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MATERIAL SCIENCE

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MATERIAL SCIENCE

CAST IRON –

Is obtained by re-melting pig iron with coke and limestone in a furnace


known as cupola. It is primarily an alloy of iron and carbon. The carbon
content in the cast iron varies form 2.1% to 4.5%. It may be present either
as free carbon [ or graphite ] or combined carbon or cementite.

Cast iron is brittle material, therefore it cannot be used in those parts which
are subjected to shocks.
It has very good casting characteristics, high compressive strength, wear
resistance and excellent machinability.
The compressive strength of cast iron is much greater than tensile strength.
The cast iron also contains small amount of impurities such as silicon,
sulphur, manganese and phosphor.

Effect of the Impurities on CI :-

Silicon – Maybe present upto 4% in CI . It provides the formation of free


graphite which makes the iron soft and machinable.

Sulphur – makes CI hard and brittle. It must be kept well below 1% for most
foundry purposes

Manganese – It makes CI white and hard. It is often kept below 0.75%

Phosphor –
It aids flexibility and fluidity in CI, but induces brittleness. It is rarely allowed
to exceed 1%.

The Important Types of CI –

1. Grey CI
2. White CI
3. Chilled CI
4. Molten CI
5. Malleable CI
6. Nodular or Spheroidal Graphite CI
7. Alloy CI

GRAY CAST IRON

This is ordinary commercial iron having 3 to 3.5% carbon

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The grey color is due to presence of carbon in the form of free graphite
IT has low tensile strength
High compressive st.
No ductility
It can be easily machined

WHITE CAST IRON

This has 1.75 to 2.3% of carbon


The white color is due to the presence of carbon in the form of carbide
[ known as cementite] which is the hardest constituent of iron
Has high tensile st.
Low compressive st.

CHILLED CAST IRON:

Produced by quick cooling of molten iron


The quick cooling is generally called chilling

MOLTEN CAST IRON


Is product in between grey and white CI in composition color and general
properties

MALLEABLE CAST IRON

Obtained from white cast iron by suitable heat treatment process. [


annealing ]

Nodular or Spheroidal graphite cast iron

Called ductile cast iron or high st. cast iron


Obtained by adding small amount of magnesium [ 0.1 to 0.8% ] to molten
grey iron just after tapping.

ALLOY CAST IRON

Produced by adding alloying element like nickel, chromium, molybdenum,


copper and vanadium in sufficient quantities.
Properties –
Increased strength
High wear resistance
Corrosion resistance
Heat resistance.

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STEELS

Is an alloy of iron and carbon, with carbon content up to a maximum of 1.5%


most of the steel produced now-a-days are plain carbon steel.
Divided into following types based on carbon content –

DEAD MILD STEEL – UPTO 0.15% CARBON


LOW CARBON MILD STEEL – 0.15 – 0.45%
MEDIUM CARBON STEEL – 0.45% TO 0.8% CARBON
HIGH CARBON STEEL – 0.8% TO 1.5% CARBON

PLAIN CARBON STEEL – [ UPTO 0.5% SILICON AND 1.5%


MANGANESE ARE CALLED PLAIN CARBON STEEL ]

These steels are strong, tough, ductile and used in expensive materials.
They can be cast worked, machined and heat treated to a wide range of
properties. Unfortunately, plain carbon steel has poor atmospheric corrosion
resistance. But it can be protected easily by painting, enameling or
galvanizing.
The properties of plain carbon steel depend upon the presence of carbon
content.
Properties –
Hardness and strength increases with increase in carbon content.

Effect of Impurities on Steel –

Impurities – Silicon, Sulphur, Manganese and Phosphor

Silicon – [ 0.05% to 0.30% ]


• Prevents steel from becoming porous
• Removes the gases and oxides
• Prevents Blow holes and thereby makes steel tougher and harder.

Sulphur – [ as iron sulphide or manganese sulphide ]


• Iron sulphide has low melting point
• Manganese sulphide – does not effect much

Manganese
Serves as valuable deoxidizing and purifying agent in steel. When used in
ordinary low carbon steel, manganese makes the metal ductile with good
bending qualities.

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.

Phosphor Makes steel-

Brittle
Cold shortness in steel
In low carbon steel , raises the yield point and improves resistance to
atmospheric corrosion.

Alloy Steel –

Maybe defined as a steel to which elements other than carbon are added in
sufficient amount to produce an improvement in the properties.
The chief alloying elements used in steel are –

NICKLE – [ 2 to 5%]
Improves – tensile strength
Raises elastic limit
Imparts hardness, toughness
Reduces rust formation

CHROMIUM –
Increases strength
Hardness
Corrosion resistance

VANADIUM
[ LOW AND MEDIUM CARBON STEEL ]
increases yield and tensile st.

TUNGSTEN
Raises critical temp of steel
Imparts cutting hardness
Abrasion resistance properties

High speed steel [ 18:4:1]


18% tungsten, 4% chromium 1% vanadium and 0.7% carbon

Manganese –
Reduces the formation of iron sulphide by combing with sulphur. Makes
steel, hard, tough and wear resistance.

SILICON –
Increases strength and hardness of steel without lowering its ductility

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COBALT
It is added to HSS [ 1 to 12% ]
Give red hardness by retention of hard carbide at high temperatures.

MOLYBDENUM
[ 0.15 to 0.30%] of molybdenum is used with chromium and manganese
[0.5-0.8%] to make molybdenum steel.
Possess extra tensile strength
Used in airplane fuselage and automobile parts.
Stainless Steel –

Properly heat treated and finished steel that which resists oxidation and
corrosive attack from most corrosive media.

Different Types of Steel-

1. MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL


2. FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL
3. AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Are Chromium steel, containing –


Chromium – 12 to 14%
Carbon 0.12 to 0.35%

Properties –
Magnetic in nature
Maybe hardened by suitable heat treatment
Hardness depends on Carbon content
Can be easily welded and machined

FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Chromium – 16 to 18%
Carbon - about 0.12 %
Properties –
Good Corrosion Resistance than martensitic steels

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Chromium – 18%
Nickel – 8%

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Known as 18/8 steel

Properties –
Non magnetic
Greatest Corrosion Resistance and good mechanical properties at elevated
temperatures.

