AWADHESH Kr. SHIROTRIYA² (PhD* M. Phil, MPE, BPEd, BSc. {P.E., H.E. & Sports})

1 Director of Physical Education & Sports, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (Madhya Pradesh), India. ² Lecturer of Physical Education

A Paper Presented 14th Commonwealth International Sports Science Congress 2010, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad (Haryana). October 27th – 30th, 2010. "The right to play is a child's first claim on the community. Play is nature's training for life. No community can infringe that right without doing deep and enduring harm to the minds and bodies of its citizens.' (David Lloyd George, 1925) INTRODUCTION Play or physical activity is an inborn instinct in living beings. We often see animals being involved in playful activities and same is true with the human beings. Physical activities are essential for the growth and development. The modern living or mechanized life continuously reducing the use of the human body i.e. physical activities affecting the human body adversely and gradually making it weaker and weaker. If possible steps are not taken in this regard than we are going to have the human race which will have a very big head on the shoulder and limbs like match stick. Non participation in play or physical activities will also drastically affect the mental and social development of the human race thus affecting mental aspects like reasoning analysis, interpretation, anticipation, action and reaction and social aspects like cooperation, dedication, loyalty, division of labour, leadership, followership etc. adversely. Earlier human race was involved in physical activities for survival but now it is important or must in order to fulfill its need & it is only possible through play. Now day’s children have less time to play than previous generations due to utmost emphasis put on academic accountability and a push for improved test scores across the nation. Education is becoming so focused on benchmarks, data, accountability and adequate yearly progress that even at the preschool level, intense, structured and direct teaching is taking time away from the spontaneous, imaginative play that used to dominate preschool classrooms.

This change in educational practice also “appears to have led to a corresponding decline in the general understanding of the important contribution that high –quality play can make” in children ‘s development. The right to play is a global issue. Around the world children’s play opportunities are threatened through war, poverty, fear and the widening gap between the poor and rich. The right of play is evident throughout nature and is perceived in people and animals, particularly in the cognitive development and socialization of those engaged in developmental processes and the young. In the modern theories and principles of education, ‘play’ has wider meaning and far reaching effects. Whatever the meaning of play one takes, the common thing is physical activity or movement of the body as a whole in every play. Any play without physical activity is like the body without a soul. Play is not only a biological satisfying activity aiming to help human survival but it is also woven in the intellectual texture of personality. MEANING OF PLAY ‘Play is what children and young people do when they follow their own ideas and interests, in their own way and for their own reasons.’ (DCMS, 2004) “Play is very important for the preservation, growth and development of the organism” (McDougall) Play is universal in nature. All the children play and they play remarkably alike. The play is not bounded by any caste, colour, creed, nationality etc. Every child plays during his/her infancy and childhood stages of growth and development. Play can be defined as a physical or mental activity that has no purpose or objective outside of pure enjoyment or amusement .Play is a generic term applied to a wide range of activities and behaviors that are satisfying to the child, creative for the child and freely chosen by the child. Play is extremely important for humans from birth to death. Play is a state of mind, but it is also a state of body, emotion, and spirit. Play is a right and a quality of mind in engaging with one's worldview. Play refers to a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities that are normally associated with pleasure and enjoyment. Play may consist of amusing, pretend or imaginary interpersonal and intrapersonal interactions or interplay. Play can be spontaneous or recreational, expressive or therapeutic. Spontaneous or recreational play is play activity in which the child chooses the items and activities, and it can provide distraction from stressful circumstances. Expressive play provides a means for expression of feelings, release of energy, and relaxation. Every child playing during his infancy and childhood stages of growth and development involves lot of imagination. It can be observed when child plays with toys and breaks it in order to reassemble as per his imagination. If any child do not play in the initial stages of his development it means there is some problem with him and such kind of behavior will definitely deviate his normal pattern of growth and development towards the unusual one. In the long run it will create numerous problems of personality development, general behavior and social adjustment and so on. Play is so important to optimal child development that it has been recognized by the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights as a right of every child. Play is an inevitable reality of life as well as a medium of education. Playing has been long recognized as a critical aspect of childhood and child development.

