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An adverbial clause performs the function of an adverbial modifier. It can modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb in the principal clause. According to their meaning we distinguish the following types of adverbial clauses: time clauses, conditional clauses, purpose clauses, reason clauses, result clauses, concessive clauses, place clauses, clauses of manner and clauses of comparison. Non-finite structures can also perform some functions of adver bial clauses. The usual position for an adverbial clause in a complex sentence is just after a main (principal) clause. I couldn't think of a single thing to say after he'd replied like that. The performances were cancelled because the leading man was ill. However most types of adverbial clauses can be put in front of a main clause. When the city is dark , we can move around easily. Although crocodiles are inactive for long periods , on occasion they can run very fast indeed. Occasionally, an adverbial clause can be put in the middle of another clause, although this is unusual. They make allegations which , when you analyse them , do not have too many facts behind them.
Adverbial clauses of time An adverbial clause of time gives temporal characteristics to the action expressed in the main clause. The action of the subordinate clause can be characterized as anterior, simultaneous or prior to that in the principal clause. A time clause can be introduced by the following conjunctions and conjunctive expressions: as, as soon as, as long as, when, whenever, while, now that, till, until, after, before, since, the time (that), the day (that), the moment, the instant, next time, every (each) time, directly, immediately, instantly, once. The choice of the conjunction is conditioned by the character of the action in the clause: anteriority, priority, simultaneity, succession, repetition, etc. When a Forsyte was engaged, married, or born , the Forsytes were present. Whenever there was a pause, he gently asked again . (The conjunctions when and whenever introduce clauses expressing repetition.) As they stood up, Ivory clapped him on the shoulder . (The subordinate clause denotes the moment when the action of the principal clause takes place.) While he walked around , Christine sat and knitted at a distance. (The predicate in the subordinate clause expresses a durative action, which coincides in time with the action expressed by the predicate in the m ain clause.)
attributive and object clauses. .) The heavy guns began again soon after it was light. (Clause of time) . In the clauses introduced by whenever the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) can be used. Hardly had they entered the house. predicative. even when things are tough. And people love their homes. The action of the predicate in the subordinate clause is posterior. fixes the beginning of the action in the main clause. (Both the actions are gradually de veloping. No sooner had I wiped one salt drop from my cheek. hardly. (The action of the subordinate clause. I'm going to be better. than another followed. the next time. (The expressions the first time. therefore the subordinate clause of time has a shade of causal meaning. Whenever you may (might) come. once everyone had arrived. The next time I come here. Our hostess. ± .) They were calling each other µGeorge¶ and 'Elizabeth' before they reached Camden Town.And now that Cecily had married . when she sighed deeply. It should be born in mind that besides time clauses the conjunction when can introduce subject. was full of good humour. when a violent thunderstorm broke out. The peculiarity of such sentences is that the conjunctions when and than introducing adverbial clauses of time are correlated with the adverbs scarcely. she might be having children too. you are welcome. In this case these clauses have additional concessive meaning. they became quieter and quieter. (In both these cases the predicate in the subordinate clause expresses a completed prior action which fixes the moment from which the action or state expressed in the main clause becomes possible.) The last time we talked. no sooner in the main clause.) As they approached the house. which is prior. he said he needed another two days. (The subordinate clause points to the moment before which the action of the main clause was in progress. or the third time are used to express a single occurrence of the event expressed by the predicate) The adverbial clauses in the sentences of the following type are also time clauses: Scarcely had his hands touched her head.