NON FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS

ARE THOSE WHICH CONTAIN METALS OTHER THAN IRON AS THEIR


CHIEF CONSTITUENT.
The non ferrous metals are usually employed in the industry due to the
following characteristics
1. Ease of Fabrication, [ Casting, rolling, forging welding and machining
]
2. Resistance to corrosion
3. Electrical and thermal conductivity
4. weight

They are –

I. Aluminium :

It is a white metal prepared from bauxite. Its light in weight and has specific
gravity 2.7 and melting point – 660deg cel.

Aluminium alloys –
Alloyed with other metals like copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon
and nickel. Addition of these metals converts –
Soft metal into hard and strong metal still retaining its light weight.

The main aluminum alloys are –

1. Duralumin”
Composition – Copper : 3.5 to 4.5%
Manganese – 0.4 to 0.79%
Magnesium – 0.4 to 0.70% and remaining is aluminium

Possesses max.strength [ abt 400mpa] after heat treatment and age


hardening.
After working it is allowed to age for 3 to 4 days till it is hardened through
the process of age –hardening

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2. Y-alloys –
Called also – copper-aluminum alloy

Copper – 3.5 to 4.5%


Manganese – 1.2% to 1.7%
Nickel – 1.8 to 2.3%
Silicon, magnesium, iron – 0.6% each and
Remaining is aluminum

This is heat treated and age-hardened to get better strength than duralumin
at high temperatures.
3. magnesium –
It is made by melting aluminum with 2 to 10% magnesium in a vacuum and
then cooling it in a vacuum or under a pressure of 100 to 200 atmospheres.
It also contains about 1.75% copper.

II. copper :

Most widely used non-ferrous metals in industry. It is a soft, malleable and


ductile material with a reddish brown appearance.
Specific Gravity – 8.9
Melting Point – 1083deg Celcius
It is Good conductor of Electricity
Used – for making useful alloys with tin, zinc, nickel and aluminum.

The main copper alloys are –

Copper zinc alloys Copper tin alloys


[brass] in which zinc [bronze] in which tin
Is the principal Is the principal
alloying material alloying material

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Brass:
Most widely used copper-zinc alloy. This is fundamentally a binary alloy with
each copper and zinc in 50% consistency.
There are various types of brasses depending upon the proportion of copper
and zinc. Brass is resistant to atmospheric corrosion and can be easily
soldered.

Types of Brass:

CARTRIDGE BRASS:

Copper – 70% zinc-30%


Is a cold working brass used for cold rolled sheets, wire drawing, deep
drawing pressing and tube manufacturing

Yellow brass

Copper – 60% zinc 40%


Suitable for hot working by rolling and extrusion and stumping

Leaded brass Admirality brass

Copper – 62.5% 70%


Zinc 36% 24%
Lead 1.5% tin – 1%

Used – plates, tubes, etc

Naval brass
Cu – 59% zinc – 40%, tin –1%
Used morque castings

Nickel brass [ german silver]

Cu – 60.45% zinc –35.20% nickel – 5.35%

Used – for valves, plumb fittings, automobile fittings, type writer parts and
musical instruments.

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Bronze:
Composition 75 to 95% copper and 5to25% tin
Properties – corrosion resistant,
Superior to brasses

Types of Bronze:

Phosphor bronze
Copper – 87-90% tin – 9 to 10% Phosphor – 0.1 to 0.3%

High strength, superb ductility and soundness of castings


Possesses good wearing qualities and high elasticity.

Silicon bronze
Copper – 96% silicon – 3% manganese or zinc – 1%

High strength and good corrosion resistant properties


Used – boilers, stores etc.,

Berlliyum bronze
Copper – 97.75% Beryllium – 2.25%

High yield point, high fatigue limit and excellent cold and hot corrosion
resistance.
Used – Springs..

Manganese bronze
Copper – 60% Zinc – 35% manganese-5%

High resistant to corrosion


Used - , worm gears…

Aluminium bronze
Alloy of copper and aluminium. Al – 6to 8%.

Valuable cold working properties,


used in imitation jewellery and decorative purposes because of its fine gold
color

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III. lead :

it is bluish grey metal having specific gravity – 1.36 and melting point –
326deg celcius
this is soft and can be cut with a knife. It is used for making solders

The lead base alloys are –


Used where cheap and corrosion resistant material is required.
Alloy containing - Lead – 83%, antimony 1.5% tin 1.5% and cu – 0.5%
Used – large bearings

iv. zinc :

bluish white metal which in pure state has bright smooth crystals at its
fracture.
Specific gravity 7.1, mp – 420deg cel. Boils at 940deg cel anc can be ealiy
distilledused – covering steel sheets to form gavanised ironhigh resistance
to atmospheric corrosion.

The zinc base alloys are –


Die castings mostly produced by zinc based alloys.
Can be casted easily with a good finish at fairly low templ
Have considerable strength and low cost
The usual alloying element for zinc are al, cu and magnesium

v. cadmium:
white metal with bluish tinge. Capable of taking high polish.

Specific gravity 8.65, mp – 321deg cel.


Harder than tin but softer than zinc
Used – Artification alloys for bearings. Used as rust proof coating for iran
and steel

Bearing metals –
1. Copper base alloys
2. Lead base alloys
3. Tin base alloys
4. Cadmium base alloys.

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Selection of a particular type of bearing metal depends on the contions
under which it is to be used. It involves factors relating to bearing pressure,
rubbing speed, temps, lubrication etc.,

Properties to be possessed by bearing alloys :

Have low co-efficient of friction


Have good wearing qualities
Have ability to withstand bearing pressures
Have a sufficient melting point
Have good casting qualities
Have non –corrosive properties
Have economies in cost

The selection of a particular type of bearing material depends on the


conditions under which it is to be used. It involves factors relating to rubbing
speed, temperatures, lubrication etc.

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NON-METALLIC MATERIALS

PLASTICS

Plastics are synthetic material. They are moulded into shape under pressure
with or without the application of heat. They can also be cast rolled,
extruded, laminated and machined
The plastics may contain a number of constituents including binders,
polymers, dyes or pigments, plasticisers, lubricants, solvents and catalysts.
The plastics are usually classified on basis of the nature of binder used in
their manufacture. The binder may be natural or synthetic polymers.

