STUDY ON NTFPs, ITS FORWARD & BACKWARD LINKAGES AND SPACES FOR INTERVENTION IN THE VILLAGES OF KANHA NATIONAL PARK

, M.P.

Submitted By: Anshuman Gupta (p30004) Utsav Mishra (p30053)

Management Traineeship Segment PRM 2009-11

Submitted To: FOUNDATION FOR ECOLOGICAL SECURITY Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

Faculty Guide: Prof. CMA Paresh J. Bhatt

December, 2010

INSTITUTE OF RURAL MANAGEMENT, ANAND

AKNOWLEDGEMENT
This report is a result of our Management Traineeship Segment (MTS) done in the Mandla district over a period of 8 weeks during which we were very fortunate to interact with a wide variety of people right from the collectors of NTFPs in villages to practitioners who have a huge experience in this field. The insights provided by them have been instrumental in making this project a success. However, we would first like to thank our MTS Coordinator Prof. S.R. Asokan for giving us the opportunity to take up this project in Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), Mandla Madhya Pradesh. The support and guidance given to us by the entire team at FES, Mandla especially our reporting officer, Mr. Ishan Agrawal helped us tide over difficulties and made our stay in Mandla an extremely pleasurable experience. The timely inputs given by them helped us stay on track and finish the project in time. We would also like to thank our Faculty Guide, Prof. CMA Paresh J. Bhatt, who guided us with his invaluable insights about NTFPs right from the beginning of the project. The project would not have been as successful had it not been for the informative discussions with various practitioners and fieldworkers that we had in the various field visits done during the course of the project. Our interactions with numerous forest department officials, villagers and traders also helped us understand the minute nuances associated with the NTFP trade and the report would be incomplete without acknowledging their contribution to it. Anshuman Gupta (p30004) Utsav Mishra (p30053)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Study of NTFP, its forward and backward linkages and spaces for intervention in the villages of Kanha National Park, Mandla, M.P. Organization: Foundation for Ecological Security (FES) Reporting Officer: Mr. Ishan Agrawal Faculty Guide: Prof. CMA Paresh J. Bhatt Students’ Name: Anshuman Gupta (30004), Utsav Mishra (30053) Objectives: (1) To understand the forward and backward linkages of major NTFPs found in the project area and identify spaces for intervention for better price realization to the community (people involved). (2) To understand the demand and supply patterns of fuel wood, its sources and fluctuations in prices during different seasons in two clusters of Mandla. Scope of the Study: The study was conducted in three different project clusters of Mandla district i.e. Mocha, Bicchiya and Niwas. Methodology: For NTFP, the study was done through informal interviews with collectors and traders in Mandis. Various institutions already working in this area were also visited and a lot of secondary research was done to explore possibilities for intervention. For fuel wood study, the fuel wood approach roads were tracked and informal discussions with villagers (sellers) and restaurant, dhaba and tea stall owners (buyers) were conducted. Findings: It was found that the distribution of NTFPs is quite varied across the three clusters. Though Chakoda is quite abundant in the entire region, Mahua is mostly found in Niwas and Mocha and Gond trees (Salai and Dhaawa) are only found in Mocha. Formation of SHGs as microenterprises for the collection, pooling and storage of Mahua is proposed. Proper training and financial assistance would reduce distress sales of Mahua and help members earn better returns. Potential for Lac cultivation on Palash trees exists in Niwas and Bichchiya. A group of farmers owning around 100 Palash trees can be targeted and on – field training provided to them for Lac cultivation. Palash trees can also be taken on lease from the JFM committees or the Forest Department. Chironji collection has reduced drastically over the years and is now done only in the Niwas area. Wild Honey was collected in Bichchiya and Mocha till some years ago but is now found in very small quantities. The tribals (Baighas and Gonds) still follow the traditional systems for collecting, weighing, processing and storing NTFPs and over the years, there has been a steady decline in quantities collected due to unsustainable harvesting practices and lack of awareness. The low quantities and/ or complex technology have restricted the possibility of intervention in almost all NTFPs to the pooling or grading and sorting stage. In fuel wood study, it was found that large quantities of fuel wood and charcoal are consumed in dhabas, tea stalls, households, schools etc. for cooking and heating purposes especially in Bichchiya. In Mocha, fuel wood is used in smaller quantities by resorts for heating purposes and by a few dhabas for cooking. The prices and consumption of fuel wood varies according to the seasons. The consumption increases in festive season (Oct-Nov and Mar-Apr) and the prices go up during winters and rainy season when farmers remain busy with agricultural activities and dry wood is hard to find in the forests especially during the rainy season. Conclusion: Each NTFP has its own unique set of collection and processing issues that need to be addressed for an intervention in NTFPs to be successful. NTFPs play a critical role in the lives of tribals as it provides them with an important source of income in the dry months when they don’t have any other source. Small scale interventions like establishing microenterprises are likely to be more successful. Regeneration programmes need to go hand – in – hand with the product intervention in order to improve the quantity of NTFPs collected and to make technological interventions feasible on a larger scale.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement.....................................................................................................................i Executive Summary..................................................................................................................ii List of Tables...........................................................................................................................vi List of Figures.........................................................................................................................vii 1. Introduction.........................................................................................................................1 1.1.Role of Forests in Rural Lives......................................................................................1 1.2.Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP)............................................................................2 1.3.Government Regulations regarding Forest Produce....................................................2 1.4.Importance of Timber as fuel wood.............................................................................3
2. The Study............................................................................................................................5

2.1.Objectives.....................................................................................................................5 2.2.Scope............................................................................................................................5 2.3.Methodology................................................................................................................5 2.4.Limitations...................................................................................................................6
3. The NTFP Trade Chain.......................................................................................................7 4. Designing an Intervention in NTFPs.................................................................................10 5. Mahua (Madhuca longifolia)..............................................................................................11

5.1.The Tree and Produce.................................................................................................11 5.2.Collection and Processing...........................................................................................13 5.3.Production and Prices.................................................................................................13 5.4.Scope for Intervention................................................................................................14 5.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices....................................................................15
6. Chironji (Buchanania lanzan)............................................................................................17

6.1.The Tree and Produce.................................................................................................17 6.2.Collection and Processing...........................................................................................17 6.3.Production and Prices.................................................................................................18 6.4.Scope for Intervention................................................................................................19
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6.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices....................................................................19
7. Chakoda (Cassia tora).......................................................................................................20

7.1.The Tree and Produce.................................................................................................20 7.2.Collection and Processing...........................................................................................20 7.3.Production and Prices.................................................................................................21 7.4.Scope for Intervention................................................................................................21 7.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices....................................................................22
8. Lac......................................................................................................................................23

8.1.The Trees and Produce...............................................................................................23 8.2.Collection and Processing...........................................................................................24 8.3.Production and Prices.................................................................................................24 8.4.Scope for Intervention................................................................................................25 8.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices....................................................................26

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd.)

