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: Andi Citra Pratiwi
Reg. No : 091404170 1. Compare and contrast autotrophs and heterotrophs! Answer: Autotrophs are the organisms which are able to manufacture their own foods, since they are able to make organic compounds from inorganic materials in the environment by using light energy (as energy source) and chlorophyll through photosynthesis process. Plant is an autothroph organism. Meanwhile, heterotrophs are the organisms which are not able to manufacture their own foods, since they can not make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. Thus, they must obtain their food (organic compounds) from the environment. Examples of heterotrophs are carnivores, herbivores, and decomposers. Noteworthy, autotrophic nutrition lays down the building blocks of life and provides complex organic molecules for the consumption of heterotrophic organisms. Without autotrophic nutrition, there would be no life. 2. Discuss the consequences of being autotrophic. How have plants responded to life as autotrophs? Answer: Plants require specialized structures for adapting the autotrophic mode of nutrition. Autotroph means that the plant should process the inorganic molecules to be organic molecules. Since the plants can not do movement, plants should be adapted for harvesting dilute nutrients in environment. The adaptations give rise to specialization in plants. The specializations which occur as the consequences of being autotrophic, are as follows: a. Plant needs an organelle which can be used to convert the inorganic molecules to be organic compounds. Thus, the plant posses a chloroplast as the organelle which will process the inorganic compounds to be organic compounds. b. To do photosynthesis, the plant requires efficient light harvesting. Thus, they have broad leaves to maximize surface area for light harvest. c. The photosynthesis requires an apparatus for gas exchange. The plant need to exchange the photosynthetic gasses (take up carbon dioxide and get rid of oxygen) with the environment. Thus, the leaves of plants have pores in the surface (stomata)
which is the tissue layer just beneath the epidermis. the plant posses phloem tissue enable the transportation of carbohydrate (as the result of photosynthesis) from leaves to roots. This ability is reflected from the ability of plants to exploit their environment. and other tissues where required. fruits. The advantage of this shape is that it provides a large surface-to-volume (s/v) ratio which enables a plant to exploit a large area of the environment. the palisade layer. How do plants exploit their environment? Consider dendritic form. Accordingly.which serves to regulate the entry/exit of gasses and prevent the loss of excessive water. . Plants are dendritic Dendritic means ³tree-like´ or ³filamentous´. The plants need thin leaves for light absorption and gas exchange. Besides that. foraging and architectural design in your response. asexual reproduction. indeterminate growth. e. Within the thin leaf. Answer: The inability of plant to escape an unfavorable environment has resulted in the evolution of developmental strategies that allow for flexibility in responding to local environmental fluctuations. most chloroplasts are found in the upper layer of cells. This makes ³sense´ since these cells will be receiving the greatest amount of light of any region in the leaf. heterophylly. The way of plants to exploit their environment are as follows: a. they must have an organ to help fulfill their need of water. The plant requires a water supply to do photosynthesis. d. plant posses ³roots´ which serves to obtain water from soil. Thus. the advantage of having large leave is that they provide lots of surface area for absorption of carbon dioxide. The plant requires a mechanism to transport end products of photosynthesis throughout the plant. 3. f. Since the plant can not do locomotion as animals. A specialized tissue of the root which serves to transport the water from soil is called xylem.
stems. are similar to the foraging tactics of animals. Meanwhile. yet they all function together to make an integrated whole. serves to obtain more light for photosynthesis. growth in plants occurs by the addition of new units´. each of which is relatively independent of the others and that are united into a single structure. Sun leaves are tend to be smaller than shade leaves. As an example. Plants have an architectural design The body of plant is constructed like a building. especially vines and plants with stolons (runners). Plants have a well-developed ability to reproduced asexually Asexual reproduction is the way of reproduction which will be done by the plant at the plant in a though condition. to grow into new areas. plants are not a static shape. Plants can forage The growth pattern of plants. Thus. Plants (may) exhibit heterophylly Heterophylly refers to leaves with different shapes. d. and roots of plant are analogous to a room in the building. plants are not limited by size. Plants have indeterminate growth Indeterminate growth is the process by which a plant continous to grow and get larger throughout its life cycle.b. Plants constantly change shape by adding/loosing parts. The leaves. Because of indeterminate growth. Because of their indeterminate growth and architectural design. Each room is somewhat independent. f. The advantage of this is that it allows the plant. The smaller leaves functions to reduce transpiration. rhizomes to avoid competition. c. e. It is built of a limited number of units. especially roots. the shade leaves which is bigger. Plants under nutrient stress should increase their rate of asexual reproduction. This gives plants the ability to colonies and exploit new areas for resources. . This can be viewed as a quick and energetically inexpensive way to expand the influence of the parent into a new location.