Types of Synthetic Plastics:

1. Thermo setting Plastics


2. Thermo Plastics

Thermo setting Plastics :

These when heated under pressure to form shapes, they result in


permanently hard products The heat first softens the material, but as
additional heat and pressure are applied it becomes hard by a chemical
change known as phenol-formaldehyde [ bakelite ]

Thermo Plastics

These plastics neither become hard nor do any chemical changes take
place in them on application of pressure. They remain hard at elevated
temperatures until they are cooled to harden. These can be remelted
repeatedly by successive application of heat.

Eg- celluloid polythene, pvc

RUBBER –

Is an organic polymer. This elongates on stretching and regains its original


shaper after the removal of the stress. Major portion of the rubber is
consumed in the field of manufacture of tyres and tubes for vehicles.

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A number of constituents like Sulphur, antioxidants, reinforcing agents,
coloring agents are added to the polymer to obtain desirable properties in
them. These properties include elasticity, tensile strength, resistance
against chemical reagents etc.,

Structure: It consists of a long chain of molecules, which are interlocked


with one another. When tensile stress is applied to a rubber molecule, the
chain gets stretched and considerable elongation takes place. On removing
the stress the thermal agitation will return the chain to the interlocked form
and so the rubber to its original shape.

TYPES OF RUBBER:
1. Natural Rubber
2. Synthetic rubber or elastomers

Natural Rubber:

It is elastic material present in the latex of certain plants. It is a polymer of


isoprene with the structure as shown in the figure
The latex is treated in two ways to obtain the rubber.
H

H C H
H H H

C C C C

H H
N

ISOPERENE

First method:
In the first method the latex is coagulated with organic acid to produce crude
rubber. This rubber does not posses the desirable properties. Hence, its
properties are improved by the addition of compounding materials such as
sulphur, accelerators and coloring agents etc., It is then passed through the
calendaring machine to produce sheets of desired thickness.
Second method:
The latex itself is mixed with the compounding materials and the
precipitated directly from the solution in the final shape to be used.

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Types of Natural Rubber:

• Chlorinated rubber – used in protecting coatings and adhesives


• Cyclized rubber – to manufacture paper in combination with parafine
wax
• Rubber hydrochloride - used in packing and wrapping of delicate
equipments

SYNTHETIC RUBBER:

These are manufactured from raw materials such as coke, limestone,


petroleum, natural gas, salt, alcohol, sulphur, ammonia, coal, tar, etc.,
They are not same in structure as natural rubber.
They are rubber like materials having properties like natural rubber, infact
some properties better than that of natural rubber.
They are more resistant to sunlight than natural rubber.
They have greater solvent resistance and elasticity also.
Eg- Neoprene, Nitride rubber, silicon rubbers

1. Neoprene-

Are produced by polymerizing chloroprene molecules. They are lcosely


related to the natural rubber. But they have higher resistance to oils,
greases, aging high temperatures etc., they are used in oil seals, gaskets,
adhesives etc.,

Nitride rubbers-
These are rubbers are produced by polymerization of crylonitride and out.
They have excellent oil, grease and solvent resistance. They are widely
used for tank lining, conveyor belts.

Silicon rubber-
These are produced by condensation polymeration of dimethyl silicon
polymers, they are most stable rubber over a wide temperature ranging from
55 deg celc to 315deg ecl. These are used for wire and cable insulation,
coatings, packaging, tubing gaskets etc.,

CERAMICS:
These are made from inorganic materials and have non-metallic properties.
Eg- Ionically bonded magnesia and covalently bonded silicon carbide
The traditional ceramic materials – stone, brick, concrete, clay glass,
vitreous enamel and refractories.

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They have low value of thermal conductivity
Generally good thermal insulators
They can withstand rapid fluctuations of temperature and pressure.
They are not affected by oxygen.

GLASS
It is an inorganic insulating material. Comprises of complex system of
oxides
Silica is the most essential constituent of many commercial glasses.
It is fused with alkali [ potash, soda etc.,] and base like lime, lead oxide etc.,
Silica glass is the best insulating material
This is extensively used in electrical bulbs, electronic valves, x-ray tubes,
etc.,

COMPOSITE MATERIALS:

Two or more materials combined together to produce a new material which


possess much superior properties than any one of the constituent materials.
Such a material is known as composite material.
Eg – wood [ natural ], Artificial composite materials [ cement, concrete,
glass reinforced plastics, plywood,etc.,]

Types of composite materials:

1. Agglomerated materials
2. Laminated materials – Laminates
3. Reinforced materials

Agglomerated materials

Here particles are condensed together to form an integral mass and are
known as agglomerated materials.
Eg – Cement concrete, grinding wheel

Important terms – Particle size, packing factor, density and porosity

Laminated materials – Laminates

These are produced by completely bonding two or more layers of different


materials
Here the top most item provides the desired appearance and workability,
which the lower layer provides the strength.

Roll bending, co-extrusion, explosive welding and brazing

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Eg – Plywood, Tufnol, sunmica, linoleum etc.

Plywood – It is produced by bonding together an odd number of thin layers [


called plies ] of fine wood and applying pressure

Tufnol – is produced by combining laminated materials having layers of


woven textiles with a thermosetting resin. In the composite material the
resin provides the necessary appearance and rigidity.

Reinforced materials

These materials are produced by combining some suitable material to


provide additional strength which do not exist in a single material.
eg. Reinforced cement concrete [ ROC], Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics,
etc.,

Reinforced cement concrete [ ROC]

Produced by placing the steel rods in a cement concrete mixture. The


resulting product provides excellent resistance to both the compressive and
tensile stresses

Nylon Reinforced Rubber:

Here the nylon thread [ sometimes steel wires, glass wires etc ] provides the
necessary strength and the rubber provides necessary surfaces.
Used in automobiles and cycle tyres

Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics:

Produced by combining glass fibre with plastic. Here glass fibre provides
the necessary strength and the plastic reduces the brittleness. The
commonly used – resin, silicon
These can be employed in the form of continuous lengths or whiskers.

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Insulating materials

Are materials in which electrical conduction cannot occur. They are also known
as dielectric materials

Conduction bond

Wide energy gap

valence bond

Energy band diag of insulators

The valence bond of these materials is separated from the conduction bond by a
wide energy gap. This gap is so wide that at ordinary temperature, the electron
cannot jump from valence bond to the conduction bond
Eg. Rubber, bakelite, mica, glass, etc

REFRACTORIES
Are materials which can withstand high temperatures and possessed sufficient
mechanical strength, heat resistance and retain a constant volume. They also
possess reversible thermal expansion and resistance to thermal shock.
Used either in furnaces either to support heating element or to form the linings of
the inner parts of the furnace.
The materials used at temperatures greater than 900deg cel are – anudum
[bonded aluminium oxide, alumina, silica, dolomite, mullite, clay, etc

High temperature refractoy materials


Graphite - 3200deg cel
Thoria - 2700 deg cel
Magnesia - 2000deg cel
Alumina - 1900deg cel
Quartz - 1700deg cel

They are available in different sizes shapes.


