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lam (jql67) – Homework #2 – Holcombe – (52460) 1

This print-out should have 20 questions. type and volume of liquid is directly propor-
Multiple-choice questions may continue on tional to the partial pressure of that gas in
the next column or page – find all choices equilibrium with that liquid.”
before answering.
003 10.0 points
001 10.0 points The vapor pressure of a solvent in a solution
Consider two closed containers. Container decreases as its mole fraction decreases. This
X is a 2 L container that contains 0.5 L of is known as
acetone. Container Y is a 2 L container that
contains 1.8 L of acetone. Both containers and 1. Raoult’s Law. correct
contents are at 30◦ C. Which of the following
is true? 2. LeChatelier’s Principle.

1. The vapor pressures in both containers 3. Bragg’s Law.


are equal. correct
4. Henry’s Law.
2. The vapor pressure in container Y is
Explanation:
greater.
Raoult’s Law states that the vapor pres-
sure of the solvent in a solution equals its
3. You would need information about the
mole fraction in the solution times the vapor
shape of the containers to be able to answer
pressure of the pure solvent.
this question.
0
Psolvent = Xsolvent × Psolvent
4. The vapor pressure in container X is
greater.
004 10.0 points
Explanation: What is the vapor pressure of carbon disulfide
at its normal boiling point?
002 10.0 points
Which of the following is a restatement of 1. 2.5 atm
Henry’s Law?
2. 0.5 atm
1. As the partial pressure of a gas above a
liquid increases, the gas’s solubility in that 3. 2.0 atm
liquid also increases. correct
4. 1.2 atm
2. Heating a solution will decrease the solu-
bility of gases dissolved in it. 5. 0.3 atm

3. A mixture of two liquids will have a vapor 6. 1.0 atm correct


pressure that isn’t equal to either of the pure
liquid’s vapor pressures. Explanation:
At ANY liquid’s normal boiling point, the
4. Adding a non-volatile solute to a liquid vapor pressure = 1.0 atm.
will lower its vapor pressure.
005 10.0 points
Explanation: The vapor pressures of pure carbon disulfide
Henry’s law, formulated by William Henry and carbon tetrachloride are 360 and 99.8
is 1803 states: ”At a constant temperature, torr, respectively, at 296 K. What is the vapor
the amount of a given gas dissolved in a given pressure of a solution containing 50.0 g of each
lam (jql67) – Homework #2 – Holcombe – (52460) 2
compound?
1. C2 H5 F > H2 O > C9 H20 > C2 H5 Cl
1. 460 torr
2. H2 O > C9 H20 > C2 H5 Cl > C2 H5 F
2. 33.0 torr
3. C9 H20 > C2 H5 Cl > C2 H5 F > H2 O cor-
3. 241 torr rect

4. 274 torr correct 4. C2 H5 Cl > C2 H5 F > H2 O > C9 H20

5. 260 torr Explanation:


Octane is a non-polar solvent and thus
Explanation: ranking in terms of decreasing miscibility re-
quires ranking in terms of decreasing non-
006 10.0 points polar character, i.e. from least to most polar.
A decrease in temperature usually (increases,
decreases, does not change) the solubility of 009 10.0 points
common salts in water. Calculate the number of moles of oxygen that
will dissolve in 45 L of water at 20◦ C if the par-
1. does not change tial pressure of oxygen is 0.21 atm. Henry’s
mol
2. increases constant for oxygen is 0.0013 .
L · atm

3. decreases correct 1. 0.00027 mol

Explanation: 2. 0.012 mol correct


Most common salts dissolve endothermi-
cally in water and therefore their solubility 3. 0.0013 mol
will increase with an increase in temperature.
4. 0.0062 mol
007 10.0 points
A liquid with a high vapor pressure is called 5. 0.28 mol

1. volatile. correct Explanation:

2. cold. 010 10.0 points


For gases that do not react chemically with
3. hot. water, the solubility of the gas in water gen-
erally (decreases, increases) with an increase
4. viscous. in the pressure of the gas and (decreases, in-
creases) with increasing temperature.
Explanation:
Easily vaporized liquids are called volatile 1. decreases; increases
liquids, and they have relatively high vapor
pressures. 2. increases; increases
008 10.0 points 3. increases; decreases correct
Rank the following in terms of decreas-
ing miscibility in C8 H18 (octane): C2 H5 Cl 4. decreases; decreases
(chloroethane), H2 O (water), C2 H5 F (fluo-
roethane), C9 H20 (nonane). Explanation:
lam (jql67) – Homework #2 – Holcombe – (52460) 3
An increase in pressure means that you
have increased the concentration of gas above 2. freezing point depression
the solvent surface, thereby increasing the
concentration of the gas in the solvent. In- 3. osmotic pressure
creasing the temperature will decrease the
solubility of the gas. 4. boiling point elevation