9. Gond (Gums).....................................................................................................................27

9.1.The Trees and Produce...............................................................................................27 9.2.Collection and Processing...........................................................................................28 9.3.Production and Prices.................................................................................................28 9.4.Scope for Intervention................................................................................................29 9.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices....................................................................29
10. Shahad (Honey).................................................................................................................30

10.1. The Produce..............................................................................................................30 10.2. Collection and Processing.........................................................................................30 10.3. Production and Prices...............................................................................................31 10.4. Scope for Intervention..............................................................................................31
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10.5. Institutions Involved and Best Practices..................................................................31
11. A Pilot Intervention in Chironji.........................................................................................33

11.1. Introduction..............................................................................................................33 11.2. The Technology and Financial Requirements...........................................................33 11.3. Legal Aspects of the Intervention............................................................................34
12. A Pilot Intervention in Mahua...........................................................................................35

12.1. Introduction..............................................................................................................35 12.2. Financial Requirements.............................................................................................35 12.3. Legal Aspects of the Intervention............................................................................36
13. A Pilot Intervention in Lac................................................................................................38

13.1. Introduction..............................................................................................................38 13.2. Financial Requirements.............................................................................................38 13.3. Legal Aspects of the Intervention............................................................................39
14. Fuel wood Study................................................................................................................40

14.1. Introduction...............................................................................................................40 14.2. The Study..................................................................................................................40 14.3. Supply Patterns..........................................................................................................41 14.4. Demand Patterns.......................................................................................................41 14.5. Consumption and Prices of Fuel wood.....................................................................42
15. Conclusion..........................................................................................................................44

Annexures References

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LIST OF TABLES
1. Table 1: Characteristics of Mahua..............................................................................13 2. Table 2: Characteristics of Chironji.............................................................................18 3. Table 3: Characteristics of Chakoda...........................................................................20 4. Table 4: Production and export of stick Lac from India.............................................24 5. Table 5: Characteristics of Lac....................................................................................24 6. Table 6: Characteristics of Gums................................................................................ 28 7. Table 7: Characteristics of Shahad..............................................................................30 8. Table 8: Financial Analysis for establishing Chironji decortication plant................ 32 9. Table 9: Profit and Loss statement for Mahua pooling and storage.......................... 34 10. Table 10: Cost – Benefit Analysis for using nets for Mahua Collection.................... 34 11. Table 11: Production Costs for Lac cultivation on 10 Palash trees.............................42 12. Table 12: Expected returns from 20 Palash trees........................................................ 42

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LIST OF FIGURES
1. Fig. 1: The NTFP Trade Chain......................................................................................6 2. Fig. 2: Mahua tree with Flowers................................................................................. 11 3. Fig. 3: Chironji tree with Flowers............................................................................... 16

4. Fig. 4: The Chakoda Plant...........................................................................................19
5. Fig. 5: Lac on Palash tree............................................................................................ 22 6. Fig. 6: The Dhaawa tree............................................................................................. 26 7. Fig. 7: Fuel wood supply routes and consumption points in Bichchiya..................... 41

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1. Introduction
Forests form an important part of the ecology of an area and play a major role in conserving the biodiversity of that area. Biological diversity is the variability among living organisms from terrestrial, marine, inter alia and all other eco systems1. Other than maintaining the gene pool of different species, biodiversity is important for a large number of stake holders such as the society, government, development organizations, industries and most importantly, indigenous groups. Specifically, forests give home to a large number of plant, animal and bird species all of which have their own role to play in maintaining the ecological balance. Various products from forests are used for domestic and industrial purposes. However, there is a tendency to over exploit this important resource for economic usage which creates multiple problems. Every now and then, actions performed by humans tend to destroy the delicate balance which in turn leads to various calamities like floods, droughts, etc. Unsustainable harvesting of Forest Produce is one such activity that has caused a lot of damage to the forests in India. 1.1.Role of Forests in Rural Lives Tribal people are completely dependent on forests for most of their daily requirements such as food, fuel wood, fodder, medicines, etc. They share a symbiotic relationship with the forests with each one taking care of the other. Forests provide them with an important form of livelihood especially through NTFPs which are an important source of income for the tribal population. On the other hand, forests require care and systematic harvesting in order to survive in the long run. Generally, forest produce such as Tendu leaves and Mahua is collected by villagers during the summer months when they are not busy with agriculture. Any change in biodiversity affects the tribals the most. They are the most important stakeholders in any activity concerning the forests and hence, it is important to involve the local people in any effort to conserve forests. Unfortunately, most of the change in the local ecology is brought about by external agencies without taking into consideration the effect that the change has on local communities. There is a greater need for involving local communities because their participation can help make conservation and regeneration programs more

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Biodiversity Conservation, Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Programmes - Ideas for Implementation, UNDP, New Delhi

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effective and help achieve a balance between the twin goals of biodiversity conservation and livelihood security for the tribals. Gonds, Baigha and Pathari are the major tribals found in the Mandla region2. Though agriculture and agriculture related activities are their main occupation, they also depend on forestry activities to sustain themselves in the dry months. Thus, there is scope for establishment of cottage industries involving tribals to process forest produce such as Chironji, Lac, Gond, etc.

1.2.Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) All economically productive goods (including goods used for local consumption by villagers) obtained from the forests can be termed as NTFPs. Non-timber products can further be classified as products of plant origin and products of animal origin. NTFPs of plant origin include those goods that are obtained in the form of leaves, roots, flower, fruit, etc. while that of animal origin are those which are produced mostly by insects living in forests and generally include honey, wax, lac, tusser etc. These products are generally harvested by the local people and sold in nearby markets. Thus, NTFPs form an important source of income for villagers and tribal people. Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh is one such tribal district that has a large forest cover (about 48% of its total area3). Mahua and Tendu Leaves are the major NTFPs harvested from the forests by the tribals in Mandla. The Mahua tree is harvested for its flowers and fruits. Villagers collect Mahua flowers to produce liquor and sell it to earn some money out of it. Tendu leaves are the most important NTFP for local people in terms of income generation. It is used in the production of Bidis and is bought by large Bidi businessmen from different parts of India. The villagers also collect various other forest products in smaller quantities. However, these products are either consumed by the villagers themselves or sold in the local markets directly. Our study looks at the existing backward and forward linkages for the collection, processing and marketing of various forest produce. It will also try and identify gaps
2 3

Reddy, K. S., Forest Working Plan (West Mandla Forest Division), 1993-94 Sinha, M. K., Forest Working Plan (East Mandla Forest Division), 1999-00

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in these linkages and possible interventions to fill these gaps within the regulatory framework provided by the state forest division.

1.3.Government Regulations regarding Forest Produce The government has passed various laws regarding the control of NTFPs. The Indian Forest Act, 1927 is the most important act which regulates the transit of forest produce and fixes the duty leviable on timber and other forest produce. Besides this, the state governments have also passed various laws which take into consideration the local resources and conditions. While initial laws were only meant to prevent degradation of forests, later laws such as the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 have moved towards involving the local communities in the conservation of the biodiversity4. However, these laws still do not give the local communities enough rights and powers to decide the fate of local resources and avoid privatization or other forms of misappropriation. Forest Produce can be classified into two types based on the laws governing them5:

Nationalized forest products are those products over which the government exercises direct control. These products are directly procured and sold by the Government. Such forest products include Tendu leaves, timber, bamboo, etc.

Non - Nationalized forest products such as Mahua fruit and flower, Chironji, Baheda, Gond, Jamun, Bel, Arjun and Saaja Chhal, Honey, etc. are not under the direct control of the government. The local community can collect these products from the forest, use them and/or sell them to registered traders or in the local markets.

The forest division has made working plans based on the National Forest Policy, 1988 to increase productivity through natural and artificial regeneration, to stop soil erosion and to conserve soil and water in order to meet the local demands.

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Biodiversity Conservation, Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Programmes - Ideas for Implementation, UNDP, New Delhi 5 Reddy, K. S., Forest Working Plan (West Mandla Forest Division), 1993-94

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1.4.Importance of Timber as fuel wood Timber is an important resource obtained from the forests especially for the local communities. It is used to build houses, make equipments, and as fuel wood for cooking purposes. Tribals are almost completely dependent on fuel wood from forests for their daily cooking requirements. Teak and Sal are the two important timber producing trees found in the forests of Mandla.

The various uses and the wood used for those purposes are listed below6:

Sagon, Tinsa, Beeja, Dhaman, Dhawda and Haldu wood is used for making tools used in agriculture. Wood is also used in furniture and for construction of window frames and doors of the houses.

Timber is also used as fuel wood which is the most demanded part of Forest Produce. Dhawa, Saaja, Lendia, etc are the varieties used for this purpose. The use of fuel wood is the most important factor which puts pressure on Forests.