Some common shapes – refractory bricks, light weight bricks, refractory tubes,
protection tubes and powders used as insulating materials

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ABRASIVES
Are used for grinding wheels to produce better metal finish and removal of
materials
Abrasives are also used to improve product appearance. The processes include
barrel finishing, viratory finishing, polishing and buffing.

NATURAL ABRASIVE –

Found in nature. Eg – emery, sand stone, corundum and diamonds. Both Turkish
and American emery are natural mixture of aluminum oxide [ Al2O3 ] and
magnetite [FeO4]. Both have milder cutting action than synthetic abrasives.
Emery is often preferred for use on coated cloth and paper as well in many
buffing compositions. It is no longer used in making grinding wheels
Diamonds are another type of natural abrasive. They have the highest known
hardness of any substance. Because of their nature, diamonds require a
distinctive bond, which is more specialized than that of conventional grinding
wheels.

SYNTHETIC ABRASSIVE

Most widely used in surface grining operations eg silicon carbide [ Sic] and
Aluminium oxide. Silicon carbide is the harder and more brittle.

Adhesives

Adhesive material are those used to join two surfaces. Pressure sensitive
adhesives cause adhesion simply by the application of pressure.
Glues are widely used as adhesive materials. They are obtained from animal
gelatins, vegetables and starches.
Other adhesives are made from polymer. Eg – Cellulose, thermosetting and
thermoplastic

Cellulose adhesives – pyroxylin, cellulose acetate


Thermosetting adhesives include epoxy cements, urea formaldehyde, polyester
and silicon adhesives
Thermoplastics – neoprene, poly vinyl alcohol and acrylic adhesives

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NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTS: [NDT]


Are those tests in which the specimen is not destroyed and can be re used after
test. They are performed to inspect the materials against any defects such as
gas porosity, blow holes, etc.,

TYPES OF NDT :

1. Ultrasonic Test
2. Radio graphic Test

Ultrasonic Test:
In this test, ultrasonic radiations are made to fall on the material to be tested.
While passing through the material these ultrasonic radiations are scattered
along different directions.
The ultrasonic radiations are attenuated [ weakened] while passing through the
defective area.
And they remain unattenuated [stronger] while passing through the perfect area.
This leads to the variation in the intensity of transmitted radiations.
Now the received radiations are converted to an oscilloscope beam for
interpretations.
There are two methods for transmitting and receiving the ultrasonic radiation.
First method- separate transducers are used for transmitting and receiving
radiations.
Second method. The same transducer is used both for transmitting and receiving
radiations
Used For : Detecting voids, cracks and other defects near or far below the
surface of any
material
The air gaps over the order of 0.003mm can be detected
Ultrasonic radiation frequency are more than 2 lakhs cycles/sec

Radio graphic Test:


Here high frequency [ short wavelength ] radiations of constant intensity are
made to fall on the material to be tested. While passing through the mateials
these radiations are also abosorbed and scalttered alon different directions.
This also leads to the variation in the intensity of the transmtted radations. Which
are usally recorded on a sensitive photographic film. It will be interesting to know
that the darker region on the photographic filem, corresponds to a defect region.

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And less dark region corresponds to the perfect regions. It is due to the fact that
more radiations pass through the defective area than the perfect one. The
developed image of the photographic film is called radiograph and the various
techniques to determine the flow in the material are known as radiographic
techniques.

They are classified into three categories –

X-RADIOGRAPHY
The x-rays are used as a high frequency radiations. This technique is useful to
detect defects such as porosity in castings. But this technique has a draw back
that it cannot be used to detect smaller defects. This is due to the fact that due to
scattering of x-rau the small defects are not detected.

GAMMA –RADIOGRAPHY
The radio active elements like radium, cobalt, etc., are used as a source of
producing radiations of very high frequency [even higher than x-rays] this
technique is very useful for inspection of medium sized parts and also for the
jobs which require stronger radiations and higher penetrations. The gamma
radiography is less expensive as compared to x-radiography but it requires a
longer period to obtrrain radiography as compared to that of x-ray radiography.

Neutron Radiography –
A neutron beam is used as source of high frequency radiations. This technique is
very useful for inspection of very light materials like plastics, explosive, rubber
components, etd. Whre x-radiography and gamma –radiography cannot be used.
This may be used for detection of voids and detonators as well as inspection of
rubber and paper products.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TEST OR CRACK DETECTION METHOD:

In this test the material to be tested is magnetized and then fine magnetic
particles are spread over the whole surface.
The presence of crack causes some leakage in the magnetic field.
The particles will not be able to spread in the crack area.
But they adhere to the surrounding surface thus outlining the presence of a
crack.
In order to increase the visibility of a crack, fluorescent magnetic particles or ultra
violet light may be used.
The magnetic particle testing is useful for ferrous alloys or magnetic materials
such as iron steel, nickel alloys etc. this is also use for detecting blow holes,
grinding and fatigue cracks, and cracks on surfaces and just below it.

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TTT DIAGRAM FOR 0.8%CARBON – [ EUTECTIOID STEEL ]

TTT Diagrams are drawn with temperature along y-axis


Time along x-axis
To study – effects of time on transformation of phases

TTT diag – consists of 2 parallel curves which represent the beginning and
ending of transformation of austenite respectively. Another set of parallel
horizontal lines represent the martensite start and finish temperatures
respectively.

CONSTRUCTION OF TTT DIAGRAM-


STEPS FOLLOWED-

STEP 1 – A large number of identical samples are cut and prepared from the
same bar. The cross section of the samples has to be small in order to react
quickly to the changes in temperature

STEP 2 – All the samples are placed in a furnace at the proper austenitizing
temperature for sufficient duration until complete austenite phase in the micro-
structure is ensured.