1. Process Orientation: The focus of the play is on the process of playing. There is no ultimate

destination for the play; the focus may shift throughout the play.
2. Intrinsic Motivation: Play is child initiated and chosen by the child .Children play because the play

itself is rewarding; there is no extrinsic reward for playing.
3. Non literal Quality: Children constantly transport back and forth between reality and imagination;

they experiment with new ideas.
4. Experimentation with Rules: Children create their own rules when they are playing. They experiment

with the rules they bring with them based on prior knowledge and understanding.
5. Active Engagement: Children are actively involved in the process of playing. They are focused and

engaged and not easily distracted. THEORIES OF PLAY To answers the simple questions why do children play? What are the bases of play? How its form goes on changing from one stage of development to the other? The biologists, sociologists, psychologists and educationists have given numerous theories of play to reply the aforementioned questions. These theories are as follows:

Surplus Energy Theory: This theory was promoted by the German Philosopher Van Schiller and the English naturalist Herbert Spencer. They stated that the Play “As the expressions of surplus energy”. According to them play is the result of an aimless expenditure of surplus energy. They maintain that children play because they seem to be overcharged with physical (organism) energy. Further they simplified that play is an expression similar to the signing of birds collectively. Anticipatory (Pre Exercise) Theory: This theory was explained by Carl Groos. He considered play as a “Pre exercise in the preparation for serious business in life”. He believed that play develops instincts so as to help the child become an adult. Recreational Theory: The pioneer of this theory, Lord Kames and G.T.W.Patrick are of the strong belief that “The basis of play is recreation”. They consider recreation to be the re-charger of energy which we spend in serious work. Further, they stated that, instead of discharging the surplus energy through play activities, play rebuilds it. According to the exponents of this theory, play has special importance in removing boredom and monotony resulting in from the modern civilization. Recapitulatory Theory : This theory was proposed by G. Stanley Hall. He has opined contrary to the anticipatory theory given by Carl Groos and stated that the child does not make a rehearsal of his future but repeats the social past, and hence play is a repetition of the past rather than anticipation of future. Cathartic Theory: The origin of this theory is traced in the writing of Aristotle. The word cathartic means effecting catharsis, which means emotional release or pent up of emotions. Aristotle stresses that play activities are cathartic in nature. This theory further stated that play clears the individual of





undesirable elements in his personality. Cathartic theory is conceived with emotions, and play is the best media to release/overcome the emotions.

Instinct Practice Theory: The profounder of this theory Prof.M.C. Dougall believes that instincts are the prime movers of behavior of both men and animals. Play is due to the “Pre- mature developing of instincts”. It is an expression/display/ demonstration of instincts of combat, construction, destruction, self assertion etc. which involves the element of competitions and rivalry. During childhood, the instinctive energy finds release through play. The author considers play to be a general innate tendency and not an instinct itself. Social Contact Theory: Sociologists and social- psychologists consider play as a medium of social recognition in the society. Play brings individual together and it strengthens the group behavior. Also it binds social bonds between various groups of the society. All this is essential for the development of culture, civilization and individual. Play provides plenty of opportunities for socialization and individual recognition. Play is life Theory: This theory is concerned with the educational philosophy of John Dewey. He believes that the reason of play can be explained on the ground that “all organic living beings are naturally active and their natural activities in the period of their growth and development are playful”. Activity is the very essence of life. It may take any form because the purpose of every activity is growth, development, protection and recreation of the individual. Psycho-Analytical Theory: The greatest clinical psychologist, Sigmund Freud is behind this theory. According to the psycho analyst, play is a medium of outlet the anxieties , tensions, conflicts, frustrations, etc. which results from repression and suppression of the libidinal energy desires and wishes in the early childhood, or at any stage of growth and development of two fundamental characteristics of his mode of experience and development. These are accommodation and assimilation -- the attempts to integrate new experiences into the relatively limited number of motor and cognitive skills available at each age.




10. Cognitive Theory: This theory was proposed by Piaget .Play is derived from the child's working out

SIGNIFICANCE OF PLAY There's no way that we can help children to learn to love and preserve this planet, if we don't give them direct experiences with the miracles and blessings of nature.