Bamboo is used in repairing houses, making mats and baskets, etc. There is a community called ‘Bansod’ whose main job is to make baskets from bamboo trees. Though this community needs green bamboo but can only get dry bamboo because of the time taken in transportation of bamboo from one place to another.

Besides these, trees such as saaja, bija and tinsa are felled to feed the cattle during summer months when the fodder is scarce.

Timber from some trees is also burnt to produce charcoal which is in turn used for cooking and heating purposes.

A part of our study was also to look at the demand and supply patterns of fuel wood in towns of Mandla district. The study would help map the present scenario of fuel wood consumption in the region and design possible alternatives to reduce the dependence on fuel wood.
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Reddy, K. S., Forest Working Plan (West Mandla Forest Division), 1993-94

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2. Our Study
The aim of our study was to understand the various nuances associated with the NTFP trade in Mandla District. Extensive field work was done during which we had interactions with numerous villagers, traders, practitioners etc. who were related to NTFPs in some way or the other. We also tried to identify the various issues plaguing the NTFP sector and possible ways in which an organization could intervene in order to maximize returns to the collectors through methods of sustainable harvesting and regeneration. It was mainly a qualitative study done in the three blocks of Mandla district.

2.1.Objectives The objectives of our study were as follows:  To assess the dependency of surrounding villages with regards to NTFPs.  To suggest suitable arrangements for collective economic activity on NTFP.  To document value chain of six major NTFPs of the area and suggest points of intervention, right from stage of collection.  To assess the consumption of fuel wood in some particular places of Mandla and fluctuation in its prices.

2.2.Scope The scope of our study was limited to the three project clusters of FES in Mandla district i.e. Bichhiya, Niwas and Mocha. Various villages under these three blocks were visited and informal interviews were conducted mostly with villagers who were into collection of some or all of the NTFPs found in the area. Information about production and prices of various NTFPs was collected by visiting major NTFP markets at the village level, block level and district level in the project area.

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2.3.Methodology The first week of our internship was spent in exploratory study of various NTFPs found in Mandla region on the basis of which six major NTFPs were short listed for further study. Criteria such as Production Scale, Scope for Intervention, Contribution to annual income and Government Strictures was used to shortlist the NTFPs. The information was gathered by visiting a few villages and interacting with various traders. Field work done in the three project clusters done in the next six weeks helped us identify the various issues associated with each of the six NTFPs. Informal discussions were conducted with villagers (involved in NTFP collection), local village traders and block level traders and convenient sampling was used to select both villagers as well as traders. Various organizations, already working in this sector, were also visited and interactions with field workers and employees helped us identify possibilities of intervention in each of the selected NTFPs. Desktop research was carried out in the last week of the internship to identify interventions happening in the NTFP sector across various other states like Chattisgarh and Orissa. Best practices involved and Legal aspects of the NTFP trade were also learnt during the course of this desktop research.

2.4.Limitations There were some limitations to our study which are as follows:

Since most of the NTFPs are harvested in the months of March-April, the information obtained through interaction with different people in the value chain is based upon their recall and hence figures for production and prices may not be very accurate.

Most of the information provided is based on primary sources such as our interactions with village traders and villagers. Since villagers still consider the NTFP business to be illegal and under the purview of the Forest Department, they were apprehensive about divulging details about the collection and processing of

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NTFPs. Limited information was available from secondary sources such as the internet, journals, publications, etc.

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3. The NTFP Trade Chain
Any NTFP passes through various intermediaries from its collector to processing industry and the consumers. Each of these intermediaries has an important role to perform and charge a commission of 2 – 6% on the value of NTFP traded. The NTFP trade chain in operation for most of the NTFPs is as shown below:

Collectors

Through mandis or agents

Local Village Traders

Block Level Traders (Bichchiya, Shehpura, Mandla)

District Level Traders (Jabalpur, Katni, Seoni)

Traders in Cities (Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bombay)

Processing Industries/ Markets

Fig. 1: The NTFP Trade Chain
a. Collection: The NTFP is collected by villagers from nearby forests. It is then either

sold to local village traders or to the block level traders in weekly village mandis7
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Mandis are weekly markets that are organized in each village on a rotation basis. The mandi day is looked forward to by everyone as traders from different regions come to the

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depending on the quantity collected and the prices offered. Some NTFPs such as Chironji, Chakoda, Aonla, etc require processing before it can be sold in the markets. Mostly labour intensive manual processing (e.g. filtering, sieving, boiling, drying, etc.) is done by the villagers at the household level as they neither have the required financial resources or the scale to get into mechanized processing. Storage of NTFPs is also very rare except in Mahua which is used by the villagers as food and fodder throughout the year. Thus, villagers may store small quantities of Mahua or repurchase it later depending on their consumption and financial position in the dry season8.
b. The Local Village Traders perform the task of pooling the produce in the village.

Sometimes they may collect produce from 2 – 3 villages. The prices offered by the village traders are around Rs. 50 to 100 per quintal less than the prices prevailing in the markets. Transportation, Storage and Packing costs are borne by these traders and so they are able to earn Rs 25 to 50 per quintal traded.
c. Block Level Traders or Seths, as they are commonly referred to in the local

language, are larger traders who procure the produce from local village traders as well as directly from villagers. They visit various village mandis or have agents in villages to purchase the produce. They generally deal in both - agriculture produce as well as NTFPs. The Block level traders sell their produce to larger traders in cities such as Umeria, Shahdol, Jabalpur, Nagpur, etc. Since these cities are well connected by rail, the produce can then be transported to processing industries in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Delhi, etc. via traders in these cities. Most of the transactions here onwards take place over the phone. Some products such as honey are directly sold in the local markets during Melas organized by the government. Some villagers also sell the NTFPs harvested in the markets directly. Mahua has a slightly different trade chain from the one shown above. Mahua is only used in villages for consumption purposes. Hence, the transfer of Mahua takes place from production areas to deficit areas. Both intra village and inter village trade is common in the case of Mahua.
village to sell their products and/ or to purchase commodities from the villagers 8 Though Mahua is consumed by the villagers throughout the year, they are forced to sell the produce during the season and then repurchase it at higher prices just for the want of money during the dry season (May – June)

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The traders usually share a barter relationship with the villagers. The villagers buy grocery and other items of daily need from these traders in exchange for their produce. The traders are also an easy source of credit for the villagers during their hours of need. Credit is available to the villagers at interest rates of up to 10% per month or 120% per annum! The advance credit system ensures that these traders have an assured supply of NTFPs during the season when the prices are the lowest. Thus, collectors are unable to earn better returns on their produce even by performing simple tasks such as storage and primary processing. Collectors also suffer on account of faulty weighing systems used by these traders. The weighed quantity is almost always less than the actual quantity collected.

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4.