Step 3 – A set of samples are then transferred to molten salt bath held at a
constant sub-critical temperature [ i.e., below 727 deg cel and for example 700
deg cel ]

STEP 4- Each sample in the set is held in the molten salt bath at this constant
temperature for different intervals of time and then quenched.

STEP 5 – After cooling each sample is checked for hardness and studied
microscopically

STEP 6 – the above steps are repeated for samples held at different sub-critical
temperatures until sufficient points are determined to plot curves on the diagram

The above procedure is carried out to draw the TTT diagram for one composition
of iron and carbon. The entire effort is repeated to draw TTT diagram for reach
combination of iron and carbon.

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Ref text – by Niranajan

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IRON CARBON SYSTEM-

Most important binary system in engineering alloys. The alloys of iron-carbon


system containing from 0 to 2.0% carbon are called steels
And those containing 2.0% to 6.7% of carbon are called cast-iron

In practice steels are manufactured with carbon content up to 1.4%. It is due to


the fact that steels with carbon content more than 1.4% are brittle and hence are
not useful. Similarly the cast irons that are manufactured in practice contain
carbon from 2.0% to 4.5% only.

It will be interesting to know that iron-carbon alloys exist in different phases in


steel and cast irons.

In steels, iron and carbon exists as two separate phases, ferrite and cementite.
The ferrite is a solid solution of carbon in α-iron with negligible amount of carbon
and cementite is an inter metallic compound called iron-carbide [fe3c]. cementite
is a stable phase in steel only. But is its not stable in cast iron under all
conditions and hence cementite is called a metastable phase.

The following are 2 phase diagarams of iron –carbon system

1. IRON-IRON CARBON [ Fe-Fe3C] PHASE DIAGRAM


2. IRON –CARBON PHASE DIAGRAM.

PHASE DIAGRAM OF IRON CARBON SYSTEM

FIG Shows the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. In this diag, the carbon
composition [weight percent] is plotted along the horizontal axis and
temperature along the vertical axis. The diag shows the phases present at
various temperatures for very slowly cooled iron-carbon alloys with carbon
content up to 6.7%. The diagram gives us information about the following
important points.
1. Solid phases in the phase diagram
2. Invariant reaction in the phase diagram
3. Critical temperatures
4. Eutectoid, hypo ecutoctoid and hyper ecutectioid steel

PHASE DIAGRAM – TO BE DRAWN –text by Niranjan

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the low carbon region found above 1400 deg cel in the phase diagram in not of
any practical importance.
However the region lying in the 700-900 deg cel temp range and 0.1% carbon
range is the most important region in the phase diagram.
In this region an engineer can develop with in steel, those micro structures
having different desired properties.

SOLID PHASES IN IRON-IRON CARBIDE PHASE DIAGRAMS.

1. α FERRITE

The solid solution of carbon in α iron is called α FERRITE or simply ferrite. This
phase has BCC structure. Ant at 0% carbon it corresponds to α iron.

2. AUSTENITE

The solid solution of carbon in γ iron is called austenite. This phase has FCC
structure. And has much greater solubility for carbon than α FERRITE. The
solubility of carbon in austenite reaches a max of 2.11% at 1148deg cel and then
decreased to 0.8% at 723deg cel as shown by line CD in the phase diagram.

3. CEMENITE

The inter metallic iron-carbon compound is called iron carbide or cementite. Its
chemical formula is Fe3C. It containing 6.7% of carbon and 93.3% of iron.
Cementite has an orthorhombic crystal structure with 12 iron atoms and 4 carbon
atoms per unit cell. Its density is 7.6gm/cu cm. as compared austenite and ferrite,
cementite is extremely hard and brittle.

4. δ FERRITE

The solid solution of carbon in δ iron is called δ FERRITE. This phase has BCC
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE BUT WITH DIFFERENT LATTICE PARAMETER THAN
α ferrite. The maximum solid solubility of carbon in δ FERRITE is0.09% at
1495deg cel..

The aim of Heat treatment is to bring about the desired changes in the form of
carbon combination in steel.

All metals are crystalline in structure.


The crystals of pure iron are called ferrites. Ferrite may contain a very little
amount of carbon in solid solution with iron. It is soft , ductile and strongly
magnetic.

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A chemical compound of ferrite and carbon is called cementite. It remains as


round particles in steel. Cementite is hard, brittle and magnetic substance. A
mechanical mixture of ferrite and cementite is called pearlite which is hard,
strong and machinable. A solid solution of cementite and ferrite is called
austenite it is not stable at temperatures below 723deg cel. At lower temp
austenite breaks into ferrite and cementite or pearlite. When high carbon solids
are heated to temps above 850 deg cel and suddenly cooled down to room
temps. The cementite in steel is forced to enter into the solid solution in ferrite.
This forced solution of cementite in ferrite is called martensite. Which is very
hard, Brittle and unstable substance.

MILLER INDICES:
The Orinetation of a plane in every crystal system, is described in terms of
coordinates through which they pass along x-x asix, y-y axis and Z-Z axis. This
point is illustrated below:

Consider a plane ABC, have intercepts of 1 axial unit [ along x-x axis], 2 axial
units [ along y-y axis] and 3 axial units [ along z-z axis ]. The orientation of plane
ABC is described a 1,2,3.

Z
6:3:2. It may be noted that for getting
C the whole numbers all the three
reciprocals have multiplied by 6. The
Y ratio sign[:] is omitted and it is due to
B the fact that multiplying all intercepts
A or reciprocal the same number does
not change the orientation of the
X plane and numbers for the planes
are enclosed in small bracket. Thus
miller indices for plane ABC in fig [a]
maybe written as [132]. The digits in
Miller suggested that it is more the bracket are read as one three
useful to describe the orientation of a two and not six hundred and thirty
plane by the reciprocal of its two.
numerical parameters, rather then by
its linear parameters. These
reciprocals when appropriately
converted into whole numbers are
known as miller indices.
Thus the miller indices of the plane
ABC in fig [a] are [ 1:1/2:1/3 ]or

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PROCEDURE FOR FINDING Express the intercepts in terms of
MILLER INDICES OF CRYSTAL axial units [ i.e. x-pa, y-qb, and z=rc]
PLANES: Now find the ration fo their
reciprocals [i.e 1/p, 1/q, 1/r ]
ALONG THE THREE AXES: Convert these reciprocals into whole
Find the intercepts x, y and z of the number by multiplying each one of
plane along the three reference them with thir LCM.
axes.
Enclose these number in small brackets. This represent the indices of the given
plane.

