. ,8. HttJe b~a.nidrn:dlm,ern.t ~eT"C~lSed in. the ~"i!h:t q'uAr~ers" i't 'is ,often pOSlsi,ble to ,obm£n "tDCJUI-C D,f IDicb.

make U:P' a prOI~~tjLSt but tbere, .is, ]10 n~SJ:;tfii't'· ee ,SO tOi :suelb .I~gthB., There are p;~en'ty of othlrr' waYI:: Fol' instanceJ '~WO lenlfh_s af ansWe inn] can 'b 3 'boUed. 'to '-'he bencb",'cop' !DVIe:r'~ bangr.pg the l~l_l:er'by sbeut a feot, The lom1, vitaJ qllli~lrnea'iil tj.on ~s'~-b~lthe,1[1)'p edges 'fti\lst 00 na't~ s:m,ooth and ab&~u rely ,bori zQ,o:taJ ,and, l,ev,si ~wit'hrel!~b Dither '~ibe((J Ihe 'wh-uh~ ,~fCI f.1lst1ng iom them" A good SPlLrit .Iave~.is 'the best ,aid. to eheek ..

straj,lbt ... dgts~' For perm~n,ent wOfksb!o~p use it 'is w'ce e


fti

of Dl'o1U.n;tiog as, com'par~dl 'to :8, mO~:If)\mje,.cle 'very ,often Eea,d . 'b'~ b ,. ;. ;t,t.. .. 1)0 U,oul.le :Ul O':;,W:mm,1 amoow nnm,1l11l [n ci~osbllgja word, 0" tWOI ab (Hut those ,~~, .hori!l~l1tal.
Ito

'the cy'lin.der suffiei C;DJt]y saUd. U to :nl8,~~~iD ~~t IDO'~'" ponent square to the maiasha ft axm at 81t '~Jes~ ,I r.~s p,~~ rive 10il'ie.mpcr,stme c'hugC's or cyclic' load varla.tu:,ul~~~be: .j gidJ.(y' ,of ~hG be&:D'ngs is 's~tU,ed b~ 'lh~ rc,[lgLuli '~;~_~ :~, tb:u;s in t'tle s;earlcb, fo~r'speed litHe emn be done other than. _1£1' '~~e:'l1mt he outer races are a geed fit in the ease wb.eo, 'Olle t '~a't1Jeris 'batt, lr ~.eJ am IUJ't 'the raees 'wmn shuw- sips: 0:"

,i:!;

a p'o~ishGd, a,~'pe:~rane,of mJ],e,,o~~t:er a:uM:'a.C0" If 'there 'msan:y doubt ~bout dire, matter !ea.ch, 'Sl~_ of 'Ib,e 'W!~1J! c.om.pl'~rte; '~!i'lli bearhlp:1 'can btl '~'mm,ersed:m ~oiUnI 'w:a,~erlti :I'ft·e r w~i'eh '~e bearing rings should not be creepl
~'!I

'lDd]ca:too

by

J!

~jIi;;iIIi,

lI.,il !lOi¥ '

Dnn,'iI''ii n'!h, "'" __'U '!olI~'

+r,i'I'io !hr"ril'li'ii I!j.u 'I."",, ~_JUl,

b~' ~...n'd.. , ,IJ' UWit_ _

HrJ 110' worJJ "~af'tt. .


b${l~"i;fI_

slit:l'llk~i'f ~'1.1B' I~ef.: 1(.lml1t) ,Bow ~/il! qe ej I,h'


110 pt:r:IIUI

hv 11r.6lnserU'cnJl of

mlIJ~ h~ f€tlWMr:ed

,h!USJ~'3
tJ

liner Is, ~dllJinfoerod


inK' Ih:f! u/tU1'tI'IPII-M'
rSmlV)llMll.

.oJ'" 'tMA' 'R O'~ EDGE 'OF 5,Il,II:,e:vlr rl UM!NU,~ 'PE:EN~D A


'INTO TH~S CH~M·FEFl. Aflnt

oj Pf'fNI-

g:R;,OPPING SJL,E_,EVEINTO BRON:lE !iU-eVf .001- F~st

Pl~CE

'K' the· bil~d

'be 'i'n6,pected':l these, are made with, ,I red~,~td ,he:nmo,:m,:?,JJJ ptlm~\m, which m:rmst be u.wn, 'oif ,BiteJ
'00

move them,

R :p]acement

is

:nu·tg must alwa:y,8 be, C.D bud,

I N(;'j.! Of DlAiUrtrllE,R LAFi.Ci E.R, ·'t:iH A!'>rIII-IOU!j~NG iBO:R E

the 'w:b.~els are

n.1n:~tdlht&ned~

110

I'll

TtTN~: N<3· "OR

S'P'IEDI

'WORK

O,N f'UE C'R A'NKCA,SH,

Se'\N:.m:i methods are ,a:,vaillh:~e, for ,CUrlrlg' loose races, of 'whi,eh the lelsielt~fl!lmDS. the surr~ .;s not '00 'be recomme:llded as it is, ~a]mioot j mposs:~~bll:eto ,get an even. COB ting" and in ,any QUe ·i t im,tvita'b Iy gives away afle:r 8. 'wmle~ ICb:['om~.um'Or mcke,l-'p,.~alill,~,the races.is satiS£~torJ\, :pn:r"ided '£ba,1 'the fmdished, outer srurfaoe is Ilbsohll.tely cirJ

'phl:COO wiUi. the gfoO,Ve{!l, 'Vi'sible ~~ d the ]i"et-airung":pll te a -~t., ,. '~IIk~1 "!IilI!Er ,ptJll,~e~d '. to ;.L In memo In. ~.t.. preSCll'llllJeu. m-I111 ..:T I~U,e· ..
:Main

Beawmg 'C1JW;.IJI~es

eular and 'true to the 'bore; if' moly' about ,,100 l in, tmcl{nesJ, of depDsi'~ ;s 'r,equfred to mst,ore thu fit it 'DO~, ueed to be ~msbed to she if 'the j'olb il.· done bY' a 1C'-Q'mpeteErt pllatt]-rnlg t!;]JJJo!p~ but d~posits of ,~a tel' tlThic1rn.e·ss MD 'need to. be .&many ~ized by grind~Jlg ol'wing to 'the 'EelllJdencJ lolthmL :1lC'trds tOI baUd 'Up mere 't'DlicldJ eJ;t. 'tbe. ~d;les than at 'the Clntfe~ Co P'llCrr"":plati [1,g Ion 't'b~ other ~ and dO.H D!Qt sbow' .his'mndency Md, can easDy be c~eanedup, to size wW'~h ~ JliJe w'hUs,: tlu: raee jl,ro,t,ated lID a Da'~'he cbuc1lr:~ IOiw,~mg

'wm

wear or p~tIlwg of the race tracks, remember that dle ~::nJt,et· races elose m' by apprQx.im,Rte~y hal! the ameum of inter ...
be'[cn'c :tlitdngJ, otb,er\vi'se the, -oUem'S 0,' balls rna.)" b~ s:libjoo~-ed Ito a. ~Jla:magin.g· ,0v rer.'Da.d'J' ,ev,e'J} bC'iU"P, the, iOIN!f races rna., l ,sf Is·eem tOI turn [ql1~t\eetlsily',,; ISome makers s~,ppl, bearlnils with ,a,riOY:I a:mo IJ1lHI ,of mftMiC!'tf;al ,cllielm'rn~e: 1.10 :aUolw fror

If .all)" bearmgs

need repla.ce.:m,e'!Il'l 'l!hro;u.p. e~ce-'SsIvfl

fae;l]ce between 'tbe,m and tile; ease, Conseq:u:ern1'lYI 'he 'beld:ng5 ~bg!uid have (jJ. sligb',itamecnt of slackness "I lhem

.~

'~O

i'ts. sorUl,~oS1'5'1 copper


but :IJI·
;i[!! ,:"'<1<
'",,''-!!I~.Q
II!!'I11, "",,'Il.. !HI,

pla;uiJl d,oes. :ncit; alw,a,Ys ~ISlt. VClry


_:_, m,""wvY.~.I!!!,
- ......

~onD ,11' ;~

~.

..... 'o"i.iii'i'iilU'I.·miD'i'liJt ,,"Y,U'llf1,;.. . '~,':1Il

<iIl.'l. ...... .;,

,iII,'L,.,.,.",

rudUzed~
..
C'llI'

"',.. ;Ii!i -iii'i"JIoD h. 1I~ v-.wl.-~'

Ute best method iO" efseti nl il JJerm.a:rncnt care ~s;,to bring the IUl~Jn;:in~ 'bal~k 'tID ,U~S odgi!nal'Size by bo,rim,! it
PIICIH bl,y

per
'Ulp

,itrB::h ,olr dj,8;meteJ' 1ar,S;u than the fflous;!n':, -a:aving hea/~ed

and '8cti:n,g a 'brn:nze s~eeveabeu t

g j n, Uuck and, 'iOO~'run~

,f::' must . b Sf!.~ up ,~ tt.. l' t'~'.. 'wat'"tL I~U,e,O~ nt race ,~e' _t ~m ~J}eia WJ}C: WJ J
i ~ .

s'b.own in 'Ume dinp.am., 'the s']ee-v,e j~ thea fiDls b... 0red. to 1Ib .oru ]P!. per inch smaUeF' tl1a.n tl1e: race. ,It. job, IUcl]. ItS, tms req u1~ to [be dlOtU~l 'ex'tteme:ly ,aCCUJ3.tel).!' -: the crDk~e
I

the eran kease 'to 20~:r~ (400~ F. )-w~lruch !c~n be done C, \1ri.th. IDe aid ,of p, d.om.e~stic oven=tb,,' I~eeveean he dfiopped iuta place" and! af~c:r peerumll tffil.'e,aJ urnl] niu m ,OV1etr'the edge ,RS

the tighl'Uru.oslof :sl1;~:ft or brCHlsm,g'" and mark 'the races acoorldi.IlIQ'.. T"NJ :smal] po!i-shed cllcil.M, ~l'JJIj 'lbc ed~ of ,3. :H Dfraulon euter ,r&QI,fOir.'ell:mple~ indimte 'tldt ~tb;2J!S 'llie ['ipt c~e-UllllCC th~outer faa: is ~jsh:t,but lila inner' It push if fit;: tlU'BB eircles are visible if 110tb races are intwded '~O' be ~;i.gh.t" A,put fra,m this md1.c~ltloD~the imBler ,as'sem ~_ly ,of G\ foUer bearing shoutd jUM. 'slide m·t.o, p:IS.C0 by ha.u.d 11' the _:6J't is: CQ1fmcl; a.rid baU.-t~H., wheD [me of 0,]1, sheuld 'Ip"'n fOf :sevua~.turas, M,ost bull..beE.n·iDPt rotl)1ed. d ry ~ ,I,}m,i.il s'lL1,gb:t DOjS~, but;, if the m;cl~s.e :sQundi, ]'rreg:uJa.r or r0ugh~. the I(:O:D d;" UOJIl th~ 1n-eati'['~g''~;so pep to SUS1:m;~cioll i'hi I1ep'lao&-, and 'ml~n'tis the wisest course, The inner tracks of '[oUer 'bea.riogs.

o·r

~"i'

mJ.l

diameter' both rhHUl:1JIIg dead

LTue ..

p1a.tes or .riD~, D uts, .ia wltieh ~,vent thay' 'carnnat tu'rn or 'work out sldew~J!!;'j'and, 'poo'vidcd there is no melBeJ~. le cseness pereep'tJ.'b'~e!,the ,dia.m t·t[al :fit lIl1.'e~d not 'he so tigb:t. ~'!!M flUX HOIR;orDI 'beadng s~eeves~,'besides. be~l1.g ':rewned in. this maDnm" are :m.achined wUtt groOl,:e-5 o,n the ~ru.des:I' blllQ ",11ioll
the meta] ,of the

Oir more of the ou'~'erraces are c~,I.m:ped endway~;j) 'M~hl€rb~

In' some

i1lS:UUlOO.S~ one

d~ sJ.ugot '" .

~'!

~:treve~lt'n,tatio·:o,., 'When 'ftDlti ng the-se sleeves 'th.ey muse. 'roe


~J2

terrumn,g

p~'le j',s pUDcbed. to

fQ'Mi

'to'

by "plr~sinG:a r'OUr:'F ou t 0[' ~,b.eeage, . A:m;otlu;~f;'impor lant 'm·,,~.ter is the ,aUpment o,:f th,e, bearmCS~1 partieul arl y if' theee are 'tWOI In e'ither 01 haUl hw ves IQi:f U~H~; se, The o.n1, eheek of :aD.y rea ~value i~sto turn or 00 ,gmind ;3. mM.dre1, eo a ~:Lm I{er s.,i:ze&) wbjeb will j:u.st . pusb UIFough, th.e inlill:f' bearings ~YW'mbO'lJ:tshake, and, tit,eD 'I.nsert. ILlds 'limillll,gh the w'bo:~e of b~ij n IS with :811the cr.,ankca~ 'set bO],1ls ·tig)IJtenedJ UP'", Th~ :mandrel ShID;td~. pus~_ t'b.r0~,~ w1dnL'OTUt eD~r~: ,and tum :fr-eeJy' wb.ell 1n f.11.ac~ .; ~f''Dot, tile ic;n-or must l~'e' ttack,oo dD'1m an d eUm ;:fitl.tIBd-~ SJomlrtJimcs, in o']d, ~ngines (he 'sp~,got OD OI!U:; M~:r-case. is a pOOl' ,fi.t in th.e re,g_i:s:wrn th~other halt an d. re'l;[i:1ve 'm.'o·~ i i
examined 11J

CI,D be

W,OR,t: ON 'l'R;,e CR ~Jt'NKCA.,8,H


'TH~;$ fACIE TO' BiE [f~O flA 11 i:.iUI''I[EIN:$IONS A ~'~,O I' M~S T'

Bfi ElCUJA_l

-'~l'~
n-

II

cmn be pr,f;vented, by reaming out two msting b 01[..boles, ·tOI aeeommedate sp-echd ,own,LM b~'lts. :~ctiD,1as dcrwre1:s b.::fo.re mamru'Dl1 till eases must be ta:tl.pul Ughlliy tWs wa:y and that until the bas:t POSltl'DD is &lttain,oo, ·as m,djclted. by

rnenr which w'Q"wd aUe:;Jtthe

3J'~i.gn:m,eTl'~,e,a;ntake

place .. This,

~I

ar tnt joint, Prresll.pposinS that it lSI accurate as ttl Jla'tIU!SS parmI~cU&m cal], be choo'k,cd. by :inverlms the case, 00, a sur:ra~e-,la:rte ,wd measurm,g the djs~anoe on 1~1:ch. ide between s the p;~al-e and mandrel, SholJd.d t'ble b eum,:p be ef d~fferirl g bores, ,on eac'h, 'side, a sbcirt length, ,of' 'tb1e· mandrel lit each end. am be turned to e-xa.eUy eqUid. I(Uame£Cls-'wmoo, avolds hi'ihl,iG'ttll make allowanee for 'va:ryull sifes~ If the face is, D:ot '!Jat 'it mlls:t be re ... ,ml,lobineci or trued up with file and s-oraper utnU wl Is corrut in all Te~,poo~s~ Lack of flatness is ba-d. ~ it permit'S oille~dr:S'i a~ kI,wS! the barrel to roc'k_about Wld~rr load, and c~n, be an unsuspected IcaJIllS~ of barrel dis;~odjon or cracked bas'Co.fl.iul,ges,. At. 'this, stage it is ,3,-5 w,eU to cast ,0, critical eye o~er' 'm.e· C')'lilu:lel' 6tul~parucuJa:r.ly 'if' 'dle' eompresslon ratio, is bei'[i,,1 raised 'Qo,[tsidtl[,ablY'!l beea use ,tbe .gas p'w~ur~-Sjwlll be, Q'liootly mCfeased 'm;be[,sby ~ '£h,e l~u~com.pan,yiDI' ,Ir~ph, sbows, the 8CtH al -"'se ,of' ~Qm'~Ir.essi,le pre!, mry wi th i,ftcrease D, Q"f ra..lol~and M "~los ion .mHSili.DefU:S are sorn e 3... t'Q 4 t imes i
Ji
i

,-~--

me

,
I
______j

re:Jl!ewed" im; .L~ best to, lea y'e Ithe bores a few' thous, u W],de,ftSim I.'ln d fiD_a]J:y ME>ream ',vruth, the reamer puot-ed ill 'the bearing on 'the ,opposite ,sj,de~ Wben. a. bearing, of thiSI type is used to transfer 'the- malin oil ;supply to 'I:h~ c:r-:ulks,h aft the fit 11 pall'tl,cula'dy' jmpDr~LI:n;t and the' m,akerfjls mstnJ,cQtlilt~l tie:gardwg clearances. mus:t 'be rlgorDus'~y fnDtowed N,!ltnrally' ~ '. ,- ,-, l' ~! any loommnmumMB ojJ,-bre"1es must be aooursrtetY' ' "'""'eu.",up a;oo lehecked by ,injecting' ·oU 'mrou"gb them fr.om I ~1,l1'fe
been
ii'

freen.ess, ,of' tb~ ~est--mmdrel~ Form.n~tJe]y" sru'll,ce it is ,'_ ,difffiLCtdt fa\m]t to, ,endi~flte.. itnlCOU~Cl bearing dignment is 3, 'ra,'r'e1mSlease:; but it should be, Jook,ed fOF' just Hie same, if :plidn bearwp ate ~Dclud6d in the malce~·Ul,p amd .b!a\ vie

_j

I I I I

I.

I I

I
I I

I
I

I
I I

~'

,--

~i -$00
~,

~,

n
~;~I

PETRet: t,.7"

cJ ~

.~.
,/
I I I

Lt~
----"'"!!-I

..J

Y
I

/
I
I

-AbCO~Q'L
I ,
1

I
I

1/"

0 ~

'-lln"

-, ,/
,I

~.

,,,,.-le;c:)~~~u:~S~ONI PflU,$U.RiJE~, fOj!t V,iA.Ru:~n.;l,S :P,TiOS


~A;:U!il'l'llifil

I'
_!!'III

1P;j"~j.iUr!"tlll j1j 1!!:~I,ndrDj'


____j

111 lb.

:lilt 'lIbi'ljjj! ,~rI!III [{:1!:-J

,Plt'i'"

UiI~

I
''1

ICU~

cylim.der .... base, whj~h, m'Dlt me paraJ1Jc[ te the main ... sbaJt cen.me' nn~in a(lditi,oDJ 'to 'being: :8a,t and free from ;an., step 114,

The 'mst..,mJlndre':l also I~ome&m usefw

:fo',' ,checking

the

(:;o'~'P'R,E$ISi&CjN KAirH)'S

e- ,

11)1

" U 1!l nltt


"

u; '~6 'I,~ ,t : 'I ' ].I

A stJl(1-y'of drif,' ,g«JpI_~ wlll'


~IUW
I~

;iiJ()·uW bfJ' ,~x_tmfitle-d W}lSJ~ the m;;sl1iJ~

,IN!/W!tJ'l

iIJ'(!

"f;US(j.lJi

w.lzy· ,cpJl~~de.t"

co:RlJNfi;S'Ji'OI~' ,I!Q(:UJ' j_~

lIS:

WO'il It (.IN' THB, .cll,A~Nl[,C,AIE


S,il' ART Of LA,RG,E ilfH~!E"AD 'I;" ~r:~ B'EWIW :f.t4CE'
~,

"rUP,[fNG

B'aiR V~iOlJ.S

~s
:NHAR.es:r 'f'llAC11QNAL

p.nC'H

W_lAJ)i j!!,f!:1; !Nefti


""I;'iI ,;.l!,IR,,':.'

€OrtMCT'

n']uLL
8!lZB

,pruu;., i~,1B
_;;;}.

""-,.... 2~'''lI l:"'lu111ii


I"

26
210
:SllUD w.neiKEo IT Ti~I\EAD!s l1'C;~fil'1!ENU1"'~G ,Al Don'ON OF
HIQU:

No,.. .5

.;;iI, '~"'""

t:::!'!II'Ji' ,.

til"

N'e" 8
uU~rG l&'U.11' F lcue:r 0 or P

22,

'1:8 ,:20 lti ,28,

LeJtterN

'the eom press ion press u res, it 'wilJ be a ~pfeGm~ed, ilia.1- a. I06 id deal depends upoa the cylinder fix,iDS in :aB ultra-high
1

19 19 If

,29"64, In.

l :1./3J; Lin.,
311:1:0.
in,

17f64 ,iJL V4, in,• ,If ~ 2!./M hliii S:}l6 .~

11./64,in" "' .. WL.ii I-='-i~ rn,

18

,3'164

..

_,lm'osl 1ll"'Il~;riBbb~' studs are, 'la,pp~d_ mIlcct ~nlbJi Gte 'lbe ,duminium,. As, 't'Lullat i'g'[' metal 'ms, re fatlvel'y 'we-Ik]l the lengt'b of 'IhIi.l8'~ in ,e,~,gaIOB1eflt should pre€e~llbly 'be t'Wilce amJd ,ccrtai'nl, at !rI:,Bst ,one u:od, 1\ 11:aJ If times the stud. d-i;a;melt1£'r~ Ul a:dcti_ ioo me 1ili'ie8d,s SbCH.1~.d tiIJll;~,e'rllt 'dle DlJt,t,'(JfN andD,ol I.t the _' of' ,the b,o,~e,~ the 1l1'Ue:r case the: rUll,.. ut lof the 'O'P in, .e stud thread exerts at ,pOwer.fll~,wedgidg :lotion aD the SUI, ..
l,

am pression

1m

G,tor~

u;
12-

20

:23i64 ilL ,2,7/,64, In. 13/3:21n,. 33,}64, ilIJi

i's ~,

OD when the: cngi.D£ :[1 ,prot 'to 'w,ork..

woundJDg, 'bOH~, whioh ma), be 'the cause Ol:f: c_r,act Dl:lkiol a an UlDWlieom,c &ppea£';uee either at 'the :6r~t onset 0'1 liter
S,h,oo;lo.'the cruikmse

threads appear to 'he ,damJlLpd ,0'1 parUaUy s,'lripped them, ls lDually iI3DJ~)U,gh ]l1'em]. pr'Men,'t 'to ,.- d ....,:·u·' .i!I ~ permit '. JlDJJIMl8 ,11.0 'm,ppmg'to a grater .JI oiI,iL. n net, two Uepi~I., ': ~'ursu u,e. a,v,ajla'ble" IOID.e, is :r,e-'~p '~Ol a sm: l\ ML. lar,ller. and fit a. ,dt)'1lll'b'le-di!am.eter'J! 0'1 ,U, biUU-liJeaded' ~ 'SitU.d;' for exam pli3\~I. sbip,~ed :ho~e :p,('ievious~y *-,in" 'Ylhi,ow,orth, lean De 'il',e-·tatrpped, "to i,,",m.;] 'Wlrii'tw,g,rth[II b~'vm g finl opened, i!, ou,t with, a '~cU:&r.' drilL Jn O"UU!f eases "it m~:y be pre fem.bl e: N' to I"ettai-n the le~stim,g ~~zt; ,of struJd by mp,pin-g Orul tb,e ,boi:~,eto

to

,fuW!e Ulte~,ood of we 's'wdls bema: F.,~moved, lod rep~mlced, at '~n,tervaJS " mF,o,rth,e' ,t!.~'mal tlDeadSIOIl 'tbae: s'~~=ves~ eithe.r i... mii or I~~j' ttu:eaU--bo,'dl ~a:'vm8 'UJ'du"ead;s, pe'r in'c1l-m' 'ery ~~ ~~:m. :]~e~ table on tJljSI pqe~, '\V,bieb.'mal" come m usef.1I b Tbe: ~clr'otber ~O,bI",gj!esl toe tap'lilill,Q' sizes and drill desi,1D a dID'II;S, fa 1"' a nu m ber of ,!j:mhes.. ~ " ,Stin :lllo~her'scheme is to instal A fJImBtroDS' or Cr,osS' w" ric' mse:rts~ 'It,bicb somJewh,~,t! ~~b~·~,.J1. 'liI!'r"i"~~'a'-iD me'1!iIi)!lJu .II_:"l!!.l"1ILIJIl. ,~tlil-'I Q'FlIili'ii'nl 'llIi'I..::i' _ ,~ ~"_' _QI!!
I, -

,~,~'I;:;i\iY;l!!,UL·'!io!!'

wife (It'dbtm,'QtHi, ,5G::tiO'DJ' I,od mm

tl:pped,,_ b,om~ fintsU, roe:~u:dlD a'nd


the, end
C~ijJii

dD, o-;eFB:i~!' 'b~'p'uncrunG'·I~ri' 5 ta,kiug


1 l

Icrew cd into
~

IPI,ir;lI"t"Iilll'ril

iI:I! ,~'ii;i~

~:t

,a,',prti~pria.te sWze;~this bem! PlrtiC'ru!t~aIly I"d:visa:ble, if'there

~1l:k,e:a, 'lllf,onm:

lOT'

s,tec~ btnuh.ii sere .. ed w

,in'sid:e and,

(nl,t tOI 'the

rl{11

.T U M I ,NG J. o.,k SP:BBtl

WORK
V-~i.l'

O1N TBE: ,CKANKCA.S,e

load;;Dg, the cm.nshaft, 'ooa__rin§s, in pusb'"":~,od, ,ellllDes giv~, '!I1',e'F\!!!'lJJl~. ll!i!~t~ ".""\If,'I'I,~"L_~I:& and "I ~.,,'i"i;'I'~,~~ ,~,1~.,-v in "iiI, '~~~' ::;tlil ,a:rl~ b-ad s~Il'te '~'J L~IIi~I!liJjUJ\.J.:i!' lUfi~.J' lP:~~ it, isbest Dot to, dls:tlililb them" ,Pro'rided, the :s,wfacei me mot torn or wom '"'8_,0 ,rjidg=s,~ clear.;-aJ],OOi up to IIJ005; m., lire permrn's~dhlje,and if"Dew bushes areneooed they' should, bareamed to ,.1002 in, cl,eBmnce,~ except in the rare instances w.here 'thq fOrmI part 0 'the lUlbrruca'ti;on sys:tem,- 'wben sUghd,f less ,c;leantliG~~s,[lleCeSSI:ry in ,ord. ta, prevent the lesca,p~ !o," 1.00
'If.
rO'i
~~i~~1

n~-..i'rl"l'

Aft 'U,UJiII.;

T'~~~'

-.

1,'

The modern teDden,~y i~ to' p:rovide n)!)cdl spbldles 'UpOD wb:i:ch 'Ole cam-wheels rotste, tb!i S,pmdles; beinl d;rined tor lubricatiom~ and it, 1S,aD eas 'mlt1~r ';0 make sure dla,,t aU O,]~ , ... 'ways sr elear ,hd th_B,t the wbe~lJs spiD [[,eel;, ~ DesjglllS in 'which the OUtLu cam-beerings us localed 10, the, tim'~D,g lto,yer are m,c!'( o ,eas, to eheek (j,t' bl motif),' W" moorre~t~ 'lile' s ellief di:f6culty' being '.0' :met, b oth pa:il[S [of' bea:riaBs in 'Iwne

mu,ch oil,

:simw.tanec)us',ly., It tllc cover'


l

:8'tmdled oubr 'by set-serews i'b toootmon lllilay D'O"£ 'l}e sumcien,dy 'pos,~LiY~~ to tms;me: 'U13,~:it reDJain's as in fb~,eo.:rrr.,ect pOSt[t~'Dm 'iDdeftni:'tely 'w.hen, una:r 01-'ldumc . of ill'[f,e,G,U1:llT :~old,:ond severe vibmdQD~ 'TIaU icom:~mpDc:J cam '. entbe]y :p:r-eymned. D'tlin; ,3, ,cc1upliC of do,weliS, whIch IU!£Id ICiDl, be qm"i't:e flmaJJ-+inlO tUa'meter wtU do if Uier,c m, DIG re (lim, 'to fit a, 'llt,,:pr :s;ize,___fhe :h,O])9 bew:! d.ri ned [La,d'r.,~ltmlcd,aRe!' tIl . co,vel" 'bas been worked B1J'~Da pos~tiom w,he-Ie the I[:l)l'm... w'hee:'h~ are ,a/t mwm,um fxecneS8'w,~ll~ 11 11' ,8C'~~VS' til,/t": 'with j"D lUmrals and, 'bushes 'fre~: from ,oil, e'i(tter
'~S

It. ts extr'emeJy 'aec1Jr,l'IG~,y:m_adc"the bushes, after' bem:g fiti'ed m,th 'the erankease or covel bmmd" ean 'be reamed 3" 'little on 'the small side, and then eased. 'Oint with a, ~crapeJ;, usi~,I' ',russian 1b~ue'aID, tbe slu~ft:sto show lW,pthe tllbt spom~ D,cl Do't a;tkmp't: 'to' '~a, the I~, in 'with emery powdler- as tbia 'will emlbe~, ~i'ts~lf inte th"e5'Oft buriDg metal-and s;n[bsequ,en,tl:y ~~lSe rapid wear of 'th~e:sUa fl~~ In tUte maner o:F end-pla;Y'1 ~t,~S'bet~eF to err on 'the generous ,sIde rnthe 'tlmM ha,Vle too .little,. except wb.en the ,lelJfS have :h,~Uca] tee~ ~in whJ,c_b.eveat o,mly _.)00m la to J}[)3 in" Mould be, allowed, Excess, pJa" in ,..1.. i!l-L [ ~ue, i~ ~ gears - 0"r "V'.. eioc~l;L1eQD,tpD,e:s is, 'we .~requem;t ause y,m_wD,g: c 01 bambI noisy' rl1unmg~ 5'Iveml mode,![~ engiDes,~ tlte Ai JL,S,.,t'M:a'tchh~8S,a.nd Vb.li~eDtt tor -Ianlple~ eQlP'~,o:, por,Qus.·:bro'Me: 1bus:bes for IClmslta, tts, lod a:~~Q 10,theil" ]10 caU ies. Ibefc bushes :sbo'u~,d D'e,e be ~l Flamed if a'a, a'J] ,posS'ib'~e;, 'tbe ,correct metthod is, '(0 S:Lzedlam~ , afier ,nt tJtD\gji whIll :. phuli:shing' b,gaeh,"~~Le'~one, widi no
r:~'
i ,i

pr.~pedy" .Faitim\g 'liIJs deviee, _ wbfdh,_ is lonly 'w"ortb'~av,ml if

'I!Ii]]";y a SP~tl, --:-',, ," -

'I J....: , -'alo"i"t",te , ~1,"'P~a,

Ql ,!l~~

'~;i!\,' _

...

1I 'iii

' :, ":_...;1" .Feq:lllI~ ~ 'uD Ute- J'ob 0 A ', "

b,

in 'tfu;~:metal, 'tho.'L1,p a 'very keem r-eamer M~'~ not do much

too:t Tlle QIFdim 8l]f sh,op 'fea:mer [a.lm.'Ll8't in,variably smears the surfaee ~steBd o I~:ruttingand thus blocks up the: pO'.ires.

cut~g_l~dFSr--or'

else bO[f1them wl'th

,0.

'sllarp s~;rn!l&'poruiiL

b,'r,lll if tb,e am'O'UB t

f),r metal

'b)

be; removed js '¥cry SU,B;t:il.,

"f""~"""", ... -"'uril.d


,JiU!!;a ~;g,

I" ~ilL.

'"' - ..:: ,Lig.g.B ~:'1;100

wh~l mau~d,

with 'the Dng~m;, 'The dowells sh,ou]d, be A 'l1pt dri'y,e 'frt :mn0(0,18 iD-OmpODai,t :aDld a laod. p!us,h'ut .10. the: other.", othe;rwis.e: it 'is, dilfIt.uU to I,et the w,ve off subseqUEfJltl" .. If 'lDere is, :DO 'fOQ:m t,o, l6;t dOr~rei:s, ' two of :the ,txisting heles ean be modified, to a.. ccep,t :screws 'with ,c~,Ole;=fi1l;tin.g ,mMn :sJlimk~h 'wmen. wnl ;SI8rvf!, the same
purpose,
I(lane

SPin :fo:I'

several

'~1.U"mJ

'W: ,glVe-D

;11

~rll'

flick

_ ]R:= ,plicemeD~t 'b~, 8'Je' :a1:mo\St in vclf.hibly '00,('00, sUgbtly mnd'B'nim to alUtC).wflZll mamhru.J!o This '@PeF.llU.OQl m,ut 'be

wi-th.