like changes in temperature or light. often longer-term environmental changes. animals typically respond to their environment behaviorally (by movement). The flowers actually respond to the decreased temperature associated with the storm front and close to avoid pollen being washed out of the flower by the rain. in order that they can survive.Light is one of the most important environmental cues for plant development. In contrast. mechanical design). like changes in temperature or light. they need a nervous system to respond to the environment. usually short-term environmental fluctuation. Plants do not need a nervous system since they are constrained to respond to the environment by growth/developmental changes.some flowers like crocus are temperature sensitive and open when it is warm and close when it is cooler. . Plant usually responded to predictable. they can ³move´ to a favorable position. Answer: Plants typically responded by various growth movement to unpredictable. Discuss some of the mechanisms by which plants sense changes in the environment. Etiolation is the response of plants to growth in the dark or with reduce light.e. Since they are motile. architectural vs. Hence. they (plants) never had pressure to evolve a nervous system. This phenomenon is called photomorphogenesis. The flowers of an alpine species (Gentiana algida) close up before a thunderstorm. Compare and contrast animals and plants in terms of body design (i.4. In fact. because they are motile. by growth and developmental changes because of the constraints of their architectural design. The example is etiolation. Etiolated . Those are important to be done by plants. 5. Various response of plants to changes in environment are as follows: a. Why are these important? Answer: Plants respond to the changes in their environment in variety of ways. Plants typically respond by various growth movement to unpredictable short-term environmental fluctuations. For example: . like seasonal changes.
water (flood). senescence. To protect themselves. by growth and developmental changes because of the constraints of their architectural design. Plants cope with these (at least the predictable ones like winter and drought during summer) by dormancy. In general.plants are typically yellow. drought. cold (winter). How do plants protect themselves from these dangers? Answer: a. Evergreens are much better able to tolerate cold. often longer-term environmental changes. Biological Danger Biological dangers are living-things which are able to harmful to plants. These features can be considered ways of conserving energy. The evergreen and deciduous lifestyle are in part a response to adverse conditions. Arctic and montane herbs are small and hug the ground. plants have evolved as follows: . Physical Danger Wind. nyctinasty (sleep movements). Since this changes take time. Identify some of the physical and biological threats to plants. 6. They also do better in poor soil because they don¶t loose as many leaves. have elongated internodes (stems) with unfolded leaves and the stems are thinner. For instance. a plant must ³know´ or ³predict´ when the environment will change and prepare for the change. Some example for this phenomenon include: preparing for winter (by forming buds in summer) and photoperiodism (timing flowering so the appropriate pollinator is available and that the seeds have enough time to develop before winter). like seasonal changes. Indeterminate growth is important here since it provides plants with the ability to change developmentally through the life cycle. b. Predators (=herbivores) and competitors (=other plants) are biological danger for plants.Anatomical weapons . dry conditions. b. and even death. Plants usually respond to predictable. Plants also respond to environmental challenges morphologically. and circadian rhythms (various types in response to day/night). are among of the physical dangers that a plant faces.
the orchid released a fragrance that was an ³aphrodisiac´ for the male but once the flower was pollinated it produced a fragrance to repel him. when attacked by herbivores release volatile chemicals that summon predatory insects to the damage plants. This dispersal process can be helped by certain agents. such as thorns. Alseuosmia is a non-toxic New Zealand plant that looks very similar to Wintera pseudocolorata (a toxic species). For example. 7. mammals. hairs. These chemicals. These can be inducible (produce in response to attack) or constitutive (always present). can tell herbivores that the chemical defense system of the plant is ready for them and that should go pick on someone else. .Chemical weapons Plants are able to produce toxic or unpalatable chemicals to protect themselves against biological dangers.Anatomical weapons. . released when the plant is attacked by an herbivore serve as signals that can warn other plants that danger is imminent.Mimicry Mimicry is the process of ³tricking´ predators. kill the herbivores. The plants will do specialization in its morphological structure to trick predators.Armed forces Some plants. Some plants are even ³smart´ enough to stop producing defences when they are out of rang of a herbivore. Overall. and the volatiles themselves help to repel the attack. the upper parts of Acacia trees above giraffe height produce few thorns. holly leaves have few prickles above herbivores height. Fruits/seed dispersal mechanism help disperse offspring. Similarly. . For example: Prior to pollination. The agents can be biotic agent (birds. volatile chemicals play a very important role in plant defense. like wild tobacco. For instance. and thick cuticle. These insects in turn. How do plants find a "mate" and disperse offspring? Answer: Plants find a mate (do gamete transfer) by relying on various pollination vectors. insect) or a- .
