Russian chemistry professor Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer independently published their periodic tables

in 1869 and 1870, respectively. They both constructed their tables in a similar manner: by listing the elements in a row or column in order of atomic weight and starting a new row or column when the characteristics of the elements began to repeat.[10] The success of Mendeleev's table came from two decisions he made: The first was to leave gaps in the table when it seemed that the corresponding element had not yet been discovered.[11] Mendeleev was not the first chemist to do so, but he went a step further by using the trends in his periodic table to predict the properties of those missing elements, such as gallium and germanium.[12] The second decision was to occasionally ignore the order suggested by the atomic weights and switch adjacent elements, such as cobalt and nickel, to better classify them into chemical families. With the development of theories of atomic structure, it became apparent that Mendeleev had listed the elements in order of increasingatomic number.[13] With the development of modern quantum mechanical theories of electron configurations within atoms, it became apparent that each row (or period) in the table corresponded to the filling of a quantum shell of electrons. In Mendeleev's original table, each period was the same length. However, because larger atoms have more electron sub-shells, modern tables have progressively longer periods further down the table.[14] In the years that followed after Mendeleev published his periodic table, the gaps he left were filled as chemists discovered more chemical elements. The last naturally occurring element to be discovered was francium (referred to by Mendeleev as eka-caesium) in 1939.[15] The periodic table has also grown with the addition of synthetic and transuranic elements. The first transuranic element to be discovered was neptunium, which was formed by bombarding uranium with neutrons in a cyclotron in 1939.[16]

Groups Main article: Group (periodic table) A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. Groups are considered the most important method of classifying the elements. In some groups, the elements have very similar properties and exhibit a clear trend in properties down the group. These groups tend to be given trivial (unsystematic) names, e.g., the alkali metals, alkaline

Main article: Periodic table block Because of the importance of the outermost metals. The s-blockcomprises the first two groups (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals) as well ashydrogen and helium. comprises thelanthanides and actinides. . The d-blockcomprises groups 3 through 12 and contains all of the transition metals. usually offset below the rest of the periodic table. pnictogens. This can be true in the d-block (or "transition metals"). Periods Main article: Period (periodic table) A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. named according to the subshell in which the "last" electron resides. among others. all of the semimetals. Although groups are the most common way of classifying elements. halogens. the different regions of the periodic table are sometimes referred to as periodic table blocks. The pblock comprises the last six groups (groups 13 through 18) and contains. there are some regions of the periodic table where the horizontal trends and similarities in properties are more significant than vertical group trends. The f-block. and these have no trivial names and are referred to simply by their group numbers. and noble gases. Blocks This diagram shows the periodic table blocks. and especially for the fblock. where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements. Some other groups in the periodic table display fewer similarities and/or vertical trends (for example Group 14). chalcogens.

It has the highest atomic number and highest atomic mass of all discovered elements. Other informal groupings exist. The radioactive ununoctium atom is very unstable. unlike all the other Group 18 elements. and since 2002. only three atoms (possibly four) of the isotope 294 Uuo have been detected.[10] While this allowed for very little experimental characterization of its properties and possible compounds. and metalloids. including some unexpected ones. such as transition metals.[1]It was formerly thought to be a gas but is now predicted to be a solid under normal conditions due to relativistic effects. theoretical calculations have resulted in many predictions. For example. It is also known as ekaradon or element 118. it may possibly not be a noble gas. although ununoctium is a member of Group 18.poor metals.Other The chemical elements are also grouped together in other ways. Some of these groupings are often illustrated on the periodic table. and on the periodic table of the elements it is a p-blockelement and the last one of the 7th period.[1] . Ununoctium is the temporary IUPAC name[9] for thetransactinide element having the atomic number 118 and temporary element symbol Uuo. such as the platinum group and the noble metals. Ununoctium is currently the only synthetic member ofGroup 18.

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