&

p]:~oted

1m mer' lto e:llS,ll1iC

allpmeu'l;,

,D,d

lU~,

can be r~jJ'C1Ulmt wd iu thls 'W~lr~r" ~d 'the 80. Jju~eds, to 'be :~est[mti:edl' oth~rwise 'the,,scl:ve~,I~P'ltm:P' will be, Q,wd,oa.ded,,, Jr.' J 19

'the ,most g~ood,-:pmrtfra,b'~y so' that the oil dro'ps, dkecUy on to the lcam's\~, NatuFially dtMle miS, a mjmlt to' .b,c"w ,mu.cb, ioil'

'wbjJcn, :m:etMus, ,o<]'i'!'o 'tlte tank and cou.pRcthis, UPI '~O a, IJ1Ijj,Oft and internal ,jet in the 'timim,!""cue:pla~d where: it wi'l ~ do

V:.groovesl ~~ading"to ol~mh;,Qles ,m the' buab e8. [or by an,ang;in,.g . .. au extra. oil-feed '~,(~I t~min,g~heS't~ 'In df'y'-i'Wm,P engines ,th~ an, ea,s; wa:y to a,G~omp'~iS:bthis ~s 'W take it ~ead,o,ffthe pipe
j,

eut, ,and, ean &,eq ueo;t1, 00' Im,p(~owd by chhleUmg lexIra

Lub[i.laJ.,tiOD, of "the lru miDg-ge-ar

';:1;,

not

[~lW[I.'YB'

wen carried

W
.-:,t:i:. ,'...;a',:_". "'" ;It.. -'~i'd A ~~", JII Je~ WII~1II!III onnee .a,'b ,". ~,II;;iII.:;J.' m~m ,~m.e-t~r ;guOM w ' - LIX~~ r ii" ,',it.., coul i~O tuil1,ce lo '!i,tar~ 'W i;tlJ t or :~dtemB"lw.\fe~y,Sill E'tlOts, :adjus:l9J~!:re
'-I'

onx

Q,N' T~HH' 'CR.ANKCA.SB

.s:

,i' _.,

..

d:n:~fe¢d can be used, 8mill jet orifices, are rljtl~'u:r P,Ir(llDC! 'to' bloC:b.gc w,llilen 'fetmD, ..oij, ~~belotg, fed tbrough them, but this can b-e la['gely' OIYeI'COnle '~y nsing 8.\ larger l1g~e into wmc'b a loose ,vire or sp'']],t,pin is. fitloo~ Thls seheme ls. used by Vin.cenm ~'D,he rocker ..feed jets, bul fur. raclDli" the res.trictto(f' 'wu·~ s'houild be 'removed. from dIe ,g:xIi.aDSI, 'v,u]ve Il'!' d ..:mI ~11."·iIl :.... -. d~-e~S,,3l1,y, .... '1· f' ano -10m 'we Ul~.tn' ',;,:'~,~ ree d'-I'~,.,.',1~iw.eVali.VB guidesl ... v~v~ d~::: ,. am m, 100.·'_ ,oODW:tj,'O,D,. '.f't.lile ha'bricil,'ti,o'D j s ,of tIt,e! '~olm]-lt(),sstyJell' ,~t. il, be 'w'on;h m w,bile i:~tmJ~~ md_d!ii,tio.ns] si;slht ..feed pumpf -orr U 'the ,~ ex]:sUm,g piUJDp is of tJi,e smg1~~d'e]~verrylY,pe.'r,' eo 'repJace it. by ,EL _ d:lJlplclJ .pl:~mm{t dle· lim, bem,g to let one lJU mpi feed, the biJ"ern.dJ, 'w~e: th.~ iooond __lk'M care of t1le 'timJlDB seaF'." b 'Each :s·,p,l'lJ OlD, dieD be IJdj us ted. to IW'I. i~s;OWD department witho'ut risk 0\" sw,a'mpimJI ,o~rs,tarviu,g o:~er ps:rts o,:f dJ·£: ma~o,r~ This, gf course is 'the' :s.,ys~e1mused 00, J':A,.,PI,j, Speed .. wa:)' aDd, I~O ,eng-in. ¥I'mich :BrB im,t·ended [or' s'lllod.. ~8~a[lCC d !Jort;. bu t IbD d'fy'''lllmpl IJ;sb:m:s, are used I(Hil. tOeliil eqln es: 'foflr' lroDlg..,distD:Doo raciog a.nd Fo/tmula m oars,
Ji
i' i

"

,_.TIttle ~il-ptlnnpr in dlY"ISu.m:p cn.gineS) is· lUuaU, housed WrocUy m the crankease., and in most oJJ,"'camsllafr. desigrns Is ,ti8hU_~ fItbcd. into '~ r~OOSiS bored rID. ~e 'ba.c·k olf th~ ti·min,."" ch,es~~To r~m,o~re:tIt 1S noc-~ssalj1 to heat up the ease and \ 'tap i~ timmg~hes'~ dovm~1aiD the beffilcb-~,op:It nllity some(i.mes, be _n~~$a;~ to nul ,~'ta~ into (W'O ,of the remmm:n,g IC;NW .b:o~es. ,s'C) 'tha't ,8, eOl1p:~e,'Of'SCfe'\W CIn be' msert4g, l~y w1Uch dl·e p·um.p call b _ p,U:ll1 edJ. out, The mtlel1ll,l, bor-e: ,of the hous;il1l,1 mnst :n a'\1et' be ,trdarFd to mak-e refillt.illig: 0'1' the (lU:;UIllP reo~eri as till's ,W! ~]mtOst 'ct)rt.l.1D to lead '&0 ]C'ikagJC bctwer:rm tile pr'e1SS;llI re and .scHven,g:e side of the purm,pli .A;s-,n '00;:11 1-ear-'p(u.m,piS ,give 'ver,), Hulc trouble, '[unless a. piece, QI,f ,mJc'mJhas fOUD,d its w.ny in. ,W1Hli, dlnu~!;ed, UTe te~'~'bor '~b:e leal ..'pockets 'but 'm, time side wear.' 'w,ill de'Ye~op a.nd red:uee:
l
r

-iDOl mOl (pllni,cubady if 'the .1.'tS, Im-,e'thin lo rela:tiO.D to Utci.r ·djame·tu)t~ ,mod,~t, mOlEe is, p,~eseDt t~l"'~1aces eir the 'pwil P f
p,acki;gs be ,II :slblndaId fi~,tilaG;', 'the ~i:mplesit course is to l!a,p tbe 'pUOiip..,fa,'te' O'D a s1H1i1C:£-1)late M'th, the. Ica:rsl in pla'oo 'IJIit'tilthe wbom surfaee, iD,chidJms
,BmOlmt. p31pel'

,It, is, sometimes, OlD lJ,p.t th.I.,t 'ba.ek'llash bertw1cen the, leeij). ilftbctSI the pum ph:i!J,I~bu' Jt ma,tes DO cD ~er'eiDceI:~allbiD filet'l fo! :smooth fUfi.'c'ti.o':n~n,R· at last ..005m..ba,ckluh sh.ould ; be p,resenl~ The lIide '0 earanee, actweve:r'11 mould, D)Dtl; In,ceed. bolt, sh'(jlutd 'be vm:y iWiJ'[,efuU,

the

j,

de-U'\l"(~q'rate,

rShould a

wcs;sed,

'W the

mq,wMd

thaI, of sars.. is, :Iat a'od, ,~.G.,el.:ltbe pa.per ,pac.kiQB wiu' S'ujbseQuend.~,'provide the 'fequLfSU,C! eleara:o,ceii' All pu~dJ," rod 'Ve'Lcc~t·t~s, have do'u.Ib~~-gearl1m:l'S:;, somewhat ~~millr P 'to tiul,se ln ~ o, h, ~amlshaft mOQ~SI' but dnvesn. ,at rI much he sliDlwer speed by :3. si.m,~.e-Ita'rt. b:r,onle worm~w[}~l eBgB,girDl 'M\m ,I str,a1gbt..,ou't: p,inion O(1!iI the :pUlmp :&'Piiludt~the :pum,:p'
11)0'0& Il' bemlG bo,md, at ,I smaU l,ngT.e '£0' give ,co:rrecl, m ,enp,gewe~lt b~tweel1, '.,QrIm' and pmjoIru. ,tee~h,. 00, later 'models '~l1.e.pumpl s:peed was dog,bleed, by u sin,g D two..starrt 'It.. ,., ..:II" ~ • ":11:,~ 'w'orm,and nel~ '~:~I lea~)t~t'I:t plnU).D, '; a:rhJL, rut :ms'1l'0\s5:1. b'~ tOI 1l,u.ujfL - ie llile: :~a,t,e_l'i des~gn o:f'P4dfl:,g; 'b) i'fID~[eaSe ilh,c' oU-flow Oil ettrU'er
i,

on, IN

'The. etJi~if!l!c)' oj ,~: g.etlr'-,01,e. t);ll·j)~ .• ' ,iqlendi; ",rJJi ~'11e ,miI1in. mam gO'lJlbJe ,slfie.' tiem'(JJ~~e'iJetu'eeJJ' w"'~ee& Q.l.td' ~iJ_$t'~ The' ,Cfisftla.C4:1~","I' b~',~,(1i,d~ W-Q wl~8i1 t'i~"c'e.b;,a,f}me'J e_:;_ytf!.,sslw"

-"'i!1i'il:

~"""'!lifi'~~!1!!

,"!Jili~_ '.

In those

pUftlpS

1:,20

~1Vhlch ba've a 'p,lunger '~¥lnch fowt;q ,a.nd ~11

milie
~ ;ilL,

", 'E:O~'£:N!ili"l:nc, ON\\! E 'ON ... M5't4~ fT' N.UT


I

,. tl· ,•• ',1,;;, 'Lo :P],pes trom enner tne pressure or is,OI'VetrID,geends" githel the worm drive or tB.e; driVing' peg whfeh CDtg.Ig~ 'wit]] tlru.ecam...iSlot in, 'th~ pI.ungm- wUl.rail in. a, Faidy short tlme, Therefose thi~ :poliU rnnst 'be' ea r,t:,t~uUy' .'Il..~1 b .'ib.": ..A" I~ • 'mlll,..'L w~r~eu I~(hii!tnf811'"-~ 11....... ,e.ng.tne an d ~ a.~~ me exrernat 'II III
' 'm oUbe't

pl;lS9g~ Olio

1io, ..

eo,ooecUons,.

J'U - In tlr~'
,di;u/}/~t!:Q~'

,caSt

t-a,£l2C'I:9' _,L~,,_'er t/~jJ~j' ,tlf(Jt


of the fei~:&PUIUP\. ~-~~.
i ' I

~' iS~'ve.~

lk~ plu,lg:el" IJ.W

'H'~e,ei PUmp'I'

0/ Me
l&',"~h ,~

C1';flPt(i)~

t),~tl';Jf

fROM S~MP' fll.li It


'.''. TO OIL rANK
>

: . - .'~ 5P R,II,I'!!,IG lCJ.ADEO . ~ . NQ~~ REiII'U~' V,~LV1E$

"

sho:u1d b~, fer eVleD, ,8 Diu)rnl~en1al1)" ,ShO,f;Ut,ge of o,D at mm,,,,, mum ,I\~V,S~sft~llgbt with tll~most ~K,pensive, :and :som~tim£s pD,sicaruy painful~ ,comequenc~s,., The ,driviDI: 'wormi, if L. ld' !~e 'il ..._ ~t" tM:'ro.. leD -WI. hi ~, Su:01]i_ _ it. Je,lh.m.'~" Wltu'~f..aut b~'" eSiha'b'ODu 'Iuj,e 'tooth uvc:<wom. tb.itm" an';], w]J,en the des~p, :00:;bUD,lchanged; &~':n 'bronze to hardened stetl~ QtS in Vmce:-nt. en gfue!,~, 'K g
to

lior'IJSinls:at eaeh eDd~,IRd the state 0" t:hl~smaUdriviq " :1; 'L~ iL., .. ,.L iil.......... dWwCiI,w. ~.s !!lcrewey .mto 'flUe Cl3ru~H an· I, 1=11.:I3ll'" 'M'LU :mD ,mclinoo IfOO,Ye 'mDe~med j n U1e plu ~G,e:r;;As 'tDese, 'p'IJIDlPS 'rurn at II rela,uvel" I'DWsped~Wel.f ~is v'ery slow b, a ,genlral role; ffi t Is a wi ser pma, mevertheless- 'to ",ent; 'that all ,is ,8-1 .it
,.:)I'" ilt,.1,; -

f\caip£,ocm'~es,~tfue p O~.Dts ~O note l.r9 'the CGDd;,~i()D (d~ehe pr-t;e~b.I'he 'n't of .,'ble 1'].unge·r porti,om, bill 'Llu!tr 'ruJ[lecrtlV1e t

a iOD,1 tm.me and has th~ :men[ that it does not aUo,w !{Jin tOI s:Yp,ll,c~n 'b~"k dl r-O''!j,gh it \Vhl1st ~staDmngrl'wruck is, I,D a:laD'O,Y"'" hl~ derect of' 'tll,e gear=-pump,", 'W11en 'plain lbig... nd 'bea:rings are used, i'E :m e!isen:rti al 'tel e mmil1t:lin it bigh oilpreslSur-e"loo,nrsequtCl1tl, 'ttl ~.'Ia'relubritl'ted ~i,th&:rby I ,gta ~"um:p or oo.t ''lilth 'purely' :~~cipf\ocai:mg t pI1mger~ as used on T'riumpb. and some ,A:rid lengmll,~i' Tllese also gi:" ~ UUIe.tr()'ub1e but the truun;crn bleck .sbH}1.dd be GM;a m~noo frClr,' wear a nd care 'taken to see rttb,2ltl the. ,p~unIM'Jii bd,,'vti~"e8 and! springs are a:J1 opef,a.tinS eorreetly, ShotUId ;1n englne 18V0f suffer tbe m,~i~rQ Ii' rune of bavl.D.,~'. pilton break up bad ly~ O~'b, ';vea 'ho'lle bu rut ~D ~he ,eIO~l]jij! tffille re:sul,d'ng, m381 of a'blr.ni.nill.llfl par[Jic es, penetf!SJtes into eve"Y' n 00:1£ Ilrui, crevice W:i th ~,tonis,hhll r.1,Pl(Uty and, is :Uke]y' 'to eongr'egl:te in odd CO'f,Dcr" or pockeo such: s exis;t whem two drilled loll pus~ges meet, 01 where 'UW'Ofl SI are s'ttewed. ill t'o bOSB~. Flu.5:biinS"'01J'~ ,Cd nnet reaUy be gua ranteed tiD ,get rid. of them all ,and the on I., safe wlay i5i to remove ,all " ..!II, I.. 'L, ~, . ~pbmp 8Jltd.'. umons ,1!IIn.~ make ,8. tiuorOlu.gu JO 'b 0.1 '11.1£'e"lCl1u]sm,g _:" ;j:!~" precess, 'When replacing these pu~~, remember ittha:t he sligh test trace ,of' ~ln ,air ... ]oo..k 0 I, Ole 'SlJeDon side of the sea-v!e'ogre' 'pump is Icet11&n ,to lead to 'p,DO\[ scm:ven~'rng ~Dd!., ev,en i';' the eoSine does not oU pltl,gs;, 3.5 a. F,esmJt, it wimJ be,
I 'it.,

,Apan .fl'!o,:mthat ey,en:tuaJil:J'~tIns: form of pum.'p lasts '~tlr;

_.ilI

ii

,i

d£sira:b'~e'to
t~·'i'"'ljl' Jf!ii.;lO',..._. ,1
''lql.

ins.ta]1l:he

,.t-'J,I~I ..tJI""" i

n~'~[liftIJillP~r

QJlaiust pressures of mere than. a, couple of peunds iD:r so '£0 'the 5'; Jam inch" and. if am,Y 'blocta.,g,e; rSIJJJ.iuld OOCU,'r,
'12-')'
[I
"':.M

'nn~niC'!' ,!!il"" JIi""Uc1.W.I.¥'" ~m,

l1ew des1gn

no'li"
,--:-~. r

m :any

laV\afilt.
"'n'lI:"
w~·

dd!IJ~;·~IIIIIi..:il

'!i,;'Ol"!"~'!J!j"'U ~.Y"

"l'iIir,1'''';:'~,p'

~o oil~f1ra:g'~ConseQ'uently ~ too mncll eire caan ot be taken 'to' see tbs't levery' Jei fit; or :rd[l!~ms co,m.'p~etely t~gb.'C. and locked. Upl so 'mat h 'will r~ma-lm, so' iD.de6m'~elyj ~mj mRtk :a,ppl:ymlg also ~~I ~be dri.vjID.,I"'lt~m m ot a rotary,Pump wbich" afier 'heu'i,,! 'rw:Uy ti,lhtene~J' sboU)d
d;C)Ym.

fn speed

d.lll.lS

mt..

!1!;,OI',.&UJi,o

all'¥r!J

'metal

pune:&red, m'lO tho


l

SCDew'

,s,161 as an lDSi1U3Dce

BlaHut m.O Q,Scning;'1I

R.EAS.SE,MBJ~ING

'CRANK .: ,ASB C'O'MPON.HNTS C

CHAPTEJR 'IX

RBAS'!UEMBL]Nu" CIIANKCAS,JB,

COMP'QNBNTS,

beeD d~ll 'with ~Um,Ciien_tly thoro l1,ghly tlo fnwc-a;te tll~ ~nes u'pcm whiCh ,-o p~c eeed, tf eve rything has bee~l d~ODe '_)O "onr IOlwnl &~fti,sfacti !l)D........ and tl1;e me r,e SiCJ r-Gr~dca.lyou. are the more likeUb:D od 'there is of your beRtin,S ,otl~er and meee easn, sa.tlilfied riYB:ba, s,po't ef ,a,sS'embly work 'CU, ao'w be p'lID t lin,.band pr[ o to ,geld":I down to' the ·vita.U.y im:por!ao,t 'm_a of va]w' and ner Igr:Ut1o:m tnm fiG., It lOS, probably umneoeslary Ul' 'mentio'El the paiD'it ;;piD~ but, to be ,00 Oie sate' side! let me remind you 'tl1I:m:t efore ICC m... b mmlcios t1tis wD.!r'k tlle beneh a11 d ~'tssur-r'oUlud,i n.glB m U st be swept, Iclemm o,f 1.'11 '~i:.H1eip nlJ.aUe,r-d'ust~ ,6,HIl,ls-, ,eiprett,e
~ i i . !II •

de;ma'm.d e:uen'lio':L1 or poss:ible m,odmcadom have

'W'IDl 'the; exeeptlon of the Imm~fo;1Jowers aDd. everhead .g~%lril p ,acIU(al.ly ~d]th= leompo~en'ts· wiJhil'D, the l&mJ,gime'w:b1ch

'with a pair of s,pacing w,ashen sepuati'ag ,thek im.oS'I' r,aces)


i

~,nadlng ,of thls nature, 'w'ruehj mm,at1dido,'B 'to' ,causinG sti:[ness, WiU ra,'p1d~Y'4.es:~~o:ythe beadnl, iDViD,~,wd. 1n :clte-GlL M'a,tcbm~SB, for ilJ8tl;moo., 'tW(l1 baJJI bearitQ:l1
tOI

that ,any distance-pieces or 'wuheu*, either 'm,el:t "to the wD_eeh or b~tvleen tiie varieus bearings, are in place in tbeir CQ~t 'Ol'dJM;, otherwlse, there is a risk tba:l some 'beBl,ring aet

'in.~,end'ooto take e.Q.d;~t.hrust 'may be ,subjootled

by D'O'W

are fitted on, 't]le ddvle; d,dej, and, should these Spage.F~, '00' :in11l1dvetteo t]y omi'_t~d~ the pressure ,of 'dtc; B,hlot;.k~Il'b9'C,rbeF SI1I.bll,g 'win 'put 'f,cry :hmy.y tMlJsl-~oa~d,Sj(HI the 'bettriDgS~,,ftn!! may 'Ullom ate~y ea use. the whole B,ywboo] ulembly move DUit of 'iJ()sit~'CFD.ii:m, the d.mre-cdou, of we chain. In. thls duwp,~, . as ru 'qUlHe a number of' o,lti1.em'", the =d~thrust 01 the s]],8ck .. n absorber :sp,riug is ul·t~ed~o clamp the dlf~'ve-s~de ;m'] m m,sba:A: in ~b lbearring or bearln,gs~, Ehus", wbn. 'verif}l]1)g the 'ftyw.beel ,lOCl'lio]], 'the prm.[I ,RlliOU~d be Ugh It];y' ugb.£emed Mth the spl'1ccket and 'face ,ca:m (0(( an 'eq1Dft~~ent cUs!anoe;: piece) inl

to

'iace.

In tws e0l1}4iti,QOJ, 'Eh~J.i~ :sbould. 'be II0' m'BasuJ'RL,b!e sid. p'~a,

I. Uttsl---Slld tite craD kease Ihal v!es~ fl3''1Vlu~e&s" bearl npj) lflfld so (0 .t]) laid out prerefnb~y on saeets ef paper, :sft'ef' M.vin:c' b-earn mOM'I!l,gl1;ly Ict,ea:nled,~ Tbe til",st step' 'is a -'j al assent ~y ,of the 'ri,y'ifuee'~s 'in 'tOe ICTM'k.caS0 in ,olider to verify the centta 'Iim tID,," 'of the eon "... red and 'the l,'IDO'Ij'1l1 lor [end..,'60'aJ:~~if' ,aJJy~, en the miruihafts .. , Lateralloca:ti,on ,of the 'Dyw.beel assemb iy i.~·ronIH111:), em c~od o 'by OID.'f: of 'tw,o mm, 'methods :::eJ~r ODe ,of me' mar~us[bafls is clamped elldw,Ei:Y5 in its bearings (usutd~y ~)Dthe driv.m,g si.)~ or, aJtemlQ'ti velyl! 'rjleJ m. beaJ'i'n '0'0 both sides 0-( p
1-

piecu _ ,,,lire}; Mf"Y C'Q'(''1''" ,di.el'(!lbJ) '~"ithtl1~il~Jdu(d lfitllCe;rf'. TAn elm ~/1\1C' ;t~~'liIll tlt~ ~g.,.:rett 'UJ#uld~f ~
~eJNJling'dl',h(j,~id'e,b~ ... ,iIUIS Iouta ,Ao.r ~ )wrs
/D,f"

r1.1'ld~ or mrsplQ'f:f1 li;.l~..wm·' Il~'1' WfiJ.I~~I':f 01' pfJc/diiB

,/1 if~' a,~ _~

,,~'t'Iet

to

110;==""""'30

',£l'b.'"

~~~

.......... •....-""'Il~ lEiIAlt, ...., .

~~I

• '''''==-~=~i-_,!'
~~~~~Ii

IUC'E 'TQ ~E I~N5E Fr!I.TED

W'AS¥'tE~S

the . heels share ·the d:u-y betwee:n diem"JJ ,1!;3i.cb, IlfC:lICD.'MJB' m6"emell'~ towards its 'D'WD s ~de of'tbe engine .. 'In the 6tst-rru~;rl'ti,omuM!ie&lteg,Ory th,e~ques·ti on of ,getting 'the, am OUI~l'~ end ..,Boat 'OtHT,ect d.GtSl not arise, sinee I't is .bed and limited to II very small amoun t by the dU];gD of the lo~a:ti.orn, boor.mg.. Car-e ·m'tis!t.be takeni, how,ewr., to see

tke' M'tJtr:IJ~~!i~G~'L
serifiS'"

or

l24

TU"N-m·.NO :P'OI'I"

sr D:BD

p.~,esent:j "but if'tbe s,p·rim.g is, them. removed, there, s\hol1[d, be a, pereeptible lDle1un t:; if not, the bearing ,OQ. the timIng side is too close in and approl[priate· 'moosnres must 00 taken Ito o;btain~ ;sa~y"~OO6~m,,,loB,t ,and thUSI avaid, '!lbe pos;sibiUt, Q:f: l 'D,d'es:irl:b'le iendi...Drus,t bej'u-g, 'pht£ed, OD the: bwmg~ t ,,;m.. A·' R'II ] n erner ~emgns ,sue~~~. t'b'.e·pas . :8S ~ _"WHy 'U',· mcest -. 5_m~es ,and 'hVill,Sl! ,8, .d1sta~piooe i'!;, used, betwuDl the Inner and outer :m'un ·bearings., If'tbj's, is, irlQd,v1ertLm'rJy o.mittoo" the. ·s,haft wm be locked up solid whu the mUm m~ nut is oshtelllied up, au operB.,tioD. ~ihich mil'" not take place 1I!HI.D1. '[b,e motor' is. almos,t IC\Dm.pjete1~ a$sembl.ed~ It Is tberefofe ,I. ,~·old,e.nrule alma1s' to .ass~mble ,all reievant eom'ponell:b on the :maitlSha'ft: aad ttgh.tell 'the nut fiull.Y early 'In ~hepiece, just to make sure 'tna( aU :ms in order, TbeEL' is :Dey 1:'- vcry mneh ,cl,eIM flee to ~pB[\e ill this ,~!ccal~tynd it ma,), be 'Cbait,a a new crankp:m is a fraeticm 10 DgeJ'than the iD'fi~ nllw and .: IO,W!
'tt-

to

'proeeed.~Dg furthee, 'I n those designs in w'.hich. 'the· buriDIS on. both, sldes of '~'hlf whee1~ 3)8s'i st in 'tbeir loea;tioltQ.. jt is, .n!Ot u ncomm on to ~llow .~,p'to ,.0] 0-]0. end.", fJ] Oialt,1 except .;0 dl:0case ,of e.h .c" Veloce~,tu" i:n which. the me:sh, of' tile _~Y'e'~ dmJn.,g gears is 'partly eon'tr,c,Ued 'by 'th'8 ,oS~'tiIOD Ic{f 'Ute .JE,au].asbAf[" Tbese le·rn.guu;:s,~, and a tso th·ose P'US;b"'fOd models ,eq.uiprped "witb, taper-loner main bcarm,PI' mus,,· 'be ,adju:s:ted so that there ls :p.Feoisely 4 thou" nip ,t 'Of nepthre c~ea.rIIu:e wl1em, Ute Icrankcase is cold ~ This ls chec~k,~db1 u01tID.n,g Wi,lth [et;ler lauges the gap between the; two halves when timl1.tn.e,5s in. b;J;r.nmg 'HIt
!l'~

'tbe, ICf,ankGISe, cho'Uglb ti:JJs 'WgU1;t IOime~w~se have Ic:sc-aped notie&. Iu Seme en,ltnL~[j the crankpln out 'fIll1lS 50 C:~.Ic\Se to "he. bearln,g :houUn,g' ~htU, a "poRiod C;tlS, te be e~eilred.a'wll)' wi:th a cbisel and thts ,na1~ur.all.y BUIst dlo'De be£ore

AlrWthr' n.~lhod~ ~"'trJJ'o')'ed t~ "l~·t"·.;Jr-:f.ilI IfJcl,(J\rl~, to /ilf ~' t3 '(Jl~t'ff",1')'11; ~!hed,.ive ... ,sl:Ue' .nt'(i,i!Uh'a/l jUtill iOtlteJdili!f 'he r:rurikI(QS";'

~=

Wbtij ~/t~."h~,tl'l,« -'- \f~~e,JJuU)W p (J¥U t(J1 ftilll tim/ill .ddft'._ T1H! '1~/uUlIJ' a,~' "-If/n' pldl.r:d ILl' tflc' .()'P-p(1r,~'ta dinllfC,tio/J' Q·n.d (Jl~.~ffll'i.~~ bt!tw~n tlJ_SiJ"'ftle~ OJuJ' [J'Q/nUf.r CII>e,ck.lJd w,illl. a' jU",!lf)f r:ti4'tlJ~~
i

!d]DUtd 'be wriftoo wi'llt aU 1irnill g side IcompoJu'n]J.ts fitted

a:nd the retaining nut puUed up Ught~ .. With tb 'wheels, placed correct Iy in the ease LI nd, the' m,~t'twt tight1y bol'~ed UP'I the srnall end ot '(be cODtDretmt~.I-"['od IOU.Pt
tiQI ~!.. IQ~.

'in almost ~'lJery d~sigll

,,'I "-"",'n," ~acuy eentrai

~B

;ji,L.

b ' we· C,Y lind-er ...·arre 1 Mgts't1er --'u t. nn ~b

aUo:wed bet~woon the sma U~Dd b IJs'b and the' prusto:D bosses, a :it tle b~titndeIa centrali ~ is; permissible, There is a~wa,y.s ,8,

A im~ or

,:3J,S

mere

side eleara Dee ,WI

thickness
.. 10
~-...::II

whee! s

becomes

to ensure the correct


1Ii..,.." U
i •

mn;gt be placed
i!l.

,appa.rernt~

behind either
58
~'I(I,.

and it- m'ms

to the 'l"ei;w~s!ite

,O.T

bath o,rg:tmr.rmgs!

mJoea:wd. :b1y the 'ti'ml'n.I;-· SWu*! ~-.raoo te .iUt.wJt. 'Y.d! ,amOUlIl.t b WwC.u thermal .,'~ '11..,:: L ;1... ~pallri.OD can a1te.ct the 'bevel mesh, ICenu.aijty· :adj'uSb:l:i.ellit is Dll)de by j.ttiol s'h·m.u betw'C'e-D. 'bC'l.r.in.1and. m,ywbee~ eo
~I-" Ul OI~I'
'11,=_,::'

'01 e .. N'odiO'IJ':StI .h..

m.pl' ~,.,

'lite fts'sem'bl:~1'

bu been c-or[ee-U:y 'Itted 'Up) lIlell :SCI :tbe aim ples t rnetbod of ,cbiec.kioU' leentr~Hty ls by IcaJU.pering 'tile dh;f;lllUloe between 'the regls,~e -, n d eae'h, :side ,of"the &mall e'nd ,'vrith tbe red UgbU, a :h'~ld, aver .tH, tlu~j 'Op,p~l\si~e diroo'truO'l:l. The 'tw'O measure ... ments slttould. not differ 'by more than ,.0m.olDL. 'whm ,dbected. by 'this means, If the ,diflIerenoo is pe:r:ee:p'tihly' ,g;re~,rter, it is, no" a good ldea tOI .a;ttempt to DCiITeCt it by' bmmng the rod I~,'\'ler; s'Otc.h. a
'1-

c~rt am, amoun t

'0."

side pla,y oif the rod i'tsclf If the big~Dd

126;

'7.... 1.

,R SA

S,S,llM B L~ N·(j· C e, A N' K'C,AS,E; C o M'P 0 N lBN'T S,

'~m,pl()yed for ailjtus,ting the end ... 6oat in 'the Sleer.m,g Ib.11lck1es of CUB., 'The l00a,ti.'€Ul of' the shims vad.es~,but, '[he go~denrule is ncvc!t to put: '_'h.embetween tw,o 'p:am whie'b ,ram'te rela ti.ve.ty to one aDOtitU;!'r, 'bu'I_. omy be~wee:n f8Jc~, whlch are :i[,elati.ve: y 's,'ta:tion81}',~ Thus, 'thcy- can 'be' 'plmced IOn the mainshefts he tween the inner races ,and, fiyw.brel bosses 'or between the bearing o'ut@:rrmms, and the inside of 'their' ,hoimW.IDl,g's,., The latter lCIIlai[s .rather more W:OJ'Jt in fitlingj btu in ~om.l~ designs is the OD~Y :5u~'[fible plac.e~Fo,r tXI1J1],ple", V'e'~o~~,te: ma:iDsha£:ts are ground. with a very mrJo\\r' taper, Ind the d·' :ra'ces, are 'e£'U,gDe-:- d to fit 'II!-I;~~:Y [uI~mUln w, hen h..;!l rt .::',nh"~';MoiL. narc UPI ~..JIms,t 'the :8.y\Vhe~ls; o,bv,iousl~l[j ij"' :s:rums 'wer-e in terp cse d, die fit ,of'It;he inner.' r.a'ces ,votdd. be sUck" 'S,O the shim~ must 'be ,pi[a,oed bebiDI~ tbe ,outer race s,

i7~~ (n'''rlt~fld~ci2rns~' ~'1l!11.U' ,JjJU't';r; I,.-qll~rtr8 O.JJ" I'~ 6ilJd s:kl~ Ii'IJM "Y/Jes, f~ fJtDt ettd-jlD~t' IJ~ "~'t1'flJ'w,lItt:J (!SI1 ,~\,dJtJt
~1l~t' 1M ,(lwii'dtull!! D'I'lM'Bnw_~~,t'ile b~WJI gear'S M'#i lej\~J ,"iI'J!' mesli 1",.t:{}"il'€.'l,IJ"~ ~h~,~/)~ ,~rmtUl"g,fi lCJU(:$9~, Full tf8fa ils o/.'{JiJ corn~l treatm'llMI !Q;'].' gh~el,r ~IrJltl.J:'CU'nrpDlO'ing If!JJt'l ~

,e~'

w,c,wd ,s.tmply und"o tbj~ 'y~h1e' of Ute w'ork, ,mvl,o.usly carri~ ou:t in . ruing' U Pi the: rod .' lns~eld~ ICt'H~I'OOti'OIIl, must be e~ec~ed by alteri os ·the la t~'f,al~~c.a;~iQ~ ,of the 'l1.ywheells,-he:n'c-e 'the reason ("Or'the [trrn~d.asscmb~y before .finally ,Ic!:jus.tim,gthe end ..ftOII't;, SiD,ouldl [he latter be: lexooS$iV13\1 O'bV~'Dlwl:y' 'the sjd,l! 1011 w,mch, i,t is!taken up should be the ODe 'hi' ~ ill '~,:--..-.. fr1' ~n ;I;;L 'W: e h WL_ Ifml d-' cenrk:'a.~ tne s.ma.~.It d" ~ . 'IUJI ~ ~.iI!.. i ,.JII ~" ..mI AI * ~U!l. Th.eE',e are \',a('[10H, ,me'wods- 10.· uuJus:ting ,Cllu.'·,'UI03:!!i' 'I!.. * ,g'OM e r 1lhem en ul~ru the use 'Olf shims, which, ilf not 3,v,mli1ble. ,ti1i\"l;'m-· makers- can he cut. ,_ _ shim,~s.t~el snack cr, :illt-em&.. .. i~ ~LW]!W '., .. ,._ from livelY'11 'Use can be made Q,f the. s'bim.-w,ubets CtUODiOnly
procedure
r..

!ti..I~ ..• I ~,'~ D,

I!!!!

~.28

be:hmd~ A,t 'Ule same'time,1l it is, wUJe ~Ol yed~y [bat the roU~r!, !bavs :StdBc~cm~: c'icmr.a.nce bc'tweeD, thoe·'~yw,bee~s D.nd, the end cbArdelu:d washer' placed ot the other side of tiu~ enter race, ,otb~irSe rthey CH!1l1 ot 'rota1te flre~l,and wi '~Ta.pjd~y d~tr(Jy the sba:ft sy I:"fl!ce~In the fl!CinG, 'cYAm O(r t'W:s 111ake, 'ph OS:pilQfbfoMe, ,-h~gs t waJShera, are in'~eI,po\sed be ~:ween the 8yw'bee'1 s ,I'no bearing s;leev,cl :and side--'610\l:~, can be ,n!p:~a't-ed, by usmg I-lIilml of v,arying tlYcjk1Jle;sIS .•, \Vhen. 'bnihling up an old e:.rmgine: with new parts, l't w,w:U octl!ionally be fl].rurtd, Itlia,t (bere is no cud play,;: 'there WS~I $0, to ,~peak~, ImC18.tiw clearance. In tllul,'t ey~tl'tj 6~,~ h_,t 'the lcase~,drop, ,out 'Ole: main 'beariD.IS~, remove :any shims, 'the:~ ma.,' be, and 'then 'tty' again., If thi So tteatm'eD [ Is of DO ,8,vall: the .onl,. 'thinG to do, is, ~dd.mthe requi sl ~:: amount ~f' '~;etaJ of[ (be :f1yw'hej~lbosse~the: a::m,croot bein,g dete rmlue-d by measuring' me djstMOO 'b~tw~e:n. 'me m aim. be~~~ with !the ease boll~d l!l p ood s\Jlih.m'cting this fl"om. tll,t) \Vi d,'Ih. (W'M the 'flywheel bosses, FQr. tins job, ,m, Ja:I~' ~~iT of' e(l:®muaJ and, mtf3mal caJUpars (01' an iutemaJ ,m~,a.oml~t~) re a reqmredt
l

J ~.Ai'P'~, modJf!ls the [loUers rnn 'Wloot on 'tbe: liude-nei'1 ~:ha'RJ and IfmJd, 'pllay is Jb.cd by tti'!!' cle-o,rall'c-e be:lWee.D, the flM~~es t!tbe oater rim.!J and tbe 'fi,y\vbeel b osses. 0',' If (aIDS is teo ~'~-~ these rings must be shimmed u'P' ,from. Apim.1

,m maD,'

TUNINlJ

'poa

SPIJin

'I, E,AS,S;BM Irt

lNG

CIt A.N ,K.C A SB

C'O M.P' 0.],1'11r~rrs

..

pm. ,of the cb~ekinl, roubna" mj:ect on. '\vj.th the ,pres:SUlI1e. 'CaJ 11 thf\Oll1!h IEVery oilllilSSB.·ge tbe:[i',e may haprpen te be teJI make; ,~'b~~HJ:tntelJ ,oortUn all are c~Mn ,and, 'tOI wash 'QUit iit'D.y forejgn ,ma,tter,. 8k.lme·rjm es ,an oJJ ll.o'le ,may 'be 1l1,ook'C:1, 'with, e~Qess ': ,ga,sltet cemetrut. and it is better to clc:.u- i:_ at 'WI sm.ge. 'Ulan
,~,~ ',', -', :-, ,'1....... ~ ,. 'I ..:J',- "-,' ;-: ~,'nilh" aner - some mecU.~,mca uamag'e ,'110" .. ", neen mou,s.u.t ~,S
't;.,,,,,,,,, ,

feeds, I.Ddi car-e m~t be 'taken not to overstress them.~ Ai,

Some

Ic;[,nnkees£

'bolts ,a1"8drill.otl for' 'tJ:lindeI ... base vil ...