Play is a dynamic process that develops and changes as it becomes increasingly more varied and complex. It is considered a key facilitator for learning and development across domains, and reflects the social and cultural contexts in which children live (Christie, 2001; Fromberg, 1998, 2002; Hughes, 1999, in press). Play brings hugely important benefits to children as individuals, groups, families, communities and society as a whole. The benefits of ensuring that children have access to play opportunities link a number of areas – learning, health, social relationships, family and community. We recognize that play is open-ended, spontaneous and joyful; it is considered an essential expression of childhood. While play continues into adulthood, it has been argued that the immense value of play lies in the early childhood years. Playing is

integral to children’s enjoyment of their lives, their health and their development. Children and young people – disabled and non-disabled – whatever their age, culture, ethnicity or social and economic background, need and want to play, indoors and out, in whatever way they can. Play is not merely wastage of time, efforts and energy; it has biological, psychological & mental, sociological and educational implications. We may look at play from any angle, the reality is that it is an activity which educates, socializes the individual and enables him to live in this world to his fullest with peace of mind and good health. Play also offers an ample opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Through play, children also learn the skills necessary to effectively participate in their world. Play is freely chosen, intrinsically motivated and personally directed. Play is not meant to be just for children. It is a form of release and connection that can tap into creativity and can allow you the chance to connect with your inner child and the inner child of others. Theorists, regardless of their orientation, concur that play occupies a central role in children's lives. They also suggest that the absence of play is an obstacle to the development of healthy and creative individuals. Psychoanalysts believe that play is necessary for mastering emotional traumas or disturbances; psycho socialists believe it is necessary for ego mastery and learning to live with everyday experiences; constructivists believe it is necessary for cognitive growth, maturationists believe it is necessary for competence building and for socializing functions in all cultures of the world; and neuroscientists believe it is necessary for emotional and physical health, motivation, and love of learning. SIGNIFICANCE OF PLAY There's no way that we can help children to learn to love and preserve this planet, if we don't give them direct experiences with the miracles and blessings of nature." Play brings hugely important benefits to children as individuals, groups, families, communities and society as a whole. The benefits of ensuring that children have access to play opportunities link a number of learning, health, social relationships. Many theorists suggest that the absence of play is an obstacle to the development of healthy and creative individuals. Psychoanalysts believe that play is necessary for mastering emotional traumas or disturbances; psycho socialists believe it is necessary for ego mastery and learning to live with everyday experiences; constructivists believe it is necessary for cognitive growth, maturationists believe it is necessary for competence building and for socializing functions in all cultures of the world; and neuroscientists believe it is necessary for emotional and physical health, motivation, and love of learning. Play is not merely wastage of time, efforts and energy; it has biological, psychological & mental, sociological and educational implications.



Psychological & Mental


Physical& Motor Socialization Skills Development Fine and Gross Motor Connection to Others Skills Strength& flexibility Followership Skills Stronger bodies

Confidence Development Language & Literacy development Play builds self-esteem Play provides base of Career Cognitive Benefits Academic development Problem Solving

& healthier Increases empathy Reduced Anxiety compassion & sharing Conflict resolution Leadership Skill development Reduced Depression Positive Mood Emotional benefits

Strength coordination

Improves communication skills

Encouraging children to experiment and take risks.

MEANING OF RIGHTS Rights mean those freedoms which are essential for personal good as well as the good of the community. Rights are entitlements or permissions, usually of a legal or moral nature. Rights are of vital importance in the fields of law and ethics, especially theories of justice and deontology. UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD The UN Convention on the Rights of the child is an international treaty that sets out universally accepted rights for children. It is a benchmark against which a nation’s treatment of its children can be measured. It brings together in one comprehensive code the benefits and protection for children hither to scattered in a variety of other agreements, including the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted in 1959. The Convention was officially approved by the United Nations in 1989 and has been ratified by almost every country in the world. Ratification of the Convention is a commitment by “States Parties” to comply with the articles of the Convention and thereby to protect and enhance the basic rights of children through their policies, programs and services. Article 31 of the UN Convention 1. That every child has the right to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts. 2. That member governments shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.