whence. all the peril of my dreadful responsibility. . He was standing where he always had stood. (Clause of time) His face was disturbed and troubled. (whence is now old-fashioned) In sentence an adverbial clauses of place introduced by the conjunction where follows or precedes the main clause although the latter position is considered to be formal or literary.The next thing to discover is when the paint was last seen without that smear. Where Kate had stood last night . everywhere (that) and conjunctive adverbs with prepositions. when the mind of her friend for a moment wondered at the strange . A clause introduced by wherever can express direction as well as position. while his clothes were disarranged and untidy. In the clauses introduced by wherever the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) can be used. (Object clause) There were moments when I felt all the misery of my friendlessness. (Predicative clause) Nothing told her when the eyes of her friend were for an instant fixed upon her. new look in her face. Why can¶t we go where it¶s warm? He took a chair whence he could see the street. From where he stood he could see nothing. on the rug before the living-room fire. It may be introduced by one of the following conjunctions: where. Wherever they came people greeted them enthusiastically. there were often narrow tracks winding upwards. Maureen now stood. There was a pause while he raised his cup and drank some tea. (Adversative coordination) Adverbial clauses of place An adverbial clause of place defines the place or the direction of the action expressed in the principal clause. In this case these clauses have additional concessive meaning. wherever. (Attributive relative clause) Adverbial clauses of time introduced by the subordinating conjunction while should not be confused with independent clauses introduced by the coordinating conjunction while. Where the pink cliffs rose out of the ground.
Conditional clauses introduced by if and other conjunctions (with the exception of unless) imply uncertainty. the unless-clause is not always equivalent to an if -not-clause. There are also several conjunctions derived from verbal forms someti mes followed by the optional that: provided (that). ± . tell him to wait. there may be a disaster. Unless somebody interferes. anybody. providing (that). predicative clauses. presuming (that). in case. (Attributive clause) Adverbial clauses of condition Adverbial clauses of condition state the condition (real or unreal) which is necessary for the realization of the action expressed in the principal clause.) and the sentence I won¶t come if you don¶t invite me ±( . you¶d better tell me. (Clause of place) This must be where my sister lives. They may be introduced by the following conjunctions: if. For the same reason unless-clauses hardly ever express unreal conditions. supposing (that). . admitting (that). . One should not confuse the conjunction where introducing adverbial clauses of place with the adverb where introducing subject clauses. and attributive relative clauses. Therefore they often contain non -assertive forms of pronouns and pronominal adverbs. This is where she came for a temporary lodging. If anything troubles you.. . once. she will always find friends. seeing (that). unless. Deronda placed himself where he could see her. Therefore they usually contain assertive forms like something. anything. given (that). (Object clause) He turned immediately towards the heart h where Silas Marner sat lulling the child.) are quite different in their meaning. soon after father's death. (Predicative clauses) Artois wondered where they were going. considering (that). somebody. If anyone asks for me. granted (that). anywhere. The exclusive meaning of unless accounts for the fact that. even if the condition is real.. Clauses beginning with unless express the only possible condition which will make the action in the main clause possible. suppose (that).Wherever she may (might) live . object clauses. . granting (that). such as any. Thus the sentence: I won¶t come unless you invite me ( .
although.. instead of saying We will sell the car. even when. whatever. were the talks to fail.The conjunction provided opens a clause containing some desirable condition for the fullfilment of the action expressed by the predicate in the main clause. I mean this: Suppose some other European pauper prince was anxious to marry Princess Anna and her fortune. if guilty. if necessary. I'd rather be tried here. while. even if. I shall have no ground for blaming him. whoever. provided you do it neatly and don¶t make a row over it. And you can do what you please . If I were innocent. even though. notwithstanding that.. In this case we find inversion in the subordinate clause. despite that. wouldn¶t that Prince have an interest in stopping this loan of yours to Prince Eugen? Adverbial clauses of condition can be joined to the principal clause asyndetically. despite the fact. however. Adverbial clauses of concession are introduced by the following conjunctions and connectives: though. except that. we can say We will sell the car. no matter what. Artois would have guessed her to be near fifty. in America. Instead of using a conditional clause containing the verb to be. no matter how. The conjunctions suppose and supposing always imply that the condition is merely hypothetical. If in doubt. ask at your local library. if it is necessary. This unfortunate situation is to be avoided if possible. . whichever. It would be a serious setback. it is possible to use a phrase consisting of the conjunction if followed by an adjective or a prepositional phrase. for all that. Adverbial clauses of concession An adverbial clause of concession denotes the presence of some obstacle which nevertheless does not hinder the action expressed in the principal clause: there is a contrast between the content of the principal clause and that of the subordinate one. in spite of the fact. whilst. should Frank marry to-morrow. For example. as. . not that. Had she been an Englishwoman. whereas.