]lirm].Da:ry to checl¢inm;
.11

The next 's~ep is to

ts '~ew 0]['

i.'ts, ,il'!' lie '~I the barrel, If l11e piS·tOll Ia A'... d ~ie !J'O!!. d 'jl,.:'_ h oo~m8ge:l' ..'1... 'I..... t'om e:ge 10f 'h e ,s~' " :5:.,''CIU 1d
1 .,:

'fit

'the. pist-OfJ, mlnU8 rm.,!S~ as a pre-

!I-. ," ,wR.Ler .' on,

compound hardens, MHe a'blo:hJtiC'1y lure 'that DD'tbjD~ bas been omJn.ed wmjc:h. shOUld. be :fitted .ilt dus s;ta8~1 ...~= 1 l' ~t ~"L.':: :PUJ.u.CU ,ar'I.Ym umt-eonsteucnen engm.es Ln. Wille - certwD Il~lbox eom [l(Ul1Cl11ts, m.:, ha V~ to be in place before; the, m case goes '~ogetbel'~,Even ~bougb some may .have to H r,dtmd &ull'Seq_'Lu~mlny" :~ is Ilr-eftra ble to :ill s,ndi dg~,ten aD, t tb ~ cmnlicase bot'l;s at t'hl~ stag·~, 'but ,a:t aU ev·entl i~ma. 'Vlery' baJJ(!I, pr,actice 'EO' ]put m a :(ew' mn 'the :regm.on Qf' the eylmde:r. Im,vimg. '{be 'bottom ones! lo!utbem'usc th-ey are DOit, e~y' 'tiD ,p;; at just at the m.'Dmcmtll Subsequent, .jrOilut I~e mlly be traced. "u ~LBJiiI' rt"'~niNir, ~,'I;..i,i!.'! . ~
m [i

jrObrtJmg compound ,and ~enhtmbh,:(I.. The anther's 'pl'1_ r\Cr~ i!l frO IO'D'e of the 'oD"']~,alrdem.i'lig, cements, ncb 1;5: .,1·(la s.k,e~..goo which does TLl'C(t dry It} D ic~ldy so t1~a't 'fuere: need be m.O 'U ndne haste to slap 'the case together 'before tb~
~'~I

Ha"ving fimIJJ~y' ,obtained. a sm~eJ alf per-feIlU,oID .in 'ffh;icb the fod, its cen't:fl.l :and, !the end ...Jloll corfe~tl!the 8",Jtiooi5, :ShOiUld, f ,SpiD wid] the gr-eates't eU0 IB, 'the· rod. Is pumped, Up' IDd, ..11 ';i,'... ;Ii,1:.. C_.ill ;I;L,__ h i()IU , ~e uo.lWD wnn 'Iwe ~\geI:SlI :BUllY '~i.; s·,~ ld 'Ik no ILr:ctp'll"j".'1 ~.~e ,... I~Im'i! 1 • If. ,f" 11 ~i' '~j,t.., '",:,. ,,1.., 11_ t-..al '-b I\,. UlllIe:mOOO in "lal~, wrt,IJ,'Dr Wlu]}Out !,\.ili,e, ,S:~I,{lCN.e ' ,any, ~'IO-eJii., absorber mn ,,'Iace'-, ]f there is: 'm~cause mus;~:b, 'trl!C:ked down and ,eUmlno.ted. ftOnB wi t'!i and n.'OI~·,Gtoss~d over til the hope tb:l~it tWin ruo IQiff s hordy' in ieniioe. If aD is we~~,,-&~ cran'kc-ue jomit can be cealed 'with tb~ pre£c'ffed form o.f
t

,A'irl "',.'t1fJf" ifJ' ",'Or:ktli~/i}'!o

$.i'•

"~' 1~i!'C:eMtt'(jII' ;I~ftmg of ~h61~a'IJle'cri~!&


I'IJd; ,tld~ ~QIJ' 8fJ/ab bll' (lfte' ~.t:'eiJ U ,fjl 1J1Q.~~,of· jir.lJ.t ,p,l,(J)t;l!d 6~,f~Y,4"n ~-nmt~~, tJnd e',~JJ.·d'CJltng ,rtJt(, 'lVIII, dla' lu,t'lu Q;f ,fioln,m

"lfJl::r_~

dfNld CMFre},.

b-

.~

;io .....

", "_' ._

Ii!~hil.v~

be p~r.aUe;1 'EO 'the ermkeaSIi ,[aee in II. db'eeti .. panl~~e'~ Oifi 't·,o tt.& ma"wsbafu,; bu't'l Owirll,l te the, VaO DU19, laDlOU't9, Df side 'p1,my' 'pfCSCD't :IUd. dtl: sba;pe tbe boUcom edgej \vbicb ls .ftrequetD'U, by .110 means mat. his· is not an eas, m4ttu to ·rehec·k 'w1tb. ,~H!-alilDC.uta,G'Y,! 1m ftlD1:y case" ], dees not rna.Uer ,I ( ~lfea:t deal; 'wlla,lldo'6J :ma:Uer is 'wletbJDt the: ·pi.S~(nllies,'C-eDU,al~y ~I ,and! parallel tc, the. ba:mt. 'Thi~1is ,chetilmd. 'by Ugh't~,y·bo·Uing 'the cylinder ln place.,~d 'viewin,~'the p1i ston from. the open end ,ot·the b\l.lJc[ under ,8 aeod 1::"I!'iII'hIt.' It, ':IL~ fIlJIl~llq~~I~Iii'.Eii A~Iii"1:J t'1,Iyl ~~ J~UCIj. '"U~!JJ.lw 'm':'~'nn-' l=-UU IUry ~jJ' YI~~~ r~.;:i:~'~':.. doe'S '~ej md. if it shows tttlIy \fullcd,'egrura ble tendel1.cy '£0' wor.k !I)v,e.rto ODe slide when 'the ~B)nWb~J:~ re rotated, a II~. '"t,~, I. .S1gn ,t'JII.lio,·. n eii"ii"n.,...____.niF' m- ~a, 1~11". 11i'U ,ib'Iiili't... J!! Ill, 1:S ~:,;l'" ,a I ~.II. m'ulnpIDi\ei~ I(lr small errors ,aD lOOruDB' the samel 'WB.';...._is,

or

~,t!. oIo'b'ii:iIii'i

_I

,_'

1 •• [

'LU.~~

o"ii

;:"Q.:i;

'i'i.,,'l.';i;I<ir.'i!;Ii

,j.'lI!..p
~!Wl

,,.:[I;f'il;ftliIl! U~I

'!li!'I!;;II'j;

'I'! iI"!II

I'

,~

c:-

'0 Q,U

\L,IIl....,.:~-Ull.,

'·V.!II,,,,,",

'1'3·'0'"
I~" •..••

1.3,1

'T.U.NINC· PO .• SPJIUlD

ReA.S 3EMDE.~,N'G ca.A til' K.C.AS,B IC OM, P"ONBN'YS,

trouble, Som.et1m@s 'lreveming 'the piston. witl eff~t .8, cure, ,rulbclij,glb ~tms method, of coms~ lcannot 'be: ad,opt~ (emep~,as ,8 '~emp1Q':[arymethod of' ehootmg) with a piston ·wruch. has 'un~'r~.uud ized; valve cl~[,ance: -poc'k~~s ill '~he. ..a cnOWD IC(f wItb the :sp,ut..mdrt pistons fiU:ed ~o a ftw' ,sports mJ'od.ells wIn,ell m'IUs't, n)OI£: '10 run w~th,he split to'WUd.5 the rear, e t
1C&1IU si [lg
t

0'",tllruS!'tl!

,i.de" Bvetl iif Ilhe 't,Oj) ~a.n,d_SI a,:ppe~u' t-OI 'be oonttw.~ 'thms, 'pfoivid,M

o.f :ktnes;s, 0([ squareness at (be eyH.llde1"",huG' lang~' Oltr' erankease faee ls the most probable C3JlI se, and 'flus, CaD 8 om.~times 'tJ~ detected b:y' lobserv.wng 'the' effect 'olloosenjl!) g Ithe;. 'bO:ttSi ODe or two at a time, Fbnd fitting, is dean \Ni t h a.t th e ,end ,~r ha,prter: X.~ C Tneg,o,fde,D r~i~ei C),uriD"g ass~m'bmy are aIUJQJ'8' to ,ch'i!c:k.
le've"J'tJ~iTlf yo~~, as y,Q~~ Q;loftg~101«1 no',t ,to ,assume QnytJ'il!,~r QIJI go
..:1 ucen ,0bser,VC"tl..

w.fferen.ees ,of ,om), a, ,miIl,@f .n;a;t LW 'Ire, enst a IlU~,eICaJfe'~~l\Vo,rlt ' w'":dL, del/d, smooth file will 'U'suaUy'ooe1ify ma;tte~~,~Se¥"fe cases 'Cil.U for 9! UtdB .m,o[,edr,a'~'~p :~"'t!~itm~"iii'it'_ and l~ ma,,il! be "'iI'-~-:-'Ui e
l, ___ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ ~YII'Iio!' UI,~ ~;I;:Il" ,1IillIII

o.f the 'piston 's:houJd :thcn be ,sym m,ett~C8:11" 'marked~ 'but i~'

no g-uaran~ee til;8r~ ~h.episton a~ a whole is tyim,l: l~~e~., Tbis csm. bes t bel' ''Verified b:y Itm,run,D; the 'c'nglline, lover :seVle:ta.] nm'e,s, after ~oatmg the cyUudcr !bore with ,0 'Y;ery Ugbt (ai~mosl imp~rocpllJb~e),s,mea'f o;r prussian blue, Bath tb.rusl fnoeSI '

is' ,car,,'tfI' ,_it f~o,rd verifying u~ Many hours ,or h.urri,ed mid~, wght toil 'wluUWd hav,e been avoided time ,and 8iaiu had these
1...

.' ~. .~ I·'"" BlDl.p_Cl PfCCIU1ilons

..

blot.k, ,ofmu~rtal'w.hicb. ',1J1i(:1j'uslj'am iDio! me :5.Pa e: _e.tw~m 'tble'Cifa,;nk,~'sc mouth Md, the ,!;.:b~81Jlk'Df'the Fod c a bout mfilf' ,BD iu;cn b01,gw' the little end, ,Insert a m_ln:dre] (nD"t' your Ichooki.Ql mUlufrel ~)I'ill'~Othe, sma, 1-cod.bush ad, bead ill d11~:equlli,i"e di'EtiOIl., remem 'be'ring '{ba't ()on~~y r ia, 'very' sma.ll,~m!oiJnt is, 'fcqldrld t.o, 'm_ake ·8, big dHfer0J100 to
IceD,tre a:md srel.'sct
I
l

[DJeQU.sa.ry'to set Ithe small end. slilhmly'~ ,~lt:b,ou;gh this 'wi~~ 'b " a Mieet:on, OR tlle q;LU1~ty of previ'Qlus, 'w'or,k,; Te p 'rfbml thla opel,stio'lil pOlSiti,OD Ithe, .ro,d a"t bou,alm dead

'me

lhl' pO!~:ti,GD, 0(1' Ih'G 'pi:St'OID~ ,00wiD,. ito the '~a,fiter'~'s, mlatively

Qoce; tile 'pi~iton is 'reaUy true, 'It ough,t '£:0, 'be possl ble 'to mil k1eit 'F.,eeipr,oea:b~l,'wUho"I!n :dc,p) a,~least !!aU" ~ doze,Q ,t irm_9 by ~'tns' it :1, 's;marlt pUSh; wi.ltb, me 'lihwnb ,d!own:wams, 'rr,om l.d ..lC~ ,and, ,it: I~l(:ruid always co'me to '~Nt ,a:t 'b.Jd,e~, b eeause the Iywheei Icona~er;ba'lnnce wei,p:~ m ies-!, :rhan 'tna,t of tb.e "t5,r£OD, aJM if\Od,~ BefoDC :ffi;fia!ly eompl~tiDg 'the, assembly, temporarily ji,t dil~ barrel 8D,d, head and Ipul~, :he mJI!lU down to iOOlrec:1 b~lM ion 'b1J' v,C'rify t~'lIl'tDO baud d:ls~orti,'on,'is th,e,n:.'b;y bl'\o'lllllht ' about, W dis;t,ortion, .[lS present, it 'w.mU 'be; Iho,wn up, 'ry the engi'tnl,e; ot 'bemg qulte sc free to tum as it was, before, Lack n
132, 1.33

,rt.'ttr~ lleDgth~

r.T:I' Ai, ~'D' ~Ufty,!, ~~

'V'

Tlj'6 mIJ:ikl1~ e/fed 'Q{ dup r~'Cesae~m~yb:l!tQjf;... ~,J: /):1 R,~Jlllhg,dc;!iwr.~ the'
!f}r-ig$ml.l

,,;fillet

"i'fl!IMn~, ,(!;Q!1ltruu

J(trt'J'llij!g

jl'ulS::.

'flH

t"ead:, :For ~, 'boltm I-do,wn~! provided further 'work, ~,obe, dome ei'ther g,P O'D it ,C '''iu:; pi~tOD,~ If~ howevell"[j' larger val Vies or a bi,gb-domed phrloD hl,\',o
't..~Ii!II'"' UlIii;VH

,have

II'OW

p,roQOOidedl to, the point, where

Ithe barrel is tll~'~: dJ~re is no

'to vlsrify ·tba'C the valw peCKt.U, mil th~e:PWSbJ'D ,ClOwn are wBlcien tly d:sep, and if not, 'to deepen them wm,dl w~il l ,m~D 'tbat, the barrel must I~tl(me D'ff agam ill order to 1carI)f au _ li~ foe-mach inioS Of.' to get rid 10 S w,a rf if Ul,e,pockets, deepelll1cd witl~ the. piston ,~n place, Another matb!;,[' whlcb
USGD;'tjall
ij'
1 ,'

'iG'~'+.fti;d'I:" '0[- 'iI!"L"I' '1~""l""rd;~1 Ulfj,,~, ' w~ Wilt!(, ",,;I

1tl!t,..,II"II~'idi!"lliD-,1 i;Jllij'l;,l!',y.,'!I.-'!Iii--D'!o!IU

'ii1',~, '~.l!' 'iii if!ij"ilJ !li.1W

,j2[\i+Qii'iI't·_
1Iiir;n'~1

JI

,~

\II _

~'ii:
.._,,,",

.fa~to\f wmch 'wi]) be '~,cHll!chedUPO'D tate r ~ 'TI -" r- m II .. Jl"ie:V~ltJ nl' to, i'h, questl '. e'm, 0:'- va.~,W ,c~e:llnlliIJces:,~ m iIi'l., ... sne 1~JJj,em

can

- 1!.."""

. d ",t a,u.]},:!;;:~

'tOI

II~'. at tms stage

."~ ~ ., , lS _iJilg 'n'". ..all IDi1DtJ ~•._d~iaY,

,~w
~ ;11.,.11

are

£elves! p,is,tOD, .re~sS'es p,e DI~I I~~.Wth~,'U!~...,.,...:m, f2C'~ ithe,lI are deJmmH~Dta.1~ iDa:sm n,eR as they :bre.ak u.p 'tbe crow CODJ'louf

b ;m;!lii'"riU'II'taJ ,~, ~I'iii',d- i':5I"fi"t'ii\' ... d,c ,Ii'io"""', '...i''''''', '_ l .4!id- ;;n tli' .J'hiQ. @1tr'iI!oji"!lti,','_n;~;jj'II'''''Ii!'D !!!i!I:J"~",,~ 1Ii."-\Ii, l!;,.. '_ """"'"'[J! Q'II"II 1;" _ "" ~-.U! bl!!.' of' m:gh'''iDif0rlla.lll 'va] ve '~:rmingIt an reM oocdmg1y im,portam_ :perllod of the icyc]e~ Ab;bO,1U],!h nus ls o(ruy Hke~,Y to, be sedous [f u1tta,.hlgb oo mpf.1esm"on, ratios are brd:og sought afteri th~ 'teondeucy 'to mas'kll1;g of lbe valve beads can be reduced 'by miW:ng flrm'lS Ion the: cnJ,\v.n-tD~say ~hJiillt' he m axlmum d~p~h. '0:( 'the :pocb't ,-and CQ,tlDtenrbormg ~Dto,he flat! to make up the, ,rest or.'the t .. .",.. .. '" ~ d II C,''~>rao,ce fequ~J'le- ".' Anether ,Clint £0 be wa'~ched ,iIS the ~aticlmess lof .m,BuJ
,..lI,;e._iIlfl".i!IllI'I!~

and create pcekiets,,of gas in 'which d,~t,oni,ti,on may 'ta~~ pi'~aoo'!,lIlllex~rem~ ICUU they may even rendlcr I,ltop.si.demble I po" ~iOD of t'b;e vwvs-,ope:llin,g area, :imopelB tlve rO'f H, few
u~~ ""'~
I,
,1Qc, i,II....

a. 'II ..., ... ex~elirt 0'0 ~~ge '£he 'l,ype of engiJ!le and Ihe con,di-tiol'l s of ratio,I!, m '0" b.• , camshaft desijpls, (provided the sp;rings, am c,' '(be CCUTet't ~Gtr,en8thJ 't11evaJ,va foUaw the: cams vety' cl(Jse~,:Y to ,R 'u:p ICiJr1tUm designm '9,peed~ PI,O'Yid,ed, dlfM1efo~ti 'the revs, are :studi'ous,~y klcpt bel,GW ,rile d.an,prmMk, by '!:be use ,of ,R,retV~ C-O tmD 'I,.,.. _'the clanu"iJce Deed be O'n~y a ~j'fjb~ grea:oor.--say'j' ,iD..-Ulan tbat lleoos~a'ry just 't'DI C:lea'[' tn}e, "1~ye-bead's,~)t '-'H,e pc'mnt al w'bieI1 the, '~~'ves,nd 'pb.~on are in '[hI. C!OS'Ht a
nee d
'LO ~:I!'
iii·

must be ief1;~ ]ms,tI:ffic1em,Jt tb:i'ekness R't this point aUows aa excesli¥D ImOUB,t of heat to 'pass ihro'ill"p 'tOl the !ta,p' rim,,~~ 'mOf-eOY'6f'j' the upsw,d.ml r,im of :mew.~will become very :b.ot. ,aDd CODSB'1ueEl'Uy weak, and liablllc 'to' erum ble a \Vay rn'f' fOf' ,any :reaS;ODL 'the carbw"etter is de~v\C!fml a 'weak miXture 'l1Bs brings epl the q uestion !o"r' h,QIW'deepl lb,,, pock.ets. really
1!.....-,

~)DW,WCJ

iiJ,.,::

h ~e
,ii,'I1..,

8llS,W6f' '.- epeDlo.!I,1,0


,,oj

i1

!!!lII"lo"!I!.YI
l

iii)'

"II;,.!\.I~'!i!i'fi!!@I

,jew d'e.gre'€!s ,',rJ' e,t:tne,' aide'j dcpe·ncHng en tirel" up all the C3m eeatour and tlmi'IlS 10 Rbt,liolQ 'L,g - the' 'pi.~t'O'B,· movement The danger p~lml:s can be de~enm'l]ed'by 'tem,p~J.mriJy' SJettm.8:
u~ the hMd 'with Ugh't ,sprm,gi ,aD the valva

ptro'.:dmi'tyll

TIi'i8,fBl in'ot nt,ct,;JQJ"lljl'

tIt' ,t~J",C'1I

but ~y

be

Q'

ii

the Mn,C,wt: of Icl~a.1mei U!l1.d~r.' bead each


erank

and cneckIDn,r,
0

rotntior:t~ mea sltE.cd, by H, degroo,.,p.bL&e',OD maj~D:" [S,hafEJ, 2udl willi 'both 'VaJ],\TC;S ,correctly' timed" Another 'meth,od, is to' ,fill]] ,th~ p o~k&ts of' a 1], old pm!:O'B

,mll:tn

imt,ervaIs of

'me

;"!!im-lilill"of •U!L',e peeker and '(be '~~n :rin PITO'g,,, .... ,ul!.#A..... -- - . - I" thl:s can 00 I~'lll].~'te 'thm on !h,e -~t !.dde dOViD, 'perm:a:ps to ... In., but om, the cm~u1jt si,de as much metal, aa p-DS'sib'tc·
'~~~"'''''''''!'

~"W~i!I.

. .j;,~"A.

W"",

'....

"","iV,

'!<il!i,

'!O;.iI'

p'

,;! ~

,I'

;Ii

1,

-th~t ,the 'va,~.ves, f'onn ~mlp:m-MSi()lH!l1 in the s;oft:.'m;a:terlal .. Thcs~ 'will be Itb0 nlin~·mlIm depths" 'but rImmml eXp,lmioD (lif' the p,iltom~ ,I.U)' rocklnJl ,of tbis component in 'the 'bar,Fe]
If:U)

with dleep recesses witb plbsticine and rotate 'l&e en:gine

1,3,4

135

.. .. . .!f.~.111 ""!!I '.~. '1·U·'IIbI·lII·.li;.]- G:. FO·

~!ll'iHn!"[l"1F'fI; ~.ln:k,.&~,~j

ra:UQ8
b

' .. ...:lII~ " If you are ~lll~D.ums, to ex.piSJrimlent '..


:ID'~
.• :1).......... vl.:·.... IW..... """""r.lLUll..

Mv~ :p'rlyvjhde~.:for ~ne


der:" ,~, ..
'~

0:1':'
"""'

C'.lom.p,[,e;ss:i!o.D t.wo p',~eld.m.1 ,p.lams,


WIth.
..

•.

~;I[j;n*'1II.. _ !!O.<~Q,W.

l"tll> J";I]
,~

,UJI,o£''I"I!lO!!-'..

ItIIIA,~.r~.,.,l!jj,blA,

,foR" 'L'U

As a 1iDal touch the: ed,~~ of the pockets sh.ould 'be rounded 0.11',H,d the 'pmton ,cr'(~WI1l. olished" preferably On a, p
P()'W~f..,rir1 en c loth v
Or
IU

I(dearanoel

'£0' lult, mile highest obtainable ratio,

D'A :arm-n~v we
·Pit-

-'J '¥.Ii!.'ve:

'boM

UI

'whi:c'h

mop wi'ith T'W"1i D~iCOl]1POUDd P


CElIW

be fitted

.m

mops, ,a dlri.nd·ruJlCk~, gif' to a

",ImaU

- - 'n· ..J -d" --- .1.... liJleannl e1'mi,anoo:s, au te:J1I!;J. 't 0 00·· uce, '~JLle :me3lSDTed Ctea:rO:DICiSS mnd 'die actual. p,ockiet'B s!Hxlld 'be W~' :3 0 to ,40, 'th,oa .. de-eper. O'wlDg '£,0' 'th; lel!~el ,PQs.slb~Ut,y (,If 'Ylw:pl O,f' ,sprm,g in pusb, ..
11y,
)I,

~A&e-\:1'p
;'...
1

0'1.

,f," L··

'SlUPP0 rl,ed-I :1 ~iU1e 'mo,re c:~eava:PC8i 'is WlUS,;, e:V'~D fo:r roa " ra c1!n I, W'OI'1t w:hlfie
l

ro d, :mecbamsms pllrlicul!lrly'''f tbie: fG~kem


l

a;r0 010"

be ,k:,cp' 'WI,dul' obsen3rti.olt~ 1m crtbreJ v,meues, of raclD& l=ull1i aidad" scrambles, 011''S,P[Wl eJveD'm w,bell_J .m the heM [lit ba.tUct.- DIIDU are Uable. ~o' b ,srC\s:~y over... ·m~,e d., i' ~8 'b=st, 'to ,,:11\,' sue ,UG t,o, lOut 'Ih,~:P(H~~t,eIS, 5uftlc1e.n;Uy di3~,p'10,
'ClUf
~, ., 'L.;I;:1l..

dakable ln oJ! ~ "~ 'dle mY,,, C1o!um'tel can,

too weU

'N,LET V,AI.YE P,AIRTL,", . HA$f(~E'~HERE

.me~b(ld, ,of' dee.;p0~g 'the p C-C~ltS is, to, filc cu.~uml~'beenh,on the beads, 10f' ,0 o~d,pair of' 'valves ud· ~fter 'b cl~'trnn,B;'the c,ylwd!er head om, whb 'the p~st(l,n '~OCkI2dat t.d,e .. 'to ratite ~ ·rliose. va;~ves, with U1C I.wd !e,' ,8, 't;a,p.-w,i'eJlcb 6:1i' s1nlitar to DI IC,Bm,ped on 'dle item~,~ 'Tlli,Si 8icheme has ~hePl1e'dt 'that the
t

"Jit!iMiiol, 'tDB

OOIW v,a

1',va ,. ·'f oiiI,iL, I - .', I.,~ wc:m

'f· ~,",111 ,:~,

use ,of a DlliUinG mfliC'moe,. 'lh_ oo.mmon

,W

i.JU. .... ,

Ululidy de.ep receiS.I'l!£ t~fId to d\6.~~ (jftle l;JI~,t ml'l_ .

,rite' efferf;dF.~' ~t-M

wi'~~. ,allinos~ ,c.en~inly strape~ the, pock,ea sides; Ith~reroi"eiL wj,ll be noo~ssa'r,Y ei~ef i:()1 use "Ia,I,W,M (or, ~tte,r stU I'll' a 'pro,pef.' cilllJt.ter:~ 'wbi~cb! eaSily 'Ib.: .. m,~ ma,t[e from. a, 'piece Vir hardened '[ooll..stee:t) a.bolut in, huge',m: in, Wl:metellf' rtJh;ap tbe F=d vtdv't:s:;. or else 'to' :r.l~tnove 'the: :oeeess~_ry ,a,mOtiDt of :me:la:~, y scraping; a Ia.borious lind not ~

d- as llJJ!Lewo:r,-,_ 1P:r,ooee~i... ,. Iii;., " ., ..,1:,. . - . -, 'k ._. . ....3 u'tn',[il a;,cwaJ,~, ICleillUlnoo' CIB I~emeu ure of course, the: facti~5 ,of 'the: poct,et. 'm.ul, ,[armed, is ,exr.wti!' eq'oo'l to, 'the: valve bead. I,t is, obvious 'tho,'t in 'rWlloi;q; COD,"',
li
11- - - . _ -'L - --- _.
jl

diu,oDS the rim o,r the

'yatv.~ head

'm

,smfa~e rsU'periOf ito anyUing' W'tticb can be ,obt:aJned by ,Mod ·\?.i-Ih'Ih.e ,aid of' :me:ta:h"'poHsl1i Th value ,of I&mOwn' 'polkhW.&1 Iike 'that '0,( pOrlt, p'oltishiDg' is ,a. Idle'bAtable, p'fi1m't1l as some engines do not ~ivc ,of thlBir 'bC:9;t, until a 'pelfceFiD,b~e to'f Carbo.n bas famed., The ,eq~.eQ)ee' ,t),f'eW.lQ,m is mctlrl,aJh~' 'lids: ,R brigl!ic:l1,bi,ghl),'''polUhed lIIF,faee: aJlsor'bs less beat. man a. dull black ane and as,
I

for' a s:hUnng,or tw;,o~a;o,d this form,

lexjblg. sbaft, as used for port"'II'rn.tlidm, ~ can be ,purcMse'd


0"

pollsbi,n.,g

.giVH

a,

rum

very caBy j,c;b to dOl rdce;ly',~,

mixture,., more ls avsila ble fb"r lo.onve,morn in to meehaaieal 'W'(lft.. This, 'i s ·~.he'
,b.9It iSi ex.'b:a~~ed by it from 'Ute burniag 1,,3/7

m,.s

TUNING

,la',R SF1n:()

stS: e ,of dm rs when the e<nglOO is :iIlt run, but :shorU:y ,1_Rer~, if usmg, fuel. othe-f '~:harll:alco];u}l,. at. film of ,ea;r11 tlD ,form~ which, '~ea.tly increases beat ,absorpti~, there'by ~rnudng ,POW'eJ~Md. mC1licum,g 'tao piston 'tempem:tuEt., 'Carbon b,o'wever'~:is, ~ very" 'bad cendueter ,or ,heat.;: tm:u~mfrb:re[i' ,~Si the ttbickness ,~ncreu'e1S 'the ]b.,eat ab]e, t,O' :pISS tmJ1l'IDgh the deposit to th." ,mel3UiiC' surface beeemes less, ,Dd: SIO' the PIOW'til :returns :Ilm"ost' '£0 :~ts,ormer' fiB,~.. f ;;,"_ U']Js[n.g a~coh.ol a polished !OIlOrwD will ,remalD br~m)'t 'fOlf a .1(1ng; tWm~i and, wll;a'm~l' 'the, fbel uaedt ~,s,mucb. ,easier 00 dcclfbcnize., Gmer.aJ1y :S',paa.kin,l. a, w\an degree of paIIsh is
t
1

, Wben an extremc'I,Y- lu,,~dome is ~Ied la :~!_D~ D;deav,o~rto iIi..~: Ill.. ~ ,,..:iIi 'tit'" to btain a, very :mgu comp(tlCSsOI1 rat~.o,!,'twi'~~ is B u3.[nlICII' ua_ the 'p]ug win be ibadIy' m~e(t 1"oe, C~:C\SC p'lro:dm:~,'~Y 'Ilhe; or erewn te tile p;~u\gPOi1!fts, blocks (he r,apid s',p,reaJil.img. of tile
i, .'~ '.

p.rcfara.blecO'

__

f ;ii,'I.. 'iii.. Atne u,ea,u_....boiw .., nus de~dp takes the for In ora reeess in the head w:hich fits IOiv,cr at :s,piS1ort (UJI. the barr-el~, reeess and s,pigot be.iQg oil ,&1Ujbst;mt~aUy !lql1lW de,pths~, To form a ps!!'tigh ,join't 'tb,e tw,o ccmponents title; gro,'nnn '~O" ~ r~ with 'pR,f] grtnding :pute 'bet·ween. the ~pl,gO't.:fa~, and ,coarse ,pa~-t~' bet,Wleem, the broad outer 'fiaQei Ithroug_b wJti,ch 'Ute, b!oUs 'pass The res'U~t of 'this ·m.elbod is; to 'tea:''lIe a m,inumgall 'lu~c~w,eenhe bro81d t races when the s,pigo·t are In lietuaJ ,COD 'tact;: thus wheA Ithe bo'~'Cs are Ugh~ened, bel vy pressure IS i\;ppliedJ, 't·o 'the
1:' ,i,'L

~r-~l'li't!' ut .:;'. ."d·'j I~ere'n'~pfi1li~ilf'i'Iii'iF- ~~ lOll! Wl~ 1 ''llSie~ ,tiD.. ~ \,ltw a* '._ WJ:.t. '. _ :t. '. _ ~l:}il',.111 ~.... '··..::1,... Y and. ,~S:p'arDeU~M]Ygood ilthe head 1:9, DO,t-V~'(1 w'"btlst and th~

bet'li ealA __w'~~~


1il1

....~rL'!i; 1L¥r'~'

I!ii@o'

:,~,:,

j/,',,",",.;!i

1: b .:II: ,.;I I,CI[',e L.1I tebe ULi:s,tor~-e~iIJ,._ ,UB\IIlI;(C, !u]f'

lW,iC mDli'Oll, 0:

races

'the broad fues ao,miDg':m_ eomaet, 01 ,D u rm,1 grin dim B the coarse :paste, s'h,ou~CW con UIUlousIDy be
-""TR'-IiID :r!W!.:~w,w

~a:t.tex. to form
d
'jl

W'e: gDi.S",seo.1~ b u:t distorUOD ~:s pE-evcm ~,ed by


;:,.-

~I..,,,,"

'ftame--:fron t w,hicb Is Wtal1J[Ji ,good IU1W,OE ,pr:odDa1tioJ], a:t hj-\g1\ speed, au,a thdJ m,askin ,g, moY' ,oc(mm,e;oee q'Ui'~ea long wl,Y
'"

IIIJ _ LI

t ~,~ ,...t.,of.iI i!;u! 1!U.lll.'!;;!I

ii:lP'J• 'ilfn* b"';'I1",

faees ,~,i.~:

bao,m ,t,.d~c~ 'measured 'm, crank'~'haf~de,greel~pl'l':ticruda'[ly if the shape ,of the hei.ld ~pl'lo,xim ates I, bl~mjSlP~e~8 ther F,B itha:o, TMinl 'fJ;I:~,~ The, result "iU hi, dta:~ -1l511e powet' will fall off ba,<Uy a;t bip, r.p.m, 'uDl'lss 'Ole jgm.doill ,~s ;lld,vIIDcOO all ID;;mBsivel lam,Qunt, ~nd ev,en this expceHeD'l is DO rei]. cure IS it is mefmy tryruDI '[JD eUmiH:te on'; error by 'ptl~t~nl a:n(~i'ther',!, in, '-' ;SectlI,o'm~tlG 1\ 'WW( cast C(r the ecmlmsticn '~ce as re!commend!ad in, IChB:p:~er IV wHI clearly show tfulS true state ,of aKsin wbicb, can be impw·ved by fo,r,Hin;g a l,o-caJ de_-, - , :i" , P[es;SIO,n,

6ine paste can b-e graLdllBUy '-ed.uced in ql'uanJi y by wipliQs 'the 'bar,[le~ sp,Ig;Qt e~oo.fI and ;lddInl ,9 dr,a;p C',1i two 0'" O],tll alte:r' \\Vbjch .11 ~~nu,cn the proeesa is, eonf nned 'utUtU tile spi,lot ,R'l'Jd, i.u; r0QelS, ,lequire I. brilh~'1 smooth fi;rn.b;bover 'tb,e:Lr el1J'Dre a.:rel., Th.el 'br'oad Faces, will :ba,w (w'he:n 'E:1~e, CC}ltS_ :pa~"e is eiU1lll!d, 01) D,ma:U s UrflCe which Oll1,pt to be 'OOtlt1 nuons, aU:houp ,ODD 0 · t1Vll small '!!)a'tcbes,0f'indi1ie:.menl't 'In 'the '11n:ll,o;r;lcm,bly. 0.'0' joinJing G(JI,mrl'otrlmd. nlooes~try~ Is, in [aQt.,..it is un,desim'b~e~, Be8~des bein.G: gas- tigID;l,t this t~pe of ,joint pennits a ,goad :80w' ,of heat ,fro,m, ,die 1mdersjd~ of the :ema:ust valve s;ea.t'to 'the barrel, aUl'u:l,so assists i'n kooptng b- lh,- d ~..1S,:rfiSllrnD 0, the C}_lIn-" .. d er ,-,~ d 000 'J ~ 0-:JJ. the ,O~_e_~ '-b_JIll·Ji 1... '. Ell,fteedIDDg heat b~,ck ~,ooaUy,rp'£o :thle' ban8~,is, no,t good. ,pI:-acti,o-~~ sm,~it is, lia'b~e to cause dis:torf.i.lC\fi thel,e'm" This snag' ]S, avoided, ~msome, (Jf'the later d"~p (em'ploy ... i-ng alumirlium h,mtdi ?rith "tru,ck lb~c sect i:o,us and, 'pa:rti ... , trui1a:dy ~Kwti'v,e"firu:r!'lfi,g) ''by 'ptr,mi:tt_Irn,g the _tw,c, compODents, tiC' be in contalct only IOIV'at'I, s,mall ,area), p.refefa'b~y~l'ttb.e to" 11,]" thl~:barnel ,~egi.s'~rt_r~ ,smoo this metl-rtod elimillates 'I;ll.e:smal ,annw~ IIB'P 'w:Meh would ho :pres~t,;~ OO,Dit:a!!rt too,le' place Ion the o liter' faces,,,
i
I ,_-

3.--:- - _tmi'" - ~ _j,ie.~t;, .... .'L ,_:pp.ro!(!'i''"b-· 'J'"'--.r..iII:~ ...~u,LIU.u ...


ft

!cr.rm'tBCE 'w~'~D O~ ~

be serioJJS'~Yd:etriml~n tal,

'h.ole

..,-;. _', .._,,'~- -:_ ." e. _ m ,~t., - ,':_,':-, :,--,-,!Ilear t,~ plll.!1' or ,-VelU 1l.n0 uowrn ne

'm·I:Illi"~'"'i".'

