Applications in bioprocess: An important application area of bubble columns is theiruse as bioreactors in which microorganisms are utilized in order to produce

industrially valuable products such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics, etc. Several recent biochemical studies utilizing bubble columns as bioreactors are presented in table.

BIOPRODUCT
Thienamycin Glucoamylase Acetic acid Monoclonal antibody Plant secondary metabolites Taxol Organic acids (acetic, butyric) Low oxygen tolerance Ethanol fermentation

BIOCATALYST
Streptomyces cattleya Aureobasidiumpullulans Acetobacteraceti Hybridoma cells Hyoscyamusmuticus Taxus cuspidate Eubacteriumlimosum Arabidopsis thaliana Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Author Arcuri using Streptomyces cattleya, studied the production of thienamycin with continuously operated bubble column bioreactor. Author Federiciet performed the production of glucoamylase by Aureobasidiumpullulans. Sun and Furusaki investigated the production of acetic acid in a bubble column by using Acetobacteraceti. Author Rodrigues reported that the cultivation of hybridoma cells in a bubble column reactor resulted in a high monoclonal antibody productivity of 503 mg/l day. Bordonaro and Curtis designed a 15l bubble column reactor to produce root cultures of Hyoscyamusmuticus which in turn produces plant secondary metabolites. Author Son developed a novel bubble column bioreactor to produce taxol by Taxuscuspidate and inoculated the cells in various type of bioreactors to test growth performance. Chang cultivated Eubacteriumlimosum on carbon monoxide to produce organic acids in a bubble column reactor. Author Shiaoet investigated the tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana hairy roots to low oxygen conditions in a bubble column reactor. A recent study that was not aimed to produce a bioproduct but instead, investigate the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the bubble column in the presence of microorganisms has been carried out by Prakash. They utilized a suspension of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as the solid phase in an air± water system. The study of Ogbonna was based on the potential of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beet juice in a bubble column. In this study yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in order to investigate the feasibility of scaling up the process.

and important parameters characterizing their operation by reviewing the findings of several selected published works over the last 20 years. fluid dynamics and regime analysis. .The present review covers basic concepts related to bubble column reactors such as design and scale-up.

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