There are three types of concessive clauses. 3. he does exactly what he wants. Though all efforts fail. Clauses of this type express an unreal condition. Clauses of open concession ( ). Whoever he may be . Miraculous though it seemed to be. Clauses of admitted concession may have inverted word order. which differ in the relation they bear to the principal clause and in the way they are connected. inversion is possible both with the conjunctions though and as. Wherever you live . Though there might be many obstacles to overcome . it is vain to attempt to extenuate or excuse them in a short preface. As can be seen from the examples given below. Whatever may be the shortcomings and defects of the present treatment . These clauses admit two possible alternatives. The predicate in the subordinate clause may be in the indicative or in t he subjunctive mood (in the latter case the subjunctive forms with may and might are generally used). he seems to be an honest man at least. as they suggest a choice from among a number of possibilities. contrastive meaning is not characteristic of all types of concessive clauses. and with conjunctive words. or may refer to the future. there was no miracle in their survival (though it seemed to be miraculous). you can keep a cat. the contrast between the principal and the . Josephine could always eat. Clauses of admitted concession ( ). he faithfully believed in future. 2. which in this case occur in non-initial position (after the predicative). However much advice you give him . we shall never surrender. I could still see these changes (though it was getting dark). Clauses of disjunctive or alternative concession ( ). both of which may be unreal. 1. however excited she was (though she was excited).However. Concessive clauses introduced by compound pronouns and adverbs in -ever are never adversative to the main clause in their content. Dark as it was getting. despite which the action in the principal clause is carried out.
she possessed a sense of humour. for. that. least. since. For example. and whilst are sometimes used in non-finite concessive clauses. while. . Though not very attractive physically . because. although a stable and long-lasting one. he never let them come into his house. and you shall kiss me whether you will or not!´ The conjunctions although. though. though. I believe it must be exercised with sensitivity and responsibility. on the ground that. instead of saying Although he liked cats.subordinate clause or clauses is weaker. The conjunction as is preferable when the subordinate clause precedes the principal. ³Coward!´ he repeated. ³Coward. It was an unequal marriage. They had followed her suggestion. Although. so. am I? Then I'll be a coward. for the reason that and some others. considering. adjective groups and predicatives . Mr Woods. in view of the fact that. he never let them come into his house . by reason of. while. As he was tired. Adverbial clauses of cause An adverbial clause of cause (reason) shows the cause of the action expressed in the principal clause. and whilst are also used in front of noun groups. just in case. in so far as (insofar as). I failed my exams. I failed my exams means Although I worked hard. for fear (that). he preferred to stay at home. neither of which can be considered as an acceptable condition. in case. we can say Although liking cats. seeing (that). let us try and bear it as best we can. Since there is no help . While conceding the importance of freedom of speech . Despite and in spite of can also be used at the beginning of non -finite concessive clauses. Censorship is feeble inasmuch as it does not protect anyone. Despite working hard. though without much enthusiasm. I am here just in case anything out of the ordinary happens . as there are two alternatives. Adverbial clauses of cause are introduced by the conjunctions as.