CnJ'WD, ~]

ehan to aim, om],)"at mlnmu-m

mae, 'I ].ow,~t' eom,p,ras.toD and, ,obtain

nsymmetricat In, ;1lD,,'

~ ----_~g

the ~
=-

il

,i

:-

-:-

-:-

,--

-;-'"

-;-

-,

.-.:

'1

,."

.'

r.

".

'event~

i't is ill'CU,el

to

I{H10 'c'ombuJtruiCl\Il loom:pl~IMSio[t !lIdio,,",

Cylndu':head ,Jlo'iJl'ts

Niext 'a.tte~,tioll can, be ,giv,cn 1'0 the bead jo~mt;'whilft ear! be, 1iftad.~ ,ps-tight m a varic't)' of ways", The IU da1ubb!:-, gr1J'U!nd ;., 'va.dety in w:bich ,smml1tmn'CoIfi5 t;o,]]];tatt is made' 13.8,

'"

"'·~·TO"·"'HA.L'P'l'!l' IRE.A.S~5J,.IINrB.LY'

h,~§1I.djol!Jlr. 10 6e foutli1' ,~ _S'B ~r~'1


Butte's,rful r(1t:lug

·Tt~E 1J"U,U;,{plg_' 0/ tlj~ '!'~'do~~bl'e-", tr\~' , roe«

rk 'f" IUJJiS ~ '. "i-t.. .4. lv,o,r... ~ ~., ''',L!:., ,u:Rppens we surraee .... ..iU" · d~' t 'I-. 'L".~ "L'I._ WlIUL nDme: '~a.reli..y eecome ,.l!iiM-U,an d-"' nn POs,sliuw' '1'0 ICUt. ~, u'de-ss th.@) 'tool is :rnn bfJu::k and Urn,e;ndug 1m uctel' the s,k:iu

mlo° to'p rake, _ sh,w' cUttm,1; speed. ,iilnd a loomparalive);, a bea.vy ,feed,;, OD I}O !!WO£l'IWl't m ust 'fth'~: to·oJ be all 0 wed,

te ,- ,IlL... lOll!" .S~1.- _ .. '. : ~l.-/d· ~ jJ rue on

,io.'iL,-,

1.II!JJ~~

lO

d4:s1P!j;;

UP

u-~ Oat

IE!lO~I

.RESiURJE

The coe:mC~'eD,t of lexpans;ion. 0:(' th,e steels 'mentmrrn.edl is ;;000011 in", per ln. per diegO]C,.~'but. tbere ]s another 'typ-&'lh., !.' ct., ~.e~, """ C' ,-Iil-;. l~uJ.:-D n'r'OW.1II1. pre d uet " - 'lil cl N'" M" ~',c,,-'WlllJJiCu. 'II!..' , a. nas tae, F" 00 c:fficletil of ,,1[)000,22 in", per in per de,I!! ,C.,,,nearly eg.ual to
.Io-'~
',C-fflfj; -,~

L'

I"~. ]"',

F or ~ '~'pc or joim;t l.amina,ted copper' ,gaskia't!, are, exoelleD t 'but .ther should QlW,D:YS be' l~dnnea&e.d ev~ry time I~ey are :6tt-ed." AnTU~ldiu.,~ of copper ~s done 'in p,mciL5:cl;y di,e reverse WI,Y' to' steel-i,.e',"j the ,gasket ISI:S u'pported, OiD fi 8~:t meta.~, !nlrfa.~e" be ated tOI redness ~ ltDd Ua;eII dropped, a"ife-Dn~,i~~o 'c'O,ldwli1er'. from which it enlerges in a dead=

.lo~,~-

j.

head studs Ion K~I~f Ve:~ocelles, are .only ." in, in diametcl" and, ibe.l11 S 'Iu,c,k)cd aw:a'y' -und,mr the rocker boxe:si, neces5!~tl:te, IEBl iipoeill short.,.·
]h'ead'ed1 T -spa n1Jer~ w[Uch

'tlLalt of miIrI,Y' aJu mm [11m itdloy,s,.

Owm,g too,

spllu~e lim~'ta'~jjotru8'the

,;:,,'' ' fl;,


~~

II~J

ii"!A'Ii"ii...1: ih. ;l!!;,,", ~~'iIllIIUJ1QI~U!!1

lkIl ICMlft w~erc '~odlg bo1.~'sl I~ndetlm:n,g ffilom bend '~Ol ,eND ... I~ase are used, and pfl'rticuIDarly if 'the bend and barrel are !of

'be of m,sb,,'~ens~ile,'teeJ~ EarIY'ii'pa:'lterc 'Vincen·t engines, s a:f,e!fitted w'ith la'rg_e bo.uo\~ bo'1t.s:j dl:f'Cru'gib, 'wWlicb lpa-Sl!S Ul ' sma:Jller' 'bol~tJSth BJt, C~[ry Ua,e fmmel stresses. The ~Q:rga 'bc"IIt,s, have, 'la'rge n U'&:s bu t mw:t lIl'O! be dgl~:~encdto metre than ,3 0
1
1

mm;'t be hi ndl,cd ',vith Cll"e '~Ol ,a,vlojd overstressmg the ~,tlJdsiJ' wruc''b, if' 'r0plm,o~d, mnst

co'~djp,ctSsJ.bly 'to su an estea t tba. t WlS~tI;pme'ted_ dist'orU on mil" 'take plae-ell, or '(be bolm 'ma'y' ! actually' :yiJ~ld and hecome ,perml:rtnem Uy e'~onglted." Tbese cODdj~,om5, should b~ sUlpected I(a.) if the ~ngine does D'ot bold ~,ts, _Oim:p~ss~om '"e,U WOOD bot 1£8, whe:n cold; (b) ,if o 8S
,aIbl:),',IfClater:lllmD
W.bBIl,

URbt

,0 UO')I't

the

00 [£ 'CeosiJe(ll],
1

'with tb - lemgJ'me bot is

en

ClO,m s,ider..

th.e ]tu~~d.fiO balm freiq uerUly hive to bet :r&-tigl~te ned, .. . If th,s lu,gillDe ~n .whl(ih, are wormg is ImO'WII 'hJt pOSiGSS the~e !tauits~ it :m~ybe, as welt 'h), ma:k.e up 8. new set

,·utI
1 '

of holts
1

IDl

,49 J!1--ot~~ D'"T",D'" 1116A~

Ie-Horn"'s .r·

m high~xpln_sion ,aus,tenitlc steel sueh hi KJE~ 96~;


'G,2-'wbiiich loo,morm to Snoo~t=~~··~o_','" ··' '·0.'.' D - - - r -__ Il~IJ.Ij .. ~.,m 8/1, grade: 0 stainless steel ~iO S,pecm'CluOD
'0:.
'1.1 !Ill

!I'

~I

.aeb of '$ese ~,~eels, as :I:il 'tefl'sHe sucm.gth c,f' 37 'IODS er h more, but ,aU are a 'litt~edlffiCl!llt to ma,cbine due 'm, theIr

Icylinder 6'X:P,jiJids ,;, tile 1~~or-l..ptUtemsaUdi boh:s are, Dot ;srwb~ jeeted tOI this resl~Iri.ctif'~,~ 1:0 ,9lome englnes 'il. is, D,~slSary 'to mit the bood, be.rofie' assam'bUng the rocl~cr geU:1 but in oli:ber:s, ~,ta :IIiJ.o,R COlllY£rulen t i . ,. A' :.'!jJ'rk IUlcscn<!D~. III ·ilk...... ~ ,,0' ~ erv,crS0' the erocedr ~u.~: t"", V~'§ .::'...lllIf'C,. 11'_, 'VlI~","" 'V_r' w ..... d A ~:.. . N~.:_,ea~WJEl,B ~~J'I.. . L Ciil:ptB:f 'V'T d II" 'Wluw , va '~ve me,-Cu8J:iUJll as a sep3Lra.tc ~ m ~ '......... L 1::..... lUI b!jK:tt, i.et, us suppose ,'lOur. lel1;1[n!~ milO ee W'I) tne nrst careIO'~' and '[h:~/t i~ m~~,tmu~:r,gfb.rB,J IlOW r,ead,Y' to h_a:vethe barrel I ,a:Do bead, bo~: OD~ ted The procedure i!l Q,uilJe's'ttmp:tt~~blw,ard-£ Pirst, j ust ma te' ~'Q'C tbat me pdgeo'll ciI,cips; are all ill 'pil.ee~, dl!6,n, 'Mth [Gleam, fuller~~ SlnMI the !finIS, ~and s:mt ,of th~ pi:S't,c,m,'\vrn'th lO,n of the same :gnlde, y,cJlu intend 'Ita use for fKim.&, making S~~ ~bat the .ring grooves are fuUi :~iJ,rthis, 'will '[Jm'ovide a 'stor-e ,of
., . 11'1 ,Ji,:U "''iI'iii f(..;'
;j

pCYI'nd s,Hre~ to n:] U~, O,(llGrwlla they ma, t,

break w'l~eb, 'the:

loil 'to eever

work ..ha:Jdenmg,
I '

'w,j!'i;:n';1'~~"'(j' .. v.:IIlJdll~

piupem_sity ~,A 'li:pi to I,eme:m'ber Wh~D ,Il.,' -JlI ........ ..I ., ... ], "'""II!.. on ~, lB, _·U· l,r;I!Ui:l .!S.een-eu~~. lIi"QO.,S W'J[IW e to,
.:1;. ..._, .,
t-11I'"Ii. C . !l)Q' .

the 8tar:t~n,g'""u~p eriod~ S,meal' Ute wiJ.,ole SI1ll"~" p I~ace of' 'the barrel Uk·e:MS~ then, :slip' i'l oyer 'tile, p:iston.
I

easmg the dIl.I~'.01'01 p'~ace'with their. gaps ~s,taLcrered r,o'uud ;


l4kl

]40

'IU'N'[NG

fO',[I SP'Ilml

w3lhm,s if' a Dy' are

the e!irclllmfer-en,oo ,; do, Det omi't 'the base ,8;as'~ct~ pa,ekins, 'Of On some 'engines it is, DHDlt eas:y '00 handle the ri~DgsitlS'tite,
1

'tiD

'be used,

'£ll'~erwe baml,. '

..

much use eitber. ~ The ~im,plest, and. h andiest ~o,oJ1S ,I Stripi 0'[ 'Ullfi, SH$et 'metalll' I,bout ' ,& lD., wj,(;1le" be,Dt '~'DI toe eircrl!.1:m"" ~~refloo 'Qr t.he piston. u.d ,pulled 'U,P"M:tha Simtilllj boil t'b:oo,up 'the ends~ The t,,~d,ge m U,ghny' crijJ~;ped with pliers, 'Co :preveDD:t j,lmmitn:s in the tCJbamr~r of the barrel, and ~r the; pi,s~o'nb as entered ha1l~w,3:YIII tthe Stripl ,cu 'be pu'U"d, off 'simply by rem,orvWIlI,g;: the bolt .. All pjs:t~on rings", and 5~Dft'bed oil 'rings in p3/rticular,~ are fra.,glle:t but as eae cannot te'U 'w'he~, t tbey' are bro&~rl or 'Dot onoo the barr ~1 hias gO[fl,fJ 0:.[1 the opera'tio,n eattlD'D,t b ~iIr'ied OiU,t'too, ell1lrully'" Altcu·.., wilds, 'T,Q'tart,cbe ~ngine [a, ,Ire'w' runes to spread 'the eil ' eYeR~Y I'Rd 'Mpe e~)a~s.:,fro,m the pis,tOD lC't,o,vm~, , .... r o;fter 'mait_mg' sure 'the 'CO;DULc~i'Dlfaces of Bead, and rad Ibm~, U,..'CI~iU'l." bol:' d'le m.e1ld d,O,WA b,Y' carefully up'teWq! : cacb, bO~l,R filuiUOD, ,of ,a,tum im fC"ta, DOll, m order 'n '0 btaiD ,wn, ,cqu ] ,amoUD,t Oft£IlSil01ll on ~hi' F.milUy, cbe~t :y,(n3i~ lOOmp(NSSion rstlo em£iUy lind em'~ it UPI' 'tose'~r witll :any re~~evaItt detai b; su'Ch as '~ypmof' pi's;tO'l1,D.-umber ',-', -.~ .. -,8,plates ud, [S'[J' 'o',r~1in :J0llr 00'_,1-' boo,k, ud lOme 'mOfcm,Gc wilJ.,hav~' been ctlm,p~e~ed.OJ

0(£ Ismds, and none lof 'the conventlou.at ring oomplfCSl~D:n;are,

due, -peJ:baps,

to

the prese'D-OO

D,r' a fiDrl.,qt,

~'.A

~~~~~

ifJiI'!r.fC·1D

,¥'II!'

.lw.

mRmSPI~

gjving :I, m!lcUfi~ trnlnblg are ro be used :it mwy 'pa:y to mp,ke'D, 'trial Issem'bt, 'with lonly a s'wDgle spring Oft each, 'valve, ,or 'to put 'in' ofoly 'onG [:oc'~er at II Limewhi~n
I!

I'lf ,an.y a,ir- of 'ballity about the reDscm'bly work. eo'm,p(risru ng the last, pArt of' 'Cna:pte.r XI' if cams

ell 00 kiD P' ' . he ,on8010 ~ Illid IC'lOS.tOg, points" -0 tlhefWtse 0', lei] I~· it m'IY' be; di,mcuU 'to meISU!Il'~ 'the ~Q'Poverlap ~ith exa.:cH, ... tude because, n ar t.d.o. thiS exhaust valve, as it CI'~S~Sj tries 'to t u rUl, 't~e OIm'shaft fO',f\Vllt;4:lS'Ji daus to/king, up' w~'lb~ back~as.h '~n U],'8 d ri ye '~fl,Illle 'wrong direction" The best scquen'~ 'of operr.atioDs fo,:r lay' pa;rt1cul~ e;n,gJimc: depends cD;ti'rel~" upon, ' -~ des i,PI but j n:Rl1.J' ease d!Jil po<'ln:ts, re '~)O' 'wI,ten Ic,[osely in, CODJl.~tlO':D. w,ith th rock,ler ~ ,8J}f) similar" In l1,ddi.itoD '~·OlorpJ~nI;tW,e; coneclay in, rel'l'ti on 'to the valv, -, stems, all lthe' mov.lng oompoD,e'rds 'mURt b._ as r~ittij,on 'ff,eeas 'POH~b~e M,d Iln IOUJ~ of1c ~t 'mot~IOnj slleD as JRexm_ m the :r-ockers or rocker s'U],pports't tn1:UBt be eUm~matcd~, ,rietk~(D in valve ~-ar comes 'm:to a. dliImnt ,t3l;!elory trom 'tba.'_ ,of' 'Fricti,Ol1l ln tba rest of thIle:Dgme~ The ma'tter, ~lf,l;tI,e 'b~n g 'very undesira ble, sim:pl,l/ subtracts frOlnl tb1el amount 0:' power 'the en£Pme i~ potent[~Uy capa bl.~ ~~f OOV\}io'plng, 01 IllY 5pe -d. TIle,f~,rmtr~ tbouoh seem~~~y eveD, iM~gnifi,cam'~,in MlUIiD,t, 'QID h_B,yt th~ mueh more S~i.l'OU-S effect o,r Umru[i'rn,gthe maximuM :fe\1$.. by lower"~I, '~_tl t,~eed, I"t, 'w'ruQb. the va1ve 1'001'( can be lietum~d, ,[r'om rau 11ft ~,y the Gpflags:t wbj,ch have to ,Ovg:[iC~)me mmy ~fdction pn..se'n~ lJ(f/o",
j '_. l

,of s;prio,g ..folilce over b},ert:~,becamel pr'O~SJveJ,y 142,

the:" ,commence, 'EO close 'the Vtalws.. , ~. _ A'~low' 's:peeds 'the Inertia 0.( the 'va;~:ve ,g;e:II' ]'I;, S!m.a,n,~ :and, there is, 'p,tein" ,of excess s,primg~,rO!fCle' ,av~abie to Oi'\liereO,me ftictb"D~ but as flLe speoo rises ~lOWa:Ir,da 'die :~~, 'die ,eJ)ceIs, 1-43

mess.. Tb~ .,

/'

"

,",

'.

, AS

iJNDE1ft;fIr4:8AH ~UiW T :5iEEN 1,f!4 IDIRE,CTltON ,OF ARROW

'whmch tUwY' bea r'~ 'LD BdtU'l] on to lon'us~D3 mome~ this W~t1\:r dimJnls'bea the 'Y,llv~"'ru oft and sheu ~d b ' tB ten 'up by rene~g ~be'w,~ubers ~nd s(noft,enmg; the hilrdened otn'tr-a~!,()n~r.. . moo 'IIloti~, the side ic'[eata'l'JJce rus :rr1edueed to J10 1..... m. ".003

The l@1i1 ih 'of g


in", -,,,feet of fr.iCtilO(ft thus OOCgm,0's proportiona'fei,y !mater and e:~ther 01" both. VB'~Ves,cease to fol 'ID'W the ea m S on tbe closins mae at a" ;m~H=b, lower speed i~n one w(ndd think wri'tbrnl~.,Iivine: the lIunUer' son-l,e Icotlsjderation~ Rockers and IM'm-;rOI~~ow~s must, then~fore;.be: lIb51Qi~'Ut'e:l,Y f~ee om tb.etr pins, Md, 'ha,ve ellou,gb, le.nd-,B'Da,~ 'to CDIUfe tblll't they eaneot 'possibiy bill:d, at nlo:n :img 'tem,pemtJUm" OoIC'lsl,onally spiral, w.l:slllers are ,fitted 'to take m),PCJl.d''':p,1By and ,elIDmiua te a poui D~e seuree of ra ttl~, but for ,ra:cln,1 it I'S better ~IO 'mplae:: 'these by' diS,t8JiC~pieces of 'Wbe a]llpmpr]a\~e

,neoes,sa:ry' g'OI tltl, 1. there' is, no !cilance IO,:f tbelr bellll~ m:Pl,ed ,ea.awayt 'wbe,EI, Itb,e, :r,ockc-" p,lns; are ru1~yti~h:~lled.. , ,.,' Li,pmJes s, i's a \ C!ry Ide5,~able 'CIj uaHty inl w',~'yre FaLf", but ,~t r is, fDta~ to :f);ehiev,e it at the expense o:f rrugrod i~y'" Wlber,B., the I,alter is, lack-mg' at high s,p~ajdSl'w,hen 'tn,e loads are, hea,vrn~t~
~E~i!jGO~ ~1 EA'C IRJE HlO\(ED ~'N D TWO fl4 TS AClC iC

Itbe

[I

eedle

ro~~er&'m Llst _;a.~80 be ,.fcdu~~d, ~r;'

,~

~~~--7~

\ ..
.

R3di~1 ... valve a,rudge' and P,ytbVDl engines ha,v·em UDlIlS1Ja,] r-, r1()c~er ~ayiou~ L,! '1-''1 puts ,3" rert~uD am 0 lJll i, -of OI'GSS 'I... . ~ ~,omm 0 "Nrue:, ...
Ill':
'1-

t!bic'knesSl~ Felt was'hers are sometimes 'Used to retam oil, ,1E,d, 'tbil!.se ,ean be an UD:Sus:pcc~ed cause of' bmdlimg if ~'})' aee to CI 'thh:~kor made, of '~nsuflic,ilen't~y r-esin~:rnJ~ma:teriaL
lu,die~O'fl~' !NnWlwzI,
1J~lr'l3J'l
j';Q

'loading '00 "thie,'In ear!P,g~:,of' (b,clSB ']"oekJ~l~S, which act at right~l!1 es to eftc',hether ~ After ,8, wili ~e 'Wernlf OtOClJrf;S, on 'du~ sides: [i"f,the ,a:ent;r.nI bosses, M'd the :barden.ed, wa.-she,n; ,ai"p,hlJ5't '1.44

pailsJd#g' ~tm:iZfl& Ne8 ,risK. ,olfnt,f,gl,re'.,

"qs W8,igJi.~1l

,td

'C'ONTA.iCT fA'C.E S,H~P,EiO T'O H~ TeN .. T'OP' 0' '''IAt. ve STi "i

'145

l'U' ~u C ,F,: 0.1: Sf EED Jill

lIGHT8NI.N'IG

1"tU! VA.l.,YE :M'ECRANlSM'

'the 'mo~o'm o,f the valves will be qui't~: IdiI'erent from '£ite theo,reti~l d ,='-""""" .'i' in, fact J! \fI','" e r-,oc:k:e.rc; im DO'.:'M,a "''''' ....Ji;Hi Q' ~1 res iL,Y _-_ ~es are I'CtuaU,,. made heQvi,er than 'those in 'their 'touring C01Jl1,terpum, '~oensure m aintenanee of p·ower ,a't :~mgbr p','m ~ In thi~ COJlllWUOD one of'tltLe main luiVM'tages of the double
:II' g !l!i ~-""" ~iQi~.LUb
i

Ul the mm:tiD,g holes, Sa,mc

o.h, cam.shaft

sup'poifit ,and f~dI: iD'U~''£0 zero

cam~ and y,aI yes 'wltem ftexu re (i',I" lest ,WOiUOD m'ight ,ooomr Broadl, ~:p,akiull: tho arm S Ie,,' a, [locker are :subjected to be:mdill:o,g lo~~s_ 'whicb" ale ,l\ea,vmes't close tOI ',lle, PODl't 0('
ii

,btY01]]t

is, the ,elli.mmation

1£),1.'

'pla~es bcmea1

of me Python engine were poor ']0 this, :R$Pect" 1ht; eross-reckers bemS held. in a I;~-el,pressing attaehed 'lei 'the .h:ead by lathe! inaecessi ble sets--_~ 'wI.. ~ch were 'I) o'th ,d:ruffij,tmt t,o 'li;!"':~It6n and! inelmed '~'_' _.~'"~ =n;r~, All . __ , _ ,~. " 1_10 work, loose The: snwreign '~emedy is '&0 lta;ve "f.be p.r-ess.iln:gs electric-an" are..wel,dedl to tb~ hea-d, 'this :pr,o~~ b~ing',prefe~F-' i a ble 'COl acety'[eJ!lle wel(l~:rng, 'because oft'llJe, ,ahs-fmCC otdJsuu~lioq risks"
OOiJt[.ODSJ

'3,t

the pcdnt'ls o,f,cou't.lct at elch

extre:mil:Jt The '00 0 tra 1part o,f the Z-}s~'pe-d 1"1oclra'I11tnla:U, fit!ted, '~u pIUS h-ro d ~Dsrn:rnes; is su bjec~e:dmainly to torsion 'Q,r t wis&,g of constant \l!alu(!JfnlW ead ~'O lend," _ The only safe: 'pllce~s, J remove metal are 'ifh,os)Q ,at w'hicb b ~b'-e~sis, clearly '~o'w or n,om~lJsu::n'~11 pa" ~Dg m;OI9't :aUen:ti,olll (0 the ends of' the arms, since t11,e-sCJ po,nion$ ,m(rV0 at 1l"e· l·.dghest speeds ..It ~s o'fl-en p.os~m.b;~B grind I.'sizea,ble ,amoUDI '~O! 'OllJ the faces v~dmch, ,eo,nJa.(rt :t&, v,alvlc'si or tlo reduce ,th~ ~Jiejsht,of 't!b,e ~)erewed H!v;ljuste:n, :SlomCitimes ,fiued. A.l.lho~gb
1

"" 'lib.

".,'1...:1 .....! 1" ri'L snomc '\il~lruy wat ~'Il..... sttaehment bolbl are '~

is, a I,ood, plan Ito 'poUsh, wh,o~c rocker in order to mmnimiZI t'hl!! leIla[l,ce 16;f' fa'tjpui~ cr.ackmg .. ,FI,e,_'DrC may ,OCQur in tit rocker moun ~I: UD,t~s;s this i91 b~~t'ed, very firmly 'to, the head, Anyone tun iOI!] one ef 'the older eJ],g;incs ¥riUl, the rockers held between sldeplates
'it
tEl
' r.ealy 80GeI :lirt,

red u;ci['Ilg fbe, ,sec'li(H~,of' the arms h~rltJl: to 'be [ecommcD;ded ~

me

are narmwly made e:i:ther from, Durslumln, IC,f' blgh ... teasile steal ru 00.. It is mmpo,rtu,t '&0 ,cbect: 'tn:l;t 'they are absolute];, strm:lbt. (by fol!lmg th~m alo,llS: a sUJ.rtace pla:~) and ,wso tha dleJt na;v,e mot been bad.~y beJl:t BIod, resrb'aish,mnm_ 'because a :flod. '\vwch ,hM been 5;0' 'tre2l'ted is alwa,J's Uab~e to B,O 8,83 ln. If spares fUie DO'. lQlbb1ina,b~e'~, ijpt-aUo:y tub, 'to specllieatioD 4 T' '" is 'Ole: CO£OOC'[If'ade~ die lJsuaJ, mebein,G' i-ml! .dlallIl8te~ ~ l 61Ii"W,J:J ~ ThiI; ,]S a bmd,y gllu,p 'because: 'dle hOR is, sHgbdy Md~r In, Md can, Jius~,_-'reamed out to 'tba: lize~,tv take 1ile eod ... :fitoop" these am, fitted m t!lnlaJl.y '01" mterrnallY:j t'h~ mus;t be t~ah~(ftffile:nvili1" 'tn_, ends ,Q,f rtbe w'be will, hammer' "tay q u.i te ,tapjdly.. 'Ir' 'the 'tube is steei inst'elo, IOf ti,gb;t aU,or)' d1e
Pu•.
[\O~
'C"

wmetllet

iN IEED'!:.!!:: ROtlE iBE SHO{RT1E:ft

R~ M1U5,rr l"HAN

CENT~.AJL :!iiL;£EVlc

In ~omG des\tps the push rods re 0('-,0 luidicfaJblc le;m,gt1~l;~, md! it m;o'y'paJ te ,cx:perim,c1ll: 'wi th 'tubes, o:f larpt ,di,o,m.eter or h.vl~r pu:;e;; ums:a!S,pee~ed 'buck~ilng,may take place ~It hlp speed s,. Md ms mll ba:~e the ;sa:me bad efJoom. as :ll!lt,~'re' i"n the roekers Ta:ptp-~ts, or pmm,-r'O($s are ,occlsionaUJf tlr.la !(illS: beavy 5Jd~•. d'I,e to -'the "pwlttnce of a.djusten., If you, are w,eU ac.q:t:mmt:ed with 'the Icnginl's ,b;lt'bits, \vben, co~- and hot Mth regard to' eerreet 'yaJv~' elea::r:rmms ,slome'thing ,is to, 'be ,gamed by makiog up a, set of n,()ID,,,a,djlJ8t~ble eo,mpo,neD~ BmlWlly s,e:nim\1 du~:,ctearmces, eithe.r by' adjustmEl,ts; 't'CI tILe p~.sh ...ro~ , eDith : ,"-'b -,'iiiiil,' ~'iij'i',- ·b~l'iFr...1lor:"ill- ed ,~rn~, lA;f~' ,iIlL :I.'rmrc)inl'i~'te 'thiekmcss or, LJI8,U/d,g u,-" ~:r~ LR~ --llrt'" ,r fi,tted t~ ,th;~ ,ends, ef'the val¥c s~ems~ ThCs'c compro,n~n:m are, vel1' rJlften fitted as standard to 'miol'mite st:em, w~r, 'b":t for ,~ ,~I: 'i anr., Do.,~~~ rt'!.,.~~ - *... -.::al;o;"'·~"' ,:'1 m~:g "h t _em, IUP ,~nwV'l!'d-,u_ y v 'Ie 'Ij)O' 8,t~,,,...'1 ~'l1UI;.;ll!!;.!,g~ tn on
'I j

ead ..,llum,P; s_h,ou'1d be secuml:y rswc' '!ed in phl:oo wJtb '~in... mlJll'~& aolder, e-om"p'h~te;my PCiDIUtd.'lin g, ILiIe 'w'hole joi!tt.,

Alii.

110<_

U',

Oli,

1[;.,,,.

146

147

~
I'

T'U' ".',

a. :IJO~C and tem ered by quenehin.g in oil from~:,SO° C,

eannot b bettered.;;

The top' cups on 'VeIocette Venom, and . iper pushrod1i ,aIC a ,snding ,fit in steel s:fucvcs~elearanec be~Dgmeasured by feeIDet'... 3ugmg the pp between the compene '. A sli3.h't g savin - iln '\~ i,' ,t can be gained "l Iy 'eeping th _ on' ~ ai~pair for rche.cldn, and making UPI II. new P'&lf WiUlL fixed.up.s wi·' O'UE the sleev fo:r run nlng, The scheme is, ' er_' ~as, to apply ,tlg.side-v,alV'npefl with. their ftat"'l~opped tappets ~ the m.ethod, is, '10 s 'hie rwasting adjus,Cable ,p.ak~ ee, 'to! tb, cor.rect ~,ngth, as II-u~es f, om which to 0':'tam eltlot J [11" ~.-,gth Q,f the uon-adjuste bJ,_, .."' -> w iieh can be made lJ.,P OUll 0 s,uve stee hqrtL ned 'on the ends by quencmng ~n wl:~er (rom ' , bd ~ht red 11ca;t~
'to
1-

]1

I,

,e 1) PilliDn ana "ro'IV1~ wll.t.eltl, per/ecl

(111If e~~ufv. bocldaJ/f. ,ffll.plnln~ If l1Q,tl.l:ki«s./t., m.o~·e "i'Qw.n whett'I' tQ It"". (J)!/ 10'0 ffl#ctf ,iXlc.Jd- ,hll~n','-CJo:DH'rI I:!'lr I to rlg-hl'~ I) Ill) lJa,,;klash'.Io.!h.1f.f!1" pillion"

1112'Sh ~irf.1;sH,111bucklml, .. I' ,

SomeD'm. s ,s,bru'ms 'Ornie cerreet UUCKn!-SS tor p~acinsuIld, f U:u, ' , e ~tem cap are Do,t -aJllbt· 'wb: IIll m .. ~.~ ',dj Llf.rt.. 'g " nt' to D,: ~ camsbaft enst -'~' wlUcb e.mploy t -"~ a;Js~em:~ S'-' '. rae ,"ry' s.ubstitutes, C8'1J:J ,bowever b, mad, by IC1J~t~n disCI 'from- D set ef I: l!.r gauSMlIl this, m,Rl! rIal b-~D , sum,... ,ciiCinJ't~ylm:rd 'to wnbstand tb' r1 )"[1 :__- du ty en:t, - d, us,
I~

n.

fl om the gears. dler.ma expansion has : :. :[ ffet1t ·ofincr ,emil th _ bae lash by a small 'mlount"- au i' ''If ~oftea b . ,found 'L..:..... • bl W',-I, .'L.., -:- 8Ul.~~ IW~UJ1 'W~!. • '"',.oJ • ~l . -11.:... a, S ['i tI!'iI''J,., WUlJi'l lUll",-~~~,_,~e h :la.M't iU__R;;: OOlse- .,'nmD~ns t, mperl'Jl.e is a'E~'in,et!: Am,odl." - omt to ,ot' .-, is tho ,I olf [the t,omgt.m88 of 'the O_,~-:'-·'.m 'QOUpfil,-' in .> Ie' ibev-=·J..shaJ1 slom;: -,ey I.ho,'ul-, b jbs't frtee .'. amp 'Ig :slide bu hav_, no ' ,of lei =,- .' e ~
I

j,

'1

-, em I__ camsha.ft [eDrfmes,,~1 'mcltion can be '108,£,~n'Ehc 'O'il1.. \I: R---' " -es8 aU is, ", it IllIoUid 'oo~ f '\G' S Iii, u',ed '.'I' mOl. b"~:in corrl ~ me~f I which. m· . ~ 5, ' el o ;-hac JUh, oonsiS(--_Drt with abse nee of wJJbJr ~ , ortooatJeil)"~ 'l1ei-I· er,' the,,·~: sears IU) theJf belllrm,~, n Cftr very fa idJ.r-, but wf' 'tb . IBd usDDent. is fl- uIty It may got 1-' -=- ossi"'ble 'to rcctny 11' by ,m,oWn" ouly one of a nh1. ~ns:, ·sir of gears , 5, ,&1 :-I:p,pr·xi ' i, " ,pide- th ' inner. ends ,of lb, t '_'tb on £;Icb pair. 011 gears sDotdd be jruJ5t ~ev,I-:l wj ,e.~1 ll o·b>. as tS,ey e pus tlHougb. the po ~ ,0'[ int 'f" eetion, If" tWs is' 0'£ the OO!e~ 01'" both gears must '. moved. in one the, a'p,pfo' -,' iate idili C icn, _jtl1c.-r .ci:y adding shim,s ror sldm, mmg"-. s 'sf,· lo'umt10;- 'the faa ofth~ 'Yer-i.eal shaft. bush. b..oui" Dg;~or 'tb .' bush, ,~tse.]l;; Sin,ce 'the camshaft and henee its: crown wheel,wB USUlIl 'I loCft'(.ed by I!. ballrace some distanc. "

~,=,

1_

'

with. bar-d, JlJmekr~ ,pl,1ti~g or' cl1:rom"'1OIIipJ'atiltg. Co,n" 'rsc]y '_, small am ')'00 , of r~Dd-e~earu_ mus;t be p,_:-'sseD'[1m 1:Jte ~ :_r.dcal sh ,ft ,assemb'y;; I,' this, ~8 not proidedj) severe tbru~t 1·: d wiD b: : p,p!1li d ;_. , 'e be el shafts wh :0 'the ,bead mi. bol!ed . OWOI Illd flds .:'0;0 must b os:_ If' '. a:tehtd i'f "~,e: bancl has een short,c'ned app.reiGi,ably,. If' 1 '. ~.. . • I~ ru' ",JI':_..... no, ei~·.·anee ',-,lUS~ll'l ,IS pessn·'b'I' to gam 3. U" 'tuc 'L Y , .,lliuw,g'- a r ie S 'aU ameuat orr !the:euds. of tb b v\e~&baIl'S 8n d wroea'l SDa It 'Tbis praces,~: ow,cwr,. must l10t b _ overdone at" the ~ Q' IC· ,ta,ct 0" 'he coupling 'li'l'llgu:es WJn be seri,ous~y rledl'tlced~ [(',at a future date the barrel is packed up a8~.J1on comprea,~€]t]J plates" it will. be nec~sary to obt.ain either a -aBge shaft 0[" scme cO'upUngs, ,with Ufck,. centfi ,SII otherwws-' the uppermost ·tongu,e wi ' net fun f1 .-~yiB enpgemlcn
1I
-'• 'r

~rdOways,_ If auy , b . I, -.:q:[U or, a~t·rO_l'tj'•


~'t.