Designing an Intervention in NTFPs9
NTFPs play an important role in the lives of tribal people. While some like Mahua have strong religious sentiments associated with them, others like Tendu patta, Chakoda, Honey, Gond, etc are an important source of additional income for the poor and landless villagers. Though the amount earned from NTFP collection may not be much (Rs 1000 – 1500 annually), the income becomes critical especially because most of the NTFPs are harvested in the dry months (March to June) when tribals have little or no income from other sources. Baighas and Gonds are the two main tribal castes found in the Mandla District. While the Gonds are known to be involved in the collection of only some NTFPs like Mahua, Chakoda, Chironji, etc, it is the Baighas who are known for the abilities to venture deep into jungles to collect Gond, Honey and other rarer NTFPs. Selection of the right NTFP and the method of intervention is the first critical step. Efforts at intervening in all the NTFPs at the same time have usually failed as each NTFP has its own unique collection, processing and marketing issues. Taking each NTFP, one at a time, will help villagers gain experience as they scale up and reduce losses due to the learning curve. The intervention, while aiming to improve incomes of villagers, should also be market and demand driven. However, looking at international markets for this can fall back on its head as villagers usually have limited knowledge of the factors affecting international market and the skills required to address them. Establishing links with local and national industries can be of much help as it would provide the villagers with an assured demand for their produce. Involving the local village traders and using their marketing experience can help establish strong trade linkages and help prevent a possible back lash that interventions in NTFPs have so often faced. Mostly, village traders are villagers themselves (who may be slightly well off) and our interactions with them suggests that they may get involved for the betterment of the village especially in NTFPs such as Gond and Lac which do not have strong market linkages right now. At the same time, an intervention in NTFPs requires the existing links between collectors and traders to be broken which is not an easy task. Provision of credit is an important function that these traders perform and hence the designed intervention should address this problem. This can probably be done by

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Based on ‘Common Mistakes’ prepared by Mr. Sharda Gautam (Disha Cooperative) and our interactions with Dr Bajesh Kumar Rai (Vigyan Ashram), Dr. Pratibha Bhatnagar (SFRI), Dr. Moni Thomas (JNKVV) and various villagers in the project clusters

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inculcating a habit of savings amongst the collectors so that they save atleast a percentage of their income earned from NTFPs for use during their hours of need. It is also essential to chose the target population carefully based on the NTFP we intervene in. An intervention targeting the youths in the village is likely to be more successful as it is the youth who are more enthusiastic and eager to earn a better income and work harder for it. Proper encouragement should be given to the selected youths through training and motivational programs. Our interactions with the villagers brought out quite interesting and varying responses. While some came up with the idea of establishing samitis and institutions to help them earn better prices on their own (Jhulup, Kanharikhurd, etc) others were cynical about the idea and were more interested in individual benefits than benefits for the village as a whole (Dungaria, Jangaliya, etc.). The cynicism largely stemmed out of the bad experiences that the villagers have had with various other interventions and organizations in the past. This highlights the importance of creating awareness and providing villagers with proper training and guidance in order to make the intervention successful. Hands on training and exposure visits are likely to be more successful than instructive and one sided guidance. The quantities of NTFPs collected have rapidly declined in the last few years due to unsustainable harvesting and carefree felling of trees. Thus, conservation and regeneration programs have to go hand in hand with the product intervention. Spreading awareness about sustainable harvesting techniques and motivating villagers to plant more trees will not only help maintain the ecological balance of the area but also help them increase their collection which will in turn lead to higher profits over the years. WHO (World Health Organization) has published guidelines for GACPs (Good Agricultural and Collection Practices) for harvesting medicinal plants covering a wide range of collection activities. The national governments are required to develop country-specific guidelines for sustainable production of raw material of quality and standardized ingredients. 10 These guidelines would help frame bye laws in any intervention involving NTFPs. Some of the features of six selected NTFPs such as the product, its collection and processing, production over the years and scope for intervention are described in the following sections.

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Referenced from http://www.iifm.ac.in/ntfp/NTFPGHPs.pdf on 14th December, 2010

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5.

Mahua (Madhuca longifolia)
5.1.The Tree and Produce Mahua is a large deciduous tree that grows widely under dry tropical and sub tropical climatic conditions. The Mahua tree holds a sacred space in the lives of tribal folks. Almost each and every part of the tree right from roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits are used at different occasions. The Fig. 2: Mahua tree with Flowers leaves are good fodder; the bark yields tannin; the wood is put to several different use; the flowers are edible and yields alcohol; the fruits are eaten and are a rich source of sugar, vitamin and calcium; seeds produce fatty oils and de-oiled cake can be used as fertilisers. The tribals have a long standing religious association with the tree. This is also the main reason why rural households have been given user rights to particular Mahua trees – either to those growing on their farmlands or to those growing on common lands and forest areas if no Mahua trees fall on a particular household’s farm land. These rights are recognised only for the collection of flowers and are passed on from one generation to another. The Mahua flowers are the most important product obtained from the tree. This tree begins to flower at the age of 10 years and continues to do so for about 100 years. A full grown tree can produce up to 90 kg of flowers in a season that lasts from 20 days to 30 days11. However, the yield is known to alternate between high and low every year. Lightning and rainfall are other factors that affect the yield of the tree. The flower has high sugar content and hence, is used for production of alcohol. It is also used to make sweets and to feed animals in tribal households. Mahua is generally bartered for daily grocery items, the value of which is much higher than the actual value of Mahua traded. Mahua consumption at the household

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http://wiki.encyclopaediaindica.com/~encyclo3/wiki/index.php? title=INDIAN_BUTTER_TREE on 14th December, 2010

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level also takes place round the year, though not much is stored for the home from the stock collected.12 5.2.Collection and Processing of Mahua Flowers The flowers fall down upon ripening in the period of May - June and are collected by villagers. Some days after flowering, Mahua fruits are collected and the oil obtained from them is used for cooking purposes. The oil is also used in the manufacturing of vanaspati ghee. The flowers drop off early in the morning at around 4 am and almost every individual from the village is involved in the collection of flowers. The flowers are food for a large variety of animals and birds. Hence, the villagers have to guard the produce from animals and other people by collecting the produce early in the morning. The GACP guidelines for Mahua suggest that the seeds should be harvested once at the mature stage. Branches should not be cut for collecting seeds and some seeds should be left on the plants to facilitate further natural regeneration. Since the tribals have a hand-to-mouth existence, only few of them can go for storage and processing and sell their produce when the prices reach their peak in the winters (Jan – Feb). Hence, they have to sell of their produce at cheaper rates and later purchase the same from traders at a higher price for consumption or for making wine. 5.3.Production and Prices Mahua is either sold to the village trader who in turn sells the produce in the nearby mandi or the villagers directly sell it in the mandi on a weekly basis as one day in every week is meant for trading of goods in big places surrounded by many small villages. The difference in prices paid by the village and block trader varies from 50 paise to one rupee. The current price which villagers get during March-April is Rs. 16 – 17 per kg while they purchase the same at Rs 20 – 22 per kg in the month of November-December. On an average, each household collects around 1 – 1.5 quintal of Mahua during the 15 – 20 days when the tree sheds its flowers in March- April every year. In Niwas block, most of the Mahua is collected from villages near Babaliya and Bakori and sold in Babaliya market on Thursdays. The various characteristics of the produce are depicted below. Table 1: Characteristics of Mahua
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Radha Thakur and M.Srinu Babu, Engendering the Market with Mahua A community based initiative in Mandla

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Product Scientific Name Parts used Block identified Villages Production Price Wholesale Price Markets/Processing Industries

Mahua Madhuca longifolia Flowers, Fruits Niwas Babaliya, Bastara, Bastari, Rausar, Jangaliya, Katang Siwni, Mawai Maal 1 – 1.5 quintal/household Rs 14/kg in Mar-Apr Rs 20-22/kg in Nov-Dec Rs 28/kg in Nov-Dec (Mandla) Majorly used to make alcohol in local breweries

Mahua is only consumed in tribal villages for making alcohol or food items with almost negligible consumption in cities. Thus, trading of Mahua, which may be inter block, inter district or in rare cases inter state, only takes place from the surplus production areas to the deficit areas. 5.4.Scope for Intervention The major challenge in the Mahua trade is to control distress selling by collectors. Lack of space for storage and finance forces collectors to dispose of their produce at cheaper rates when the supply is high. Most traders provide credit in advance to assure their supply of Mahua during the season at cheaper rates. Although the collectors know that the price of Mahua starts increasing after the rainy season, they are forced to sell of their produce just for the want of money. Provision of technical knowhow for proper storage and finance can help collectors store their Mahua for sale in the winter season when the prices reach their peak. The quality of Mahua is judged by its colour. Properly dried Mahua is dark red colour and fetches a better price. Storage of Mahua flowers has to be done carefully because insects can easily infect it during the rainy season. It is important to dry the Mahua properly before storage. A drier can be used to bring down the moisture level to within the desired range (around 12%). Once dried, the Mahua is covered in plastic bags from all sides such that no air is allowed within. Chula leaves are also kept in between the Mahua in order to prevent it from insect attacks.