FUNDAMENTALS RIGHTS IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION Fundamental Rights is a charter of rights contained in the Constitution of India. It guarantees civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace and harmony as citizens of India. The Fundamental Rights are defined as basic human freedoms which every Indian citizen has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of personality. These rights universally apply to all citizens, irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, colour or sex. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain restrictions. The six fundamental rights recognized by the Indian constitution are: 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The right to equality The right to freedom The right to freedom from exploitation The right to freedom of religion Cultural and educational rights The right to constitutional remedies INTERNATIONAL PLAY ASSOCIATION (IPA) The International Play Association (IPA) is an international, non-governmental organization founded in Scandinavia in 1961with members in over 50 countries. Its purpose is to protect, preserve and promote children's right to play as a fundamental human right, according to the Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.IPA is an interdisciplinary organization, bringing together people from all profession working with or for children. These include play workers, planners, educators, psychologist, academicians, researchers, trainers, health workers and many more. For many decades the International Play Association has been actively promoting the importance of children’s play and in the 1980s played a significant role in ensuring that the child’s right to play was included in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. IPA has consultative status with the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). IPA is very serious about focusing attention on this most important right of children. The relationship between play and resilience and play and children’s well-being is clear. It is also clear that there are growing barriers to children’s play all over the world. IPA intends to harness its own resources and to welcome other likeminded organizations so that together we can mount a concerted effort to gain the attention of States Parties worldwide. The IPA declaration of child’s right to play was originally produced in November 1977 at the IPA Malta Consultation held in preparation for the international year of the child (1979). It was revised by the international council in Vienna, September 1982 and Barcelona September 1989. The IPA declaration should be read in conjunction with article 31 of the U.N. convention right on the child (Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, November 20, 1989) which states that the child has the right to leisure, play and participation in cultural and artistic activities. Early in 2008 the International Play Association promoting the Child’s Right to Play.IPA entered a partnership with seven other international organizations to propose that the Committee on the Rights of the Child. IPA Supporting organizations are:    International Pediatrics Association World Organization for Early Childhood Educ. (OMEP) World Leisure Association

   

International Toy Library Association Right to Play International European Child Friendly Cities Network International Council on Children’s Play

ERODING FACTORS IN CHILD’S RIGHT TO PLAY Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some or majority-large population children. Researchers and Pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families, school systems, and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the balance in children’s lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.Play is an essential part of growing up and researchers believe it is important to ensure children reach their full potential in life. Parents don't always understand the importance of play in today's competitive world, the temptation is to stop children "time wasting” and to put the time to what they believe is more constructive use. For a child, however, there is no more constructive activity than play. Factors that have reduced play are as follows:1. Continuing poverty: This factor is very much evident in underdeveloped countries and the inner cities

of industrialized countries. Poverty affects the likelihood of progressing through school to attain formal educational qualifications and physical activity at school. Children from poorer backgrounds are more likely to play truant and to be excluded from school.
2. Changing cultural values in developed societies: Where indifference towards the importance of play

is prevalent. The many activities children are required to participate in and the amount of time they spend viewing television decrease the time they spend in play. The vast majority of children enjoys playing outside and would like to do so more. But from a parental stance, outdoor urban environments are often ridden with hazards such as stranger-danger, traffic speed, gangs and drugs.
3. De-emphasis of physical education: Physical Education is playing vital role for child overall

development but one of the academic trends that we find particularly disturbing today is the de-emphasis on physical education in the schools and parents consider other subjects to be more important compare to physical education. Traditional academic subjects such as Science, English and Mathematics are given more importance by parents. Physical education is considered to be of much lower status or as a time wasting subject.
4. Inadequate environmental planning: Developers do not include play spaces in their community

designs; pollution and traffic deter childhood play; and segregation of children in communities prevents the child's day from being an integral part of the life of a neighborhood.
5. Increased attention to academics and enrichment activities: Currently, many school children are given

less free time and fewer physical activities at school. Parents and teachers attach too much importance to “Home Work” as part of school studies than to play. This practice on the part of parents and teachers hampers proper growth and development of a child.

6. Child labor: Some children are given less time for free exploratory play as they are hurried to adapt into adult roles and prepare for their future at earlier ages. 7. Hurried lifestyle: Changes in urban lifestyles seemingly have influenced a shift in the attitudes of adults towards children’s play, their recreation & leisure activities.
8. Changes in Traditional Family Structures: Another important factor likely to be influencing family