as follows: a. and also butterfly. bee. the plants will do dormancy. Fruits/seed dispersal mechanism help disperse offspring. plants can not seek a mate (for gamete transfer) or easily disperse offspring. To defend themselves against physical danger such as winter. Plants solve this problem by relying on various pollination vectors. Besides that. since they can not do motility. kill the herbivores. b. some plants have also evolved ³Armed Forces´. It stimulates the rest of fruit to ripen.biotic agents (wind. like certain varieties of lettuce. 8. a neo-tropical tree. Pollination vectors are the agents which help the process of moving the pollen grain from the anther of a stamen to the stigma of a carpel. water. Problem: As non-motile organism. hairs. Discuss some of the problems unique to the plant way of life. To defend themselves against biological dangers. are removed. thick cuticle) and also chemical weapons (produce toxic. the plants can be safe. Pollination vectors are water. Arctic or montane herbs are small and hug the ground. For instance: Some seeds. such as herbivores. Thus. Thus. 3. 2. plants are unable to move to a more favorable location to carry out its vital function. A plant is stuck once the seed germinates. It essentially tells them that a dispersal agent is in the area. unpalated chemical). This is a mechanism to insure . To solve this problem. For example: when a few fruit of Hamelia patens. gravitation). there are a few ³tricks´ that plants use to ensure that the seed will germinate in a favorable environment. To solve this problem. they must ³fight´ it out. for example: xeric plants minimize their leaves to minimize water loss. Plants also respond to physical danger morphologically. when attacked by herbivores releases volatile chemicals that summon predatory insects to the damaged plants. wind. In general how have plants responded to each of these problems? Answer: 1. Problem: Plants can not run away from both physical and biological dangers. plants have typical adaptations. These insects in turn. like wild tobacco. require LIGHT for germination. when conditions get though. plants have evolved anatomical weapons (thorns. Problem: As non-motile organism.
htm). hairs. Plants are multicellular. c. then observe the characteristics of plants. Plants are producers. since they have ³adaptively variable behavior. and sticks). plants defend against the biological dangers (through anatomical weapons. If we see the characteristics of plants. They can do sexual reproduction (pollination) and also asexual reproduction (budding). Think about the statement "Plants are smarter than you think!" Answer: ³Plants are smarter than you think. since they are photosynthetic autotrophic organisms.´ (http://www.com/greenfield/clearstreets/84/intell. plants produce toxic or unpalatable chemical to protect themselves from biological dangers. These several characteristics can proof that the plants are able to adaptations to give response to their environment. Thus. Plants make their own food (by processing inorganic molecules to be organic molecules through photosynthesis). After that. b. the forming of buds in summer to prepare for winter). . Plants are able to do adaptations in order that they can survive. Webster¶s dictionaries define intelligence as ³the ability to cope with a new situation´ or ³the ability to learn or to deal with new or trying situations. Answer: a. Besides that. plants are able to sense changes in environment (such us. plants also do specialized dispersal mechanism to insure the seed getting into the proper place. such as thorn.fortunecity. we will be able to take conclusion whether plants are smart or not. Finally. it can be concluded that the plants are intelligent. Plants are eukaryotic. 9.that they germinate on the soil surface. We should answer the question ³What is smart?´. It means that the cells of plants have nuclear membrane.´ Before giving some arguments about this statement. the first thing that should be done is to understand the definition of ³smart´.´ 10. the plants can cope with a new situations in environment. Identify the characteristics of the plant kingdom. d. It means that the body of plants consist of much cells. of course they have the ability to cope with new situations (environmental changes).