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5.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices Organizations like Udyogini and Ajeevika Pariyojana (MPRLP) are working to promote storage of Mahua in March-April by forming SHGs in the villages and providing loan to them so that they can pay the villagers for the Mahua produce at the time it is delivered and then can sell it at higher margins in Nov – Dec. These models are based on the idea of micro enterprises wherein rural people are encouraged to establish their own enterprises. Udyogini is currently working in this direction through women SHGs and its model can be replicated in other areas. The value chain works in the following way. Women organized into savings, credit and enterprise groups (WEGs) sell forest and agricultural commodities individually or collected from group members to first level upstream enterprise called the village level service center (VLSC) which is owned and operated by an Udyogini – trained woman entrepreneur. Here the first level grading and sorting takes place. At this level, unwanted materials like wooden sticks, dust, etc which comes with Mahua are removed manually and through sieving. Onward, it goes to the cluster-level trading centers (CLSCs) owned and part-managed by Udyogini-trained business providers. Here, a second level grading, sorting and value addition takes place. At this level, drying of Mahua in sunlight takes place which is necessary to prevent it from insects before its storage. The change in colour from white to yellow and then to deep brown indicates that the Mahua is dry now and ready for storage. It is then stored by forming a wooden platform in a mud container surrounded by plastic bags on its walls. Mahua. Trading with the outside market happens at this level. The same chain serves to retail products and services to tribal households. Ancillary enterprises are an oil processing unit which gets the seeds from the CLSCs and two processing enterprises (flour) started by local entrepreneurs on their own which are buying wheat from VLSCs and CLSCs. Vasundhara, a policy and advocacy group working in the areas surrounding Baisipalli Wildlife Sanctuary, in Nayagarh Orissa, helped the women establish a Mahua cooperative that launched processed Mahua jams and jellies for the first time in the country13. With support from Department of Science and Technology (DST) and technical inputs from experts from Orissa University for Agriculture Technology
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Referenced from http://www.vasundharaorissa.org/Research%20Reports/Mahua%20The %20Lifeline%20of%20Tribal%20India.pdf accessed on 12th December, 2010

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(OUAT), the local people learnt the low cost technology for processing of raw Mahua into products like Jam and Jelly. They have also provided the collectors with nets that can be spread out below the Mahua tree during the collection period. This technique helps reduce the effort involve in Mahua flower collection while also keeping the produce dust free.

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6.

Chironji (Buchanania lanzan)
6.1.The Tree and Produce Chironji Tree is a medium-sized

deciduous tree, growing to about 50 ft tall. It bears fruits (commonly called Char) each containing a single seed, which is popular as an edible nut, known as chironji. It is mostly found in eroded ravine lands. It avoids waterlogged areas, but Fig. 3: Chironji tree with Flowers occurs locally in clay soils. It can be identified by the dark grey crocodile bark with red blaze. A good species for afforesting bare hill slopes. It has tickly leathery leaves which are broadly oblong, with blunt tip and rounded base. Leaves have 10-20 pairs of straight, parallel veins. Pyramidal panicles of greenish white flowers appear in early spring. Fruits ripen from April to May and remain on the tree for quite a long time. Flowering takes place from January to March. The Chironji fruits are considered as one of the delicious wild fruits. The seed kernels are also eaten. The kernels are regarded as substitute for almonds. The bark yields tannin (up to 13 percent) which is used in tannin industries. The natives also extract oil for seed and use it as almond oil. According to reference literatures, it is also good substitute to olive-oil. It is used for coating tablets for delayed action Medicinal uses: The roots are acrid, astringent, cooling, depurative and constipating, and are useful in treatment of diarrhoea. Leaves are used in the treatment of skin diseases. Fruits are used in treating cough and asthma.

6.2.Collection and Processing Chironji is collected in the months of May and June. The fruit is plucked in bunches by climbing the tree which is a risky activity. Plucking the tender fruit using a stick can spoil the fruit and hence is not practiced. A farmer has entire ownership of the
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Chironji trees growing in his farms. However there is no fixed ownership of the Chironji trees growing in forests and on common lands. Each tree can produce up to 10 to 15 Kg of Chironji fruit in a season. Once the fruit is plucked, it is kept in a closed mud container for about a week for it to ripen completely. The flesh of the ripened fruit is then either eaten directly or is crushed by stamping which leaves the seed with a hard coat around it behind. It is ground in a traditional crusher to remove the kernel which is then sold to traders in the market. The traditional decortification process is quite cumbersome and it takes almost a month for a collector to sell the produce after collection of the fruit. Unsustainable harvesting techniques have reduced the number of Chironji trees in Mandla District. The collectors cut entire branches in order to reduce their effort in plucking the fruits. Moreover, they do not leave any fruits for regeneration. Such destructive practices and unfixed ownership of trees growing in forests and on common lands have reduced the amount of Chironji collected in Niwas over the years. The GACP guidelines for Chironji suggest that mature fruit kernels can be collected when black in colour. Bamboo stick will be used for shaking branches. Fruits should be collected after April and green collection should be avoided. Atleast one – third of the fruits should be left for wild animals and regeneration.

6.3.Production and Prices Chironji is mostly collected in villages such as Bastra, Bastari, Jangaliya, Lohari, Mohgaon and Mannheri villages of Niwas block and some villages in the Babheliya cluster with negligible presence in other parts. The fruit fetches a much lower price for the collectors than the kernel and hence, collectors usually grind the seed to obtain the kernel. 5 Kg of fruit can yield almost 1 Kg of Chironji. Each tree can produce 2 3 Kg of Chironji which is sold for a price of around Rs 100 – 125 per Kg to the village traders. Thus, a typical farmer owning 5 trees can earn about Rs 1500 by selling Chironji every year. Prices for Chironji in the National Market were around Rs 400 – 425 per Kg. According to the traders, the amount of Chironji traded in the markets has reduced drastically over the last few years and last year only 4 – 5
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quintals was traded in the Babheliya market. Similar quantities were traded by traders in the Niwas market as well. The various characteristics of the produce are depicted in the table below:

Table 2: Characteristics of Chironji Product Scientific Name Parts used Block identified Villages Production Price Wholesale Price Markets/Processing Industries Chironji Buchanania Lanzan Seed Kernel Niwas Jangaliya, Lohari, Bastra, Bastri, 8 – 10 Quintals Rs 100 – 125/kg (May – June) Rs 400 – 450 /kg (Raipur) Cold storages in Kanpur; Most of it is consumed locally

Almost 60% of the Chironji collected in Madhya Pradesh is sent to Kanpur where Cold Storages are located. The prices for Chironji are also decided by the traders in Kanpur. Of the rest, almost 20% is sent to Delhi and the rest to Mumbai and other cities. However, almost all of the Chironji collected in Niwas area is sold to small traders, sweet meat shops, etc in Jabalpur directly.

6.4.Scope for Intervention There is a huge demand for Chironji in big cities like Jabalpur and Raipur. In fact, most of the Chironji procured by traders in Niwas is directly bought by distributors and sweet shops in Jabalpur. Even simple pooling would help villagers earn better returns as the price difference between the villages and cities is huge.
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Chironji decortication machines are also available which can reduce the human effort involved in extraction of Chironji seeds considerably. However the quantity of Chironji collected in the area currently is too low to justify any investment in technology.

6.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices Though none of the organizations in Mandla district have established a Chironji processing plant, Disha Cooperative in Mayurbhanj, Orissa has plans to start operations in its Chironji processing plant within the next one year.

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7.

