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RENEWABLE ENERGY

RESOURCES

A Project Report by
Ruchita Nirulkar (07-440)
Vignesh Aigal (08-401)
Vaishali Bhandare (08-410)
Sanket Kadam (08-420)
Gaurang Naik (08-434)
Sanket Nayak (08-437)
Jitesh Poojary (08-446)
Kaushik Ramanathan (08-448)
Pulkit Sehgal (08-454)
Priyanka Umap (08-463)

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction 3
II. Overview 4
2.1 Power Generation
2.2 Heating
2.3 Transport Fuels
III. Mainstreams Forms of Renewable Energy 6
3.1 Wind Power
3.2 Solar Power
3.3 Hydro Power
3.4 Biomass
3.5 Geothermal
IV. Renewable Energy Resources in India 8
V. Wind Energy 12
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Wind Power Generation
5.3 Technology
VI. Wind Power Potential in India 13
VI.1 National Wind Power Programme
VI.2 Wind Resource Assessment Programme
VI.3 Master Plans
VI.4 Cost of Wind Power Projects
VI.5 Promotional Incentives
VI.6 Manufacturing Base for Wind Turbines
VII. Guidelines for Wind Power Projects 17
VIII. Success Stories 21
IX. Conclusion 23
X. Bibliography 24

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INTRODUCTION

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain,
tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of
global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional
biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables
(small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio-fuels) accounted for another
2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around
18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.

Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158
gigawatts (GW) in 2009 and is widely used in Europe, Asia and the United States. At the end of
2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power
stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and
Spain and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave
Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California with a
rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world,
involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the
country's automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA, the world's largest
producer in absolute terms, although not as a percentage of its total motor fuel use.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to
rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an
estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems
configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas. More than 30 million
rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters.
Biomass cook stoves are used by 160 million households.

Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil and increasing government
support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization.
New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the 2009
economic crisis better than many other sectors.

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OVERVIEW

Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such


as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, as the International Energy Agency explains:
“Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its
various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth.
Included in the definition are electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower,
biomass, geothermal resources and bio-fuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.”

Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: power generation, hot
water/space heating, transport fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services:

Power generation:
Renewable energy provides 18 percent of total electricity generation worldwide. Renewable
power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a
significant share of electricity in some areas: for example, 14 percent in the U.S. state of Iowa,
40 percent in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 20 percent in Denmark.
Some countries get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100 percent), Brazil
(85 percent), Austria (62 percent), New Zealand (65 percent) and Sweden (54 percent).

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Heating:
Solar hot water makes an important contribution in many countries, most notably in China,
which now has 70 percent of the global total (180 GW). Most of these systems are installed on
multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50–
60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a
portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating
continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil.
Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly.

Transport fuels:
Renewable bio-fuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United
States since 2006. The 93 billion liters of bio-fuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the
equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5 percent of world gasoline
production.

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MAINSTREAM FORMS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

• Wind power

• Hydropower

The Hoover Dam when completed in 1936 was both the world's largest electric-power generating
station and the world's largestconcrete structure.

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• Solar energy

Mono-crystallineSolar Cell
• Biomass

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• Geothermal energy

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RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA

“Energy is an important input foreconomic development. Sinceexhaustible energy sources in


thecountry are limited, there is anurgent need to focus attention ondevelopment of
renewableenergy sources and use of energyefficient technologies. Theexploitation and
development ofvarious forms of energy andmaking energy available ataffordable rates is one of
our majorthrust areas.”
- Dr. Manmohan Singh
(Prime Minister of India)

“Today India is one of the fewleading countries in thedevelopment and utilization ofrenewable
energy. The country isblessed with various sources ofnon-conventional energy and Ihope the
efforts of Ministry ofNon-Conventional EnergySources will promote viabletechnologies that can
reach thebenefits of such sources to thepoorest people in the far-flungregions of the country.”
-Smt. Sonia Gandhi
Chairperson, National Advisory Council