'1_ ~-

d Yre~Qped. :--·~,w,cO'UPUI8S .. f] 1 - b il1 Cil ¥.JJ l!l.;lil;. '~J.IUla S eaD.::_ .-. : tlInl[ up
,I ",

rf.;'h.

'01

1-

=-

- -'

l48,

t4!}i

'LIIC.lltIENI,tiJ'G
'tap IGEYiE!IL 5H~JF1"'
$'~Au.. C.l.EAMNtE __~ -,.-~.:.~ WH EN WEAlD Is
, ," .

THB ''1'AlL''hfS 'MJlu::aIANI!M


:U' ,I

~b;is.,9:8 '~ ,
\0

~l~SS.

po(!tion .aets
CUIV,a;:[llre

lmpnll'flet lubIU'::II'DOD ,I' ,R

1~:U.."tI:1E DOW

Ni

TONGU~ NDT' f!J,1!.1U. 'f ENGAG!~O

Fol1.,owe!,s,., w~.cb are onI,'


their cnllnaJ
0"

vi,tal-spO'I~

~eadl-,itl, tor

oU and thus

(uft)

jo.fJlt .. '(Right) .A! OO'm" , ,f7~-O.r" fot;lt whicl., Cf;U,1 be' C'Ig,e'd' I;JI' ,!II JtnVJ;f]:t'
Iltilft' Of' I_miv.el'~tljl
Q.

51'NJ'I~ If:k,arll1llC~ oj€) m.-'t' th~' "pp~r '"f/l~w]r8(ji

The' ti!~$!JJu.fQI

#tl~ekt]:;"
i(.M"

1- 9ho~1tI~' tIJ!J' eeJJ~'f'{!,. Iu

)ol~;N'

'with, 'th' top b~v'ei-lslot,. This rluDclUi.OD 15 like !Y' ~O' Iud te failure IS tbe metal ,in 't1l tO~ml"gue w,run. be s11lbjected to ,8 .. 1

cle:sttuc ~iyecom biinau'DlIl of shear


~j ,,'. '. •

i~_, ., m~l!, ,;,;1".1 mese m Ught, :a.lloy:" lIsi~:; D ura1:umiD lt~R. 58 fO'f' the, tube D,d aliy f~(1'nl\l,ly stf\onS ,aU~y.'15u,eb as L ] 'Dr D,.'T.,e'i 4,2],1, for 'the DUi~~ rmd ,!±,Q'Ss,'ibly 'the b~v,e'I.,i.slud\bousm"ms~

'" 'b - ,..;tti 'L, ver tJCI '1'tu!, '_ ,&D,u, [\11.1 r,e.t,am;Ri,~ rm\g-uu'rs,
r lOr'

of pure &hear' as m~endcd by the; desi,gn,gr,., 'Tllere is a, small oppnrtwlity 101 savinI WBi,p't in tho
i!}Y

I.D d ben Wn,g

loads instead

A,lttenfi.o.n, rIO Cam, :Jlo'I]loft\ers

The P'foC6dure with levcJ 'foIUO'W'ersis 'S~mUa:r' to tba't, '~or 'the ,o\'erhe.a.d :r-O;C,Ken,:; io. additio,n ~if' amy o:f'the reeker bea:rlnp o,r plu' shuw' 'IUl TiCb.es 'which ale undmly fubbed, or WOrD!! imidi:catirl;1 lack, ,of
tlle tam ,~o.Uo,wen irs~mmpolrtl.m,t.

IComing back to

pllm... d and, s,v~ mrotors~ ffeeD/eS, 0 r re


'Diet ~uiDd .toto th~

1~,""]Jard~ tun:!: I&ec 'EO' S',pc\-ci'fitaltiQEI S,:2 8: 'wi-ttl a loolting ef " S,£dlite'~'1 'w,eIded to ·(b.e Ico:m'ta.ct ,fBoe-s,~ , Fo.u;Dw~mg'tile ,u:pp,ueadon 'D,f tb,c ~,~ teUi'~e:~'~ lOrn')]; ... S 'he POD _:'I1t, is heat .. lea:~ed,'b, CQoU·D!S m ~Ji'fl\om, 830'D! C~~ t att. wld~, "t'b,e fams are ':limU, ,mr-OTund, to shap.e,. Wlclded, "iI Ste~Uh~' 'i~not vern-ybald 'I~ 'but. 'wi1l, wiijlstEm,dI 'V1!'ry ,n;rduOIJ8 tre~;tm~a't~'dlo.,ut lIPllFOOi ble wear ~"LS:, 1JJDli~ CBI;..bardened, D ,sl'~eel.,it does DO~ :s,often under the :rnftUlrllce of bea'I., iiil, S:tel~~ed, ~ flea I_ ~,u.,t [be; bJs'b:rd by' 'pol;ls'IUDI 10 ,I dead,.. ,sm'ooUI smrface ,o'Ul!srwisQ' tU1ir3, 'elms Vlill suffer' unduG 'Nu.r"
I
1

Ole 'ongmad hard ~C' letft, and new' rockers are ,req'nilred~unleo!s the origma:~s cm be ire""CIlmehadeJ],edl and I1tJ!Ufld", a P:fOCe$, wbicih some Slcmoo ldepartments, ale willin,g '~O'lcan-t eut, __lr it :is d~&i.red '~IO 1~1U:-bark on :projoct' ,of making, 0. ~~,W :set 01 foUa,w1erstt ,3!% ms~ba;'tide,liug ,mc'kle I It~e1 b;; an e:xcenem.t 'material '~'the huclenin,g sDould be ,,045 in, '£~I ,.0,;5 Sin ~ die I!Pi OD the COntlliCt flees,. but tbe rlem,aimule:f ,of :lb~: sll~aee I_Bonld. b~ ke"p,t, lo,ft by Icopper, ..p:mating belare ,b~~,~JJiDg~ilAD ev'~ beUer .J:ob eaa b~ m,adc ~y uisliug ,,%,
little

~e~ '£~_a,~ptb,.,~el'®er.'tbian .(~30 m'.,is.

'b, hand 'Wilth. ~noil-s,mrt¢" but .ir


S:U,ghtly wom

cam, 'be .r-e-8ba,ped,

present,

rm~t~ill ve~r

'me

j,

'POUlt!:

I~D'

Ore:

in :Mlilnd

~nd,face ,0,[ the bush, may 'im",[fl,e matters, ,A little weight ml:Y be 'saved 'by jud.ie],Q!1lllS, :redu,cth)o here and 'there; but 'lIt. is, 1\ :mms,t'mt,e: to remove 'tQO 'math. fram 'the regioi!. of 'the, foUowet ... f]oot- as, tbJ's, mla" mmxd "to loeal orvm:. . heatinG wifll ioorwseqment so;ftmrlng' :and! rapid, WfJ;.Ir'i' 'Depend .. ,mg OD, 'the sha:pc of tb8 cam and 'the f.Olc't~ 't1ler,e,,m a certa1'n mhiirilmnM area, ol\(le:r.whicllrnbblng: contaot takes pID.aee ,and i~,,",s,an, :a.dv,~jbt,pfor ·the foot, to 'be: aprp'fn6cl;ab~7' ' OID·,Pi\" 'tbam

l'ub,r.:b:a;tio.DJ,

ill

a.QditioDa~,oil 'laicIWe, IDr

3"

Wlmn reeon.dl'i lioDing or makillg B,ew fonowers IC,or 0 b mDlsnafl: mckers) 'wi'. lourv0ci -fleet "~t~;OI 'ltld~p - D1i1lS.'~, ~b; bome in :mmd~ a,lIle is '~hll'~, n1l!w,u;s,of curva ture d,O&!, tbe n'(J1 tld~er,the timing' n,t: s, 'Ii, but tbl~it does ,sWeet tbe; ~,a"k:-IOir ~-~Ie:~'ltion, ,; ,~ oth~r words if 'yOUl. '~iibititum a :radius ,of :for'one '~.rIiD_~ the e,ptD:i:n.s. and Ic~o~g points, mWi$,ured, 'ID de,gr-tZS wiEl 'remain, 'the sam 9 b'u:t the, initial ar.oet,era:u.on ~, b~,greater .'th, 'n.;! llVl=:r. :r,adi:us,~The rs~o.lld 'point is (hilt 'tbie ,'li~t-a,nce·ucitween 'the ,rooker pm 'DeDU,e ,and, the 'be f or eontaet wm'lb'tbe), cam Idoel ,affect the timim,l~ A,djfFe~li.

~i

11

,·so

"

~,'t

TUN, N'G' PO.R IS,PIED'

In :~engdL,of ,,004 in," makes one dBlf,ee di:fe~ce ·W-~.th, ,3 cam base cirel,e;of 1 mto :dia:meltf': 'ObyjjOllSly; rIlem[bf~ the: ihe period of o.pe:niDg m maT.~li" 'wnJl be -&tJJoe m't,o in, sreare.r d,e.taU Iater, when
'vahre llmuhiP' ,oomm,
J~

'pweseDCe ,of a .ftl_ due, to w~


ll.m Jft!'

at tIds, JHlmtt ¥rill, :~ellJltl'Uwn. :PfOp{llrtiOD ta its: 'md,t1;t~ This

QjfBtlmg

.rv~m"U nd,iiNI~e:iJb.v

for ,diSlOUS;si,C\Ill~
0;

lio,'fIJ ,;'0 ,t:h'e '\!'J'm',~ rll,'rflf:;.... , ,&;r- In,rprJr.it_ ,,,-"t'1fj,ru".\/

ci;R1,~.t' ~QPp·f!1 U~! I"!~~""

Ild~ dir'!:-'Cl··

mo'l'knJ' 10

s u.r,faCfJ."

.th~' :fiUb.(J,{JJK

V!arfIIlI ~JPU

.FoDGwel'

A :Few '~i~PS employ lever ·friJ ,towers with hit Beet ,mod. 'widl 'WSg Itlul fam ,of. WM.r is iusnaJly i,ower OtWloS' w, JiB
gre8J:ta'.Bea olver whicb. th,eF ~bbiDB I,cU,QIR :18,Ip[e-ad~ ·Evelft',U'" aU,Y :p·OQ'~1 'M'I ,S:PpoaI' mear ,th~ 'mildd1e of ,tllc: ('"lies, blJ1'c le,m,t hi e~tle.nle eases the :PaJU ,ean 'be ,JeC;cDdiitio:med

:sim.p~y by iSDOO,'tbmg, on ;11, I&,t oil,..S,'£ on e,1 mtitle care '~hat the facM I.~,e ma ·'n,ta.ine-d :pam11e:1 witb, me fcoo'ttlr-pi[D,
hgh~!~L

the bes,t m Rtlerio.l trom, \,d~i.:ell!o mu·e new Oillml,: hea t... t ;t1:,u,t by q,u}~nehhl.g j,D oU ,atler ,heating to 820 ~ C~ fQr .c).Oie bom:., 'theA tem per a:t 2.00'13 C, foF' hl~l aD hour and aUovt to ~OI01. in .aJ_r~
;I.,

roller is 'nooesS'arily' wrr &mnl~, :heal"viy '-ca.ded :lInd, 1'1H'llt reo 'w-eUlu,'brica'ted~ WD,f d:l£ive~,ops,a.ltar a period", Replacinl, the pins usuaily . :lettsl :I, ICW;F.e'Jl 'b,u.t 'wbile, the~ pub ;OM - . ~sm;a'oded '~I is: md vlsa,b~e to 'cfleCLk the '['01 ~er bo'~~s for' ol'YB1Hy~ If' 'tlwy are ,out ,of' 1'0un d. lhey can be lap.ped IDU~ w I til II mUd ,!rmei 'bar ad e,mery pure" after wbieb ioyej~siZ_4· 'plns wi 11be' req ulred of a, siae ,givl'D.g JJO,2..in," lo'l,aranee in the
,~apJ?ed ..out
hiO~gs,

'£V~ II, flc,UnF':iop;~a,~,of I, saUd foot~and as ithei bwuin;-: in, dte th

The ,oldy !o~'"

lOODnD,tU~ 'Vu~elJ 'Or'~rg,¥C\r' [OUOi

,cr U

'ilt~d

Direct attac k 'i ~ 'tap'lLlet;s hearing on 'the, cams 'w]lthou:t Dl.e wAterve,tl'tion 0 'o"llo:wem ,U''C, 'used in 'm!uy' S'''Y'~, a:n,d :1, few D'"b,v, desllns~ --fue,Y' are usudy ,of'dIc :m,llisbr,llolB t,ype Oll',sct from th~e8.~ ~'illtll~ 'so 'tba,t.a lS]O'W rom~ion hi loolDtinuaJ~y a t;.ddm"g pkw- ~ tm~distribult.hlg 'wear' (J,ur the ,ent~f\e ImB/Qe o,:r 'fhD 1!tood~[j' w'mcD in. cOM~qUB:Ill.m f~lllngj'IPIS .Oat. ,aLmos:& in ... detmj;-e'~J" ,J:)u"rom'table ~'tt:ems wear', olf IfX"'llfse~ in jUlt the a_me' WI" U I,ver' followers" and requii,e itbe ssme

reeond.ltjomnl tr.:l'atm,ent 'Working l.oads OD the: stem.S ,ud tapipe~go iel - s are, hea V,hl5'L

Ttl'l! holes in Il1'e fOIDower '.~self must be en~a;rgetl to a. U,pt drii¥e fit OD die De,w' .pjllS,~ \V'rutb can be made '~T,om :silveI'
s~eel.hardmed, ,3JEJ.d '~empcredtOI
hut blued at the ends
9l

assem bly., :~:h)mB I!',a;cimlg, J ~A"P~ engwn,es ,em.p olyed, ro ~leIS ru on ing on needle ..roller 'bea.r] n gs w hieh. 'were CJ:-U ~t8J an
impr.,Q\1'em:.Dt 'over 'lh~ plmn vui,et,Y,

'to enable 'them. W' be riveted i[jivc,r after

straw

'COln1il'U lr'

in the centre

If some Setlt',i.OiLt1'S ddretil such as ~J(.tensi-ye.!at$., Olf: pm:tnn,g of the ,mreumfUeDltJe: of the roUe:ws" is, in levide;noe i~ ~s best 'to
re,p"~aee them ~ If spares

chl'o'R],es.teel bown

as t)rillrac;e SI~eeM (S,.pes" EN :I1) ,ils abont


:~,52

aN'U aobtainable

rhe

1.% oari"bo,l1\-.I%,

at UU~ ends and become zero in th'6 centra II PD 1110D:: UUJ S a small ~d 'U,etlolljJ o'r 'wleight can be lelIDectled bY' hea vi ly te:Uevlng '~Ile: 'ta.ppet, in 'tllat regio'la!i Anlotber se'hleme'~ ,a:ppUcal.ble only tiO n on,... vtatmg 'taplpe~sJ' is 'to ~il1d two' r Jlab on 'the centra t portion lle-&,wnS' I, recb1nru~a,r' seetlon to take tfu!eload, It :is 'worth n tiE,~ that Ion most 'VaJVi;"',G,ear' one ,ounce !o,f:wewgbllcreates an in Blrlia,fo,rs,e' of tl1irty pou Ild s or 'more: at top speed, 810 th re is much ~D' be ,pined. by red uctions ~lJImC:h seem ltdfl ru n,11' in '~bem:sel es .. y The cmQ,us'l [ffierr '~s, et reg mr'ed :for raeing, En me c:a~e:o,r n :&l'&anda'rd Ai 1"S~ ,la'nodi Ma. t;e'bless the CO'Dtl'O'~ ]'c'ver. m. the 'timing icue can be dis,p()1SM of ilud "lfter' enwfu:dn.:gtlie gu:i de ,and.ta :p~petfrom the lC.tIllkease, the va~m.v~Ufte:r eellar 1C3'fl 'be
j

re:n~oved t'hlTolugh th~ '51 0"[ Clllt, in: 'tbe: side


1

Qir

[the ,gu,j,de;I

$imcln

~,53

'''I'' " "I, ,

U"""'"

~~.~

ill' 1io~ ~ tIi,-I,'nII'Jf

'C' "'" ~ i:IU.. .'0

!f!l 'II'i; co'a !IJII,~·~U

'Dc

.1

of JM, ounee of W'l'w,;um:ted, w-ew,gil:t can be saved. 'm an, case, i'~is, 'wise to 'Verify 'that the esha us~Urfer 'is no~ b'o,idiDg th,~fgnawer of[ '[he btie-cu,ci~e or '('iJUJI~f[1~ ·the cam nose if my a'hauge O'D, cam lO.m or ~J.ie 'is made, As an

pomt~ 'but one whic.h iUustraites, :turther

how '(h,e Qd.,,~ fraeLJ'On

CH---A" -FIEJl" '--:


. . , I

'XU"' ,

,I

msta:nQ~:

~'I

Jl:Ipide

,~ii iglll'tning L

or

tm

IJ

., cams 'w,nen. fi:tted to 0 VW.'ccn t Shad ow 'n 'eOl1~,tbe exhaust. Ufl:er lever;,!; :, the
j

1~-:_

,An'ill'

.. _:__:· ..

-~'T·M' ''C~"fi'T'~ T'O" V·~_ l' VE', 'u'BAR A. ~~,···~l',.I.llil.! " -, "_'
.0

la;ne:r must thefefom be med, sw:a" to clear 'lD;e ca.m,"',EUJ~=\t WJ)W,P it ~s Ju'\ep;b.l:bl:y· 'better for ,miQS~, ,FflOirrSJg 'to remlO'VI th~ entire HIler niecmams,m. and. bFook up the hole 'through ',ybj eh tiiI,"I..,-IiI::A.--,--A, - -,-_i,,,,,t.,,,~,~cc "'l"' -,"-,we, IlJUIm:l ron passes Whu, a • ,11.0. 'B'Ii:'iP' P'_"U.8J' I.,,'II!..I- same ~ ~,_,t, .,~~~-" .ne . 'lU&'edl in 'f.he crankea se ldrain 'hole). "r,eq'u"enUy, .. "Ulere j[S net ,civermuch elearanee be't~',r:e:D 'the 'llU3MOd en.d of' the ro eker and ~he inl~dc. of 'the reeker
oIllI,.e1f,'L ...

1BJI, ,and.the nest ICUa,pte.r U'B c~c\Sely related and 'may weU 'he, si~11djed in, 9., s;ffingme fe,a,ding" The wm is 'first ~IO' ,d,esl, 'M:th standard, v,al¥e ,setUm:p a:nd~ iP, Qtapl[ie.r XIn.. to mdica'!e
&.djUSbn,en'U
,tg

is HS endlJ, to, ,che~.k tlJ1i;art DO' feu [ing eeeurs :be~eat full ~, otb.erwis:e. lb~ PJuw-ods will bebent (1n' the cams and fo[loweEs
IserhJosl)" damHas~d
I, to

ho,'uiog or cever, If cams .giY.in.l: higI1r un are ilJs~a;U:~d; a }j:t

.major :mod:ifica:bons :u:vu been 'lna;ie cls.ew:b~r-e",0' ~tl ensin·e~, As a 1~1J]~",11 it Is: I, baA p~IUCJ in ,exp~r,i~e:~'~l: wor~ '£0 :rnLc~,
al~01mom

tb;e maker's 'tjmifl"g for a ,s,tart". and. i.1 :~Ii ~SOI a "Wise pia.c, & fol' 'mIJ,ore 'e.:lper.i0:DOOd r~deffl '10 follow' dte same. CQ1U'8._- if

Newcomen to speed, wor.k would be wclJl,advlsed. 'to Ii'tid:

'which m:ly remit

'bl

impiJi'O"~" _p~d~rm~~~

~SBSSJ 'valUI ot sn,Y :sjDg~0.modifim'tion~ tb,e __ l1gmeB usuaJ!y' ha~e,"their '~imiqggears IC]ca~ru, DIM.ted by' dots 01'11 'We mm,ting , eeth or 'Unes. iascribed ,on,the :rims,,o,f ~ iIt-pnI-r1!l. W' b ,ftft kl D'" ,n ales, O,D, the I'fI,'IiI1'nIC before oon1'men'tmg OaI..IL..III _ Ithe'jm,tia1. dism811'tlim,gl! i:l dj:IGl1t1D oflL1!es~ 'ma:~,ks!lih,(')uld ha ve been,inc]i'ud,ed~lto_u' wl'th' ,M.,' informadoD, M,LatlDS''to the ]JDSj Ilion of Ime' s malt. bmml plm,oo on ,th~'main sbaft~ S~IlC ~,t is; a ,tormnQll '~uactketo use ,3,. number oif ~eY"'a.y&. Wl,,' '~De,.,:f o which may be select~(lJJ W.of.dc~ to 'prorvide a fine ·y.aril,ti~n ,o,f ti,m,iU,g: at this point, ]f'this, is, 'the casa, it is usual '~O mark tJlI!:l' I,' standard ke,-wa.,' in some :muner ~'lAou.P tbis ma :n,Q,£ be 'yj;sibl'c; wben 'tlR, pinion, nut Is :m, place, ., ~ ._ no means do all engj.m.u; le.mp:loy ,R .tcycd..;Qn p:inu),Ml. In
~~'IWa U.li.1lill
IWJ~,

'tha;n one 'tb~n:l:,at a,tbnej o,'tb~&C

I,t 19, ·dlfiicUllt

'U)

lil!'I'!il

~'~-'-l~

Y ~ ~-

__

B, a:nd .Python po,wer .. .R'aJdIS


dlemed"

·li·~

on a p,~.ain,'taper.'j edl thus ·tan be set ,'ml.dny

umb~, or F

lelml,pl'~: '~e pl.iniQ~.~'


in an

'posl tlL()(IJ,

M'uks, oir' DO ml:f]r~~. belore ballY :6ltin,glhe. t~:m;unB ~~!ler' i:t is best. to play fjafe; and tOI check' the se'ding wmtha tn~mlm.;I di 00; .mldj,pomter 'set 'W zero witb 'the piat'on at top' ,oonb.~ ~t; n~, not too -.sy to d~~e1!, ,egeCly' W'bm 'th·wscscm,s, _ w]r~m ·31 ~JD' ,de,eroo. or rtVro ,just by lee1iD,g tbe: mowment ,of 'the :p~sm'D

iss

ADJ"USTN,]n~'~:S: 'T'O VALve !itte,d,


I~~'

a.I,AR

AtJi ~X~U~l~t tilFllng' &.fic-k·/()f' el1C'i'\n!~'

mmlii. f!d

~_~".~! ~

wjlJ~' a'
,:tiI

pi.rs"

t;U:;dti(J ~:;f: :::::~,.


Qf!QW'
_. I -. -, ,.~ Y-. .. ..,. I I .',

'~1u'raJpl~fB ,C1MI' IJ~' ';'fOd~' ~!llp,~!tg' tJ_1.~, ~ ,~'_~t~f!,r,TU"~


~ut:keiJ OF mJ1J,m~/r.e.iJf~ a

[unnin& pvUig t'be ,appearance of ,Ir'r:a~~,,mc.feRsad overlap IC(Jm:piFn'e~ to some. o,th,er' malmfl., On 'be s,[hort"""~ro,~e edlrti(lD.:S,from 1'9516 oll'w,aros" the 'itnimg FS not ql1:,U}~ed in

pr,acdoc ud

s;p6Ci'ry closer clearances ~o'".Sletd ml g fum for

degme~.t but in i be' amounts


B:t l..,C.. and b.d.e, d:..

'~y whieb. eac-h 'ValVe is; ll fted


C;luns,
0':0

,crOWD through the plug hClh!J 'b\lt '~.t ., ,,_ tel be,' detetrm:ul,e d ql111e moo_a"".y ,~ 'by means ,of' a. depth II~ge at sueb
-:. -..::

-,.Wh,en the, bilet and, edI aus t

are separate so that

e~ent

the c;yUndsf 'bermS, ~,~ o,.fFset~.~ or ~ d,e$u~.fI'I',. - A11,cltlle~' me1t;hod. ·~s


IQ"r
I;

pr~o~s't:numJb~r .~s ~mHtaitenal.~be ore top een tre, ,If:' & be PODl'~e.'l is cOi~ny set to zer'C',j the Jlieadiinp at 'wmch the crown touches tbe ga,~.,ge0·0, the urpfStro~ " o~r.dow·n ... , S'tl'\clh 0']] each, side: of ~,Cp centre 'IL, 1 .• ~b... ,! .. !\,;;.... ;, W ill oe eq,w~,~, eseept in lure 1Ul1'i~~~
few' depOOI-tHe
9,

91lenltffil

tbll'~

·u ,conmcts

'the. t['OW1], ttl

'to ,app,:ty

this .lLmow,ledje m a,:aUa,b~e~- o t forgetting n :Ipeclfy valve cllmran~, 'ror cbecking whicb are wider 'bn ·those, at which, the: tappets are e,ven ru Iclly set :fOr' NmniI,S],,, This, is done because _'_i":h some ,eam contours the ra\t·e IDf :1ft OV1flT' the ti:lrst fe,w' dfl,gr-e.es :~s '510' gr,adual that it, is wry dHDcrtllt to dete~e '_be' nTI~cJise :m'S~alU:iU, w'iJic'h "be valves, ,1:"""'" IDp_CD IO(f close, As was 'pointed 'CIJlLd. in Cbap'tex 1'" t'ws, mwt I~c:bone, in, m]:nd when, ma'krog IC(Jmpaai'isons 'bet1w~en the
timing diagrams, of w'nenu; makes,
No'rto(l!lg, reverse ~hts

compared witl] the

fI1m. of' 'dUet. !]:oap' ~,c,lu... iO'D over me 'phmg-holeJ] or bet er ,'tWl,~ ,over m smal]] bOlle in a d:~y pug be dy" die p'tliDt III 'W'biel1 'tlw fUm 'b\8inOODS out to h:s: 'm;3,u mmDl, ex eD'C, BI 'the· pWs'~Qn is, [ioeted 'D'IICi cen tre will, d~efm be t..d .e, rly With. tid, imp'ortMt: matter seWedI' the timing can 'be de ermiimoo and]
k:eI~'Sfign.res. jf that mamy -mmke:rn
m,3
1

or M.ccid!en'talIDy~ eare must be take:n to see I~t the 'vaIve--:bJ~Bdsclear each other at 'put,.. jft" If the 't hning is Mtered from, standa rd, ] lor olven~izedl valves fitted one wlve mlJ +~luite possi bl, ro·ul, the lo'thel'~ .and at lea;st 4Ci 'thou., c~r~Mee :s,I1!J:ol~Jlld be praent u;, the: O.OI~'St ~poifJ;'t,'t'D a,v·oitfi ,this· ~apI~eR~'DI, a,~ speeti., Exoept on overhead CillllSl1aft 'mo:dei!& 'tltl'!', p 0';'0'1 is (1::meu'nt to clb;edk a nd ~s ofitem 'OVlefI(u)~ed, in ICOn5it1q'lJef~u:e~ WhA'te¥er clearances are used, it 'is very rarely '~_h:rU '~be .fi.81U'\e8,obtarbrued wruU agree 'rJbs-()I'~del}' witb 'Ulose quoted_ b, t11_ ,maikerij' :SCI ttl I't a tiitd~ oommo,rt SIllDSBi bas to be uSled teO obbll"'c the, ctJOSe9't app,hl'ifmati:OD!, Gcn-,tml1y SPe&bJlIIJ 'the litlas·t important .po;b~,tis the ,exhallst ~m]]yc: ope rn'ilf'~;~, [ui 'the ~
purpo~
j

tbe 'Dvala,p' can be varied, either

mlost ,i:mpo,Ita:n:t is

and

more' points ,at l[be'S peci'lled clearance but the error '~sreduced
~i!"iIl!'I,; -_

elos img 'M.tb I'IefeNl1lIce' to 'td .)0., ISometimes; 'i'~ may' b~ 'found (Jiat 'the timlm\' ~s:lever,a] degr~M C'IUILon ODe, er
~t

esba us t

't~]; =

mistio,nship between j nlet opc:wn.

:!ll'u:llii.f;a~trule,

an [equM timing di;i3J,g;ram. [or bOI£b cylinders !ofa twin unless some allowances ,Cit this 11111ure ate mad'~ pa.rda:d_a.dyi!f some WleRr ~h taJu~;~ p:1 ,_'~n~e 'ca.m~s ~s ace t or mm fonowers~ :U is as ~Il 'w'mm' be lJ mUlE: d ~rC ls 'SUed, llt
'~O ,get
'~IOI

tbis at leas; _ give~,an 'iDdi~t:i OD, t~at 'the error is not so' serious :~u;.1cprp~-ared and. ma.y e;\f101] be WSFe:ga rded.~ a

#i'~~oi'!ii_liii'iI!II"\;Jiit'!' 'Ii:lBt OrB 0i!I~ _ 1~11e '!I!!i~~(InI, !1'~HIt...,,..!!w!~g ."'"

,il'!j"

OJ

_::iAl.

w w.... Wl,---:~der-'~ Ms--"::I'

not'be!in,o
u

1;:11 -

is b.ar-d ...
--

is often difficuU

IDik:.e '~ating ']ea,ps in the da:[k.,

, 'The. more obvious a.ddidoD·a] thinms to measure are 'tm~ '8, nount e8!Cb v~lve{ ID· eo at '~,opmd 'ib~t;toml d ead centres ,; IS t'be SUJUJ.s.la:mount IC" 'lilt (whte'h is 'IllOit l[l'~ssarl1:y' 'the same~
157

obtain some 'more 'fig1Ul res fbr fulllw.e, :re£eI'enc~ and as 81l ald to ,geld ng: .9, ,clOOI\c,r' piclun~: of 'tile 'val ve-li r~ f},gtanl _dj '\1IIffitb;out w,bruc,b_any subse-qoent experimenting wm 'be simp!.,

1:516

A.D') US·T.Mm:Nl'TS: TO

V A.·L·V.I IQ:!l:AI:

pilUh. .. .rod .

en gin M, tend to wfdf/llt ~h,ougb more en the w:oj)e·t tb:!lD 'the, re'~a:us."t~ lOin.eams.haft .])gmes both clw.ances: elose 'up) 'm.b.'OQgb. .me,s on the exhaust than the m~et,and in s~de.. ,....... 1 ".A 1,.. "hIi~,~e en8lIl,es ,,;I:..·nI,-tt W~ytms~ W'uer,ets; th exna ust eloses up w,el t : ae ,..;iL
i,

sJlI1I~ 'ili#pt1fJ !Jt


r

J'~tf'lv DI1' tf) ~

,S~me Ji~Jf!;Jo.nn (J.1'I1flndl~'to'


t)U_~

uut'yhu

the It,fm/'ll' geat,. q~~c~~~t1 Ol!'illI!


~ 1;x,1e, ,l,ful wUI be' {I:e:qul"d~

~pe,l'i_~}IlI$ ~~ll'l~

rh!;t., :w;d~ mwllfJl:llJ/e wi1M

gr.

dlgrees ~leml :mef£smed, bo,rizoEl'laUy'" The gfQ.i·phso obw_Bl~d ,calli be mnde tOI ,gi,Ye 1'1ui'~e I. IIOI~, of ,mft~D,nrli~~ionl~ ,viiU 'bel as
s'11,'O'WD 13;~ Ion",

sim:p~Ga'ppuat!lls a. fWd!y plii1Jtt;lmll: :indlvidUlal, can. dra,,, a. c.ompll,ete Uft,..curvc for blo'., va'l,es, by mkiDg llea.dinp, I:t .intarvsm- o:c_uv tWiO or ·~o;eda~n;~ ....~~ T'L"'lI;!~ """'Qi!l.WcliII-'iI'.i"i' ~~ p_1'0' .I"~~, "·ii',tI.imI -" ill, - ..1 - _. - - .!!!..Iirr'_ - -ti'l''''''' I"U~'!&!I g ,!n sq~e4 p&p~r as vert[oo~ measulememU,; CTIl'nks:hafl
'PA~ri 'Iilir~ ~

,ne~ upm con~c:· t


'. Jll'l1iiiIIt!i,FI' ,.,'.... ", ...,'

as 1lle hcis'ht or the cam on llCOQ{ruU},tof ~ev,em"p.. &ti,osi 'w:bd:eb, r may' ex~~tiii, tie' rockel' par:)';" tD~ ,cl',anksha:R aElg'[a at. whi1ch 'th.e valves reach 'filU nft~ tjl;e d.wen a.t. ,fuJlJl lui, if any a and P'fe.SClllt-'I., d,W$U upreselllinrm; tbe mumher' of' deg;rees of m,oy,gmcnt d:tuinl w'bi~o11 'rile ",lilve '~8OD,n,d 1Hfll~., " The best te measure ,~.IDsfs 'by means of a·dlai.;;gau,F
,t~

wa,,'

~ ,iI!.'L ......... 11- .. iiiL ~'-. WlIWLlU_" Ie ytWI'Vi"SPI1l:Dlg!CO,

'U'

M,,,

'W"'A.t

....' nn

.. ;101..,,:

~,s

-'the l~a;Ue/'po,int lm 'part'icular must be watched. ca:retwl'y' if B, 'KJ3j95\5 valve has been fitted in place, ,of one 0" sUchro-me oJ:" SOIlU:; lother steel. with, ,8 m.l!lch. lower.' ,upansio'Dl cQemcl~ml., It is beB,t 'wb~n :mea.snrmg valve 'Hils, to' let tite clearan,OOf) to 2lel'O; the f,ea,rim·ss wiD. then indicate \whctbJ~;T:' 'eI'ms rtbe arc porU:arl,cl with. Iqnietenimg ramps or net, The ,actual 'timDing' can then be shown by dn.l\vj n~g lines on the gra.ph, paxa~ '~O the base .. ine ,9t heigll.ts eqai Y,Blent to the, FUnning te] l 1: t!~oo.,an,cu~ Each 'v,olv. :s,n,Quldbe measured 8epI,Tll't'e'~Y"1 \Vi tJJ tha Cl,th,er Qnll rendered 'illI{1],er@'!lti,e by' leaving ont itt puuhr·od or footer so' [(ba't the 'bI1N:;k-,~asb.l<n drj,ve is 'not ·ttk:ea up in 'the th~ 1I'e',eme directioIllJ 'by ttl,e ca m net 'DlJ.der cOD!S\wde:ra'U'oD;; . The reekers (HI. M~8tchlusfA.,",;$j"twins end KSS{I(Tr V,eilocet~= tlIlmtl 'wm'th. fuDy enc'~losed. ',B ~ves,,~ miount:ea. on loooCim.'tnc 6,piud ~ea~as, a. m,ea~tut adjiu~itllhe 'cnee:ramccs, ;and t le·itblf 'rockl~f' canl be reilJl1·c:rved'l vm if 'the '¥,a],vies are: e ,a~em'b,f~, aim.ply by llEl;SCF,lCwmS' ~.tl '9p.md]eJ! _be re ~ikermD
.

or

'ruu,
t

'There bas been. sueb an enorm]i.O,'I~lS; number of el1.Sma manuflcltLud bl 'fl.daus; ItJpa and cditi'DMI 'that ~i't is, D.OI~, 'D~ib,le '~O q~ol~ lD:'U. ilheir. tilnimg figuf.\f!S even if tb~y' 'WeR' avaJI;~b~ell 'DD 'paps I 16~116S list of !qohe a lewj -n01 aU lJrl:t is;a

' .,L ~Ii"ilh d" ~, 'l~at'~ P,I.i.'d}'e or eooCDl'llUlClty nes m UJllC, n~t ,.j'FoecbQll ,ot'herwilsc 'the, 'tinrl.n,g: w.~Dbe 'badly out :fUlfil the rockers wB] 'Dot loo(o:met tb,e 'y~,d~es ,pro',perID, AnO'WI are stamped 00 lbe

ItII!_' 'PcMcmilS parlJa.l1:y lUling; 'lh,g v~hi'" 11 eaea reYiGJ'~1J:t'i·an~ 'WltenJf1DaUy :se~t;:llg th~ cleamnoos Icalia must be taken to
I!t..· -

se

;ji,'!L...