Salient features of miller indices of crystal planes:

1. All the parallel planes have the same miller indices. Thus the miller indices
define a set of parallel planes
2. A plane parallel to one of the co-ordinate axes has an intercept of infinity.
3. If the miller indices of the two planes have the same ration [ie. 841 and
422 or 211] then the planes are parallel to each other.

Crystal defects or imperfections:

The atoms do not have their full quota of electrons in the lowest energy level.
But the atoms vibrate due to thermal effect and the electrons also change
their positions. There are many other type of defects found in the structure of
the crystals. We shall discuss only those defects, which are found in the
arrangement of atoms.

They are:
1. Point Defects
2. Line Defects
3. Surface Defects
4. Volume Defects

1.Point Defects:
The defects which take place due to imperfect packing of atom during
crystallization are known as point defects. The point defect also takes place due
to vibrations of atoms at high temperatures.

The important point defects are:


a. Vacancy Defect
b. Interstitial defects
c. Frenkel defect
d. Substitutional Defect
e. Shottky defect

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f. Photon Defect

Vacancy Defect:
When ever one or more atoms are
missing from a normally occupied
positon as shown in the fig. The
defect caused is known as vacancy.
Such defects can be a result of
imperct packing during formation of
crystals or from thermal vibration of
the atoms at high temperature.
Interstitial defects: the interstitial position is generally
When ever an extra atom occupies smaller than the parent atom
interstitial position [ ie., voids ] in the
crystal system without dislodging the
parent atom as shown in the fig. the
defect caused is known as interstitial
defects. This atom which occupies

c. Frenkel defect:
Whenever a missing atom [ responsible for vacancy ] occupies interstitial position
[ responsible for interstitial defect ] as shown in fig. Noted that a frenkel defect is
a combination of vacancy and interstitial defects

d. Substitutional defect:

Whenever a foreign [ atom [ ie., other than the parent atoms] occupies a position
which was initially meant for a parent [ atom or replaces a parent atom]. The
defect caused is known as substitution defect. Here atom which replaces the
parent atom may be for the same size [ or slightly smaller or larger] than the
parent atom

e. Shottky defect:

Whenever a pair of positive and negative ions is missing from a crystal, the fects
caused is known as shottky defect. Here crystal is electrically neutral.

g. Photon: whenever a group of atoms is displaced from its ideal location.


The defect is known as. The defect is caused by thermal vibration.

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2 . LINE DEFECTS.

The defects which takes place due to dislocation of atoms along a line in same
direction are called line defects.
The line defects also takes place when a central portion of a crystal lattice slips
without effecting the outer portion.

There are two types of line defects;

a. Edge Dislocation
b. Screw Dislocation.

a. Edge Dislocation:

Whenever a half plane of atom is inserted between the planes of atoms in a


perfect crystals. This defect is produced

Fig a: shows a cross-section of a crystal where dots represent atoms arranged


in an orderly manner.
Fig b: shows the displacement of atoms when an extra half plane is inserted
from the top. It may be noted from this fig that top and bottom of the crystal
above and below the line xy appears perfect. If the extra half plane is inserted
from top the defect so produced is represented by ┴ [ inverted T ] as shown in
fig. and if the extra half plane is inserted from the bottom, the defect so produced
is represented by T

Screw Dislocation.
Whenever the atoms are displaced in two separate planes perpendicular to each
other. The defect so produced is known as screw dislocation. Fig a: represents
an isometric view of a perfect crystal. Fig b shows the displacement of atoms in
the region are in screw dislocation the arrangement of atoms appear like that of a
screw or a helical surface.

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s. surface defect: The defects which takes place on the surface of a material are
known as surface defects or plane defects. It may be noted that surface defects
take place either due to imperfect packing of atoms during crystallization or
defective orientation of the surface.

The types of surface defects


a. grain boundary
when ever grains of different orientation separate the general pattern of atoms
and exhibits a boundary as shown in fig a. the defects caused is known as grain
boundary. This type of defect generally takes place during the solidification of the
liquid metal.

Twin Boundary:

When the boundaries in which the atomic arrangement on one side of the
boundary is a some what mirror image of the arrangement of atoms of the other
side, as shown in fig. the defect caused is known as twin boundary
The region in which a twin boundary defect occurs Is between the twinning panes
as shown in fig..,

Whenever the stacking of atoms is not in proper sequence through that crystal.
The fault caused is known as stacking fault.
Figa: . Shows the proper sequence of atomic planes if we read. From bottom to
top is a-b-c-a-b-c-a-b-c
fig b: shows the sequence of atomic planes a-b-c-a-b-a-b-a-b-c. The region in
which the stacking fault occurs [a-b –a-b] forms a thin region of hexagonal closed
packing in a FCC crystal

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HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS


The process of obtaining various desirable properties in components by the process of
heating to certain temperature and holding at that temperature for considerable amount of
time and subsequently cooling it by various methods.

TYPES OF HEAT TREATTMENT PROCESSES:

1. NORMALISING

Is the process of heating the steel 30deg to 50deg cel above its UCT hypereutectoid
steel. It is held at this temperature for about fifteen minutes and then allowed to cool
down in still air. ASLO known as Air Quenching
This process provides a homogeneous structure consisting of ferrite and pearlite for
hypereutectoid steel and pearlite and cementite for hyper eutectoid steel

The process of normalizing is frequently applied to castings and forgings.

NOTE: UCT – UPPER CRITICAL TEMPERATURE


LCT – LOWER CRITICAL TEMPERATURE

OBJECT –

 To refine the grain structure of the steel and to improve machinability, tensile
strength and structure of the weld
 To remove strain caused by cold working process like hammering, rolling,
bending etc., which makes the metal brittle and unreliable
 To remove dislocations caused in the internal structure of the steel due to hot
working
 To improve certain mechanical and electrical properties.

ANNEALING

The main objects of annealing in HT are:


1. Reducing hardness, refine grain structure, soften the steel
2. Improve machinability
3. Facilitate cold working by improving toughness.

The specimen is heated to prescribed temperature, and then cooled down to room
temperature at a suitable slow rate.

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Types :

Depends on the process adopted for annealing.

1. FULL ANNEALING
2. PROCESS ANNNEALING / SUB-CRITICAL ANNEALING

FULL ANNEALING

Object – to soften the metal, to refine its grain structure, to relieve the stresses and to
remove gases trapped in the metal.