“The promotion of renewable energy sources in thecountry requires widespread publicity and
greaterawareness of the potential of these energy sourcesand the products available. The
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources is expanding severalof its programmes so that
these sources cancontribute to sustainable development of the nation.The Ministry will work
towards reducing the costsof renewable energy products and making themeasily available to the
people. The motto of theMinistry is ‘Akshayurja se deshvikas’ and theultimate goal is
“Gaongaonbijli, ghargharprakash”.”
-Shri Vilas Muttemwar
Minister of State (Independent Charge),Non-Conventional Energy Sources

Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Everysector of the Indian economy –
agriculture, industry, transport commercial and domestic – needs inputs of energy. Theeconomic
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development plans implemented since independence havenecessarily required increasing
amounts of energy. As a result,consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all
over thecountry.This growing consumption of energy has also resulted in the countrybecoming
increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal and oiland gas. Rising prices of oil and gas
and potential shortages in futurelead to concerns about the security of energy supply needed to
sustainour economic growth. Increased use of fossil fuels also causesenvironmental problems
both locally and globally.

Against this background, the country urgently needs to develop asustainable path of energy
development. Promotion of energyconservation and increased use of renewable energy sources
are thetwin planks of a sustainable energysupply.

Fortunately, India is blessed witha variety of renewable energysources, the main ones
beingbiomass, biogas, the sun, wind, andsmall hydro power. (Large hydropower is also
renewable in nature,but has been utilized all over theworld for many decades, and isgenerally not
included in the term‘new and renewable sources ofenergy’.) Municipal and industrialwastes can
also be useful sources ofenergy, but are basically differentforms of biomass.

The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources has beenimplementing comprehensive


programmes for the development andutilization of various renewable energy sources in the
country. As aresult of efforts made during the past quarter century, a number oftechnologies and
devices have been developed and have becomecommercially available. These include biogas
plants, improved woodstoves, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar lanterns, street
lights,pumps, wind electric generators, water-pumping wind mills, biomassgasifiers, and small
hydro-electric generators. Energy technologies forthe future such as hydrogen, fuel cells, and
bio-fuels are being activelydeveloped.

India is implementing one of the world’s largest programmes inrenewable energy. The country
ranks second in the world in biogasutilization and fifth in wind power and photovoltaic
production.Renewable sources already contribute to about 5% of the total powergenerating
capacity in thecountry. The majorrenewable energy sources anddevices in use in India arelisted
in Table 1 along withtheir potential and presentstatus in terms of the numberof installations or
totalcapacity.

Cumulative Installed
Source/System Estimated Potential Capacity/Number*
Wind Power 45000MW 3595 MW
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Biomass Power 16000 MW 302.53 MW
Bagasse Co-generation 3500 MW 447 MW
Small Hydro (up to 25 MW) 15000 MW 1705.63 MW
Municipal Solid Waste 1700 MW 17 MW
Industrial Waste 1000 MW 29.5 MW
Family-size Biogas Plants 12 million 3.71 million
Improved Chulhas 120 million 35.2 million
Solar Street Lighting Systems - 54795
Home Lighting Systems - 342607
Solar Lanterns - 560295
Solar Photovoltaic Power - 1566 kWp
Plants
Solar Water Heating Systems 140 million m2 of collector 1 million m2 of collector area
area
Box-type Solar Cookers - 575000
Solar Photovoltaic Pumps - 6818
Wind Pumps - 1087
Biomass Gasifiers - 66.35 MW
*As on 31 March 2005
TABLE 1

WIND ENERGY

Introduction

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Wind energy has been utilized bymankind for sailing, grinding, andother mechanical
applications for centuries.In the recent past, wind energy has emergedas a viable renewable
energy option withincreased application in water pumping,battery charging, and large
powergeneration. It is environmentally benign and does not emit greenhousegases (GHG).

Wind Power Generation

Generation of electricity has emerged as the most important applicationof wind energy world-
wide. The concept is simple: flowing wind rotatesthe blades of a turbine, and causes electricity to
be produced in generatorunit. The blades and generator (housed in a unit called ‘nacelle’)
aremounted at the top of a tower.