Chakoda (Cassia tora)
7.1.The Tree and Produce Chakoda or Charota is the most commonly found NTFP in the Mandla region. It is equally abundant in almost all areas of the district and is collected in huge quantities by the villagers as well. Chakoda is an Ayurvedic herb and is also used extensively in Chinese medicine. It grows in hot, wet, tropical climates both wild and commercially. This is an upright plant with compound leaves in groupings Fig. 4: The Chakoda Plant of six. It bears 20-cm pods which contain many cylindrical seeds. It can be used as a substitute for coffee. Cassia Powder is also used in making food for pets, natural food additives, air freshener in the form of gels and for healing skin diseases like ring worm. Along with above, Cassia Tora powder has other applications especially in food industries as it has an excellent gelling property. It is also used for emulsification, foam stabilization and for the purpose of moisture retention. The seeds are collected from the beans when the beans ripen in November – December every year.

7.2.Collection and Processing Chakoda is generally collected in the months of November and December. Since this is also the time when villagers are busy with their agricultural harvesting, collection of Chakoda takes a back seat. It is only done by children who do not play a role in the agricultural harvesting or by adults when they are free. Since Chakoda is freely available all over the region, premature harvesting is very rare. The Chakoda plant is cut and bundled in heaps which are then dried in the sun. Once dry, the seeds are removed from the beans either by beating them with a stick or spreading them out on the road so that the beans are crushed by moving vehicles and
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the seeds are removed. The seeds are then collected and simple sieving is done to get rid of the leaves, sticks, etc. The cleaned seeds are directly sold off in the market. For Chakoda, the GACP guidelines suggest that the whole plant can be harvested when it turns golden in colour. Dry pods should be beaten up by bamboo stick on ground and a few mature (un-harvested) plants should be left on the ground.

7.3.Production and Prices Production depends on rainfall to a large extent. Prices vary from Rs 1200 per quintal to Rs 700 per quintal based on production. Prices are expected to be around Rs 700 – 800 per quintal this year. A local village trader is able to collect around 40 – 50 quintals of Chakoda every year. He gets Rs 550 – 800 per quintal for the produce. The traders estimate that annual trading of Chakoda is worth Rs 4 – 5 Crore in Mandla District alone. The various characteristics of the produce are depicted below: Table 3: Characteristics of Chakoda Product Scientific Name Parts used Block identified Villages Production Price Wholesale Price Markets/Processing Industries Chakoda Cassia Tora Seeds Bichhiya Sarhi, Taktoua, Chandiya, Indravan, Khatola, Jogisodha, Jhulup, etc 600 tonnes in Bichchiya Rs 7/kg Rs 8/kg (Raipur) Surendranagar, Dahod, Vatwa (in Gujarat) and Mumbai;

The major industries for Chakoda processing are located in Surendranagar, Vatva and Dahod in Gujarat and Mumbai where they are used in the manufacturing of seed gels, fodder for animals, etc. Most of these products are exported to European countries.

7.4.Scope for Intervention

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Since the technology required for Chakoda processing and manufacturing products is pretty complex, scope for forward integration is limited. Pooling may help collectors gain a better price and increase their bargaining power. Storage of Chakoda does not require much effort and can be easily done to earn a higher remuneration. However, the margins for trade in Chakoda are very low.

7.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices No organizations are currently working in pooling or processing of Chakoda. Possibilities of setting up cottage industries for making Chakoda powder and seed gels is being explored by us.

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8. Lac
8.1.The Trees and Produce Lac can be found on Kosum (Schleichera oleosa), Palash (Butea monosperma) and Ber (Zizyphus spp) trees. However, since Ber trees have thorns on them, collection of Lac becomes difficult and hence is not practiced. Lac collected from Kosum trees is considered to be of much better quality and sold at almost double the price of that collected Fig. 5: Lac on Palash tree from Palash trees. Unfortunately, the number of Kosum trees in the forests of Mandla has reduced considerably due to rapid felling while Palash trees are still present in large numbers. Culturing and extraction of Lac on Palash trees is pretty viable and can be promoted in villages. For cultivating Lac, two types of host trees are used, perennial trees and annual bushes. They are infested with Lac insects Laccifer lacca (Kerr) and left undisturbed. Thousands of Lac insects colonise branches of the trees and secrete the resinous pigment. After five to six months Lac-bearing branches are cut, and broods are tied to new host trees. The harvested trees are left for one to two years so that they grow new branches. In October, one crop of broods is introduced on larger trees and the Lac is harvested in April or May the next year. If the plants are small, they are left to be infested in June and harvested in October. Each Lac crop costs the farmers about one week of work14. Lac encrusted on branches or twigs of trees is known as stick Lac. Initial preparation involves scraping from the branch/ twigs and producing scraped Lac. The scraped Lac is then crushed and sieved to grains. It is then washed with water, soda etc, dried in a natural atmosphere, manually cleaned to produce seed Lac that is ready for export and/ or further processing into shellac through heat treatment or solvent extraction.
14

Referenced from http://www.downtoearth.org.in/node/2251 visited on 08/12/2010

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Lac is widely used in the ammunitions industry and in manufacturing of a large number of products like Pharmaceuticals, Paints, Adhesive, Cosmetics, Ayurvedic Preparation, Wood Polishes, Insulating Electrical Conductors, Sealing Wax & Paper Varnish.

8.2.Collection and Processing Lac is collected after six months of the exposure of the trees to Lac insects. When these insects produce Lac on the branches of the trees, it is collected manually and some of the insects are put on the branches of other trees so that they are able to produce Lac in another six months. Traditionally, Lac is scrapped from the sticks with the help of a knife and then it is sent to the factories as such without any grading for processing into shellac, bleached Lac, dewaxed or decolorized Lac. The process is very laborious, time consuming and lot of impurities such as sand, dirt, stick and fine wood particles also get mixed with the scrapped Lac encrustations. On an average, a person can scrap about 10 kg of Lac in a day, manually. Separation of the impurities is carried out by additional unit operations such as sieving and winnowing, which increase the processing cost. The scrapped Lac encrustations are non-uniform in size and require further crushing /grinding in the factories to obtain the desired size of raw Lac suitable for making different products.

8.3.Production and Prices Lac sells at different prices in the mandi based on the tree from which it is obtained. It is usually collected twice in a year – once during October, November and once during June, July. Once collected, simple cleaning is done to get rid of twigs, leaves and other unwanted matter. The clean Lac is then sold in the market. A Palash tree can produce 4 – 6 Kg of Lac every 6 months which can then be sold at about Rs 40 – 60 per Kg. A collector can earn Rs 400 – 500 from each Palash tree every year. On the other hand, a collector can earn almost Rs 70 – 80 per Kg for Lac obtained from Kosum trees.

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Lac cultivation in India has steadily declined over the years due to large scale felling of trees and Lac insects being sensitive to pest attacks. The production and export of Lac over the last few years are given in the table below15:

Table 4: Production and export of stick Lac from India Average production (M.T.) 43731 43000 43000 33000 20000 16200 20000 19500 Export Highest Lowest Value Corresponding Corresponding Quantity production production (In Rs. year year (M.T.) (M.T.) (M.T.) Million) 43800 1936-37 32692 1931-32 31414 11.98 65000 1946-47 30863 1948-49 25519 15.78 49000 1956-57 24407 1953-54 29300 18.6 38700 1967-68 17651 1964-65 17244 14.79 23869 1973-74 9119 1978-79 8684 111.32 20300 1986-87 11650 1983-84 6626 221.8 25500 1997-98 14785 1990-91 7561 774.41 21500 2001-02 17500 2002-03 6809 1131.09 Stick Lac

Decade 1931 - 1940 1941 - 1950 1951 - 1960 1961 - 1970 1971 - 1980 1981 - 1990 1991 - 2000 2001 - 2006

Though the Bichchiya block has a huge number of Palash trees, Lac cultivation is not practiced as the process of collection of Lac from the wild is difficult and time consuming. Though the ammunition industry in Khamariya faces a huge shortfall in their Lac requirement, Lac cultivation has not yet been promoted in the region. Balarampur in West Bengal is the major trading centre where most of the Lac processing and exports take place from. The various characteristics of the produce are shown in the table below. Table 5: Characteristics of Lac Product Name of Trees Parts used Block identified Villages Production Price Wholesale Price
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Lac Palash (Butea monosperma) Insect excretion on branches Bichhiya Jhulup, Kanhari Khurd, Kanhari Kala, Muwala Maal Negligible though large number of trees found Rs 60 – 75/kg Rs 90 – 100/kg (W.B.)