011 10.0 points 5. molality correct


A dissolution process is exothermic if the Explanation:
amount of energy released in bringing about Colligative properties depend on the num-
? interactions is greater than the sum of ber of particles dissolved in the solution, not
the amounts of energy absorbed in overcom- on the properties of the components.
ing ? and ? interactions.
013 10.0 points
1. solvent-solute; solute-solute; solvent-
The vapor pressure of pure acetone
solvent correct
(CH3 COCH3 ) at 30 o C is 240 torr. If salt
(NaCl) is dissolved into a sample of acetone
2. solvent-solute; solute-solute; crystal lat-
until the total vapor pressure of the mixture
tice
at 30 o C is 180 torr, what is the mol fraction
of acetone?
3. solute-solute; solvent-solvent; solvent-
solute
1. 0.25
4. solvent-solvent; solute-solute; solvent-
2. 0.2
solute
3. 0.75 correct
5. solute-solute; crystal lattice; solvent-
solvent
4. 0.8
Explanation:
Explanation:
In the course of dissolution, you disrupt
P = Poacetone · χacetone
solute-solute interactions and solvent-solvent P
interactions in order to create new solvent- χacetone = o
Pacetone
solute interactions. So you can imagine that 180
you have to invest energy to break up solute- χacetone = = 0.75
solute interactions and solvent-solvent inter- 240
actions. However, you get energy back in 014 10.0 points
the creation of solvent-solute interactions. If The vapor pressure of pure CH2 Cl2 (molecu-
your investment in solute-solute and solvent- lar weight = 85 g/mol) is 133 torr at 0◦ C and
solvent interactions is less than your return in the vapor pressure of pure CH2 Br2 (molecu-
solvent-solute interactions, excess energy (as lar weight 174 g/mol) is 11 torr at the same
heat) will be produced and the reaction will temperature. What is the total vapor pres-
be exothermic. sure of a solution prepared from equal masses
of these two substances?
012 10.0 points
Four of the following are colligative properties 1. vapor pressure = 72 torr
of solutions. Which one is not a colligative
property? 2. vapor pressure = 93 torr correct

1. vapor pressure lowering 3. vapor pressure = 144 torr


lam (jql67) – Homework #2 – Holcombe – (52460) 4
Add the two together to get the total vapor
4. vapor pressure = 124 torr pressure (Dalton’s Law).

5. vapor pressure = 105 torr Ptotal = PA + PB + · · ·


= 89 torr + 3.6 torr = 93 torr
6. vapor pressure = 89 torr
Explanation: You might want to check to see that you
For CH2 Cl2 , get the same answer no matter what value
P 0 = 133 torr MW = 85 g/mol you assume as the equal masses of the two
For CH2 Br2 , components. As an additional challenge, can
P 0 = 11 torr MW = 174 g/mol you solve this problem WITHOUT assuming
This is a combination of Raoult’s Law and a definite number of grams, by setting the
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures. The an- mass of each component equal to an algebraic
swer does not depend on what the masses are, variable?
as long as they are equal. You can choose any
mass you like, but to speed up calculations, it
015 10.0 points
is convenient to choose the mass the same as
You place two beakers into an evacuated
one of the molecular weights given, so that the
chamber. One beaker has 100 mL of a 0.1
number of moles for one of the components is
M solution of NaCl in water and the other has
exactly ONE.
100 mL of a 1.0 M sugar solution. When the
So, for argument’s sake, choose 85 g to be the
system comes to equilibrium,
mass of each of the components. That way
you have:   1. the beaker with the sugar solution will
1 mol CH2 Cl2
(85 g CH2 Cl2 ) have a larger volume. correct
85 g CH2 Cl2
= 1.0 mol CH2 Cl2 2. the beaker with the salt solution will have
Now calculate the moles of the other compo- a larger volume.
nent.  
1 mol CH2 Br2
(85 g CH2 Br2 ) 3. the two beakers will have identical vol-
174 g CH2 Br2
umes.
= 0.49 mol CH2 Br2
Once you have the two values for moles you
4. all of the water will be in the salt solu-
can calculate the mole fraction of each com-
tion.
ponent.
ntotal = 1.0 + 0.49 = 1.49 mol 5. all of the water will be in the sugar solu-
tion.
1.0 mol
XCH2 Cl2 = = 0.67 Explanation:
1.49 mol Both liquids will evaporate and condense
0.49 mol
XCH2 Br2 = = 0.33 from each beaker. The chamber will come
1.49 mol to equilibrium when the two beakers have
Then use those values in Raoult’s Law to the same concentration (same vapor pres-
get the vapor pressure for each component. sure). The salt solution will become more
Raoult’s Law states that: concentrated (lower volume) and the sugar so-
lution will become less concentrated (higher
PA = XA PA0 volume).