Autotrophs are typically non-motile and heterotrophs are typically motile. which is the tissue layer just beneath the epidermis. Why did evolution favor this situation? Answer: One of the aims of motility is to obtain food. since they can not manufacture their own food (organic compound as the source of energy). Thus. The cell walls of plants are composed of cellulose. there was never an evolutionary pressure for ³motility´. it makes sense that the broad leaves will be able to support photosynthesis. In photosynthesis. plants are able to manufacture their own food through photosynthesis process. f. the palisade layer. plants are adapted for harvesting dilute nutrients that occurs everywhere. Within the thin leaf. 11.e. Meanwhile. Heterothrops are motile because they should search out and trapping the food which are widely dispersed. the energy of light is trapped and converted into the cemical bond energy of organic compounds such as sugar. Since the nutrients which are required by plants are ³omnipotent´. because it is able to increase the amount of light in any are of leaf. The leaves are broad to maximize surface area for light harvest and they are thin since light can not penetrate too deeply into the leaf (the amount of light decreases exponentially with distance). and they do not need to do motility. Plants do not do motility. . most chloroplasts are found in the upper layer of cells. Answer: The leaves are broad and flat to allow for efficient light harvest. 12. Since the chloroplast mostly found in palisade layer. Explain why leaves are broad and flat.
concentrated packets of food. especially root. plants are able to make their own food by processing inorganic material to be organic materials. It is built of a limited number of units. carbohydrate. fats). they are adapted for searching out and trapping widely disperse. Answer: Plants are not limited by size because of their indeterminate growth and architectural growth. architectural design means that the plant body is constructed like a building.13. Meanwhile. 14. there was never an evolutionary pressure for ³motility´ in plants. Accordingly. Answer: COMPARISON OF ANIMAL AND PLANT NUTRITION NUTRIENT Type PLANT Inorganic (CO2. Meanwhile. ions) ANIMAL Organic (proteins. Indeterminate growth is the process by which a plant continues to grow and get larger throughout its life cycle. concentration. location). Since the nutrients required by plants are ³omnipotent´. Because the animals are not able to make their own food. Thus. H2O. to grow into new areas. This architectural growth and indeterminate growth give the plants the ability to colonize and exploit new areas for resources. . each of which is relatively independent of the others and that are united into a single structure. Explain why plants are not limited by size. Concentration Distribution (Location) Dilute Omnipotent Concentrated Localized One of the main reasons for motility is to obtain food. Compare animals and plants in terms of nutrients (type. plants must be adapted for harvesting dilute nutrients that occur everywhere in its environment. it allows the plant.
whose size is regulated by specialized pairs of guard cells.15. known as stomata. Leaves are the common place for photosynthesis. as well as limiting the entry of disease organism into the leaf. Palisade tissue It is a layer of cells that contains large concentrations of chloroplasts. Within the chloroplast. This layer lies just underneath the upper epidermis and is the principal tissue involved in the photosynthetic process. Cuticle A waxy coating (cuticle)over the outer cell layers (epidermis). Answer: 1. and inter-membrane space. Spongy tissue A loosely packed layer of cells (spongy layer) that allows free movement of gases to the photosynthetic cells of the leaf. 5. which acts to limit the amount of water loss from the leaf. These small opening allow the entry of carbon dioxide into the inner leaf structure and the release of oxygen and water vapor from the leaf to its environment. There are three major area in the chloroplast. 6. . the specialization was also required. Identify the specialized structures (and their function) that plants use for autotrophism. Chloroplast. Stomata Small openings in the surface of the leaf. 4. It is used by plant as the organelle in which the photosynthesis occurs. Electron transfer reactions occurs in the inner membrane. 2. Each of these three regions is important for the functioning of photosynthesis. and the inter-membrane space is needed to generate the pH gradient across the membrane that is important for photophosphorilation. the calvin cycle occurs in the stroma. 3. inner membrane. They are broad and flat to allow for efficient light harvest. those are the stroma. Broad and flat leaves.
and other tissues where required. Meanwhile. fruits. specifically phloem. Xylem and phloem The evolution of vascular tissue. . permitted movement of the result of photosynthesis from leaves to roots.7. the xylem permitted movement of water from the roots to the leaves.
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