PURPOSE - to increase ductility, to remove strain hardening effect, to remove


stresses

Temp – 940deg cel to 960 deg cel


Holding Time – 2to3min per mm thickness of the material
Rate of cooling – Very slow by switching of the furnace
Applicable for – Hypo-eutectoid steel

DISADVANTAGE / LIMITATION

– very expensive and long cooling cycles

PROCESS ANNEALING

-also known as sub critical / partial annealing

Object – to remove internal stresses and to improve cold working

Temp : step 1 – 940deg cel to 960 deg cel


Holding Time – 2to3min per mm thickness of the material
Rate of cooling – suitable rate In the atmosphere
Applicable for – steel alloys

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DISADVANTAGE / LIMITATION

not very expensive as full annealing, but not suitable for exhaustive large components.

Approximate temperatures for annealing depending on composition of carbon in steel.

Slno Carbon content in % Annealing temperature in deg


celcius
1 Less than 0.12 875 – 925
[ dead mild steel]
2 0.12 – 0.25 840 – 970
[ mild steel ]
3 0.25 – 0.55 815 – 840
[ medium carbon steel ]
4 0.55 – 0.80 780 – 810
[ high carbon steel ]
5 0.80 – 1.40 760 - 780
[ high carbon or tool steel ]

HARDENING

Object –
1. to increase the hardness of metal, to resist wear
2. to enable it to cut other metals, [ suitable for cutting tools ]

Process –

1. Heating the metal up to 30deg c to 50 deg c above UCT for Hypo eutectoid
steels and by the same temperature above LCT for hypereutectoid steel.
2. The metal is held at this temperature for a considerable time depending upon its
thickness and then quenched [ suddenly cooled ] in a suitable cooling medium.
3. The hardness obtained depends on rate of cooling, the carbon content and the
work size
4. A very rapid cooling is necessary to harden low and medium plain carbon steels
5. As the carbon content goes on increasing the possible obtainable hardness also
increases.

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Types of hardening:

1. WORK HARDENING
2. AGE HARDENING
3. AIR HARDENING

WORK HARDENING – Process of hardening a metal while working on it

AGE HARDENING –

Also called precipitation hardening.


Applicable to non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, magnesium and nickel alloys
Effect of this shows a marked increase in strength and hardness for duralumin

Process – Solution treatment :

The alloy is heated into the single phase region held there for long and then rapidly
quenched into the two phase region. This produces a super saturated solid solution, here
the alloy is allowed to age at or above the room temperature for a specified time. This
produces very fine precipitate particles, which increase the strength and hardness of the
alloy

Air Hardening –

Process of hardening a metal, when it is cooled slowly in air blast.


The effect of air hardening is usually seen in high speed steel and some of the tungsten
alloys

Hardening by heating and quenching


It is common process of hardening, which generally employed for iron base alloy having
a low carbon content

TEMPERING

OBJECT –
1. To reduce brittleness of the hardened steel and thus to increase its ductility

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2. to remove the internal stresses caused by rapid cooling of steel
3. To make steel sufficiently tough to resist shock and fatigue

Process –

• Re-heating the hardened steel to some temperature below LCT, followed by any
desired rate of cooling.
• The exact tempering temperature depends upon the purpose for which the article
or tool is to be used
• The tempering temperature may be judged by the color formed on the surface of
steel being tempered
• The colors are caused by surface oxidation of the steel with the formation of thin
films of iron-oxide
• The baths using tempering oils may be employed for temperatures up to approx
230 deg cel
• The tempering oils are usually mineral oils having flash point to the order of 300
deg cel

Types of Tempering Process:

A. AUSTEMPERING
B. MARTEMPRING

AUSTEMPERING –

Steel is heated above UCT at about 875deg cel, where structure consists entirely of
austenite
It is suddenly cooled by quenching it in a salt bath or lead bath maintained at 250deg c
– 525 deg cel

This facilitate the transformation of austenite to binate


After the transformation the steel is cooled in air.

Result -
Here a good impact strength is obtained and the degree of cracking is also reduced.

MARTEMPRING-
MARTEMPRING-

Steel is heated above UCT and then cooled by quenching it in a bath kept at suitable
temperature.

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So that it is in Upper Marten site range.
After the temp becomes uniform throughout the steel structure, without the formation
of binate, it is further cooled in air
The steel is then tempered
The mar-tempered steel is from internal stress
It avoids cracks and wrapping , Usually caused by ordinary hardening.
Used for - alloy steel

NITRIDING

Process of obtaining hard and wear resistant surface on components made from alloy
steel which contain stable nitride forming elements such as aluminum, chromium,
molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten.
In this process the specimen is heated to a temperature of about 500deg c and held for
considerable duration in an atmosphere of gaseous nitrogen.
Nitrogen is produced when ammonia gas is passed through the furnace at 550deg cel.,
the reaction being

2NH3 2N + 3H2

• This nitrogen is readily absorbed into the surface of the steel. The holding time
depends on the desired depth and size of specimens.
• Eg . the time required for case depth of 0.5-0.7mm is about 10hours
• Nitriding develops a very high hardness [ about HRC – 70 ] on the surface of
steel.
• All machining operation are carried out earlier because no machining can be done
after nitriding.
• Also before nitriding the components have to be heat treated properly in to order
to develop core strength in them

Advantages –

1. Nitride parts are ready to be use becoz there is no further heat treatment like
quenching required
2. a very high hardness and a good corrosion resistance is obtained
3. wear resistance is an outstanding characteristic of nitride cases
4. retaining hardness up to working temperature of 500deg cel where as a
carburized part starts losing the hardness at 200deg cel

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Disadvantages

Long heat treatment cycles are required


Specimen alloy steels to be used if maximum hardness is to be obtained
Cost of ammonia atmosphere and the technical control required is very high

Applications

Nitriding is used extensively for aircraft parts such as cone, cylinder lines, shafts and
piston rods.