Report of the Study on Lac Sub Sector, Chhattisgarh State Institute of Rural Development

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Markets/Processing Industries

Balarampur (W.B.), Khamariya, Umariya,

8.4.Scope for Intervention Lac cultivation on Palash trees can be promoted in a huge way in Niwas and Bichchiya blocks. Individuals or groups of villagers owning more than hundred trees can be targeted in order to attain a viable scale of operation. Another option could be to form SHGs and take Palash trees on lease from the Joint Forest Management (JFM) Committee for Lac cultivation. Financial implications and modalities of such an intervention are given in Section 13 below.

8.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices An organization called Centre for Rural Biotechnology is working on Palash Lac production on a very small scale. They harvest the Lac manually and after purifying it, supply it to the Ammunition factory in Khamariya. A Lac Cooperative has also been set up in Annupur, MP. The cooperative has taken up Palash plantation on a large scale which is then used for harvesting Lac and other important produce. Dr. Moni Thomas (Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vidhyalaya) is an expert in Lac cultivation and processing who has done extensive work in this field. Details about the intervention are beyond the scope of this report.

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9.

Gond (Gums)
9.1.The Trees and Produce Gums are plant exudations, partly as a natural phenomenon (as part of the normal metabolism of plants) and partly as a result of injury to the bark or stem (due to fungal or bacterial attack). Mostly gums are exuded by the stem, only a few gums are obtained from roots, leaves and other parts of the plant. Gums are primarily formed by the disintegration of internal plant tissue through a process known as gummosis. Gums extracted from Kullu (Sterculia urens) and Salai (Boswellia serrata) trees are valuable forest Fig. 6: The Dhaawa tree produce. In addition gum from Axle Wood tree or Dhaawa (Anogeissus latifolia), Cutch tree or Khair (Acacia Catechu) and Indian gum arabic tree or Babool (Acacia nilotica) are also extracted and are economically important. Out of these Kullu gum is the most precious and is collected in very small quantities. Salai gum is also of good quality while Dhaawa gum is considered to be of bad quality and sold at cheaper rates. Our study focussed on Salai and Dhaawa gums because these trees are still found in the forests of Mandla district. The colour of the gum varies from whitish yellow to amber. This variation depends on following factors like storage time, duration it has remained on tree before being picked and the tear to the bark.16 The gum obtained is directly sent to processing industries where it is sorted and impurities are removed. Cleaning, grinding, sizing and blending is done next to obtain uniform grades of Gum. Almost all of the gum in India is directly exported either in

16

http://www.alibaba.com/product-free/108404879/GUM_GHATTI_INDIAN_GUM_Dhawa.html referenced on 12th December, 2010

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lump form or powder and no secondary processing takes place in India. During the process of particle breakdown, impurities are removed from the gum by sifting, aspiration and density table separation. Powdered Gum is light tan in colour and has bland taste and practically no odour.

Following are some of the applications of Gum: • As an emulsifier and stabilizer in beverages and butter containing table syrups. • • • • As a flavour fixative for specific applications. Used in the preparation of powdered, stable, oil-soluble vitamins. As a binder in long-fibered light weight papers. As an emulsifier of petroleum and non petroleum waxes to form liquid and wax paste emulsions.

9.2.Collection and Processing Gums are generally collected by slitting the bark of the tree with an axe and tying a vessel below it. The gum oozes out of the slit and gets collected in the vessel over time. This naturally obtained gum may contain a lot of impurities in the form of wood pieces, dust, etc which is either removed by hand or sold off directly in the market. This slitting technique may be injurious to the tree and may even lead to its death. Such practices have resulted in the death of a large number of trees in the past which led to the banning of gum extraction from Kullu and Salai trees by the Madhya Pradesh Government in 1982 and 1992 respectively. These bans have been lifted for some districts since 1995.17 Since the quantity of gum obtained from each tree is very less, collectors usually mix the gums obtained from different trees.

17

Avinash Upadhyay, Gums and Resins NTFP Unexplored

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9.3.Production and Prices The amount of gum collected in this area has decreased considerably over the last few years. According to the villagers, not all Saaje, Salai and Dhaawa trees produce gum and the numbers of gum producing trees are rapidly decreasing. The prices of gum vary quite drastically according to the quality. Pure white Kullu gum can fetch up to Rs 170 – 180 per Kg while impure gum can even fetch negligible prices. The practice of mixing gums obtained from different trees results in much lower price realisation for the collectors. The following are the characteristics of the produce:

Table 6: Characteristics of Gums Product Name of Trees Parts used Block identified Villages Production Price Wholesale Price Markets/Processing Industries Gond (Gums) Kullu (Sterculia urens), Salai (Boswellia serrata), Dhaawa (Anogeissus latifolia) Exudations from bark Mocha Kapot Bahra, Paudi, Dungaria, Bagaspur, Changul, Tilri , Chanai 3 - 4 quintal Rs 35 – 40 /kg for Dhaawa gum Rs 100/kg (Raipur) 90% is exported; rest is locally consumed

9.4.Scope for Intervention Simple sorting and grading of gums collected from different trees can help in better price realisation for the collectors. Also, cases of adulteration are quite widespread and hence, quality is an important parameter that decides the prices of gums. Good quality gums can attract up to double the prices of impure and bad quality gums. Moreover, there is a need to establish stronger market linkages in order to ensure that collectors get better prices. Our interactions with village traders revealed that gums were only traded in larger markets such as Jabalpur and Raipur and it was not possible for them to transport the gum from the villages to these markets. Spreading
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awareness about the collection of gums and establishment of market linkages could result in improvement of quantity of gums collected especially in the Mocha region and villages surrounding Tatri. SFRI is in the process of designing a training programme for sustainable harvesting of gums and may be able to provide training to interested villagers from next year.

9.5.Institutions Involved and Best Practices Since the quantity of Gum collected in the region has reduced drastically, none of the organizations working in the area are looking to intervene in gum collection or trading in the near future.

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10.

Shahad (Honey)

10.1. The Produce Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans. Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey has a long history of human consumption and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavouring. The main uses of honey are in cooking, baking, as a spread on bread, and as an addition to various beverages such as tea and as a sweetener in some commercial beverages. It also has a role in religion and symbolism. Flavours of honey vary based on the nectar source, and various types and grades of honey are available. It is also used in various medicinal traditions to treat ailments. Honey along with lemon in lukewarm water is used to reduce extra fat from the body. Some people use honey as part of their daily diet. It can be taken in plain form, with water and with milk. People purchase honey in two forms: Branded and Unbranded (Loose). Branded honey is purchased by urban consumers mainly and the main existing brand is Dabur along with some brands restricted to different regions of the country. Honey is collected from wild beehives made by bees in the dense forests of Kanha National Park. It has been found that only one – fourth of the beehive contains honey. Hence, it is unnecessary to destroy the entire beehive to collect honey. Leaving behind the dry part of the beehive can ensure that the bees don’t desert the beehive and regeneration of honey takes place every one and a half to two months.