life and consequently children’s recreational and play activities is changes in traditional family structures. The role of the extended family has been eroded. 9. Parental Employment Patterns: Another factor that may be having an impact on children’s playtime is changes in parental employment. In urban areas many families have two working parents .Parents also are often working long hours .This situation coupled with the heavy schedules that children themselves often have at school and with extra-curricular activities is likely to curtail the amount of time left for free and unstructured playtime. 10. Advances in Technology: Due to technological advances many are spending long hours in front of the computer. The computer is increasingly becoming a focal point for all members of the household. Advances in technology have seen changes in the way children spend their time. 11. Changing Attitudes to the Use of Public Space: Another factor that may be impacting on children’s play is the space available for play in urban settings. In some urban communities less public space is available for play areas that accommodate play equipment for children. This has arisen from the increased cost of living in such communities where the price of land often comes at a high premium. Not only are individual families more often moving into smaller homes such as apartments and town houses, which have less land attached to them for children’s play but also less land is available for communities as a whole in the form of public parks and other areas. 12. Increased Crime Rates and Fears for Personal Safety: Increased crime rates in some urban communities may also limit children’s playtime. Children and young people are increasingly becoming the victims of violent crimes. As a result of increased crime rates and increased fears concerning personal safety in urban communities, children are often discouraged from outside play particularly if it is away from direct adult supervision. Because parents have less time for closely supervised playtime, some forms of play may no longer be viable for children. 13. Cost of the equipments: Equipments are too expensive now days. It is not possible to every child to purchase equipment for games and sports. 14. Neglecting the indigenous activities & non glamorous games like kabaddi, kho-kho, volleyball, football and handball etc. in spite of their suitability in all respect. 15. Lack of knowledge regarding benefits of physical activity: It is evident on the part of parents, academicians and policy makers. 16. Non availability of playing facilities & distance of the playing facilities from residence: Because of rapid urbanization. CONCLUSIONS: Play is quickly vanishing from preschool classrooms and is being replaced with additional teacher directed, incremental practices. Despite their perception as being more valuable in the classroom, these practices teach fewer skills and concepts than play and in a far less meaningful way. Children are growing up in a rapidly changing world characterized by dramatic shifts in what all children are expected to know and be able to do. Higher and tougher standards of learning for all populations of students are focusing on a narrow view of

learning. Consequently, students have less time and opportunity to play than did children of previous generations. Few would disagree that the primary goal of education is student learning and that all educators, families, and policymakers bear the responsibility of making learning accessible to all children. Decades of research has documented that play has a crucial role in the optimal growth, learning, and development of children from infancy through adolescence. Yet, this need is being challenged, and so children's right to play must be defended by all adults, especially educators, parents and policy makers. The time has come to advocate strongly in support of play for all children. There is growing concern about the effects of ‘play deprivation’ on children and young people and of the possibility that children’s play is restricted to a degree that is causing them long term harm. Manifestations of this might be incidences of anti-social behavior, poorer motor skills unbalanced personality and less resilience to stressful or traumatic events. The constraint to children’s free play globally has a direct bearing on all others. And it is high time that Indian constitutions should adapt Right to Play as its Seventh right and make all possible efforts at grass root level to make all play especially the children & youth of India. As the Right to Education has been adopted by Indian government. RTE will propel India to even greater heights of

prosperity and productivity for all guaranteeing children their right to a quality education and a brighter future." There are an estimated eight million Indian children and young people between the ages of six to 14 out-of-schools, the majority of whom are girls. RTE provides a platform to reach the unreached, with specific provisions for disadvantaged groups, such as child laborers, migrant children, children with special needs, or those who have a disadvantage owing to social, cultural, economical, geographical, linguistic, gender or such other factor." Creative and sustained initiatives are crucial to train more than one million new and untrained teachers within the next five years and to reinforce the skills of existing teachers to ensure child-friendly education. Bringing eight million out-of-school children into classes at the age appropriate level with the support to stay in school and succeed poses a major challenge. Substantial efforts are essential to eliminate disparities and ensure quality with equity. Families and communities also have a large role to play to ensure child-friendly education for each and every one of the estimated 190 million girls and boys in India who should be in elementary school today. The policies of India should mobilize the movement of PLAY in such a
manner where by mass is involved in physical play (physical activities) thus people of India become strong & making India a strong nation. MEANS &WAYS TO MAKE RIGHT TO PLAY FEASIBLE:

The Indian Constitution has a framework within which ample provisions exist for the protection, development and welfare of children. There are a wide range of laws that guarantee children their rights and entitlements as provided in the Constitution and in the UN Convention. It was during the 50s decade that the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child was adopted by the UN General Assembly. This Declaration was accepted by the Government of India. As part of the various Five Year Plans, numerous programmes have been launched by the Government aimed at providing services to children in the areas of health, nutrition and education. In 1974, the Government of India adopted a National Policy for Children, declaring the nation's children as `supremely important assets'. This policy lays down recommendations for a comprehensive health programme, supplementary nutrition for mothers and children, nutrition education for mothers, free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, non-formal preschool education, promotion of physical education and recreational activities, special consideration for the children of weaker sections of the population like the scheduled castes and the schedule tribes, prevention of

exploitation of children and special facilities for children with handicaps. The policy provided for a National Children's Board to act as a forum to plan, review and coordinate the various services directed toward children. The Board was first set up in 1974. The Department of Women and Child Development was set up in the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 1985. The Department, besides ICDS, implements several other programmes, undertakes advocacy and inter-sectoral monitoring catering to the needs of women and children. Recommendations to promote Right to Play:
1. Parental attitude: Parents should be educated regarding the limitless valves of play and its effect on 2.

