AFNOR: Association Française De Normalisation. CRL: Community Reference Laboratory. CT-SMAC: SMAC containing cefixime and tellurite.

eae: Gene encoding intimim, The gene is situated on the locus of enterocyte effacement ± LEE pathogenicity island. Presence of eae is indicative of the presence of the LEE gene cluster. EHEC Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, a subset of serotypes of VTEC that has been firmly associated with bloody diarrhoea and HUS in industrialized countries. ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Enter-net: an international surveillance network for human gastrointestinal infections which was established in 1997 to maintain and develop laboratory-based surveillance of the major enteric bacterial pathogens. The Enter-net network was funded by DG SANCO of the European Commission until September 2006 and receives funding from ECDC until September 2007, when the coordination activities was transferred into ECDC. This network brings together the national surveillance leads and reference microbio logists to conduct international surveillance of salmonellosis, VTEC infections, and campylobacteriosis. Participants were from all EU Member States, WHO and non-EU countries, including EU-candidate countries, Canada, the United States, South Africa, Japan and Australia. In the VTEC database, data for 31 countries are available, of which 21 have data for the entire period 2000-2005. HC: hemorrhagic colitis HUS: hemolytic uremic syndrome IMS: Immuno magnetic separation. ISO: International Organization for Standardization. LEE: The genetic locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) wich is a pathogenicity island present in enteropathogenic E. coli, VTEC O157 and some VTEC non-O157 that contains genes required for the formation of attaching and effacing epithelial lesions. MLVA: Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis Monitoring: According to the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonotic agents, monitoring means a system of collecting, analysing and disseminating data on the occurrence of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and antimicrobial resistance related thereto. MPN: Most Probable Number. NMKL: Nordic Committee on Food Analysis NRL: National Reference Laboratory. PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction. PFGE: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis. SF VTEC: Sorbitol fermenting VTEC. SMAC: Sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Survey: According to the Report on Guidance on Good Practices for Design of Field Surveys (EFSA, 2006b), survey is a study involving a sample of units selected from a study population. This type of study is often known as a descriptive survey. Its main objective is that of estimating the mean level of some characteristics in a defined population including a measure of the precision for those estimates. A secondary objective of surveys often is the measurement of the relationship between two or more variables measured at the same point in time. These are analytical surveys. VTEC: Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli which produce potent cytotoxins, termed verocytotoxin(s) (VT), that inhibit the protein synthesis within eukaryotic cells. These VTs are synonymously named Shiga toxins (Stx). The terms VTEC and STEC are synonymous. EFSA European Food Safety Authority. 6

EU European Union. distribution and control of a disease in a population. animal health and animal welfare rules (Reg. Objective sampling is often the case in monitoring and surveillance schemes as well as . fungal. protozoal. which are transm itted naturally between vertebrate animals and man. zoonotic agents and antimicrobial resistance related thereto. Each unit. MS Member State of the European Union OIE World Organization for Animal Health WHO World Health Organization IFA Immunofluorescence Assay ISO International Organization for Standardization ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay EC European Community ECDC European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control EEC European Economic Community EFSA European Food Safety Authority CFT Complement Fixation Test Monitoring . OIE Office International des Epizooties . because the causative organism may be viral. Epidemiology The study of the cause. Objective sampling .Enhanced Surveillance Surveillance that provides significant additional information to routine surveillance in current areas of interest or concern and that can be targeted at a subset of organisms identified in the preliminary routine surveillance screening. bacterial. Zoonoses Diseases or infections. analysing and disseminating data on the occurrence of zoonoses. As opposed to surveillance. parasitic or any other communicable agent.any form of control that the competent authority or the Community performs for the verification of compliance with feed and food law.the animal health equivalent of the World Health Organisation. (EC) No 882/2004).sampling performed under control of the competent authority. This strategy provides with data from which statistical inference can be implemented. Official sampling . Routine Surveillance The minimum recommended surveillance requirement.system of collecting. 2003/99/EC). Zoonoses cover a broad range of diseases with different clinical and epidemiological features and control measures. Official control . has a specified probability of being selected. which is statistically representative of the population to be analysed. no active control measures are taken when positive cases are detected (Dir. within the framework population.planned strategy based on the selection of a random sample. That means that the results inferred are comparable.

the sampling unit may be ³Animal´. This type of programme does not necessarily have a defined target for diseases / contamination occurrence reduction. Case definition . parasitic protozoa. (EC) No 2073/2005). where the disease or infection has to be reported to the competent authority based on a legal obligation. parasite or other biological entity which is likely to cause a zoonosis (Dir. Surveillance . animal.any disease and / or infection which is naturally transmissible directly or indirectly between animals and humans (Dir.surveys. algae. Sampling strategy . Sampling unit .the unit which the specimens taken represent and which is considered either infected (contaminated) or not.situation stating when the sample (a foodstuff. well-delineated population. Notification system .the institute (or laboratory or other organisation) that has provided the data. feedingstuff or a batch of them) is considered to be positive for the zoonotic agent. The sampling procedure can be random or not.a system. Zoonosis . food or feed business operators or their activities (in the context of the food and feed control Reg. (EC) No 882/2004). Positive finding . ³Holding´ or ³Slaughter batch´. active control measures are taken when positive cases are detected.planned strategy where the selection of the sample is from previously defined ³high-risk´ population groups. without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample.definition stating when the sample is considered to be positive for the zoonotic agent or when the person.study involving a sample of units selected from a larger. the sampling unit might be ³ Single´ or ³Batch´.the proportion of existing positive cases in a population at that specified . 2003/99/EC). (EC) No 2073/2005). As opposed to monitoring. which is intended to provide information on a given characteristic of the studied population or matter and to provide a basis for a decision concerning the population or matter in question or concerning the process which has produced it (Reg. 2003/99/EC).planned procedure for selecting samples from a population and for conducting the sampling in order to obtain the information needed. moulds.bacteria. This (target) population is the entire set of units to which findings of the survey are to be extrapolated. bacteria. 1986 and Noordhuizen et al. The units to examine are to be selected randomly (Rothman. This methodology is potentially subject to serious bias. and their toxins and metabolites (Reg. For animal data. for food data. Prevalence . ³Flock´. Samples are normally selected to either illustrate or document unsatisfactory conditions or suspected adulteration of a product. Microorganism . herd or flock is considered to be infected with the zoonotic agent. Zoonotic agent . The sample is selected because they are convenient.a careful observation of one or more food or feed businesses. Survey . it means a close and continuous observation for the purpose of control. 2001). microscopic parasitic helminths. viruses. The comparability of the results lies on both the definition of the population to be analysed and the way the samples have been drawn. In general. Source of information .set composed of one or several units or a portion of matter selected by different means in a population or in an important quantity of matter. Convenient sampling ± is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. The sampling is deliberately biased and is directed at the particular products or manufacturers.any virus. ³Herd´. based on the analyses result. Selective sampling. The specification of the ³high-risk´ population comes from either scientific studies or previous analysis and information of other regions or countries. This non probability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results. Sample . fungus. yeasts.

64/432/EEC).time. any place in which animals are held. . each of these herds shall form a distinct unit and shall have the same health status (Dir. kept or handled (Dir.any establishment. (EC) No 2160/2003). construction or. in the case of an open-air farm. 92/102/EEC). if more than one herd is kept on a holding. Herd .an animal or group of animals kept on a holding as an epidemiological unit ((Reg. Holding .

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