³but take it (an electric torch) for fear you get off the path . if the principal clause refers to the past.clauses of result and of cause. ³It¶s a bit lighter in the park. so that he might not wake the sleeping boy . Adverbial clauses of result Adverbial clauses of result denote the result of the action expressed in the principal clause. so that. so that may introduce clauses of result. they are usually separated from the principal clause by a comma. so as. only the form might is used. will open) the window lest it should be stuffy in the room. so that. cautiously. Adverbial clauses of pure result are introduced by the conjunction so that and that. so that. She opens (opened. so. She opens (will open) the window that she may (might) get a breath of fresh air. subject clauses. in order that. Very often adverbial clauses of this type have an additional meaning of degree. so are not confined only to clauses of purpose: tha t may introduce subject clauses.´ The conjunctions in order and so as may also introduce non-finite infinitive clauses. so .Adverbial clauses of purpose Adverbial clauses of purpose state the purpose of the action expressed in the principal clause. lest. predicative clauses and object clauses. The best thing to do is to fix up a screen so as to let in the fresh air and keep out the flies. It should be noted that the conjunctions that. When a clause of purpose is introduced by the conjunctions that.clauses of cause. They are introduced by the conjunctions that.´ he said. The conjunctions lest and for fear (that) introduce clauses stating what is to be prevented. for fear that. as bot h the conjunctions have a negative meaning. and object clauses. . Lest is now chiefly in formal or old-fashioned English and after this conjunction the analytical subjunctive with the auxiliary should is generally used. predicative clauses. lest ( ) and some others. lest . got up. we find the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) if the principal clause refers to the present or future. in order that. They were shoving each other out of the way in order to get to the front.
Such clauses are not separated from the principal clause by a comma. and the subordinate clause is generally set off by commas. She cooks the turkey exactly as my mother did. Adverbial clauses of manner may have different reference: 1. so that they had been forced to make their escape by a window at the back . The crowd was so large that it overflowed the auditorium. They may refer to attributes or predicatives characterizing a state or quality of a person or non-person. as one could be in such circums tances. In adverbial clauses of manner the idea of comparison is often implied. he didn¶t give a sign of it. He could do it as no one else could have done.A great storm had brought the sea right into the house. as a grown-up serious man should treat such views. as one could easily be in his place. . Tom was in ecstasies ² in such ecstasies that he even controlled his tongue and was silent. qualities. They may refer to an adverbial modifier. states. 3. Adverbial clauses of manner may modify the predicate of the main clause by attributing some quality to it. He said it with contempt. Therefore they may have different reference. circumstances. Adverbial clauses of manner Adverbial clauses of manner characterize actions. Adverbial clauses of result with an additional meaning of degree are introduced by the conjunction that. I¶m sorry I talked the way I did at lunch . giving additional information or explanation concerning it. In the second and the third case the connection between the clauses is rather loose. He dressed so quickly that he put his boots on the wrong feet. Astonished. He was puzzled by the situation. in these cases we find the adverb so or the demonstrative pronoun such in the principal clause. 2. The most common conjunctions to introduce them are as and the way.
Direct¶s broken wrist healed sooner than he desired the subordinate clause characterizes the predicate group healed sooner through comparison. so . Special mention should be made of cases when two subordinating devices are used to introduce a clause. than when. like.. As implies the idea of identification. than. or two conjunctions: than if. Swithin¶s pale eyes bulged as though he might suddenly have been afflicted with insight. (comparative and temporal relation) The butler took his tip far more casually. as. as if. They are introduced by the conjunctions as.. . He is never more present in my work than when no image of him is there. usually a conjunction and a conjunctive word: than whose. Thus in the sentence Mr. He was as obstinate as were most of his relatives.. one of which is that of comparison. They don¶t have long intervals like they do at other theatres. He spoke as timidly as if he were afraid of me. The Subjunctive mood is often used in clauses of comparison. as . An adverbial clause of comparison may correlate with adverbs in the comparative degree in the principal clause. but I am speaking in the way your father might).« (comparative and conditional relation) Note the difference between the use of as and like. . than where. Clauses of comparison sometimes have inverted word order. The conjunction than is correlated with the adverb in the comparative degree sooner. They bear double relation to the main clause. as. as though. far more naturally than if Dicky had offered to shake hands with him. as ... that. than which. In this case the clause refers to the predicate with its adverbial modifier. whereas like implies the idea of mere comparison. as if. The indicative form can also be used..Adverbial clauses of comparison Adverbial clauses of comparison denote an action with which the action of the principal clause is compared. as in: Let me speak to you like a father might (= I am not your father. as in: Let me speak to you as your father ought to (= I am your father and I am speaking to you in that character).