'I...,

r'

iIIo",,~

II.

'~:=

eo

olr waich are mQd_~


~,~~I_~I

Includedlm;m a. :numiber 10(' Dgan:s, fbz. b Ojth. sports mnd.raein·,1!~.ginm, of' the same make, the (llbjeet. 'hej~g 'no, sbo'w l~owtbe thnings, Via:ry ,Rtx;Ommg, 'to the, 'lype, 0':'
OJ

.Ai dl(J'l

gm-w,ei cmJUICI~;,g 'w,lt/I, lite ~ll!e-""iN.pI'I~ur (Jllil


lll.~ nm~l"

InWIiJlii'il'fl,rman"-" '

"~III'W'l~

iFfI!\n·W·

"'red;'
I! _

II

baing: wders:toodl tu.t .:r.UIlIIJllg n mnDing i~' 'wirth tbe, leD line c.fJldt~ ~l~~u..h at, C'lilenJtim I, te:mperl~tllres,the· ,cifmJ8:n~ 1ril p~!obalJI]:y 'be very mfJulemt" ,As a. pneJa~. ro1l! when mlOt'., tb.e: clearances of both v!al,,~ iii lS8
'IJ~

. The. obeeldm·,s-,and rumm]ll,g: clearances au

:alrHl! ,Rlvm,o=·,··,·•.'t me:ans· ~t! U SCI .fbl

'C(;fp", fil!{~;d ,lIN. rc;OIJjIU1C-ll.fj:i~ 'r ~ ~ . l" ..,II"' ~,J Mf,fl.i . U~ ,t;',11\JiI'JJg ~!t~;1i ii¥~t~

'mlfbfe
i,llfti

ac,cfll't!le

to ,I'Ftepflrt.'

rt{lfv.l:~pj.tt(Jlr'

,dftliU-Q~n"

TtrNLN'O "lOR

IP'EBD
E;XJI'j.,tJ$T

It!,,~

JIJ

''1'''11''' ~

!Y ~

T M '~',,"N''1'T"''It!i T ,> _ D ,ill, iil_,

ri""Io, 'U jj, 'II'-'v'rn, YOi' ,'"' "'"", _~,

IIilII J. . ~"lli':!!j;..tliJR

"

lJ.y d

cmJ'

~I'."~
'A
-. ---

,f)/IIr;,(e..amfr.;,,,,, ':Oc'(jI'i~,rtJ'j' J!al't,f}~' '! ~J.'/~ J ~ c~J b~ ~Ml'r H,tl:tng ti~, i~' aflfertJJd' ,PQ$ld(}J,JJ'.. J
l1,;,li'

-.:I:ifj nOilI"'~ltenos tJ~ :H,..:lL:'Ao!il~A'.,1f..'~~'r U.I.!ijIJ,,,",",I!;.i!w. I~~, l!!;;i!''II;,!'r.I,~II;, It." 14111 [~,J;.II1i;II)jIl4-Ii, any doubts can be settled b:y' IcheckinS that me reek • -ends II. . -"11CDn,~,:; lU!:le ve ,S t·· - - cen,Ui,B1_Yij, ,11J) no "jl ,I.'i.. ,· error- WJI - 'II!..J~lms - lib.. '1'1-' ~ ,ft Ul'C ~~ qwt'e D,ol'i~bl' and can be cured by moving the pins b3~f,a, "t:!..' t iUllrn '" eJ-L~lr d' reCIi-UJD ~ liD, 'I A ghmoo at, Ul,e tim:m,g, data shows, 'lb_a't there is; '.nl~y' close BpOOmiGD11: between rthG t;'m~m'ls; used b, va:rio'JJlS ma:k;ers, -...,. 'L'!p ..... lu~~"

!!:I!,PiI!.M_l_

iO,

,;'nld~,

r-.A~;;;O~iI!o'

~.;&;"!i;HilIi

c b- ,lfii~.~J

~ ~

..........

",.

i!1i..

'a.~

B()w 1,'0' '&;~/j veri' d,eg.rl1J~ ~o It:l~'iJ'(Jr


nf~C'nj'an.r..

60

'!

m.m .•

,!

-'~J

d;' ~r-crlfJed ,~lr,~t~ the

,F-lr~t

j"

dilUiJral,'«r M fIJlHtA 1€(Jl:tfJ,fN! (1Ji! ltrr(Ilh

piSi"lJ.U ssrokif1" Wu,lJ' ~ 'CQI~~Qr~ ~'I_ t~'lJ~:~


MtJ:lltfB

,fJI

does: not if tmned mil ·,ii SI~mi1ar fs,sw,DJ)," A cl'ctS.ef' li,tudy !5bows 'Itbl!tJJ on 'he wbc,~elf':no~ ,OrEJ" ,is, dle o,v,edlp 'OD engines intlended for 'use ,",Ut IJ ~d1m1'cel much l~s 'lOaD 'OD thos ei made m;M!B'~,y or wholl.y for fa-ct ngi but ,~ts, als 0 s p,,~it,Upl di ffere:n.tly,. i

'for [IS,! Dlai D~Foad 'war

for ~FaciDS~nd &D em,O'uu, wbicll a aguT" im '~.'be 'is, bound to pe,rfor:mJ r¢iil50Da:bly wen lis,t
(0\

length of ,fire lilOIlr."" r()d,I;,,~av-e~'1J1


c.enl,'N!iSlJ sttj/{e _ tf1fCB ti!'I~ I.lle' J~,Nlc-Qf iwe
,Itl:p tlli;~l 601-

KEY

E ' '11-1-. ~ ~. ~

II \JIU·" ~""'"

p(J'If~

eir:i:la"

t'Qnl' 'tdl~'i'S.em t~fJ

s,por~s engines '[hie ,fLn~l0Sue more

In the latter case, '(be crank a;~f&lle,at 'wbjl~ll t]~e ~nlet valve orpens before t.d.e, is, 1J:S,u:®Uy several (I!egrecs pc§teJ' than the ;l,mg~eat; w'm:cu the, ex.h IUS'~ vidvc' closes, wh,e.1B18 ,in
"fl earl

'tiJ:Jie11rng fJ'I#l t.l'O.:fhW;' ,O£lJI'S' 4Md ,'_e:tJ¥t'lT~


,I

ural '.II'Qm_ '~(J1w

Nc:x,f sl1!'ik,t:

,t/l$tanEf:.s. 1J~IMeH ,tlr-«SCfNICS (nul ,ro,


Q:I-uJ'

in ,s't.:a!!odard production maebi aes 'these ,1S!pootS. al'thoup perh_s;plS, not BIQ imp Blu,nt as Bat-uu't ~rfo'l",manoo,
com-SGI

some oases the inlet amgle ]51, I, fetv d,e,!]rees less than the eXba,'lI$.t .., The reason for tbJs is, 'that better D,w-speed pell'fOrrnulnc.e ,and ~ueil,~eoDOrmy are the.fle:by lo,b~aI ed, md of , n
j

equ '1; -m:ndeOOin


I

anzJ'

lfJ.li(Jtn~eiil'r,~ nq~:p(J't!,tl~"t!,{J".,

Mve tOo '00. gi,ve!1l a, fair degr~ {)'r' atLeDt~IOiD", U§O

U,I~l'IN'tG P'OIt, SiP;JU~D

etherwlse, manufacturers, wO'wd nul 80 'to, 'the 'b':oDbI~of de'VelopIDI. w6er~D;tearn's fc,:r.'v,uious types of eDgice~ high b'" prope,r use of 10101high

gear-box; lood 'oorq,u; at ~O"W,s,peeds ils no _ eMe:n:dal 'tb.(l'D,gh It. is, Y1ell' desirable: OD. s.horE ,oimw;h whe_r~ 'time 1os Ie, in gea:r'""~'I'DIiDI may b.eeODl}e
,of the actual rUloni'DI ti m~',,, In. scr;anJ1bies, s,nd. tria~sin ",meb. a, speed, test is, mCQ,rpDfHl'ted.,
i&

In .road~I,ac!Wgl' leDs"iI1e speeds, can almost a \V8"S be G1pt


at, multi,.-speed

id
~,
~j

~,=S'~~~ ~~iii~~ _~~~ ~~~ ~, __,

_~'i;

:proportioD

I ~ ~'l:~U 'ii~'a'a;;:'~U@ :rll


i
~:

,co(n,dl'tioDS are 'Y'elY' d'iJlereJ:JfE, beCclUl~1 ODe: Deeds tei'D ela,gio,e w'bich is fa8t but can put up with ,b,l'ge va:rwa'ti,ou.s, of speed because (l,f :the laidy w,ido f~do' gelf-ho,xes w'ldth M'1C '~O be U'5ed,~ OIJlll speed \vay'l it is Wlso essential to h a.VI@' ian. engine
'ii'IY!'1~';;"1i;.

sJ

~ I'~
.~!l

, ~~~~ ~""'='='OSE,8.'~ 'E!~'~;;


'~'G

~ ~.~~
Giai-"

=
=

&~ ~~.~

!~§.~~

,'Iii~~i.Uil: ~",-~!-~~ III. -;-.'-i-~.I-~~


_t-==-el~_' if'!I!N

~qej~~

-~-!j!m-Jrc!'i-'

-'i:f:IO!:iet:!

'ilf!~": ~

q~.~

""

IlJJl

g- oed_ p,ulli'·:'I'IIIP" ,',uu


-_:_;.Q~I [I,

IBngm:rrues,wi th SB'[JI8ttl-te inlet aud exhnnls,t' cams, ,R8 ,~b,rmrl.'~ stanee Ule T,ri,um,pb'twm, and the do uJolc.o, h~c~,Norton - lend titemlselyes well 'to Y~U'iltions in '~he R'.Sipecliy,e cam 1·~~:tim\POl Ia fact tbe' Norwn is speollJoalbr made 'S:O 'bt tlrl0 W0'_ cam '0;10 be set' ,0 ttbe belt pGSilijO:1l ,Vor 'Cllilee'xhaus:t sy!,~em use in,

Eo,[' aD ':u:hmS5Iort of wor " Q,v,crlsps, are not gen'cEisUy,grea'ter tll:ID RO~ and ma~t' be m UCl1 less for conrl'petDl'ti],(lI'm, me dels wbere :fieJibiU ty is as mmportiLll t as s heer pOW.ef'I'

n;"l;.-W-';t;iI'lr _rU n f!I!rJ_

~'rIii"iiI-ml~rv.

"l' nt])' ~:tU.·.

r p--'j m J,III ii!l

iF.._

-UP-11IiII1~'iiI",..iII,C! . "~ilU~~

,i!:jl ·...ai .... I~IUU,

:Il1ll1Oi=:::lIllR;:lIiUlc;

~n&:;1 ~:Il;~1l; ~ ,f!.,;;;


;Z

~,V?ilifii;i. ij'!"Ii
~'!~'~N

I;
~,

:~~:~'~ &n;):~:;~
fI'".

--====---:1 ~===--;
.=

1a~,~ 'ria

b, means ,of a verru0f dev~ce,;8S,shewn wnthe tabl" dle "i'ilet, : cam is ~et to open 11(1° ea rUetr 1(&l1d close e:arUer 'hy' the same ameu rrt) - beD, a. m,e,gll,pbo'ne is B'Ued, than i:t ,~,- 'wjlb~_s'tr,ai"gb't.~
tbf.1ough! pipe .. AE't ually t the ti mmu,g; fil\lre~, Si lI/,eD do :001. !Convey' ,S,Dy real jmto;fIJuuio,m, as tothe effic-ac,Yof the operumg dj'agam~ which va de.~,of course" IwiUl the vahle lruft and 'the ,s~~p(nes,
of rite 'cam 'COD'tomm-but asSlllming' a

-I J
!Ii Iii iI II! •
III!

--~~---~I

'" W'If"II ro;i! 1j'I!'~~1'iN1 ..

010 r."I ¥;J,.',""

< !Ni "

III
..

II
Ii

Ii

.~, . ,;.:;,
i

~~
i!i
ill ri ~

iii

II

i '.

''=
~ ~

!ii' II!

reasonable de,pee ,of sim.itaT~~Y in the; ,heigb' of 'lift in ,~lati!on,'t~1 'the lC\\fJaeit,Y of 'the loyUnder bGtw~en Ylii,onl d,esJps, ,they do mdJm:k; 'th,! :U[i1es: alo,nl wbich to 'proceed in 'the sam,till eor ~speed~ It is .freq:U0ml,lt~poasiblie 'to util~ earns,ff(),m. one tJpe l(aif' engine in aDlo'tlie:r type or power unit ,fi'(.lm'tile same stabh= and 'thus obta&n ,eith,er a longer 'tim~m ,or _mi~er l.ifts;j 0,1' I
an, el1Jmlp.lo~the iIl'L4SQ;i!' (j,jOIii' 70IQ'~ .35°'n' cams used in tlrrtt 3'0 c'~c. and UP'W,aI-d:s,r,a,cing =,.I\"P,,::; can be, n:tt'=d
beth,
,*5:,

~
-e

'"
l!jl

to 'tllJe: :25'0 c.e, model

OJ

AI~jDlJI some
ll~,2,

10''f

'tbe pU5;h,~·:rod:t
o.~page' 1;(,6

[~11'11'U~

o C,O, 0
~~I~.~

~G~'O -..