Technology

Wind turbines generally have three rotor blades, which rotate withwind flow and are coupled to a
generator either directly or through agear box. The rotor blades rotate around a horizontal hub
connectedto a generator, which is located inside the nacelle. The nacelle alsohouses other
electrical components and the yaw mechanism, whichturns the turbine so that it faces the wind.
Sensors are used to monitorwind direction and the tower head is turned to line up with the
wind.The power produced by the generator is controlled automatically aswind speeds vary. The
rotor diameters vary from 30 metres (m) toabout 90 m, whereas the towers, on which the wind
electric generators(WEGs) are mounted, range in height from 25 to 80 m.

The power generated by wind turbines is conditioned properly so as tofeed the local grid. The
unit capacities of WEGs presently range from 225kilowatt (kW) to 2 megawatt (MW), and they
can operate in wind speedsranging between 2.5 m/s (metres per second) and 25 m/s.

Wind speed data of potential locations is compiled for a period ofone to two years, to identify
suitable sites for the installation of WEGs.Thereafter, WEGs are installed on the sites with
appropriate distancesbetween them to ensure minimum disturbance to one another. Afterthe
identification of sites, wind turbines generally take two to threemonths for installation. The
equipment is tested and certified by agenciesto ensure that it conforms to the laid-down
standards, specifications, andperformance parameters. The machines are maintained by the
respectivemanufacturers after installation.

WIND POWER POTENTIAL IN INDIA

India’s wind power potential has been assessed at 45 000 MW. Thecurrent technical potential is
estimated at about 13 000 MW, assuming20% grid penetration, which would increase with the
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augmentation ofgrid capacity in potential states. The state-wise gross and technicalpotentials are
given in Table 2.

State Gross Potential (MW) Technical Potential (MW)


Andhra Pradesh 8275 2110
Gujarat 9675 1900
Karnataka 6620 1310
Kerala 875 610
Madhya Pradesh 5500 1050
Maharashtra 3650 3060
Orissa 1700 1085
Rajasthan 5400 1050
Tamil Nadu 3050 2150
West Bengal 450 450
Total 45195 14775
TABLE 2

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National Wind Power Programme

The Wind Power Programme in India was initiated towards the end ofthe Sixth Plan, in 1983–84.
The programme aims at survey andassessment of wind resources, setting up demonstration
projects, andprovision of incentives to make wind electricity competitive. As a result,wind
electricity has emerged as anoption for grid-quality powergeneration. The costs in respect ofwind
monitoring stations areshared between the Ministry ofNon-Conventional Energy
Sources(MNES) and the state nodalagencies in the ratio of 80:20(90:10 for north-eastern
states).With 2980 MW of installed windpower capacity, India now ranksfifth in the world after
Germany, USA, Spain, and Denmark. Most ofthe capacity addition has been achieved through
commercial projectsby private investors.

Wind Resource Assessment Programme

The Wind Resource Assessment Programme is being implemented byC-WET (Centre for Wind
Energy Technology) in coordination withstate nodal agencies. An annual mean wind power
density greater than200 W/m2 (watts per square metre) at 50-metre height has beenrecorded at
211 wind monitoring stations, covering 13 states and unionterritories, namely Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh,Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya
Pradesh,Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, and WestBengal. Handbooks
titled Wind Energy Resource Survey in India havebeen published covering the wind data already
generated.

Master plans

Master plans are available for 97 potential sites for wind power inAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and West
Bengal. The masterplans provide information on the availability of wind, land, grid
availability,and accessibility to the site, which enables project promoters and statenodal agencies
to undertake proper planning and implementation of theprojects. The master plans have been
provided to the state nodal agenciesand are made available to project promoters, developers, and
consultantsthrough C-WET at a nominal cost.

Cost of Wind Power Projects

The cost of wind power generation varies between Rs 4 and 5 croresper MW, depending upon
state characteristics. The machines can bemaintained at a cost of Rs 0.25 to 0.60/kWh. The
projects are estimatedto have a pay-back period of five to eight years.

Promotional Incentives

Wind power projects have been set up through private investment.