She had a look as if she had something in her mouth . 4) demonstrative th-cleft. (Adverbial modifier of time as focus) It was to the dance that John wore his best suit last night. is a special construction which gives both thematic and focal emphasis to a particular part of the sentence. it is possible to derive four cleft sentences. 3) reversed wh-cleft A good rest is what you need most.The conjunctions as if and as though may also introduce appositive and predicative clauses. so called because it divides a single clause into two separate sections. It was John that/who wore his best suit to the dance last night. (adverbial clause) Cleft (emphatic) sentences The cleft sentence. (predicative clause) She looked at me as if nothing was wrong. . each with its own predicate. 2) wh-cleft (pseudo cleft) What you need most is a good rest. direct object and adverbials the two less common clause elements the indirect object and the predicative can act as a focal element of a cleft clause. each highlighting a particular element of the clause. That¶s what you need most of all. According to the structure we distinguish 4 basic types of cleft sentences: 1) it-cleft It is a good rest what you need most. or It was to John (that) he gave the book. (Subject as focus) It was his best suit (that) John wore to the dance last night. as the comparative meaning may combine with different syntactic connections. (Direct object as focus) It was last night (that) John wore his best suit to the dance. From a clause such as John wore his best suit to the dance last night. It was John (that) he gave the book to.(appositive clause) She looked as if she had something in her mouth . (Adverbial modifier of place as focus) Apart from the subject.
They may have the form of a conditional or comparative clause. are you? In non-formal style there is another form of appended clause. These are used to intensify or reinforce a statement in the previous clause. aren't you? You are not ill.It¶s dark green that I¶ve painted the kitchen. which is elliptical. She is a clever girl. We distinguish the following types of parenthetical clauses: 1) like the main clause: . It was what she said that spoiled the impression. or to convey the speakers' views on the way they are speaking. is your friend. is that John of yours. They may occur initially. finally. or a form of the verb to do is used. Was it because dusk was gathering that you failed to see anything? Appended clauses ( ) There are several varieties of appended clauses. If only I knew his address! As though you didn¶t know! That he should be so late! Parenthetical (comment) clauses A parenthetical clause (parenthesis) interrupts another sentence with which it is either not connected syntactically or is only loosely co nnected with separate parts of the sentence. and thus generally have a separate tone unit . You are tired. modelled on the pattern of the main clause. or medially. dashes. did your brother. He never told me anything. They are usually marked off from the rest of the sentence by commas. The emphatic position may be occupied by a whole clause. He is always very gloomy. In such sentences the link-verb to be is generally repeated. Parenthetical clauses are used to express the speakers' comments on the content of the utterance. Absolute (or independent) subordinate clauses Subordinate clauses may be used absolutely as independent exclamatory sentences. The most common type of appended clauses are disjunctive (tag) questions. or parentheses (brackets) in written Eng lish.
we lost all our luggage. generally speaking.There were no other applicants. (a why-question) I felt . 3) like a relative clause: What was more upsetting. speaking as a layman. he had no chance of winning. whether television is the right medium for that story. It was . as I say.that they had come because of me. (vi) -ed clause: Stated bluntly. to be fair. what's more to the point. (an exclamatory sentence) . to be honest.statements.beginning to be an effort for her to hold her back straight. (v) -ing clause: I doubt. Similarly. in each category there is at least some freedom to coin new expressions. for that job.such curious shapes egoism fakes! . put bluntly .why hadn¶t he noticed it before? . questions. there are idiomatic or cliché e xpressions: you see. Parenthetical clauses may be patterned like different communicative ty pes of sentences or clauses . as you know. 4) to-infinitive clause: I'm not sure what to do. In each category. imperative or exclamatory sentences or clauses. I believe. 2) like an adverbial finite clause: I'm working the night shift.
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