li~'~~,~

~~~:B._~_

_~u~.~
ICI oil;
-III ,-.

:~l".:l~;

,i ~2g,~~S2... _ .. --.[.--. -.
'=!
'

.... ,_' .... ,!$Ii iN ~ ~

'1'Ii!I ~ ¥Ii ;;n.1~~'I'1i"!! f-I ~ ii3i


'~l~

,~aQ'Glq8'22',! - ......... r.""'.


• .'

III'!!

I:
• ~I

'=iI

_'

:i=a.
'i,!!j ,~O
"

10000 ,~ i'.... · ....


iCIi
-. -.

.~

til

= C!::et'l;Ii~~~ ~ i'~~1·-= ~:=,~ .qq I§£,=rn ~ ~ i ~ .: i;i.q


N !f.-I.r<~1 ':. .... l-',

i'i':I.

'-lti
~!W1'L
~~;

MI

~,8'ii ~8'" 'I· ~'q


QQ!:!II~
!iI.
I "Iol •

-s :

ii§~~a:i'iJ ........ ", =_ _ """---;a--.

,15,1 -..1

,t'i~~2inO~~d'l!:II ~ ~ CI e'~'QI - O'~ Q -. - .. -lor.....


', '

..

........
"!!I _

.11

.... qq
• _

~ ,..

g,

• Ii

II
~J

'Ii.

!!II

I
i~

I!

II !I-

~ II!

iii

.11.

!!J

L!

III

!J

.,

• r~

l!I
l~

• iI

• Iti

" iii

i I

i !

• '"

II
II

Ii !

i
'I!

II !!

i ..

!II. 11'.

.1.,
i II!I

~ ~ .... ~

a:
'1: ""':II

,.
,. ,.
~

t.
[~

'I I!
~
.g.

''!Ii.
.[Lf

III:

I~

'19
~

!,

i.j

~ ....
II:

;,

..•

~
-og

~.

p.

& i.

!; ,El .~ ,g:
v.I.

IS ~

.~

I!-'!

ir::;,

,J
'd'

!Il
<P'

,~

J ~
"'"

164,

]6.5

1"U.N~M,G f()I.

S PI:I::O'
J

AU 'US'TMIlN'tS, TO' 'VIfL VI (HilAR

the 'Ib-ail 'w,ben :rtmJllirn,g' ,R'ld damage 'WI valve ,1,OO,f' wi 11 result, Rw,d,g.e eams iD.reyl~t IJllotber i!ltam:pte lDlr :i D'£er ...

'may 1£1,,4 to msu-ff]ciemlt tigbmess if' shaf~s' a.D,d w1umils are ] niertbuaed .; 'the i-rntarfiaMDce Iii: must 'be, al leeu., ,AJGI 'iD~ r.equidD_g 1 to, :~,t 'tons nt'liD~- PltCtlSure .. If less tlum this 'the shaJt rdl(u.dd. be 11id.c~. Oil c!llrome,...pl'l~ed. U]pl to the .r.,sq W!lrulil! size, ,otberwis~,' the wheel ma,l' m,ov. ~'. ea

or three dilfe;~en't ,B·DS'~eB of helix 8tlid .mJ~;y not, thereIore, be. m·~·e!C'M;m,pat'b];~" H',OiWl!v,erl, [h~ Icarmwbeels ·1re a press, fit ,on the earns I, d can the-r:efole: 'be pressed. IOff and chaIl,.led O-lf1el"~ if" e~u::hpai'r is, wsrk,ed. befole beintg ,SepS'[;B ted 'b, $cdbim,g a UDe ,radJ'allJ ,inwa1l'dSi .fr,eDl toe Il'il!M'ked tqatn, and, tniel1. r:efttted with. tbe "mok's, in line" 'tn.1 uocri'ilDg: shcuID,d 'be, cerreet, Vinc-ent ca m;wh:ecIs, are D]~'O ,prelssed iO\U[j1 but I:m thls :ms:ts:lltt. 'the b olea, ore: IP-aralfcl and DiC't 'ta.pa:md us; in, tbe V:e]0 c:et'te.! SHght 'v,a'rianans in .s!ta;r~,,0[' bore, dh.tmeeers,
tWOI

V;e locet teo cams are ru'l1teF.'eba:m:\g"~ble,, mtJKrl1g U, the .be'lic~.1 teethgears, umq ~'G to, tWs make, have been m Elide, wiU:~

openin,f,f'tl p om:L Th.0 ta p'pet c'kM'anees ,bavim"g P[\'el'vio'lIils,ly -been. le~ to the WfI10UD'U speci6ied fOIf' 1lm1! wbm. cMc.kimg the 'ummg, tbe cams (or OOJD1 if 'two :8-~Plfa.·~,e afe ar-e u~i~d) u,e rortated un til 'the clgmll~ :i~ m jilt, takeD up\~and the :Mtt..time pinlon is ·then :fitted It,o, 'the m.I'run 'sJulfit in the lpl.plrapda'~e poo!,t]on, '~,y means whi~b..v:ar.)' KOOr ,dmg: to the detail dempt, On. J "Ali P., enpnes, t.bet" Ire·1tlyt ke,yw'8.:Y~ in, the .pm "on, .and, the 'molt fav,olH.a,·bte 'pO',sl~
pODding tn the ~ mJe~ ~
l

If' dille ititmiD .. has been all,e£lteldnom rs.tanda_rdj< or meN m ~ MY ~iOB te d(Hl.~,b,'the m arkings, ~fZt the engine, by means of the' d~lfee ·pla.;te with the amnkpm 'in ithe' 'plos~ti{n~ cortes-

the

le;a.p3cm:ties~ 'Toe lIel.ibi~ityalld IQw'~~G~d :pulUn"g; orsid~ya:hre len.,gmel w:sd.u lU, :I.HI~ measu re '10 tlte ~,~Iryw 'n 'Um]rl1g usual I.)" s ~m:plo,ed.l' ou:t 'there: is D,O 1OIBOll 'why rGlU~'~'e' :I,p~pwclab~e an amount oVleif,~a"psih,(~utdnot be used, rIlerre\~1 ,apjD" It ,m3 ol"OOn :pos:sible: te 81m bstjtB~e the of.igina ~ cams 'by .8, l,ai r from ,3 OD1ffCsp,cul.d]m,g ,o"h.v;. emliDe~ Man., ,·eus o..l0~ m femgm~er' 6.ttir18 't;b,e cams, from a. ' ., 'big-po,ft. A"J .. '~ mto ,I 3S0 side .. S 'V~w; of dlls, make ·M·th f'eI\'~1,·:mmllladde' resU.I.t5. OYrin,g to the ct1Dlp.aQ:ycl:y' p,cor b.~ea'dUnl and, 1ow,e:r
!It!'

,iL\., 'iIl.. ·~I::·!,. CaaDII,eal~ .. uty" m

iII,'L..~'

IIiJJJllSI

-Oli"il mstaaee ror i~Je.' _-lI;i


,'-

,t'

;i;,'1t.,

lC'A:'",

..IIi ,aBu.

~:~ul

':!Ii ,C'iI"ii

c.e,

Icolmp,r.essioD,

ratio, 'insep.,a'ble &nm, ,am,' :sid~,'a~:"edooiln~ W'~S v(ih.oo~me· effi1cienoy is :~.OIW I't bigb, ~rBty;G. and. 'it pl.YS, te .bollrJ thB: inlet ''V,aIH ()pen a. 'rew di-ggmes m'DiDlet than on aft o.h, v',", unit, siace it :h~, o, use closing 'IthiS 'val~ve,UEl'ti] tnle n IGompr~s8io~ a.ctu i,m, begins, Tha'~~does m.ot ,ooour ~ if the c.ylutder ,iii'Irn ng is not toe good~ until the piston. is weU. up on ·the compressIon stnlke.~ This, s'Ubject olf !=to des ig;o. is! vm)" oam,p,Lex Mld wi:n. be· dw,c:i:t ~rpQl1, ,a.t. &m.a.-tet lengt11 i:o -Die next !eu.ptel'", .

in itUfD~ A, s;lmllu scheme '~s used OrD V~neent e;mgWel~ d.iJs key in ~hil ms;m:noe being PI rallel ISO ttl· 't :i't can be ta.plpcd, inte plaee alter (hill bas t p osltlon 'for the pJmion has been :rbUDd. -,:,ormaDy the key ,"~ fitted in, ,th~ keyway mUlkedl witlil a pUDch-d,ot" _. ,- '~S,!,A!l1 cams are ffi,sted:11 paired up by p~'rt num:bttl, w.~'tb the iaplpra,'p,ril.'~e pmloD ~o ,give tine correct timJ.n,~ 'but PW'Oll £;, a;tr~ ,aJ'~o :suppUed whi,c'-b ,advl.noo the who,1D jmhll ~y 1O~.. See Table 00, pap l69 for dei.] s" , If 'Ute' desi:BD aJI,ows, ,oi bUlt OlU! po_~ni,.QD .for dta 'PW~, varlaUom m timim,g ean 'b- Bceo,m:p:U&1'md, omly in ,&'tCpl, of\onl tooth, is! .8. t1B'1e~,wmrih is, usually' 'or.' to'O SIleii't, An, i~,oo,ptilo'D , :bowe'lef, .~Ifonod in. so,m; ~-=-~ooo:tlm push~rod, mo d~l_s! ;~ ver,. ,nne..,:pltc'b. helical 'teeth., ,of which ·'!thCliC BIe ,4-1 on 'dle llutW... ·l!me p,iIJj'GID11 lUovide, '., 'WnaoOD of' ,- 0 par to OttBli Om,s m'l!:thod. o"lurmJO~ tID:! ·t1tri]sdillcuJ;ty is, to 'make, y,p lome' ~~e!pped teys,t '-eme:mberinII t~Bt at, 1. mil, 'radius, r~ i'Il::I! n '1" ~'.'~li!Ii eqU!ws ,.Ul.~. m,,; .c :lJIO'. ;i.'l.,;::...11 ~IJ;SJ, th am.a!lJL!g t 'O':lC' -- ~~Iii];oi!.r wJS ne _ tf) be ,Wed.en the '~ ,far an'" particular dil'meter Dr slmft and angnlar va.tii1l.tioQ,reqmred, een 'be w,o:r.k·,ed. lOut 'by direct. pfoporti.(nl~ )t'3YS SOJ filed _mi18~,l~)f oum~~ iit 'the· ·keyW\I.JS! e in, 'lbo'tb sha·ft ::iud, par' closc~YI otbemrisle 'ID,e 05mm ,may
1
r

UC'D for

It is forumd b1'b"ial,aB.d

error,

usm,1 Gleh

kcyw,a,

,L!I,

'111

iti.il~A"""".iiI'h'''i 'V' T '!I!!P "·wu.~~:IJJJI 'LIIL~'I!fL~J; "_!

~~"u~·,'fop
. ~

s'llaRs .fO.if' inlet i~d_ exhaust ne'x:l tum the 8yw'heels 'U'n:til ·the ctamkplin h, at, 'tme: u MlIau 5'i:

If the en.gin.eJhas

Siepa1,Qt'l ,cam

1156

'i'6~

·u,'~'I'
.II.,
,j:"

'II"","']

In JLL~ Ui

,~.

'''"'0''.,'011 'S"FI(i~~.LI 1'~ [iii tIIi.1!


'''-f~. "

[iOi''r''II

A.D,J U,S "l'ME N TS 1",al 11 A.L V,lE Clm,A R


Q'TIIi'ii .. I

[Brill:)" 'b) eHm'm,a'~1sprin,g'~ 'The com,pleCe tim~ns .figures


A p'l",o!ui. -b]· 'I:;..... JJ,'Q1lD;u ;1,11.... _" ~' ,e I~t

'L. .. ,n.; '.',"-~~·._ru 1iiI',:IItlnDC'~ "'::t'io'1!!Ij iIlI;'II"iI,.~1 r m t ._!IilIJ1iJ ~A!I~ ~~_~ _ OmAili'i';'iIi"i ~lt:I, tlriy'~II!~t-W,~·L.t d.J..uJU '~D,~ii:I;ril;'t'LD' 4i-;La'l!JII"""~ .... ..~EIIJ:l;.·;g', ,I!'O' !li.-UJ~ 'I UU!''Yal,vt: is ju.st about to Hft, I(Qr at 'the iller.Ugt t01o,tbl to, this pOI~d,'OmJ)", nd sli:p tile, timing 'O·OV"S'f' W~O place '00 :stead., ,the a Q'~blF ends; lalf 'tbe eams.bafts-=3J ',flec8uim,o]l, Ylmcll\ is Dlo"t Dooes\Sary if'i'he shl:fi"s 'fUn in 'the' nedern mI,rme; OiD bed, shafts 'though it i:!3, ,advisable to fir. tbs s~eld'J pLlte tempor ..
.J! . ~~.;.

,j1k.,;!i. ,;10

Utl~e. t~ l~rwSUre, 'UJMa:t the, cam ,s;~:rindies, are DOlt bind:mtl,[g'i' ,lDc.dentlD,~'~~U:hcrg'.p, bro!wB, paper' .R CQ,mm,only usw fo,

''l..

antkjpatted" olYinS 'to small dJijfeJmJe~ heee mnd, 'there iD 'the m.,ee:hanism~or be-eause ,MJ error has been rnade in pIJiSj,tionln " 'dJ,e ha'lf':"time: phUon ~ U~uaUy a com~prnmdse has ,to be ;g' ..t' '1!.._....' ,..~1:. Jr ,eAee[!eu"L>I!';Rril1,B, ,., mm,··' ·Iblia.t 'iY1~' ,()'V,t"",o, ,,(Jmls BlIEif3l m '" d·' mOrre Lmportl:ort ~, 'lhe O,th~.,D this, cOMecd,o,D, U' is, b Her" ,in most ,i.mrtances:, to haw the iD]le:n: val ve opeDlft\G: Gltu!Uar' 'ra'~r w:n :llter than intended,., :5evtraJ ol:mm p~s may hive 't-OI be m'ud.e eo obwn 'the mos,ll, favcfura1ble fi8Yros,~ pa:rlU,ctdady if' the cants ,nave: [been [(Dodiied~, Th"e stCippcdl.,k,el1 d:gd,se 'Will:), be very bJ~;~'pl:fu1~, i
"1L,,

iUliiey yo' not


;1;:1/.. ..!a

,CIJI 'ftO!W

be chook.ed .. ,;it 'w,iU 1i ,C(lime Qlru:I;~, eucb,y as

,~alkJ~ts~1 ,hi\gbe:r.-:I)£',a.d:e ma\terlmID, ,suCll as ." IOak:enstro~ l1I IS: 'to~be ,ptefe.rre~,. for ,bdgh-e.Jas~ w'cu."llr" M :il is less utely ':~o , li~q'urJ'e: reDe~jfll if 'th,e ,e:[ll)ime ,Hi to be w(u:-klcd 111pOO, w'hen 'far awa.y fr,o'm its, :rigb,tfuJIUIlgD" If the jiom't faces are in ,go~d.,.OOUdiIUOD,t p~dectlJoil .i\gb't ,j'D'in,tsl' can be made b,Y .t ~~.iUbjn.,B the !Ute_, [1'00, nsm,g (lnlly' a tlUn, mpplic&tlOll. Icrt
U!

'iI,1!

iGa;s;[k.~tiilo'O~

~,!j'

:0.5\.A..CAl1lP~,1.'
'lii'_,ifi~.j

NtIM]:LRS AND I'wJM;J, A:1'

un :r~,~lff ,ulMlt tIffl',Ik []~~U;in, ,:HO~ . ~. '!iI! v.:I! ,. ,0._ In. ,~J;5"mol;' iM~%4f:2, 6J~ ,S:! ' nf42 ~~ ,J3~ IBd:!iw~ 64i"~~1 ..,O~ 4:5.11' ,o.l:ltS [!!II 295~ E;g:IUa.l(, Iril·,i44(ii s G~ ,:5~~' 0.400 lD. !U!~' !EWlLtlit 65~:~,SJ'1 M,·' ,~ 0.428 no. liP N:~ uted wl.'m m.dM'tt. np~uJ(m,if~m 65.f!'!5 l!!i.dJ"lI!n~, Ihnill'lB ~ . WO'I,.

~i

~1:=~.!.·.:

IQ~~'

!,~,~~

ClfM~1.

"OIl. 8 l'N'~,'CL!eAMNtJ

W: .•

checkmgJ die Vil, ve Ii 'fts:~and" so 'ffll,rth" --;:hen 01'1 all bea:rim"g swr.t"o..es, ~opJ:oullJ a:nd 6 ~ 'the t~ r ming cover't., ,afmr' ,mI\km1g: d~ldcertain Iha:t everydUm.g is oorr[ectJy in 'place.. ,At 'tlld!l jwc~'U,te! it is aU toe ,wy te Oim,U pBrf"eeU"
tile
I,u brica.m,~;,i or perha ps
['()~elf' 1;'pmd]Jeri ~ an,

'Mdl

s,u.ch,ItaS S~, flO'" futU'fl, fieirerace. make a Icuef:ul re:Qol'\d im the netebook of the 't~mill:1eveDtuB~lly obt.ai'mlIEd_t 'Jl'pthe,r
,g,'

r.emar'ks" such

,I.

ICm~ilIJranees USlCd :1:1 '~C

thfl e

of

e bVm,01UJ itb;WPI' Slueh as dj;smnoo pieces or: '[thrust: wilcsben o,n


'tile ImaU :s,pring-],oaded je~1 wmc'h reeds, oil't,o thG big"-ieud 101' certain ,'t~P~' mode~s·or' even " 0 oygrl!ook.tbc etcn:u:ntary preea 'Ut~on of fu 1~ydgh~enwug'the ba1l~dme piinilcifl. nut and loclldng it b,Y'whatever means are .Jti
.. ,'il

,fu,bbs;T wllsh,ers, for 'the 'triulsfe:r

of

- ,If y.cru have gone to the tn)luhle 0" dO'lWlcoUiim;g the 'timing eOVieF in co-rW',cct alignment~ ,it 'call n,I()W 'be 'put hi place with ,... "". 'I',~ . A ..",,'~I:: ,.. ~ 'tue :ap'propna:~~:ga:!!l,,~~,t my gOOIlJj'"'qll~1;y J,o~nlill.n,I, eem en t: , or t'biml~Yap~i'ed,~ ,and, 'file. SeIfeW;S, cr ti'(]!,~ts, 'man,),' d,gbtlen~d,. ~t p,ltn d<n;veUed·, the eever ml" have to be j u,~:gled :8,b iJ11!Jlt a

'projv.~ded:

11)

t be
,-

YiCSlgrl.,

'!!I

.•

161

~ ;N!:P'RtC'JIVIBD' C·Yl.:~ND:BR.. f.1.·iL:LI.NG

#"""DI' ,~,.~ 1I\'i, ~DLftJ.r ,1 .cj~

"!!bl"II"III

.~.u,

n.·k'IlJR·"O·"'ITlEI'·D··.. .&~"J.,,~_"_;"'"'¥J.;:r.'
IOMf:

I~

~.;I,~U~~

'ofin,'El'R' ..lU.·~.·,:·_

ID:IrL- IN··.:G·'~-:O.l~.; __ ~
I, I

st\()P~ The leff~m are similar to the mertllBl. or Un: -Y!llv!e :1=111,., imJ!i.s:m,l[u:bS31 .th~)"'beeome m.clr,easw.gly seeions at hlp, s.pee~'s'lJ Fo:[bmLa~e]y:~'tile lexpedi,oot of i.C'llgtbcnm.g the ·wmv~ ~. . ~ ,.,:AI .,..AII..,..J! Qpernn,~ penQ~ 1L1~w,te reeuee twie val Vie gear StI e8Se8 lSI also o'f_ ~he grm'~elt 'Yillue not in Il]vereomin,g 'lhe ad'v1e..[SO efreem or gft,~, me'rti,B" 'but in tur,ltwg: it t,o, -110cd

om,

'L_

ti

orpenin,. on E.acmg· engines, as, shown 'in the t-llble.s; iD


CJtRp,~erXII~ is puely .;1 matter of mechanics, :for"thlt loads

reason for pro!vkUug much l.onger 'p:efl'Qds of yal~

..

or ,op~uing:and ,c~.osm"g Q,_rn'~.creased. ·.rorftflecfth;t. du~lift. ia bptt U1,eSlm!~':,,I'D mCEie.ate in s,pee"d. from 15,000 _ to 7.:1,000 ~p.n. puts Upl 'the 'toads· in the ru'lJ,o of 3 (5, '~O' 4'~ rr ~'D,'~'fJarease Df 36'%11 but, -if the ;angu1aLf' penbds! Ire inJtleSSled ~D ~'lliu, Same PlOP o,rU.'o,.n-for ex amp'le. by mCfClsJDg: 'J'u~ dur!litioD of OlP~g [r.o·m, 2 50:0 t,o 31~l3Q -tbe :~OlJd's, i0 '~he seo·r W'ill be bro,t1,gbt }Jilek to tbGlI cri gunu 'vmlues, .a:md the ~.g'h~1r ny.sl.~ 'C~D be a:tt~inedm,th the SrtIml.IS: 'vB1"c .spriQgs ,!.llb. DID po"W.u-tJialloss of '[lc]JA\bJlitY:t ;15 might 'be, :t nenrred it the ,s,pr~1 st.l,Clll.til wern to be :~.nc.r·clsedfrom. 'sa'YII (2)D lb. p·eliods
1
a,

in tal valye .gear are diminished (01'- alleP1~ui,\telJ' bi.Rk~f --..41~, be ,,(". ...lal. - ~,~.1 il''nl,;. _ " _.'. - ~' .. - -.-.~ . - -,,'- -~ .. iJI' '~... s·p~u~· ea~ -~.l\t,taUllg M'w, we lame st ,esses) tf tine :angular

Wb . ,I] the ,e;d}3luu ·".aIve opeDS; the pr.,etStu~ein the cylirld,M ts qui ~eh1~~. some,wh·er,ei in 't11e ,re.glOD or' 101] b, :pm": 'sq,.,J'D (tb,e eB!C~t fi.g;u·~edependinf&~ ,olf course, ·UpOD. 'the ch.araeterislJcs '0£ 1l1.e·leDgillel~and, ~be 'bulk 0'( dlie e.XDSJlst products' 91ft
i

lIlJlG)o,tlJl~"

eutering the pj pe as D, >I,ll $'~,ug'~~',B.RS at weU ever a:tmosp'b~ric of' 'press.ure~Towards tbc end, 'Olf the, e-rd'lau'st streke, i.e.. ;~I,the ' pisllon is, s~,owrullg down~, [he: C'OIl,umn, or el':·hn.ust gas: ,£,tllW. u~d,er '[be :~n:.tib.u~:nce·o:r ,jib; lown b::rucrtLa ';01 con'tm.ue '_raveUiag, ildong lil'~ pifJ~ I~Jd to d.ra,w the .IU, still 'r,emai,mQO inside the cyUnder.' O'T(U,t U1'ro~lh Ilbe 'valv,el Superimpa)sed UPO'D thh:;: " so-caUed extractoI aetlen is, :U eVM m:o,re vlJ.1ifII,1b~e· ef.~t
jjj

JI erec;l:l~
. 1i,..

UUil.ll
~,!,

..

"...~ ,

l~ uy t~'e !Ii'~SII.'UI,· -1 ~y .
'I;,.

:I

O(~ ~gl;i:'"pres!U,re,

;t

'):..,::l.. I

,.......!iI.. ... 1~L1st

PSi'

j]

... .l._·._ 0

,t

5')·0·

~Iui',!

,·IL

,Apu~ .~r'~m'rh,;; minor ;savw\p 'Which, have been p'fie,;oiusl,i ~"Scnbed.~ r'~U, de~,pera~e·. :U~mpt '£·0 'red1tiWe th,e weigh' a a ,of Ii weU""de::s~p.ed mechl:nism by one ...hif(d. 'W1tulld, in t additi,om 'to mtrod:uc'ml a disti.Dc~ .rls,k; of tai ~UfC;, ,aJlmost rQc,riainly 1~'ttica:C,ts 'Q,~ O'bjfec~,by hrm.:~m,~ a m:uc~ .gF.iML,1le'l' i ' ,in ,a'mcnlllnt arn.CJRUe UDder load,~ D,.es~i.Wl.e fhe~~' .:5~emjml U,ghtDe~~.~, ,llUieS, possess qU["e all ,B1pprooJ.s.bl,e welgb:~:(~s .S! m9:tt·er of mtemS'lj' the lUI in !I reom

Li.ple:nWs 'fdle 'val ve ge~n','1 of COI'U rse, red,ueeI im inerthi land cease q~H!tndy tilS, IOfee req uUled 'tiC' ,o.per.ate lt, but. 'tbJ:s ~an b~ ~QO~ _oll·~Y'to IllY DUlr1:!ed estent in ,tA'e ,d€~iglls'l1qr

.'~hi1s !d1JJgn~rH'liS. the ,s:tarti~I''''PO~'~' or a ptressut'e-'wa.Yi:! wru~b Itnl.ve~sd own the pipe at '[be 8-p~~dl o,r sound, 'Until .if reaches the open. end". Here it 'is :reBeeted 'back up .'he, 'pip~ bb1.'~~~8 ~c~cr&oo In 'I be process 'oocc,ming a wa.ve or 'low 'pr~s;ure in.9lre3JJd Ill'r bi.gb.. Thi $, Iow ... ·pl'e5~l1rew,lve tra veiR, back to the, v,dve and augments '0' a. consIderab'le .. €I1tkUl·t
t

!~,

'Ille· ext~']l-t;~O'F' :It:'IiOB ~hieady

reaehes itIEI~ p Oft 11 Ul-8 :Ii;glb)[ 'time. which is or '~OUt&B ;at er near tC'JJ dad centre, It is :pos~ibfe ic r the Wa.,-roB action 'to ~reate [D,ega·tive pJreHu.res, lo,.r up to sJx. po, ads per squaJ'ie weh i'll, the port and almos:~, li of th.e 'residual ga:s can 1bB a 'YaQl1u1.t.edlfrom time OJ Jrnde.r bead it the exhau~'t 'valve .is·~ILW epea ''by a. eOim;Bidef81b~camou m;t at t~d ., :tnd dees Dot, craIe .0' .
, , ~c:.1·A ,c:o·

'men-~io~,

provided '£b,a:1 b,

~O ft..sqruMe.,and. .10 ·ft~, 'h~.1b we~.ghs 810lb.;;)- md ,eonsequ~nt1y a.b-o_:pas~BS. UU!;fti~.;,blft is tO $9iy.jth~y resent beiDg :rapidJy f &~I\€::rated" DJl.a when tb.1~.y'are on 'the :m.'I;~,.y,e r,e1.uetam.t ,are
I

!oomm,eailCe t!lJ open. Iot.Dg 'ber.m; t~d without '[ear tbat. the ,113.,
:!il,pelil;:i
.. ' ... ,. ,... n.. jo .....
1

UDLU

~JO-:o or ,~, r ..,.,G., .... aner,

u..,,. ... ;'J..,_ r U[i~rmO~,

-.'!L

_. tne ~...'IL· VwV·! ~.W,et ... 11'. -

'caD

tu
l

1,70

nrm; tni' .11" ;" , . .J gMes,w.w.~-:i .::0gel 'D'U·~um ",,'we ·CJ.il~ _u.uer '~o- I ,. 't.. I\;., uy _:.J,wutg 1/}i!lCJ!i.. tlu·'Gugh 'the 'in:[et tract: hrl! fa·ct if GV'e'17'tbin,g is, 'ClD~Y 'pr.,Q'pom.,oned, 'the dep~ss\~o'E1. cr~~.'too,1D t~le ,ema\H;t. :pOf_ 'by

fl'i

rm:,NING'

'lOR, [S,PH'I [)

~~U~I,I.IO EDI v

c l;' LIN' DS it

l!lLLi N G

:strob ~'"' _'~' ,hue~ '~3_j:veean be lifted i hl!~); (F'mere, off US' [T'~'~ .... "' , .. ~ - ';,' O I~t. tit, t.d .rC~ a~d enD_ ,attain ruU 'lift meady as SOlDO as the
,P'1S~O.D.,111eae,h[e,I

'tOB t~.mil~in,~[ti,om eelumn inem_a. and w:~'veBctlon will ,even, 01 ~use .~fresh, Ich_~rp to start wO'vEng :i_n'~ll',the ~tiDder before, ~e ,'[!plS't(.ii~ btsms 'tID :m,IDVI13'aOIWI!l.'wa1':ds aD ,the. m.ducti on

lL1D~,W:stras,

in, the cam gmt'f sl1cll es won~d, be 'yaI,',e bc IiI[Cit eommenced: '£0 lift .810 SO,Dn~

its, ma,um:ttm :speed" Doo r mi't-~t[ie~C'1'wi,tlli~l<ut


'CI.11'l;sed,

Is very cDm,p~cx and not ,;1, gr-tat deal has meen wri'tteD about :it~ 01'., S.chwm.um:is, bock, The Sta~re~"ingof TWD-3t,roke ,C~'t:le Dtesei ,Engil1'eS'~ pub~is'bed: by lThe, MacmUl an Com", pany '0"1New Y,oi~ provides SODl~ very useful ~nr~rma,tiQnl I'DD, in 'Volume XXXIV lof 'the Pro',c,eedings of tbe .ll:tJ'tnuI:i01~ of .A.Htl()m;oIJ~'le Engil1>fJ'€"s there is a very infOEIDa'(iYe, paper ll\el inlet 'pirpe at several huadred :fee't -per seeend, and i't will con:tro1tle to do :SOI untU 'the pmta[ll] bas C(lm:rnJ)ell1eW to 1tmycl Ilpwa;rd~, !BgirlhDJ ,oUt the loo'mpl.ressj,loD str,oltc.. valve ,and inlet p,wp€ ar-eas aile imLd~q ua te in ,sUe~ 6[ " ef PDOf !Ier'od.yna,", mle ,shape, tile cyltiD.der' wIDm Do't 'be com:pletem, mUedl by 'tbe time 'b,d .e, WI :mach.ed" ltnd bolmfi,g the iDll~t val ve 101'-11 for it 'fUrther 160~ ItVU a U;ttle more 't:ifINJ: for fiH~ng to be Ico[mp!lG~edii B~nt ,of IClO'ruJ:[,S~1 ,lI~ the 'p is to Iii, has b~ 'dleD IiSIm s;om,edjsUtmoe,~ amount of' ncw' dbarp '(B,kem, in

if Uiu::

on exha,ust sys£ems

Wli'U~D,

B,' mid~suoke Ithe iD,'OO[miDS cbar,Jge ls fllshm;m;; 'throup

'by J~ G~ M:orrisiO'D,",

]!i~iJted rp.n,g_e; of speeds'I' A'~ otffi1.tr t.im:mm, ti1,c e"~t w,ill ,;b~ aibse,1J ~ or ean eY,@;D be .lid vene,pj 'wbm 'thelre is 9.l ;,~e 0,' ~Ill_ pressere _int.tel~ of the RqlJlMed low PfCSSU [fie ~ _be: [e~~h~Uls't at. f.,d,.c~, ,SUlch a pulse 'wi] ICIJ,m:se a baek .... plor~~ ~,IOW_ ~o'fgas ,out 't11Io~gh, '-rll~ inlet -'Vld ve and, 'ma,y 'U,pSI~ dle ~Fbumti DO "to Siuab an cJ:tent lBI'n' Ole eO Die eats -QU't om~y
OiV;~~_~
,1

,l,'~~ [;~"per. ,s~e.;~consider.,ably :fu~eT , ,ulU 11:speed m wll' eh ms I ~OOft per sec The 'lime mt"~D fo~ a, wa.~e ~o 'U.,fJ:V'eJ d[~~ pi:'~,ll~d' , ~aek. a.I,~_.'. to the por£, is pm-,8'adcaUy 'eo[Dst&D'~ so tbrlt th~ ,e:ffect ,of 'c~ewave ,aeti OD just dG8a"~bed is mosn 'ben~6eiln
"Iii 11I'1

PQSi~~C'~D_~e ,~~Ctn '

~~d:h ltJ~~pe~a'tlJr~, ,a.'[~d_pressure, but. For .IU,~tCticaJ pl1,f-, l~~

:T:h~:~,p~d [of s'(HJ.n.d in exl.11llDt ,!las

su,n~fn;nlmJlP' vanes,

"'m,e

,n;y~gi,V,el~

w iU Da c0111s~derl!b'~, esa tb,an tile swe.pt "!o~,u " me


c, Hrnlder-in oth.
~IO'Wf
W[D1roS". t]le

me

v1oluwetric' !erlicJ:.cncy wU1 be

or.
-e

_'~@)

'coimple~el~l~

enou.gh the: c:rHDd~r s!ti.o1Jld b!3 very '!];eu]i"ly 61'led I't b~d ~IC~'!I under the imftuencs of U~ !O~, cyUnt1l~r ~ _'t j~ pCls~iblG;by matitos, fidl '1Ul of' m~1 se ~'~tammiIL.11'
le:tfoot _o[ Q btain a sme,U1 but
'V~~

OD

'the orrbe:r ba;ru1~ the if

'II~vearea ,a;L1d pipe

sae aI

lar~

dec! ICQrftSl!dera,b]y wtl,e;llds ~'O 'ilUttto'W dO'WDl the usable ~8D,geo~'s;p~~ H'~g_b:rewillg~ ,roadl""rlCiml, or mc~r~i ..h1!~aJb., .. . ~~~ en~ne$ltm,e;~rO~, e~:~~oy rulO.rt pipes- willE, m,ega,pho,nes~, "ijIt~wMre ,gr-ea ter flerxmbill:ty am.d a sam ewn:lt mo,wer poo:k _
pOW\L}E I,peed _8'r"e" ~qwedj
.~!!I I!l j:1~.

AlteriDa fh~,na'tlllfsl freq1.ICncy lof vIbra,tion of' the 'llxll;1 US'£ ~[s~m b'~~aJ,e;ri·migt1hLSl pi,p~ 1MJth,t er diameter, or add!m;g s, pbu:n O(r .li~pped mcp,pho;nc,. 'will Ihcr bQth 'We m a.xtuuim p~we~ rB~ge and tbe mJ'[!lj:mum lisa ble Si,)eed Sbortenmg the .PI;_' "aud", 10 a, ~Iesser'el:t,en't~ reduoi DI its diameter tJ fm rnscs ~~ &'-equen.,cy,~ rAddi lO8 D. mt!'gJp,hor.n.e aeeentuates 'the lvave
~i

and ,der thls, the lrlgbt'sp'eed

CDb] mn

[o.f',ps, wi ~I co n.bIU!l'Sl jm}~r~in t- trra,wl i~l'w,thei


us efUI;t
IJImOillu't

charge

,lllIIl1mii'irif.'Ii..

For ex;trem,e-l:y hip ! m, 'the ecneet '~i:ps le"'gth may be' ~'p_. I!~;lo:sbDft ~DI e pJ.acl1tab~e or it n~a"H b DO'{ eo,mn,],u wiOl re~'i1B... J~ ,;}' iil~-ttons~ M~ l't ]s: wen necel,sary to us:e dOlm:b~e''th.e lo'ptlm'l.m
- III J.I

,2 :~o:D;ger~ [s:trmgbt

pw,P~is betlQr~

air ... mtake Qf 'the ea:rbU:l-et t~ hu. I, tar,le illB uenee on t.Iris, :311d on most tll,Cwt1JI; mac'l\~nes, is, of tIle order 'of m 0 in. t'l'li 13 in Tins i;s, several in ehes ~~)<n,ger 'tha.m l~ usual '0,0, ordinlry o.h..~,,ud, !,.,Y'~ n,gil1es-particu~Rr~y : e the latter, in ·whi.chtbe who1tl ml~ttract ~sf' ,cqtlen'tly' ve:ry sb,ort==-w'l1creas, readers with ~Io~g' memories will f\eoolnec~ the !Oil~lC~ gwa:;'t~r md,uetion Ien,pn use.d on, fast s·ide-va'hreirrs such as [he ~ODl~ 'strokle SunIDeann.. The [l2oo1i1!ent. ,r'e~uUs whleh me"d to be
i,

a:t ce ,~aJDs,pecMlO The di stanee fro-m 'the

lof

Sl.lJP,SJi-

va1Jve sea:t to the

,outer end of tltl~

l~!!LI$.;~~!I!

The w'hole su,~ject

o,r wa,'ve forma.tion


l72,

.in:exllJlU:st iI3.ysm~

obtained from fi;~.dn,~ Binks 'mou'S~..,[ttap or ~,~ tmp ,3), la,t.. ca:rb~-r 'were pO§ls~'b'ny ,a,ttrlbuta hie :RS, m uC'h '£0' 'their' Imra.
I
11~'

'I"

113

',[U NlN G' F OR is:, BliD

length ,as to the, 'variabl~ I@;h~b.tube wruch .,as the main .

feature of' thiem' ms:trameU'm~ Tbis may ,see,m somew:h_at IO(r iI mgI1mion f[o,m the 'wibjeet
1

and pipe desip, are ~oI; lu~ 0Xltu],'t mt;e~dgpelld~Dt., If all. '&~ faeto'r,s, mvo'r,ed, 3E1e:ml(J.tuaUy in bau:moDJ' I ve~ 'tulo mm1ount, of aYe-T,_p' ,cam 'b~ e:mplo,y,ed. anil the :llo;Og
y,aJV1~O,pe.miO.g

1!~.A r CYJ!1i m.UJe~uJmmgj


oCft',

'blit l~ nas 'to ee mefltion~ 'L". t. 'I...' '. ......1 -. ~~usc


i. -

e u" tu ill

In,g

00 used witJoout. nnduly' 'stressing], die 'valve 1_'1 thus :~eildm;gt1Ie W2Y t,o a furtfter {ne,eee m.- val,ameu,tc' efieleRcy~ 'The, 'e!ten:t to which, one ma:y ,1;0' ia we:11iUUlS~ 'tmtc.d, 'by the .SOO e.e, N',orton ti m.;m~ ,d1:a:Br,a.m~, ori:.gina'~r' pu~'Us'hed,n ,mm,. AJ!~ pa,'per n~d 'Mr'. .J~IOais dluring the i . by W,U'~ TIle N'D to.n diagram also shows very 'c:lea1lry 'tbm
'to

mpler l;'fts

p3rio(Ws

'910

,obtamed wiD,. is '~

permU;

II

senreh plus the, 8Dilil'~y 'to, run a:t soU llliher rll,p~'m,.~ pined by Ul1Ullar-P1 vll.veB, ·m. sq uare ~~Im,git1CSjl' ll,fj'Ve p0rm:itmd eve.m:b'·Dler 'tiimi~l,!1$to be employed" 'Reremm,,~'to' UlB vdv", 'dming, 'ta'bu]ati o'll in the p;~t"ious cbap~e.r shows 'llC1r~. me wet ,dve on, the ·U; mrn, 'Ilry1fi~ mm, ~ l' 1M',rtnx:-~' 'NorlDn mode~. ,40M'. ,lElfier all.OMDg, fOir Icl,c;a;mnoe., Ope-Q 9, at "'SD ~fore 'td,!c"l wbicb is, aa:ual1y wh1enJ Ule piston 'il,just halF... W3,Y' up OD 'tl1e ,exhaust stro:k~ wbile the exllmnstmve, does not IG~,ICfS~ lJD'W.d~,eplsto.o is near~, mamr~w.,down. 'tile inl.el . itrokei I'! 'would be, in'lpos~d.ble'to .get aa en:ghlf. co 'f11.1l1 at au, Ion su'Cb, ,I ti~miD,S' unl·~s, rutl :a:dvl.1lrt:ll,Ge - were t;tkert 10,1' lOOl'l&'rIJ):y Pl.'Opo·maned, :uuet ,and, e:dia1lJs.t,S.JS~emlll D~qrams: of t1Us nature are m'Olt, easil'iy olbtainoo _tb:o'u;£ :tOSI lof 'llfttmnani ea.] mubility OB. ell:giDes wi,th. Vat'",e· gear lOf ~e d'DUhl'ei ollJe-rheadl,oomSJ:wlt ~d ,at the other' ·eng, 0:£ Ibe soo.le in s.~d-B~Vtllve 'ml,gina)=-whc~e the best possible IGOmbm~'tion of' lighbu~s_s 8II.,d.ngkuty· isl :B!ltmmoo by mduciq'
I~~

iguf'm, ,fbr dIe ex'ha,u5't ]I'lt is, 8,~SO'D,oti'ma'bl:B tba. the exlla.usit ope.mm,1 pO~D" is 8 UUle euUer' and lt1l" h~i~et, closing PORt a r~ dB,ir~S, ~a\t-e\t'·than uSUUilt btl't thel oOl:sta:m1dJmg fea;tMes o ,a:[1 tbe :trs lorv,erlap 2nd rhe amOUD,t Iby whicb, ooleb vl.lvle :j' , aWl" fro'm ,~'9Hat I,t 'C~d Sm" that 'time) ,furHJer ~C>.o,

b.~gher Uftji 1,oDp"f d:m.a'llo,m, ,of' ol,pemng ad bU'pr 'por£, diameter' 'of the ~m.letvalve in oompariJ,on willi equj'vabml

1',4'

1'11~' [NU' POR, SP.iED

..

tffi1.emlwn:bel' ,af' compClnm:tsl betwe~~!lleach via11ve and .ib 'C3;m 101 ~ smg'le tap'pet iD, di:·r.ect compmsio.Jl 'Witb ,s,;uen :8, ,~;ayQut,
i

tbe,actuld metion o,f·th~'v,IIves .roU.,o~ vmy' clos.ely th,c mOD£llJ, dieo~elilc~LU,yimp.ted b) ·'tbe.;m b, 'tlle cams, - ·w.b'e.f'~, in. dlSjgo.1 'where t8texwe· eDs'tsl) ,e\le.D to :1. 'Hoo'ted, '~J.~en:lj,£hi.s Is, ' no t 'di:= ease and the V3~'ye"m"o,Uio'n deplfb, mD~ .&1!Id. mo're
ftom the' theoretical
D, 'rite

EXtremel.),' IOod. results can be o,'btaJnea 'fflD,m, p1J.~rod. ,e:rngill'~-S if ·thi~ fac~,js RCC!I/D)j.Bd, land ~e.lisla~4dfo,r:in th~ ,cam.design €ll" 1:~mJng, by 'mam,g aHowance .'err the l'llSJS.m.
lIl:_OtiOB

s~peoor·seS

-=
""~·OUr..l'f

II,

".

IG R:.'OU,r.'!IlIl '..JiI"T"

.,~~ ....

leijli,"

,condu'ct,e:d but '['hen:. EI'J.Blliimi·ta to wbat carD 'be _done indUs, dli.,CCD·QD" slDm iilUY ,wte:tB't[OD io tile opemq, 'points mmromatieaJ1)" chaD8~s: 'Eke clomoS points, by an eqrual
cBmy
j

lor lS~ ,efIJR ,tb:e actual pom'~,Ii't· wh~tb, ~- 'Valye is;de-!dlrCd to ,o,pen., Sa.heme (aJ has the'mle.rit of'beJ'os simp.le '10'callY in.to Illestl and 'C(J!w'pI:Fatilye tests 'wirth 'y,arhJul, cam setUmgs, aflB

'co:o.iou ·~os].',e, a

·of opemi1g Qf eaeb va~veii 'Tb:i.s: an be. (join!!' b~ (a) ,1d'",anc~n,l: c lOme lor berth CImS, bYlil ,SalYl' :5,0.i er (",) 'Ul'Ddn;i~ 'the ~am.
SnOi~tf ilWtinl

:whi,cn,oeeurs

,most noticeabI.y' at the commemce:rneJl'~,


rate o,:fUf~comm,emo;Dg: 109

8~SiC C;~IR,C ~'E -I' CrI';iEA!SE y'A,:1.,"fE UfT 'DN

_Im,ount

an leD~ne witb li, 3'O~,60: III 30'111 '"im"'nl w,Ul al'm,os·t~rmiw, pericnn. betrer at nigh r&p~d. w~tb au Q"eu exhI1ls~, J ~ tbs in~ct ltan be advanced S'D .mai·"ng .be 'tim~ '~'n,g: 3S,t S,S; 110~JOj'i'l particuLldy rr 'tbe. inlet 'porLhlg: ha ' b.·en impn:nroo. and 'the compret~~d)oiJ!lr-ai3~d for 'Mth. the
_ ' - OWGV
("I

.
c

~y ~It.~le,~ ~NG

B'~IEl~'D ~N

<Non A!'"tOUNiT
~ .. ~;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;~~~ ~ 'G~,OUND Of~

lCASE

"HIN~l~G 'QiJil 'HA~'D OYE ~ HM',~lL,lf:'UJ,ADED fl!.A..NkS

:mprov'oo ''Volumeu,i:c