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The promotional incentives available are listed below:
• 80% accelerated depreciation in the first year.
• Concessional import duty of 5% on five specified wind turbinecomponents and their parts.
• Favourable tariffs and policies in several states.

Manufacturing Base for Wind Turbine

Wind turbines are produced in the country by about a dozenmanufacturers, mainly through joint
ventures or under licensedproduction agreements. A few foreign companies have also set up
theirsubsidiaries in India. A few Indian companies are manufacturing WEGswithout any foreign
collaboration. Indian-madewind turbines are also being exported tosome countries.

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GUIDELINES FOR WIND POWER PROJECTS

Comprehensive guidelines for wind power projects have been issuedby the MNES from time to
time. These guidelines relate to preparationof detailed project reports (DPRs), micro-siting,
selection of windturbine equipment, operation and maintenance, performanceevaluation, etc.
Users of these guidelines include the state electricityboards (SEBs), state nodal agencies,
manufacturers, developers, andinvestors. The certification requirement for wind turbines was
reintroducedwith a time-bound provision for self-certification. C-WETissues a list of
manufacturers of certified wind turbine machines on aquarterly basis.

Success Stories

A few examples of successful wind farms are briefly described below:

Muppandal–Perungudi (Tamil Nadu)

With an aggregate wind powercapacity of 450 MW, theMuppandal–Perungudi regionnear


Kanyakumari in TamilNadu has the distinction ofhaving one of the largestclusters of wind
turbines.About Rs 2500 crores has beeninvested in wind power in thisregion.

KavdyaDonger, Supa (Maharashtra)

A wind farm project has been developed at KavdyaDonger at Supa,off the Pune–Ahmednagar
highway, about 100 km from Pune. Thiswind farm has 57 machines of 1-MW capacity each.
Annual capacityutilization of up to 22% has been reported from this site. The farm isconnected
through V-sat to project developers as well as promoters foronline performance monitoring.

SataraDistrict (Maharashtra)

A conducive policy for private investment in wind power projects hasresulted in significant wind
power development in Maharashtra,particularly in the Satara district. Wind power capacity of
about340 MW has been established at Vankusawade, Thosegarh,and Chalkewadi in Satara
district, with an investment of about
Rs 1500 crores.

Wind Energy for Water Pumping and Off-gridPower Generation

Water-pumping windmills,aero generators (small wind electricgenerators), and wind–solar


hybridsystems have been found to beuseful for meeting water-pumpingand small-power
requirements ina decentralized mode in rural andremote windy areas of the country.The MNES
is implementing aprogramme on ‘Small WindEnergy and Hybrid Systems’ topromote utilization

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of water-pumping wind mills, aerogenerators, andwind–solar hybrid systems for water pumping
and power generation.

Water-pumping Windmill

A water-pumping windmill pumps water from wells,ponds, and bore wells for drinking, minor
irrigation,salt farming, fish farming, etc. Available windmillsare of two types, namely direct
drive and gear type.The most commonly used windmill has a horizontalaxis rotor of 3–5.5 m
diameter, with 12–24 bladesmounted on the top of a 10–20 m high mild steeltower. The rotor is
coupled with a reciprocating pumpof 50–150 mm diameter through a connecting rod.

Such windmills start lifting water when wind speed approaches 8–10kilometres (km) per hour.
Normally, a windmill is capable of pumpingwater in the range of 1000 to 8000 litres per hour,
depending on thewind speed, the depth of water table, and the type of windmill.Windmills are
capable of pumping water from depths of60 m. Water-pumping windmills have an advantage in
that no fuel isrequired for their operation, and thus they can be installed in remotewindy areas
where other conventional means of water pumping arenot feasible.However, water-pumping
windmills have limitations too. They canbe operated satisfactorily only in medium wind
regimes(12–18 km per hour). Further, special care is needed at the time of siteselection as the
sites should be free from obstacles such as buildingsand trees in the surrounding areas. The cost
of the system being high,many individual users do not find them affordable.