3. 4.






the wellbeing of the children. School management should emphasize on physical education as subject: Physical Education is education through physical activities for the development of the total personality of the child, to its fullness and perfection in body, mind and spirit. Immediately it is concerned with the development of physical fitness. Proper time for play: All children need at least 60 minutes of free play each day, preferably outdoors. Recess must be a daily school activity, and should never be withheld as a way to punish a child. Children value and benefit from staffed play provision: Children should have access to a choice of staffed facilities where children’s play rights and needs are the first priority, such as adventure playgrounds, play centers’, holiday play schemes, afterschool play clubs, breakfast play clubs, toy libraries. Children should be able to play freely in their local areas: Children have the same right to use and enjoy public space as others. Local streets, estates, green spaces, parks and town centers’ should be accessible for children and young people to move around in safety and offer places where they can play freely, experience nature, explore their environment and be with their friends. Play facilities should be made available at very close vicinity so that parents are not in fear or tension. Adults should let children play: Parents and other adults can support children and young people’s play by respecting the value and importance of all types of play, playing with their children and by creating opportunities and allowing time for children to play independently with their friends, inside and outside the home. Children’s play is enriched by skilled play workers: Qualified, skilled play workers are trained to put children’s play needs at the centre of their work in a variety of settings, enhancing the range and quality of play experiences for all children. The role of the play worker is as important as that of any skilled professional working with children and should be respected and rewarded accordingly. Children need time and space to play at school: The school day should allow time for children to relax and play freely with their friends. Young children learn best through play and, as they get older, play supports and enriches their learning. Children learn best if teaching is creative and enjoyable. In school, time and space for play and outdoor learning is as important as formal teaching. School grounds should be good places to play. Safe Places to play: Children need safe places to play within an easy walk from their homes. Ideally these should be playgrounds integrated with natural settings. Opening school playgrounds for afterschool and weekend play would increase available play space significantly. Creating safe routes to schools and parks would allow children to walk and bike more freely.

10. Pleasant play associations & Place: Where individual enjoying being around one’s friend

11. Provide effective coaching practices for children’s: Children should have special coaching much

different from the adults. ROLE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS (PETs) TO PROMOTE QUALITY PLAY: Schools can play a critical role in increasing physical activity by offering daily physical education programme and other opportunities to recreate. Physical education not only gives children an opportunity to be active but it teaches them the skills they need to be active throughout their lifetime and develop wholesome personality. Thus, investing in quality physical education in all schools for all grades is a logical and essential step toward improving the health of the students. The PETs role is to design a school environment and schedule that promotes play. PETs instruct students in sports, recreational activities and healthy lifestyle issues, in order to motivate, develop and enhance level of physical fitness and skills, selfesteem and interpersonal skills. PETs play a big role in our childhood, all the way from Kindergarten through 12th grade. PETs accomplish these both in and out of the classroom by a number of different approaches within the school community. PETs instruct school-age students on healthy living, exercise and physical fitness. They organize and supervise athletic activity during class and instruct students on proper exercise routines and technique. Nearly all schools from first grade through the end of high school employ PETs. The first priority of PETs is to create a safe learning environment where children are free to explore and play without getting hurt. Next PETs use their knowledge about their student’s development, interest and ideas to choose materials and arrange the classroom or playground in a way that invites children to engage in fun and meaningful learning experiences. Good PETs are intentional in guiding and extending children’s play, they ask open ended productive questions that extend student’s thinking. There are many different types of productive questions, like attention-focusing questions help children focus on important details of their play. “In supporting children’s right to play, attention must be paid not simply to the external expressions of play, but to the conditions in which ‘playfulness’ thrives.”


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Address for correspondence: A.K.Shirotriya, ‘Shrotriya Kunj’ 144, Civil Lines Opposite Commissioner Residence, Meerut (UP) 250001.Phone:0121-2670029, +919897289144, +919027036144, +917503324144 Email:aks144@gmail.com:Webpage:www.freewebs.com/a kshirotriya.

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