S'e_h'Mle eb) ls standard, praeutie, wi,m. so.n~_ tmakef"S Whose, en,gm~ are no·tabJ:ie; for thei:r good. all -reund pertorman.e _,; it has the eJleet 'Dr 'mk~tJ 'up .aU c~e~rl1 .ces. ,aD,d ,P:l.ft of the m unavold.~.b~e ftexum. eom.par.l;ti'y'e]~ steadily an d before the valve has lifted. ·off its SJeat ~y ,any I.ppmciable ameunt, A~ low' s peed (he 'val'v;! 1YiU ~~~'¥G its seat ,8; Un:~~ ea:rlie:r than it dees a·~. lsh s;peed 'bo·t 'the 3ct.tud urea iO'f O!pmlWS ]i· so h smmU rthat, titeI1t is scarooly.a'llY adverse cffC(:t' on tbl 10,.,
I,
l

~lCtOH the tme~yalv~ Bbolmldlnot .. -eq,uir:e to be .b"eld open 'fo:r so ~o:ngas it "fO herom saeh rumpnlvement& well fMrOO'Ved'i

effici,CDcy ~VBD b~ the hVIC!

lauer

BioS!: '(;U\,ClE. -INCR'&;A~E I'N Y'''''Ll!Ii!ij Urr

s~ed

pu..fblmamoo~

176

'fU1t;[M,N'G

po,a

~rP.e.6:D

I. M'lii'R 0 VI D IC'YLIN D,ER F:IL,:n,. n~llG

aJ1tD.o;u,gb. er.p~'rlml3J]('t~ ,of -ads; na;'t.t:mmmut) cDndiUC'tl~!olely a:t i:~,owner's f,ist. n I

of' IOlQlLn~e" be

which is the SIm'E sm· 1:5 the .grindin,g~\'']!J-ee!l) 't'CI the bcd. of the ,-"..... hine !Ind. mOU!!m:t~~m'il!l'the ,cam ."o be 'IIJ'IUIpU;:i~ ,m d'·we +'b:·, I~. ~'!!J.v
..41.;' a'lams~ 'we ~.~ ~~se1'andJ m,ow:s the lu:ad in ;md out as th,e spm die 111 rOita'Cedl'whh tbJ~: b1ank in CODttae:t, lVith 'dle' ,pding; 'wbetd~ Thls proee&s, ~,adu3JJ~y fOnDS rho mew' cam, mn~ high degree (lit ,8'ceurac:y '& if 'lbc' work. is D'Oi~1'[ ushed, A :si~ple method ,of'.~"ll]erIlUmlB C3DlS ~'di I~npr 'tim,j,~,g ,~s

'~s'~(J reduce 'm~ radius of the 'cam..base clrel@~ 'pr1JoesB "i~i~b. ,I, Deeds 110' be done ve.r,Y ,a~1JI[a'l:ei;y '~O,Iumieve sood, tesu~;ts and, ,re'qmr-es the lIISC ~i!ltb.er of s,'pro,,~r. cylinoom'igtmder or la the' equip'p,m;i with a tool-post gr~Ddii1g ,attadlJlteJll The bue cin:l_ is; reduJOOd ;0. thou, or tO at a 'time hI, S:-UOOIlSS!wr;, CIJ;J'ts,.'the ICI;1U being 'plUtially' rota ~ed b, ,h;md, the
I
,~!

One ,of'these m,edlllio.w"l which bas as its, ol~jec~, ,mc:r.easiD;1 ~(j_th 'th,e U.ft md the uguJar 1l1e~dOd,,of' 'dJ;e;va),ve opening'"

to'14gb,eam .... b]Jank on a, mandrel he~d :m the swmgiQe:: h~d, n,ormallily 'Used. to' 0b'r.Y 'dle tal" 'whe;'I, it is oolm,. shu-pellett
'Tl.. mBs~r~am . ....... ,.~e
,.1..
,1.;.... .." ~uen Iil:mlies "of;Ioib.1

IIIJI~

'";if>

"-_!lI

~!W"".AI

ten tees of 'Ute ,grinder or ~8'm.e,"


, TOI "~~uid p~,g. flolo[QI'

'"

,~bi"cbwill 'oat lubsequen,Uy become lobUt,e;]!lted~,'B~i;ng deld-haJ'ld, it is ,next '£'0 impossible ''ttl 'mark [be surEmie 'with ,8. scriber, The best ~e~od is '~O' rna; 1.0 u,p a" 's.ohni en o.f' copper sul:phI; '6 I(or ~ '1l,'~n£8tc'me" -) in water mn" m:p'ply it to tbe' mm isuri"ace" Instan tIy' ,3. ve~y thin ,6Jm ;fl,f copper will make ;ts ,ap,pea,~.'oo~ od scdber lines :sb.O!W up OD this smf9;~ v,e:.r,Yelea r'~y'~ A. ca:rrie,,. sl10uld be ,a'~bH:'bedto tlH~i .m spIndle and ,t -,0 ~ ~js;td ~top'~, riged Ulpso that the '\V,bool M:nrn~i~ ,grind be,yclDd ~tl,a, ~ot~_d ,uea~m ,fll~t~ is noceslat'J 'to run (l,U:· 'tbe cut, it 101m"_ dlsta,m~e be/o,I"" the; m.arks are reached!1 aDd' subseS())II,e

'Circle" ed, Ito; milk these in.


1

mme before' _.;. d by I'om'ling the:eam ill COD'taC'lwill a WI;]"" 1~'U_e-'tbe IIIom.D.-ISI 2t \V'me'll the cam ..Ran:ks jam me base' ,
,mrlllllnef'

'pl~,ptng

dH~do:Q'jand thg~g'by a hoUow into 'the A3'nkIJl it is adv,msaJble 'to d~ter..,

m, ei[hnr

'between

DlUttterfor use in a. ICOIl1 l/lentional Qm:!!,lrim.der '.o,rinl the 'CoD/\~!r .. led, ta,p .... gfInda' jus t descT,i'tjcd r_'is; ,pessible' ,to make up ,a wb.olle. family e,f cam's fn 'tbJ I 'W,l:y' W.itD.. ut, ,muell b1o!~lrblei' o and
i

an cxisTti_D,I'cam mod ro'ta:t'c one half ba'c;kv,rud's in n!~tiol1, to the lOtheT' bJ' 'Olo des~cdl amoun~ pe:ditapi :8m,~ tbCIl S,W,B'at a,l' dowel the hal vas '~ogel'tber wi tll 0,- 'tmn priece ,0," ~~ee'l '!betw,eerntl1em~ Thils :lWer piece, is, then lied to make tbe eon xnll' and fJi pIFov1de a smooith :md~,usa t dt,e ,111CSiG ,or the!~'m and,'lbe resu ~U:ng ,a'tle~,·makes ,3; vel'J satJlfactolQ

It) C uct. hrough t

w_

,.e~e,"

,q~e~~ll{.~O b~e1\~ 'dle mu}~ b~'se circlel mw' 'the em~lliulks ~~'.balil~~'OTt'M,m,an '~I]~5,tOne--an loperatioD req)l1ifmS: 1r01 ~tt]e skill to ICarry out m :such .a 'm~mneF' 'UJlI!'t a g,sn:tle' ,rise is ,obtahl,ed \1'irtliout to,rmi:ng, Iny 8U5picion '0(- a. ht, ,cr' hioUow at 'tb,e 'lCW' ju.nc~'i'on, of 'the B:lnk& ,~,th the ba.

~i'n eurves. The maj on:t} of ,tams, ,arel hanienc'd to a Idc,p"Ch, eJiCeoo:~nB 111040 iD,., As there is p"ac~ca.Uy no c,ad, ea 'the 'base ,reilc~e (unless, the tappets, &_M' wrongly adjlls'b~dj or ,h0a~ P1Il3'b.red .. retum :springs ~BrelIIUled) it 1,. :fels1 ble 110, . ,griBd oW' 115, 'm,Qch ,as .}02S ia, and s,~tiUretail. snmC!e:Jl't hardll,ess 10 give so'tis... fa,mary funning~ if' :00'& "O(f an md"Jini'.~:,pe.nod ,at ieas:~ fOF ~O-ll,g' c.Ilouga te :prfD'We' 'tit,e 'SUeee&S, 'o'r ,o,'dteirwise, 0 f' the
m'[l1'aIQ--' th,e eorreet

tho :5chome e:Umina:(cs ~1l ca"litn.ill'aHO'De'f p~sw;ort in deters,

~xptrimim~,.

'ciI-cJ,e, valv,c e.'tler.

eqlljppedl with, ta:piigrimdeF;S; which form dle lead-in 'porltlon of die: 'tap' 'with Ithe eoa,~t
workshops
'DOW

,,: .any

are:

still; surpEl-!;i'" ingly :hea·VJ1.'Da.dsmay be ,Flllerat'ed~ 'The 1m al .I.pe rSh,QlCIld be cnecked with a ,uitll'·,pu.ge and II dt,~,p.J1B 00'attached to tlte ICiJfi,-spm,dle,. ;U1dlIU:PpOI'to~ ~o.:iJO m~ 'boon growd 0,:1 has
EO8,Y w'or,S8'

Uru~, tbeJ mew con to WI' blends, IcorrecU;y jm:bD' Uie; 'base

be caused md,

and, it

eu~.g' clearance, These mmcbine~ can be adapted! 'YlithCJiIlt m'w'e\ll b:o,uble t(), m,6di{~' m~ ~nd. 1C8'1, ,Iv,e,n be U5ed to grind rca on. new'amH eo,mpl'@Itli.y ,fI,o'mmas'ef."~ by fixin.1, ,',If(JSC;.,

if the lJ2C... .rise i~ lSpli~'UPi in. ~the, IInnetr.' suggested m., m ,fo"DowiD,g p9,ge~
179

'msde-and 'to' :im.~wase' '&be t.Oita] ;aD,gm· of 'the loam lby' lOIG' ( OD '0,0 ea,cn 8amk), Iquiet, D,~raJ'~lo,D~ be obtm,i),lcd mill
100ft

tb..e

11~

II

l"lJN"lNG' _D1'ORSPEED

, 'l-iII' IrnI! ~1~T!I..a.r_:

R' n 1Lr'a DI u ~y ~.

'Fl 1~.I.

v 'iii' 'I 1!;;.1 'II"'IiCl'Imi' ~,I. ...-,tU.Glf.'li.l

'1:1' III' ~ &L,

l- I,r "'-'!l G _,"" ..


it

~ wry ,lwgb;t mm,p.{u~'1!JsprlDl', ,an,d,then, 'wruth :the correct sprml1'; dl~ 're9;R~t !is SODl~dme-s, m:the 'fSUlpfitml,~ WbJm ll"'ijJil;ntmg' It ailh s~peed, the, dlB~en.te 'wiU be ,IJllu:ter 'SI ill ~ pam,coile-my l1lt 'the' :start of ,)JJ ft becaese of the valve irne1:~i;a,~ wmCil). is,. ,ro'Q1b1,Y :s~pa1kiDg', ;8'bo'u't leQ u:a], at' 'pea k, rey.s ~t,o 'dle :s,prhl II straa,gtm.. .
I

Mens;n~in,= 'thl~nrt, diJeetly 'of[ the am, ~th a dliaJ,..gaQ&e does Do,t gi,vle D~lrlly the acmal:lif 'wblicb. wi'i'l be,impaned to the va.lve~, Ol "this DO'lrld JiDJ~Uy be d-etetillilrn .. o by I'ssemh=, S o l.i.n,~'the vaIy,e ,leu' and measnrim I,the 11ft cun6' o"ft' the '"~~ve i'!;Si~lf.In, pas\sin&, a good, ,idea 'Df hu'\V mueh ,ftC'.Im~ ~ts, in the,'s",s.trem ean o'b1~inld '~y'first 'plotfhl,e; the ]jf~ with

de$~l',orWt\g tlb:e_ IlG:ctl~acJ" of ·0Uler' dimen s\[Q,I1S Mtll'Qugb,_the latter mi,ght 'be r-el,'t"ll'ed by grinding ';If't!er 'being bui~,'t UPI with hurd ,ehrollNl~i :p'~a:tim8 :the 'U~ ~~co,~, n, 'lily
t~,oup

:p'oooe.s."lor
:faUOWif:!

l1l.J;..;o, dA

'be

- It :ll:u, ~~d.F~adyeen mel'Drb'OOed, tba;t aJtennl the eam.. b


jm h!~lgtj, and

~uJ\eu

.... 'L...JI metnoes,

I~

radius ,dee's 'dlo 1Qc.eI~mti;oD f8'[e 'bu.t


tbJs ,offers
8\,

.J ~ ·',y.,1:" '~I..' 11; '.. 'w:~gr-a!DI 'WtwO'lLt all,',,~nnl'lute UmADg er .'Ib I~J~" A curved, tne ~n- .....

m,eiho.li

0," ~'!UJmg 'the' ,open im,g,

110"

'the

fbnoW~E.' .ro(n", even 'thOtl,gb, ~& '~s ..,[,utllt[]])I, ,~~ D'Ol£l moved b:y 'r.b~ c.am, 'CI21,cti, ,RS 'il'it weJO 8, '(}CfriUon, efa riJUcr 'wmch tiiJ',fJ' ,rota te, T,ile nn imparmd to the f,anO'Wlf is d'eteuTlrunedl by pLotring: 'Du'l tbe, 'path of the eeatre ,o,f"eurva'tme lOf ItIm, fc'ot lo~r' alis of th8 roller as ' 'be CQI'C lDa:Y' be,
j

'DEO~ m,QM Sl'dT ,OPLm

,mB 0'

,CA__M IN ~~C[=lU

'D'EQ,REBB mOM s:I:;;]i,'[" ,ap :LU?1'

:Rill8B 'O'P ICAM


[N

Nel~'

,",r~u
Z J 4 .002
.009:"
.,OOS OO ,

.'ll;l'V.1I'
!~,1I._

A~'I-

"i[)114

.
,Fblf' q'tde,f

I~

~Ot7 "OlJOI
',"

.oi,

d~~"1i'I'l;~ ~bo'~ $~'iJ~tldbe gr-arli:ltJlea,

,tJPfF'Q_'ti(}"~ flte

fi:1(},/iI",llf" RItJ.dlflr;,at,fo$~

lIf ib'iIl..i, 'WllS,

.Il'r

(h ,..;tII~m it";;:, ,~ IS, •.I.!I!J}ca!.ili,(U1,

'llriUhB:Y'il! 'ban

.i LS'~ r:1r tbl~: ase ci.rcI,~ gf!Q'ood ~ b i~ 0« frnght nil' to 'flu= m arks den,(D'~l[i\g lbe; o;rigina ill sml't ,and, ~l~';"':~, lelf tl:u~ 'f)'snks, I!ftel" 'wh1~h a }.elf! Q,':r' - Si'tf"ilr"~ln,,6' ".,..,.:cu t.._ l-LJLI..YJ~ _I lI!l ·W~~ ~ rnece;$sDj" '~O' avoid ,a, s.u(J1ldcn and tlDdes.i~ra,b]y' ,ra:pid ['~'~8 of d!e aL'~ the jWlct~,onof :flank, and, base eirele. The;~rina'~ 1e1f[ec,[ 'will be: to - reduce the ,case--depdl ,over the ilea viIy l,oa.ded

'i D s~rm~... S"lIeng!th~ Soo-uJld, [h,e I:leriod, a:1!ready '[l,e Q,:f' satls .. fac'toril,Y ~(:J.:I!l,g, tiLl. a:tioID, bu,t tao -lln somewhB-'~ ,madegW1, ,'e't

~Gm' y;ed 'M,tbo~t the'Deees'sity ro" iU meJ,e-mse

, j,1 d ... oorreCl!J,Y pei:,,',orm~ ..AI - D, pea:teJi'

I·~ ,II ~ ,t,

the latter

'eI1i,

be wDiCteascd
_"

b,

•.

'

11.-

-- -

--

'

--'

-'-Y~~~l

,{!II .... ,_

~lfIlJbseg.uentl,Y tb,e Jl1llUning lire, 'w,ill, 'pro,bably he Sh'GJirlt~ In • ~ 'b-' !i'L • .Ji J:": L s,ome ~""'I" U.es~lPS,,1([ 'IS ptlSS11j, '"le to O:WMlco,me 'I~]S de:~,:oot'uy m .. h:~~rdIeWng cams, bu t 'thmls 'rna" brm I: a,l~oult diftlculnes; 'the '18:0

L1-HU!!IA!i,

d au:__,
--:c

,n;,jI!i !I.1i~ i

~ IIU

n tf•• .... !~M ,U ~lg-"

eral

;;;II'LJL·

'1"'+'""'O'!n ~

'~r--,Q:l"" ;I;oinrm'!'
...

.~ .." w~ ., ~,

,l "~ I~

;1'11 'il..""" :requueu, ~., .., - ~

181

T'UNI.N>S

PO,R SPIIt,IU\)

~-~.:I,1ij.

'n~p'

"

'R~'.o Vm!J,

c y E.1N. 'D"D"n
. , -, ,_,. . ~I~'

'iIl'rr E ill

LL' 'llIt.'·1U 0:. . ,~"I!t

E'ven if thte follower is & t~'d'I!,~:Mm.e :s,m'temIDrt ,a"pU~lli 9$ 3L Bat sut.fBee can be 'co.nsid6F.cd. as part, ,of ~ C:Jlinde:l' 'wltb

~1!·"

curved tine 80 obrtaiu.ed:~ this ,bas, bee'D done' :tiD !he 8CiCO m ... , 'paf'y:i ng Blaplhs, (&ee' ,page (81)~ which, sho'~' the ,efr~~_I~f ~rent rouo-wer :ra,dii~ WhUe th= rite olf .,rille ,Of :[aU is ,~8ter 'witlll ~e l~I[~,r 'OUo~~' at Qle s~t ~.f'Jljft and~':~!S~, of the d!iOpl (W'm eh mtreases, the stresses :run I:ea:r ,~~r,tbose tbe dme£)l~ 'the Bl~tiel'~ra( 'iOM andl d'K.elerano'Ds, n,ear the larrest of't1],e cam are less and hiPem' Je,vs,.. ,CM be a:ttained, wi:tb 'the same :s.ulcngtfu,o:f Sprinl'.. This main ,pin b!OIW6ve 1'5 ~o' M' tltp tleCl, from the w'Cf\Qlscd 'v.sIye-lift I'~, vi'tll p.~ri,oCl ':the., e:IXtJeoif'Ung fOf' a fGw dB,pee s ~ eforle ~dl :aftE~ 't,.d,~c,!, PO'U,QWet! ICBD b .'pcnm,d to :dtlpe by hand en an emery ...
II '[11

an In'linimly [arl1~'Faojus", The un, eurve eul 'be d,eplctfb~j fifs;t by' 'p'l otting, out the rise ,of ~thefOI:UC?~ler'~'be :as,_ 11 ttavercse-s. the IC~ ~ and dl.entl' in. ,e1(ec~JI 'Sf "wgbmn IDB cut (he

.~

l6!idoi6r'

I Ll .H1 I I I
....

l III
<fQl!!

i VI
I

,iI

;#'

~.

, ,

~.
........
~

I
I
,

'\;

jji ~....
~
'~'
j"'l

I
I

I\kkJ,
'
"".

,
\
.

I
1

"Ji~~ I~

I
~ ~

iJOi"

:~O~' '1~ L1 if!

:0;

u,<!!'

2f1v

J~,jI 4Q~ 'sl'lI'

",," !IS"

Ab.~'\'~ "lol'l~' th,fj' tift c:qnM' O/,tJ ~ opqu,ti'f:tJ1lil,l!,1 ~.lJ.I~tB i~' w,tJ {J'foliow~~' a .In~ l¥J;'dilm.io(Jt. lle:ttJ'wl!KI t"el'!Ji !C~itr~' ~W:U" .r{lv1fid~1J.. fk~ ~_Je mm I(JIlI!F-'QI/'fIg ~,fQ~ folf,'Q:wer ~Q,tltJl" n, t4jj'..,J«IiiLS 1fH.},~ "iI~ ,~Jw{/tdar;e~ ,. ~p1':~$e:I.Ii'bw I' tJ/~ il$.~lIiUJU
Ull
I
I

~"(!"~1J¥"fjlltl1~
~

'W

dluirl:', eurvatu ee II, ,I, S~\'U8e1j1 CI'f"_1 m1l[lS~, ~ '~a%en,to s~e 'but b ri:hI't the ~mrfaoo is at all 'pcl'iJ]j'[!s. ,pu,a:O·· to 11' . "xis; ,Qlf the
foJ]O'W1eJl''''pi,vo;,E"

ieel, 'Usio II ,II ,sheet-Im~~ "lemp.fa:m pf.~v.ruOruslY ma,d_e;. to the

'r.&'~.d. wear.

uBtpll' :swiveUi~gjjl~ 'wmwh can be elam"pe·d, to 'dl,e macbim,e .. ltabie an ,- fed m 'to ,tit, 'mquir-ed depth"'" ,If 'Dlore d1a~, ,,0'2.0

win

,otherwise - mgbly looncemuated l,o~ds, and,


IGn!Ul,e!j A ,good, 'melbod ~I te mate;

-~
r ,~

UP' a.

, "
~
I

1iI"I.;"
I "_

Ilr~ ij~;Ii ,-41'-

I
~
",.

~'

I
~
'"

I
....,.,1
I

_ iii
.. I

oH~,th~ lfoUOiW6lr wiU defls;iI~ely r.eq WEe: to be :~._ easebsl'd'0nOO" ,/4;., faLct'Of whleh, mUll: be allowed fuI' wh.~~ li~V1er(\'0 ~olwen ,are UBid ] s 'the eB"ect, ,0,' their' anpilar S'wiloe;: if till!). ,cam, Is lSynlmetrricsJ - 'the ,dmc; ef tbe 'Rwbl'l, 'wiU be to Dla~c tbe '~ifteurve uDslymro~tr(.cal and the I__o;tte:rbc :foUowe:r 'tbe ,Bm'im'~lel f

m~:i's 'taten

,i~W
~!j,o'

oj",~~~
1

~~ ",,!II ",0 5GI

]0'

10

1~_ 'iQl ~I , Of CAM


I

I~ ',1 1 J

II}

r~if\.
~

II F1i
I

i\..

10

I
J(Ii ",g

r~~
~
~

11!60 6SP

dJis, ieB'ect, wiU b_"~. The distortion of the lift. Cllrv~, 'va,rid aceo -ding to wh6ther :tb,C fOI,m:~ower' ]:m1d~g 0' - tmiIim..e: tile is; eam, ed\ DOCa's i'ollally' the e;fflCot :is turned tfJ! I;ood, use '0 o;btaiD. lB ,mpid lift and :510\1#' drn.p (or l',ioe.,...,i,sa) "fi.tb :0,

'~/~' «!:n~Il~wtr
h,'J8

V-a;r"iJW

t'IIII 111d~~sJ

rs,ymmetrical
,StbiJect
'111.....

to alttrr ,file: (1C~"" Ql.i~n-~rafe~ lJl~'I' IllJt

Icn"c/~, serre$

"he o 'IteM}; '~'l~


f,rming:.,

. IOruy'>!, Jt tRnD.'Oi, ~be:emphasized. too stroDgI~1' thlt cam, .odlir6~tioD. Is a tlb>i DB Dot ,llIhdy ~JD 1!l1l'cb:rmk tn", 'be
1

In thi~8.....'1' J i:t volume

Ci'ID eOQl&oul"',.

is pes.sible to toueh o 11 the fringe. of 'the

,fl'od its Hbly to d;o mOlleae:r.m diM, good, unless IcaFried 'out with extreme R'r'B Rd 'with the aid of ,good eqw.,p.meD~:~ :183

~·GN·'TU1N l'trJ'P~ em

"o"l"]:rm eI"-n~~~_~~".
ll-T,;'

AJJ.""

is.. ,of ,coUtne, a modern B~'T~!"";Hl. Lucas ms,tnunent but , (1([ It ~H;,.,., ..;fL, r- "'ii!..":·d· M L -~ '.'.~aL.I..WD_I, ,on~. ·n~ we"o~.,: '.-.:.,.. :modok will: give e:lceUeut '~~e .' resu IllS if 'pl'GP ~."y [~ndibOBed~ l 'Givea 6w~.g in ,0., der in. tb.J! sparks, d,epa:rtmen;tJ} the ~·apertD ~ca_nbe ,a:tJtac h ed 'to tile moto'l!" and~ if dr.iv~.1l. 'b', .

IG:NlTIO'N'

'TOPICS
j

~m.

~~jw;.~ .. s~~dmtth~ eb~. has ln. up4nd·- down p'~ay , Ul,~e ~ddl~, ~'rsrim ~ ~~ 'tb,~leD!D_n~ over l'Cvem.l. 'tlime!;~

Ip there :h 3;D:~1' donbt ~bout i'b iutenrua.~. cfl'ndi.tiJotn tL1,e has't .plan is 'I~I S,lt, '"he, ;mi,pe-~'Dl o,verhawoo, by lb,e malt_I
'nI":~i ~,iilI;U' or 1\ ~repUItlty,£e: 1,~UiiJust,

~ . t.. 8:110; ~ym,pto.ms, SUf'j,n ,011 ,bea:vy sparrklin,B a;t th,e: 'poin'b:"a 1l,(:rtW,cea.ble ,[IN),'osit in the Ie.Fo,n
I,

KIl, m~
0lil,11... ....1i ,

,0.f iw =.

ness ,of'the mml1:tlN ~mctl= 8;C1.~o~~ ~iD.oo th~y ..'fe mmC9J:ti've o(r ,actual
'rmttiifY,j, '~9
'iI!<li"il

;iI~. p~mts W'WCJ!lI, ;uwil


,i

t..,~

,t..

",·L.i

A mua,~.y,calmes

. slickness 'D" ti8b'ltw,()uld j usti(y' such ,a CO,D,S)!: Df


j

0(['

,A - 'E .. . ..~, t .iio.L, t penou 0,_.'" ru:munml.ili, ge: 'tw:I· ..!!,:cs: CtJudluclted, after _ the ilm!stnlment ,has ~m h,ca:ted. up 't:.· 0" ... ·TiI..:i I om'etun a, :lilll.'OWS 'D.1l ·1, ~ b" ~!OU,1IuA'- . ''0....'P""I' 10. ,8. S,ll-o,ve" ",rnS

havim'l a ma,gmem te;sted 'plrtieWar~" if'it a,p,pMrs, to be ,QOfteC;t bw;~, ~e Il!'ngiDI' mis:ffirG9 01' jusl! r:e:(U9U U
j,

tt·oubl~lL'u
.II,!;!!i,IdI

.:Wc ~ ate 'bcr,o:ud 'the


l

0:11" impending 1:b.W:~, io\fm!Olt ,mm:I' •• S

'to

'f:I'l'~t"

nn ~'If'"

ljl.iPli

~~

~~ ....~,_

ii!MAd-

:W.~,~,

.... Jg,-iii";:!11 ,g.

'" ..

rault wWc:b, Yin


• _ J •• _

~I'

,a'bso[ute,m,y_ euntilal.. Th~.malllel'O! m]JI~, tb~~f' o-~~ f D, ~God ,_par:~ }flD '.ha jut liekedl Of widl, 'the fbq;:en,~ If ,·'t. 'V!!! d'D0S :Do,t 00' '10.11 8'lthOIl\111 otherwise 'm Icod, condition as .rrtllrd.S 'the· .po/milJ blUshes and ·sli.pl rim,R;, o:b~CfVe wbelbeJ
p1ll1'~I I'" Is weak~ .,L W1,lw tuG poor :s,pilrk I' 'ILHB,'C re.magmJ;.truzim\B. is, IlGcas.ary~, This, 1S Deft '3, 'usual 'malady \Vilb m.fujern, inslrWEJenb ha vjng, east..hl m:Bgnre:ts the ,iiC .A1ui(o 'i,~
lOt~ mW~'I~e.9~, .00. COgJ11D,G1UOQ ".I~.Ii. "." I
j

,not ,obvioil!ll, 'befOE\B\., Dead: ..etrtlim :S*~·~i~'n ~y~.tn 'Ilw,;L:,,-, flillJl'O' -:~jw.uIe:J'D I'
W1"fI!ill:Y -..=rrlllll~
1~

~
,~.~~ILl!i-U
'~ii':Ii

the ~I~~ :m~. :5wtablJ dt~lfld~OW1.0.1 ~o' '_he ]Usb ~~l,nsJo,~, of' ,~UJmimlUml{l,'~e choIR wiU 'UlluitU.y 'tilht'D a _,~1['U= na: 'iii'" retf!igute, ~ up~ ad. Boml ,o]l·01'nU1oo. must be ~~~e ~~tr'~~S; '~~ 'Y~'~ml,p(n\,IIE'~n oyerLip' ,Quim 9riu a
,I,T,SI I~

~'_'wW. be the ca:se'",if' chain js worn, 'Ul[lg"arty'tI' ,of ,the the &pl'OC,t~'~, are eceentne, ,0: one 01" 'both si1a:ft,s,are noe ld,emd '~c~ UDev,CD'mnsj o'J)1 diema!ll~tDdrive.m.e~ulstb.:il.td1c in i.pidon timiD,S wiD be ~e~~etuW1,yvuJ~d,(n~er a 'lb'IllIJ 't.be 1Muse .auldl be ,d]tscov ered Mdl'MadJ,ca;led~ ml ·the masne~o 'holdJD' :ooJ~!OWB, bolo paBI, "tfn'!~,~Ib, sloit;s" !ldjJutumn;t ,is e::tIe.c~dqui·w but,:m 'o'ther eases, (zUDi; 1~lo'~hiei D~D'es) w'b.e~e UtlRi it; no :n1iDB, e ployisio[fl the 'bu~ Wlli hI"" .'h), 'be p-'-ac'lked.u'n en '~II.'......":J, or L.~,~"" ~:blj'm:~-:f'ii""'''' :' ~")a;i!lO'1 ~'_ ID..... _ .' .. - .Al". ~i!!Ji,., ... S O. !!i~ :sa:p.e
l

f~lm~'~h~ e~n1. mleaIlwhile to check If ib 'tem:sion ·vai.Iu~

iO!

t'.,

snud~-~~p.;

_ii",.

II§I!' ..

,..,..:1.... ...1 .~ mn;';l;i1';,m;'i1i ll!~IU;U~

Hi':.

:;:LIC'
J!@

thclIe is an IJpp,ra;m'b!e .mape·fjc :ri~WSmniQe to' f,otation JUS:l

prior 'to '(bJ~' :palnu 'Dpeninl" U 'tbj S! ,~tl!lfte


l

'~iC,

",01-.1..

-'L_

pf.lowdoo j':, d1l c'hBdi'D case '~O I.UQrW ror adJI~I~melLt~ omission should, 'be f,OOlitied, by ell:~tiDIOlt .ThIs ~, p~Gce ',?f. fel~w!}e eDorop to covu 'tb,e '9i(el g,a a ] i'ttle th_~IG~e;r"ithM','th'9,P:I" betw·ee:D ,.' ., case .and. :ma.pe~o!! Th;e [,~]~~' rsi_l?ped: o¥el 'the 'shaft 'belore u"stlDbHm,g 'the ma,pe:to ,udt IS o;f ,a.rd.cular V.a1UD· U 1,1001og 0,0, sad or d,j frt is OO'[],OOl
,~~~tentenQI:'I;b~,slot
l

rim Ule;Umll't~f.C b~ ~.' :110 a very ,short, UEQJe~ _ ~Pm_~.~.~~t.'~~. _~sUtt~1i,or liU'J _pI'\D~js!llc(ftfor prewe,gUD;! dl,e~

mIB8c.to,s,.,

'l}pe", but ].'t

does occur'

m (l,IDde.r.paU:rns

aud alsc 'in

or

·~em.'n'!;i,*:"",A -- --r
~1Ij~1I!

tlyw'hcel

W,rule Dot wislJing: Eo 'the ~djp'~0St de,groo to 'cast my

'UI,pemi'OJns,!Difi

:nR iml;tend!ed primmrilY' .fo.f to11riDi~PlU'JPosesl~ P'or I',aomg it, :~s bfH~t:to &SQlld rtlllese' d'evices, _Ii Qbtain. Orne: .of the :seve:fa] '
~fPes of DUIIU~~O which .ba·ve 'been 'built far 'ale j,o,b~ Th.e ld,ea,.i

'f.hem" ,combmm mBglleto~dymamo insttum,e:rn.ts

. ,3

1£1,1"a.m:~n,0da.nd, if nooe.s,iQ.I]f" compDnen'ts ,s,tllCh as fhI·t was;bcr5~ whm,cb. .mV'I a H;m.m.'[,td,ure~ ShO'Wld, '00 renewed, There· is

:m~ettos invaria:o,ly hi:ve some :fo·rm,,of' oil ... '[ittab~:mt;_erico~ fi.t~cd, he'bhld 'm.e, p,inian" This ibDul.d be d G.r-drive
!Il,~m~.E
. , . L,n., , . «? 'f- 1- nrli~%'. ·~~eDJt . uU'O """.rG:....... ...

'w,mrlle .h~oklnl,~nto,'the ·ro.a.'tter. of .fiftffi.mg one~ altho.,ui.h 'this;

negl1_gib,~e 81nC1Bn't ,of' ·fttctioo;.j' ~nd,.irnl 0bstina'te, cases olf ,oU leabi,p it may 'b Bw9.rfli
Th.ey· ca.U5!C
,Dim" at

m~arbt to~y,.

,., • - -..,.:1 P'~D.pf1etary oi!l.o;S~lS,

' om the

184

'18S:

'TU NI N G FOR !j,P'HIIUl

all ,prlo,b~'brnt"I' e_llmU S{UD"S :Bd1dlti,lonal ma(;hi~mg: opemti(HJ;S If a 1000r-driven ma,P.N~~;to fou~,d,.t,o,'be rrl]jJ ,of is, oil, :prr.<?'ba_b]y the se&~suQ\ound~'Dg the m~iDll'!'i,~ ha~ beIrt, come ,m,e,iIeL::uve" so that ,clj,eanm,g out will be Bl~ely a 'bempof,ary measure, The leal sholuld, be :renc:wed,; 'this ean be di~![I,'e- '~xt,etllally' in 1,~TiI nmpe'n,o~~ but Lueas in.. -H," tr.um,efo:ts, must fir,9t dis,ma:n,Ued 10 '1ffi:ds, event, make It~fe that the· ~f;'W seal :is 0.1 the type which al.S, a aart,e[ ,sp,rin"I: 'to ~~'t,r~et i~ OtD 'the sha:tl_! and not O:~lU!af the ear' y
I,

wru~n~n i

,~,G'Nr~ "Jt:m:ION 1"10:1',1 C s

,35,01 a.dlv11tnce" 'w,ill] uwBlll;y:start quite 'wen 'with, :U,O, Ji!l~thod1m' r~Wding, bu,~, if :petf.ioJ. is w:ecl,: ell" much more d],an 3,50 1;5, required., Ithe letllODe ma be pr~':llleltoo kick ba:ckl} and 8'0'
lome fODD ,of

be

pa,Uer:! wm'eh. does net PQss~SJ 'tllU ,:fe;lt.ullell


There,
,"! lU1Ie else

:18:llfi.Wde 10';- scm .. non .. etall~lO m~'t'e[ial ,S,tlcb 1;8 ,~~, e m 'TIJIDlO'~ tn 'l)o,r, ,II] 'ab,roruJ ~ t:, In such a CU~, if 8DY teeth ilppeU 'tel be da'mapd iit is ,ad:v,i1snb,le 'tal ,obtain a, ne,. whiec'l[p. as if one 'ItOOth faUsl Qo',mp'~fitclJ the !is'.: will fanow s,uw't,very s'bo,rtl" .., Owh!l,g t~ 'the high eJ:p~n;si:on, :ml' C 10,f 'thcse_ 'mlt'~~n:HJ,h,he- e~~b :sb,lcP'laldl t ha:ve a. peroe:l'111,' e smouLDt 10lf 'ba.c'klash~ ev,en, WDSiD tm'W,~ mlso 'ttL_ 'tips of me teaCh mu~tbe w'ell,c'- ear 10" _th~ ro _Ollis ~D 'Lb.!!!C)'tlller gea ['. otherwise: an ~:mMloyilDl,8 wwnC w'hrucbl wU 1, ~\fJ,t ,eme ~Ue'l(as t;i'me ,gOeB CH1~wiU be set up, wbe]l, ,rlfljdLlml.' R.aeing mll,peto5 are Qommo,nly eqw p'ped, with, man ueJ
I

'no cheek in a leu

_ . U]V!I utilless; the

w'beei

"

'~e"'h,onil=H1R-d ,sc.hIDlC of'm_n-mJD,1


r/Io,L 1Uil_1~'

up' in the ,diiv'eiiJ W~'ttlau tom a t~cadvM,co .. ,it :m also necessary to \vedgtJ the deviee .iD'~O 'the, flull, ... ,ad,v:uced POs.! tion, -as t'hms ill more aeenra te than 'settim,g I't, fun m:eta'[d and, tfustin,g that 'cbs 'Cl.'tra advaeee will be II, :lrta'~edI]ly' die maker, Tbe :metbod of usm.Sa IMldamp baUory ,uti b'll~b '10' detelmme 'tb·.Clact point 'of birakins is ~ S.O'C~, bu't the
'takem

,aUlbe'smc:k

in th,!!: 'us~1. :mUlleI, maltmg: sure that tho cam],..riDg is liD tb,e, ,fun,' ~dvaneed p os-i'tlO'B and that the p-o,m,;m, are jmst 1i1.r,~s'., with
1,IU;jOg'
UOiIirl!d,

lewd, tXHllrtto~ may b= 'Ci!:U~ID:tilljj W:Uh tho ,adjustm!ent of-the drive eorreet, ,and, th,~ 'tact... 0011 , bleaker paiflfJlj r~et to 'the c'Ot'[,ect g-ap, (~O .2 m~'m thi~case I()f

mstrumeuts)I' die ~gnjdOD loan, be

,- : ",110fa,p

'\\filth, a ICCfltN'Ul.,I:al A!,T'"D'~ T:be9, are 'fl~i!L'$8a,'tj~falCtlolryll but 'ror' iracin,g, 'tile seheme bas tWID Idisad v8rwtames ::' ODe is that the acauracy of' tho dm~'n.g ,cattJl,o~,'bG ehec'ked when ruonio\g; the other. lis that U: isi 0'111 poss~ ~Ic tg dyl'v,:-' ,s r~v~oun~cr- dire~t firtrJ'JlI, t'bie, _Rille to 'D1Jt wweb is olle of d:rne Q;,ocep_'oo method.l~ because tbe, pO'Wm" absorbed by the d'riVi~ 1 'oluc,h sli g'btj mi,:gh't prW!cQ't .fLdl ,ad\HUM~e b~m,g obta irncdi Tb~e; are methods by 'w'lhiC:h tIle drh"B can be "Gtte,1l o,fl" t~; mled stops o(n the prm,o[l]~ I:now.ing 'Jle adlfiD:nce, mechaumm to wo, k :r~eg,ly~but tlds is :,ather ,s matter for parsons] in,g;enui'ty~ Somr3: 'ri:,d~r5 p:re.for' ~!o'1oek... ,the d:ewoo b,,' we~ding 'toge.t]]Jetr' the' 'bed, 'U}ll ~,nd ,moi. g' ~l~'OPS a:fler 'la:ki[jUS out 'tile bob ..we~gh;~s~ aDd, crutlber' eeavert the magneto, to ,D3.Jj.d :ad:'an,[J~,or use :~ed ignitioD. . ~~ _ Engines, :rnnnmg on aleohol, :Iulld nelt mql11r~I!l~'more 'ttl_ID,
:mlgnetos a,'~~ used
~I j,

IId:v&nee,w,aeb am~,mj 'but

,m co:njullcti,olD

OD,

ma'm, s,ports

:macblm

es 1imd

ii, is, :ihe.rera"r"e lase:m'ual to eh,eck; '~he Um1in,L aDd" ,il 'n~ary I' to :reset il, if' some parn.'cW,1f. ~Pflt OrD'~ ,Bd]'tIDCS is ~ ,-m,g abncd It~ Tll~ vemiet deri~ 'used O'D A!I'"S ~
0. de,lfel!

of 'b~illavailabl to ulml08.t Illy cimlmUtaDms~, wm,ch-,ver m~th,od Is u ed i \o,o!md be ,.dhe,red to' 're,sultd~, ndxingll'pl tWio:schemes is b01ood, to 'brill ,m m_~,pmcl_Whenl ODe finally 'tighta _'me m g,p,eto drive D.iU t :t1le '_pmdll frgu;Ddy' creeps OD a, littl':' 'wiY' mcl. dlua rltaJ,tls, $' 'timimg
!'

'{)im.'!,;~l Uy,

."

AI

,DO'fllil

'I'

0 ctplettc pO,:plr 1: fL.,.,. W~D lu-;tiS JUS_, eomes,. ,f~


'L,__
i-t.. ~
0;

'between
h._Q~

d',iI!i

,.,.'I!....,

,w"

Q1"

:90;

"oj,

/I'mhl(m,', me',~lHJd ·0'/ ,c.f1e,~t/~ 'S:I,!l ..,


Till!

"i 0 n"~,ll i1a',i" I' ",~,f~,.',rJ.d to; ,N~\'t! #mfi


C't!l,z,tr,~
"'~I'

t'",
t!l
~,........,........,---=;o.-~~-"_)

~l e,i'~ h' ~ft1l(J~ed'(W' msu/;(lt~tJ,mlfr~


II;II~.QC"
,Ill. !I! .~

-;l.

[:86

,tie fiuld ,lJoin:i'.,

«(J\ws/-'l'

.ii'I..1h'

'T'G'~'·'-:· lil~.· ti ,',"

·l'TI'O· .:·N',: "rO_ &'1


= ...... ,._

'0 . Jr':I' ..

C.'(.'!! ~

machii'"-·esdoes n'OE SlllfIer from this trouble and provides ,I 'very simple method 0,( setting or altering tb,e '"~". '.1;1 .~ IOn. ·nvm,...c.'tflinder en~Tne.s 'the timine afte ~beina set OlD one !J' Ie. 19 cvlinder ,-'-·-U![;I'-t· be -lb,-.-1""""'d 0"rn tho ·o'th"· one Itwi I' .,.~-.J 'U"'1I'!"IR;1,W' ',a,:r ~~',llUt _:__Alw,I.I' be, fOIUD,d to 'be a degree or tv/'0 different owing 1'0 small tact breaker or cam, ,"". ..:L. '~... If'" we, Vm1ati.o DS 0,[ errors, _. tne contact '~!.. .......... i error is 0 1:y S ight, the easiest way·.is to split the difference betweea t~e two eylinders: if more serious, careful grinding' ,OI' oil-stoning orfthe cam ring will effect a cure, IOn. singleICH:uUI'Ctt-er V'~twins I-I' e r-ear cl,linder' filling is, rarely 10 good f tt' as t h at 10.-;8 t"i I.fe,nt one: eonsec _,en,t:y '" WI"'n stan d a I-'~t·e ,1_ [ 'm'o~ advan ~p g"""}d~'~'U:-'D ... £ b t '0:- ami ·L!!Lj·M"~-~ .- .. lid" it . .. .... -, pr,oVl.,. e··d 11 IS" 0,t mo're'," ,,,1;.'-n" lEI,eegree... or so, ,""""::11] .:-,11 b e.. iii rna -,-.,;1; ..... , . WU_ ot ,disa;dv,aDta.,ge~ This does not apply' to V·~-r,wins ~(th. tW,OI earburetters, 'whic._ Ish,'DI'JJ.dd take .•-: same advance 00, both - .. e ~1'mun,!S'i'n Viueen,ts'l prepared for fast road war' 'run, if- , di ,ar. .. 'I'N"DA ra th er more sweet ..id" _ ly lll'DW ..·.,own.. . -any .:',ilJ..ereD!oe:]1 arrangen 't0 gi:y·ef ie front Icylind,er less advance than the 'rear, rather than ,tce... &t1"i ,"Ier In Chapter XI[ va'riJoltS makers" timings are quoted, These should provide 13 ,useful guide so IOD,S 8S it, ill d- d'- e' apprectatec .th.:' t, m. man.y casesl th·, :ey' a:re tate '.' e',. 1.0Ir' 'use·Wlw, .'" comp'-amove]y' slow lengJnes ~ B·ro.adly~' 'sneakinG'. :rac;fij'lI'O" .. _. -.. ".. --_'- - - - -::. f'" - ,t;, - - ~D e!", '~'.es Fleg.uirreless, Dot more, a,dv,a .ce than heir to min I' ICQIUD,itle:rparts, 'for' the :fnllclwing reasons ..
l~

.\#-,

I~~,:,

I .. ~

~~.:......_

...

~!JLI

,~!

... /.~

..

~I

~II

~~I

·~-ll"'-.JL

'iii:~p",'
1

'"

..

,;;,

-.il

1._·.~ID.

'~I~·_W-~IIM,.I
iii _-".

'Q'

.~.~

-PDIif!\~

iCi;"__j',siA

I·····

.I

..

y_':._

..•

~,

'-,!II

III

"

'"'

ii.

~;Il,L,

l-

tss
-10
1