Cost

The cost of a water-pumping windmill varies from Rs 45 000 toRs 150 000, depending on the
type. In addition, Rs 10 000–Rs 20 000 is required for the foundation, storage tank, and
theinstallation of the windmill. As the system involves moving parts, itrequires frequent
maintenance. The repair and maintenance cost of awindmill is about Rs 2000 per year.The
MNES provides a subsidy of up to 50% of the ex-works cost ofwater-pumping windmills,
subject to ceilings of Rs 20 000,Rs 30 000, and Rs 45 000 in the case of direct drive, gear type,
andAV-55 Auroville models, respectively. For non-electrified islands,subsidy of up to 90% of
the ex-works cost is provided for the abovetypes of windmills, subject to ceilings of Rs 30 000,
Rs 45 000, andRs 80 000, respectively.

Aerogenerator
An aerogenerator is a small wind electric generator having a capacityof up to 30 kW.
Aerogenerators are installed either in stand-alonemode or along with solar photovoltaic (SPV)
systems to form a wind–solar hybrid system for decentralized power generation.
Anaerogenerator is suitable for power generation in unelectrified areashaving adequate wind
speeds. It consists of a rotor of 1–10 m diameterhaving 2–3 blades, permanent magnet generator,
control devices, yawmechanism, tower, storage battery, etc. The aerogenerator rotor
startsmoving at a wind speed of 9–12 km per hour. However, it producesoptimum power at the
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rated wind speed of 40–45 km per hour. Thelimitation of not being able to provide power as and
when it is requiredis overcome by storing it in a battery bank.

Aerogenerators cost about Rs 2.00–2.50 lakhs per kW. In addition,the cost of installation
including civil works is estimatedat Rs 5000 per kW. The repair and maintenance cost is aboutRs
2000 per kW per annum.

Wind–solar Hybrid Systems

When an aerogenerator and an SPV system are interfaced, the powergeneration from these is
mutually supplemented, and the resultanthybrid system offers a reliable and cost-effective
electric supply in adecentralized mode. The wind–solar hybrid system mainly consists ofone or
two aerogenerators along with SPV panels of suitable capacity,connected with charge controller,
inverter, battery bank, etc. to supplyAC power. The major advantage of the system is that it
meets the basicpower requirements of non-electrified remote areas, where grid powerhas not yet
reached. The power generated from both wind and solarcomponents is stored in a battery bank
for use whenever required.

The cost of the system varies from Rs 2.50 lakhs to Rs 3.50 lakhsper kW depending on the ratio
of wind and solar components.The approximate cost of installation, including civil works,
isabout Rs 10 000 per kW. Repair and maintenance cost is aboutRs 3000 per kW per annum.

Subsidy of up to 50% of ex-works cost of the system is provided,subject to a maximum of Rs


1.25 lakhs per kW to individuals,industries, and R&D and academic institutions. The MNES
providesa subsidy for community use and direct use by central/state governmentdepartments and
defence and paramilitary forces of up to 75% of theex-works cost of the system subject to a
maximum of Rs 2 lakhs perkW. For non-electrified islands, subsidy of up to 90% of ex-works
costsubject to a maximum of Rs 2.4 lakhs per kW is available.

System Availability and Repair/ServicingFacility

Water-pumping windmills, aerogenerators, and wind–solar hybridsystems are installed through


state nodal agencies using central subsidy.A manufacturing base has been developed. The state
nodal agencies areresponsible for providing repair/service facilities through the
respectivemanufacturers.

Potential and Achievement

Water-pumping windmills require only medium wind regimes.Considering the availability of


required wind speeds and the level ofthe prevailing water table, potential exists for installing
water-pumpingwindmills in almost all states, except in hilly and rocky regions.Aerogenerators
and wind–solar hybrid systems require high wind speedsand good solar radiation. Potential exists
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for their installation in AndhraPradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra,Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, WestBengal, and the
windy regions of Jammu and Kashmir and all northeasternstates. So far, about 1000 water-
pumping windmills and 380kW aggregate capacity of aerogenerators/wind–solar hybrid systems
havebeen installed in the country.