PCH2 Cl2 = (0.67)(133 torr) = 89 torr 016 10.0 points


PCH2 Br2 = (0.33)(11 torr) = 3.6 torr
lam (jql67) – Homework #2 – Holcombe – (52460) 5
Which of the following two solutions will mol glycerol
= Kb
achieve the greatest boiling point increase and kg water
what will the new temperature be? Assume 
30.2

that Kb = 0.52 ◦ C/m for water. mol C3 H8 O3
= (0.515 ◦ C/m)  92.1
 
I) 105 g sucrose (C6 H12 O6 ) dissolved in 0.5 0.150 kg water

kg water
II) 35 g of NaCl dissolved in 0.5 kg of water = 1.13◦ C

1. Solution II with a boiling point of Tb = Tb0 + ∆Tb = 101.13◦ C


101.25 ◦ C correct
018 10.0 points
2. Solution I with a boiling point of The freezing point of seawater is about −
101.92 ◦ C 1.85◦C. If seawater is an aqueous solution
of sodium chloride, calculate the molality of
3. Solution II with a boiling point of seawater. The kf for water is 1.86 K/m.
100.63 ◦ C
1. 3.70 m
4. Solution I with a boiling point of
100.32 ◦ C 2. 1.99 m
Explanation:
First calculate the molality of each solution, 3. 3.44 m
which is mol solute per kg solvent. To do
this, you will need to convert from mass to 4. 0.497 m correct
mols, using molar mass. Remember also that
i = 2 for NaCl and i = 1 for sucrose. Using 5. 0.995 m
∆T = imKb you will find that ∆T = 0.32 ◦ C Explanation:
for the sucrose solution and 1.25 for the salt
solution, which means the boiling point of the 019 10.0 points
salt solution will be 101.25 ◦ C. An aqueous solution freezes at −4.54 ◦ C.
What is the molality of the solution? Assume
017 10.0 points that there is no dissociation of the solute and
30.2 g of glycerine (C3 H8 O3 ) are dissolved in that kf is 1.45 K · kg/mol.
150 g of water. What is the boiling point of
the solution? (Kb of water = 0.515◦C/m) Correct answer: 3.13103◦ C.
Explanation:
1. 101.13◦C correct
kf = 1.45 K · kg/mol
∆Tf = −4.54◦ C = 4.54 K
2. 100.10◦C
Because the freezing point of water is 0◦ C,
the freezing point of the solution equals the
3. 1.13◦C
freezing point of depression.
4. 0.104◦C
∆Tf = kf m
5. 103.52◦C ∆Tf
m=
Explanation: kf
mC3 H8 O3 = 30.2 g mwater = 150 g 4.54 K
=
1.45 K · kg/mol
∆Tb = Kb m = 3.13103 mol/kg .
lam (jql67) – Homework #2 – Holcombe – (52460) 6

020 10.0 points


Polyacrylamide is a water-soluble polymer
whose aqueous solution containing 25 g/L de-
velops an osmotic pressure of 0.54 torr at
25◦ C. Find the approximate molecular weight
of the polymer sample.

1. 860,000 g/mol correct

2. 8,600,000 g/mol

3. 1133 g/mol

4. 35,000 g/mol

5. 350,000 g/mol
Explanation:
π = 0.54 torr density = 25 g/L
T = 25 C + 273 = 298 K

Here we can use the equation

π = M RT

for osmotic pressure, to our advantage. How-


ever, to use the “standard” value of R, we’ll
have to convert our pressure from torr to atm:
 1 atm 
0.54 torr = 0.00071 atm
760 torr
Then use the equation for osmotic pressure:
 
L · atm
0.00071 atm = M 0.08206 (298 K)
K · mol
= 2.9 × 10−5 mol/L

However, we know the solution is 25 g/L, so


we can determine the molecular weight of the
polymer with a simple division:
25 g/L
= 860,000 g/mol
2.9 × 10−5 mol/L