CARBURISING

Is the process of introducing carbon to low carbon steels in order to give it a hard
surface.
The surface is made hard only up to a certain depth

Methods used-
1. Pack or solid carburising – Packing steel in an airtight box with carbon
materials all around and heating it to a suitable temperature… holding it at
that temperature for some time and cooling the same… the carbon film is
formed on the surface. The time and temperature depends on the carbon film
desired..
2. Gas carburising – Here the specimen is heated in an atmosphere of Methane [
CH4] gas

Major defects in a metal or alloy due to Faulty Heat Treatment:

1. Over heating
2. Burning
3. Oxidation
4. Decarburization
5. Cracks

Over heating – prolong heating of a metal or alloy above a temperature marked by the
DK in the iron-iron carbide phase diagrams [ called A3 line] leads to the formation of
vary large actual grains, Called over heating.

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Burning – heating a metal or an alloy to still higher temperatures near melting point for
a longer time leads to burning. This leads to the formation of iron oxide inclusions along
the grain boundaries. Burnt metal or alloy has a stoney fracture and such a metal or
alloys is irredeemable and is rejected.

Oxidation – sometime a metal or alloy is oxidized dure to oxidizing atmosphere in the


furnace. It is characterized bya thick layer of scale on the surface of a metal or alloy
It can be prevented by using controlled atmosphere in the furnace or using molten salt
baths.

Decarburization – it is the loss of carbon in the surface layers of the metal or alloy.
Decarburization results in lower hardness and lower fatigue limit. It is caused by the
oxidization of the furnace atmosphere

Cracks – the cracks occurs in quenching when the internal tensile stresses exceed the
resistance of metal or alloy to separation the tendency of a metal or alloy to crack
formation increase and with carbon content, hardening temperature and cooling rate in
the temperature interval of martensite transformation. It also increases with the harden
ability of metal or ally another reason for crack formation is the concentration of local
stresses..

Distortion and Warping -


Distortion is the changes in the size and shape of heat treated work.
This is due to the thermal and structural stresses.

Warping - Asymmetrical distortion of work in heat treating practice.


It is usually observed in case of non –uniform heating or over heating for hardening,
when the work is quenched in the wrong position and when cooling rate is too high in
the temperature interval of martensite transformation results in warping.

An elimination of these causes should substantially reduce warping

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INJECTION MOLDING:
The greatest quantity of plastic parts are made by injection molding.
Process:
1. the plastic compound is powdered or granular form is fed from a hopper
through melting stages and fed into the mold
2. after a brief cooling period, the mold is opened and the solidified part is
ejected.
3. in most cases it is ready for immediate use

Types;

1. reciprocating screw injection molding


2. Plunger injection molding
3. Two stage injection molding

1. Reciprocating screw injection molding:

• Plastic materials are fed from an overhead hopper through the heated
cylinder via the screw flights as the material becomes fluid
• The injection nozzle is blocked by the previous shot and this causes
the screw to pump itself backward through the cylinder
• During this step, material is being plasticated and accumulated for the
next shot.
• The volume of the plastic shot is controlled by a limit switch, which
shuts off the screw when it has reached its stroke, ending it s
backward movement

• When the press has locked. The injection phase takes place
• At this time the screw advances acting as a ram
• Simultaneously the non-return valve closes off the escape passages in
the screw making it a solid plunger moving the plastic ahead into the
mold
• When the injection stroke and holding cycle is completed the screw is
energized to return and the non-return valve opens
• Allowing the plastic to flow forward from the cylinder again, thus
repeating the cycle
• The advantages of the reciprocating screw over straight plunger
devices are that the reciprocating screw provides precise control of
filling pressure and the rotary shear effect of the screw melts and
mixes the materials homogenously.

PLUNGER INJECTION MOLDING

• This is the oldest type of molding


• It is ideally suited for molding of thermo set compounds.

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• The material in normal operation is forced by he ram over a spreader
or torpedo which causes heating and mixing and then on through the
nozzle and into the mold
• The plunger machine is modified for molding thermosetting
compounds by cooling the nozzle and barrel and eliminating the
spreader
• The changes are necessary to prevent build up which could cause the
compound to cure permanently in the barrel.

TWO STAGE INJECTION MOLDING

First stage:
The plastic is melted and mixed by using long rotating screw
When enough melt has filled the cylinder, the screw tops
The diverter valve shifts to create a flow path from the injection cylinder to
the mold
The second stage:
The melted plastic is forced out of the injection cylinder by hydraulically
driven piston plunger
The diverter valve shifts to connect the flow path from the rotating screw to
the injection cylinder, where it will be ready to transfer plastisized material
into the mold.

Advantage:
1. There is separation of two actions,
2. both the operations are performed by separate mechanisms hence there
is optimization of each action

Disadvantage

1. it is not suited to heat sensitive or shear sensitive materials, which may


tend to degrade rapidly upon reaching operation temperature.

FACTORS AFFECTING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A METAL

 GRAIN SIZE
 TEMPERATURE
 HEAT TREATMENT
 ATMOSPHERIC EXPOSURE

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GRAIN SIZE –

Metals are composed of crystal or grains. If the grain size is small, it is called
fine grained metal. Fi its large, it is called a coarse grained metal
Fine grained metals –
Have a greater tensile and fatigue strength
Coarse grained metals-
Have greater hardenability and forgeability
Have better creep resistance. Less tough and have greater tendency to cause
distortion

TEMPERATURE –

This affects the mechanical properties of metals. With the decrease in


temperature the tensile and yield strength of a metal increases, But
toughness and ductility decreases
In some metals copper, nickel, aluminum and austenite steel. The toughness
and ductility show a gradual decrease in their values with the decrease in
temperature. In some other metals such as iron there is a sudden decrease
in these properties.

HEAT TREATMENT

This involves a combination of operation – heating and cooling of a metal or


an alloy in its solid state. This results in certain desirable properties in a
metal
The heat treatment of a metal increases tensile strength, hardness, ductilitu
and shock resistance. It improves the machinability of the metal

ATMOSPHERIC EXPOSURE

At times metals are exposed to a normal atmosphere containing wet air or to


an industrial atmosphere for a considerable period.
In such a case a thin oxide film is formed on the surface ot the metal.
This oxide film breaks down due to crack or discontinuity in it. As a result of
this the condensed moisture on the surface of the metal absorbs carbon
dioxide. Sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide etc., from the atmosphere and
produces dilute acids.
These acids act as electrolyte, this results in the formation of electro
chemical cell in which electron current starts flowing form the exposed metal
through the electrolyte to the other regions of the metal which are still
protected.
The atmospheric exposure of a metal decreases the tensile and fatigue
strength of a metal

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