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Success Stories

Water-pumping windmills

Three water-pumping windmills of AV-55 type installed in and aroundAuroville have become
the exclusive source of drinking water for thecommunity, which is fully dependent on the water
lifted by thesewindmills. The maximum number of water-pumping windmills has been installed
in Gujarat, for irrigation and drinking water purposes.

Aerogenerators

The West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA)has installed six
aerogenerators of 3kW capacity each in the existingSPV power plants at Sagar and Mousani
islands. A number ofaerogenerators have been installed by the Maharashtra EnergyDevelopment
Agency (MEDA), and are working satisfactorily. Anaerogenerator of 3.2kW capacity, installed
at the Manashakti ResearchCentre, Lonavla, is supplying electricity to illuminate 22
streetlightson the road connecting the centre’s hostel to the highway. Theaerogenerator is visible
from the Mumbai–Pune highway.

Wind–solar Hybrid Systems

Wind–solar hybrid systems have been installed for a variety ofapplications. Some of them have
been installed on islands and in coastalareas. One notable project is a 5-kW capacity wind–solar
hybrid system installed on Vagator beach in Goa, which has become a destinationpoint for
tourists. The system illuminates 60 CFLs (compact fluorescentlamps) of 18 watts rating each.
These CFLs are the only source ofillumination on the beach. A 15-kW wind–solar hybrid system
hasrecently been installed at the famous pilgrimage site of Bhimashanker Deosthan, in Pune
district, Maharashtra. This system provideselectricity to meet the needs of the entire temple
complex. It has becomea point of attraction for a large number of devotees visiting the
templecomplex. A large number of wind–solar hybrid systems have beeninstalled in Maharashtra
by MEDA, including a unit that providespower to the local area network of computers and other
needs in theirown office complex in Pune.

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RAJIV GANDHI AKSHAY URJA DIVAS

On 20 August 2004 – the 60th Birth Anniversary of our Late Prime Minister Mr. Rajiv Gandhi –
the Ministry organized the Rajiv GandhiAkshayUrja Divas. Initiated by the Honorable Minister
of State (Non-
Conventional EnergySources), Mr. V Muttemwar,the occasion saw the releaseof a
commemorative stamp
by the Honorable PrimeMinister, Dr.ManmohanSingh, at a function attendedby Smt. Sonia
Gandhi,Chairperson, UnitedProgressive Alliance (UPA),Members of the UnionCabinet,
Members ofParliament, Chief Ministers,Foreign Dignitaries, Administrators, Scientists, and
students amongothers.

The day was also appropriate to advocate renewable energy, sinceMr. Rajiv Gandhi was a keen
enthusiast of scientific advances that wouldenable India to leap into the 21st century. Thus, a
human chain ofnearly 12 000 school children was formed in the National Capital topromote a
renewable future. In the rest of the country too, functionssuch as rallies and human chains were
organized. In addition,competitions such as essay writing, painting, quizzes, and debates
wereheld, all of which covered different aspects of renewable energy – frombiogas to biomass to
solar, hydro, and wind power. The essence ofthese public activities was to generate mass
awareness and disseminateinformation about the advances made in renewable energy
technologies,and with the ultimate objective of achieving ‘Akshayurja se deshvikas–
Gaongaonbijlee, ghargharprakash’. The success of the Rajiv GandhiAkshayUrja Divas has
encouraged the Ministry to make it an annualaffair, to be celebrated on 20 August every year.

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CONCLUSION

To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely.

We must all conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new
energy technologies of the future.

All energy sources have an impact on the environment. Concerns about the greenhouse effect
and global warming, air pollution, and energy security have led to increasing interest and more
development in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, wave power and
hydrogen.

But we'll need to continue to use fossil fuels and nuclear energy until new, cleaner technologies
can replace them. One of you who is reading this might be another Albert Einstein or Marie
Curie and find a new source of energy. Until then, it's up to all of us.

The future is ours, but we need energy to get there.

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BIBLIOGRPHY

The following were the sources of information:

Books:

Websites:
http://www.mnre.gov.in/
http://www.en.wikipedia.org

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