10.2. Collection and Processing Villagers usually collect honey by breaking or burning entire beehives. The honey is then squeezed out of the honey comb and collected in beer bottles (750 ml). A honey comb made by smaller bees (Indian hive bee/Asian bee or Apis cerana indica) can produce 3 - 4 bottles of honey while that made from bigger bees (Rock bee or Apis dorsata) can produce up to 8 bottles of honey. Once collected, simple filtering is done

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to remove impurities and unwanted matter from the honey which is then bought by traders. Traditionally, wild honey is collected by villagers using smoke to make bees desert the beehives and beehives are then cut to obtain honey from them. After that, honey is purified to remove wax and other impurities using a sieve. It is then filled in 750 ml bottles of beer and sold in the village itself or to the village or mandi trader.

10.3. Production and Prices The current price which the villagers are getting now – a – days for one bottle of honey is Rs. 60-70. The practice of collecting honey by breaking or burning entire beehives can kill most of the bees and destroys their eggs as well. Such destructive practices have reduced the amount of honey collected from the forests in and around Bichchiya considerably. Moreover, villagers have been barred from entering the National Park where most of the honey combs are now found.The various characteristics of the produce are depicted below. Table 7: Characteristics of Shahad Product Block identified Villages Production Price Wholesale Price Markets/Processing Industries Shahad (Honey) Mocha Kapot Bahra, Khatiya, Manegaon 50 – 100 Kg Rs 60-70/750ml Rs 130/kg (Ghughri) Ghughri; Is mostly consumed locally

10.4. Scope for Intervention Due to the current practice of using smoke for harvesting, honeybees desert their home permanently and regeneration of honey doesn’t take place. The villagers can be trained to cut only that part of the beehive which is necessary and uniforms can be provided to them so that they don’t have to use smoke for harvesting.

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10.5. Institutions Involved and Best Practices WWF and Centre for Advanced Research and Development (CARD) are working towards sustainable harvesting of honey. Both the organizations have provided training and uniforms to villagers so that honey can be harvested sustainably. Besides, the reducing quantity of honey collected in villages, the inhibitions amongst villagers about honey collection being unsafe is the major hurdle they face. These inhibitions are mainly due to unfortunate incidents like death of an individual while collecting honey from a tree in the village or a nearby village. CARD gets most of its honey from nearby villages of Mawai. It then processes the honey provided by the villagers in its own mills and also markets it under the brand name of ‘Aranyak’ through government outlets.

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11.A Pilot Intervention in Chironji
11.1. Introduction The current method adopted for removing Chironji kernels from the seed using manual decorticators is quite labour intensive and time consuming. According to a collector it takes almost a month for him to sell the Chironji kernels obtained after ripening, drying and crushing of the Chironji fruit and seed. There is a scope for introduction of technology here to reduce the amount of labour required in the process. Both manual and automatic Chironji seed decorticators are available for installation. However, since the quantities of Chironji collected in the villages are too low, making investments in establishing an enterprise of Chironji collectors is not advised. Moreover, since villagers already decorticate the seeds in a traditional grinding stone and don’t sell the fruits directly, there is no substantial value addition except for the savings in labour. SCALE OF OPERATIONS Our initial interactions with villagers in various villages in the Niwas block initially revealed that almost 5 – 7 quintals of Chironji is collected in every village every year. However triangulation by interaction with employees of Udyogini (an NGO working in the region) and traders in Niwas and Babheliya revealed that the quantity of Chironji traded in the region is very low. In fact, only 4 – 5 Quintals of Chironji were traded in Babheliya and Niwas markets last year. Thus, introducing machines to process 4 – 5 quintals of Chironji would be unviable. (Financial analysis shown below)

Pooling of Chironji might be much more beneficial as the rates in cities like Jabalpur and Raipur were found to be almost 4 times of the rates prevailing in the villages. There is a huge demand for Chironji for household consumption and in sweet shops in these towns which can be tapped in order to ensure proper remuneration for the collectors.

11.2. The Technology and Financial Requirements The calculations done for the decortications machine developed by Madhya Pradesh Vigyan Sabha, Bhopal (Mr. Ajay Kumar Khare) clearly shows that the proposition

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would be unviable for the expected quantity of 5 quintals. The calculations are done based on the analysis done by Disha Cooperative in Mayurbhanj, Orissa.

Table 8: Financial Analysis for establishing Chironji decortications plant Feature Developer Motor Capacity Yield Machine Cost (including transportation) Packaging Machine Cost Total Variable Costs (Storage, Labor, etc.) Total Costs* Opportunity Savings (Labor)* Breakeven Quantity Description Madhya Pradesh Vigyan Sabha, Bhopal (Mr. Ajay Kumar Khare) 3HP (Crompton & Greaves ) 200 – 300 Kg/Eight hours 18-22% Rs 1 lakh Rs 30 thousand Rs 22 per Kg Rs 1.5 lakh Rs 1.25 lakh Around 7 Quintals

As the table above shows, the total cost of machinery, labour, electricity etc. required to process Chironji is more than the savings incurred as a result of saving on Labour and time (Assuming NREGA wage rates). The costs incurred in simple pooling would only amount to the total variable costs indicated above i.e. Rs 22 per Kg which is negligible as compared to the price difference of Rs 250 – 300 per Kg between prices in cities like Jabalpur and those in villages.

11.3. Legal Aspects of the Intervention

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Pooling of Chironji can be done by forming SHG s at the village level which would require minimum legal obligations.

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12.A Pilot Intervention in Mahua
12.1. Introduction The sale of Mahua when its supply is high in the market (March-April) and its repurchase in December by the villagers can be stopped by forming self help groups and providing loans to them so that it can be sold later at a higher price. The group can collect Mahua from its members as well as purchase it from the villagers at the going market rate and store it with the assistance of FES. The storage is done in June after drying up the Mahua in May. For its storage, Mahua requires an air tight place which can be made through a mud container with its inner walls surrounded by polythene. The polythene is also used to close the mouth of the container. In this manner, it is not attacked by various insects and atmospheric conditions like moisture and air. Mahua can then be taken out at the end of November and sold at a higher price. In this way, each member of a ten member group will earn around Rs 1400. A new initiative of using nets to collect Mahua is also proposed. This method of collection would reduce the drudgery involved in Mahua collection and also reduce the amount of impurities (dirt, twigs, etc) present, thus helping villagers get a better price.

12.2. Financial Requirements The financial requirements for this intervention would not be very high. An amount of Rs 60 thousand would be sufficient which can vary depending upon Mahua production in different villages (see profit and loss account). The analysis is done on the basis of an actual case study of an SHG of 10 members in Chappri, Mocha. The members of the group were able to procure 30 quintals of Mahua during the season (May – June) at a cost of Rs 18 per Kg. The Mahua was stored till November and the costs incurred in storage are shown. However, around 2 Quintals of Mahua were lost due to spoilage and drying. Hence, only 28 quintals were sold in the market for a price of Rs 18 per Kg. The opportunity cost of labour would be around Rs 750 (Rs 25 per quintal) which is not included in financial analysis.

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Table 9: Profit and Loss statement for Mahua pooling and storage Proposed Profit and Loss Statement for Mahua (all figures in Rupees) Sales COGS Gross Margin Operating Costs Storage Polythene Bags Anti termite powder Transportation 420 40 460 1800 2260 Net Margin 14340 60000 43400 16600

The table below shows the cost benefit analysis of using nets for Mahua collection as against the traditional system of picking it up from the ground. It is assumed that each household owns two trees which produce 1.5 Quintals of Mahua in a year. Thus the total benefit to a household could be Rs 312.5 or almost Rs 2 per quintal. Table 10: Cost – Benefit Analysis for using nets for Mahua Collection Cost - Benefit Analysis for using Nets (in Rs.) Cost of Nets 100 Increased Price per kg for Mahua 0.25 Benefit due to increased price 37.5 Opportunity Saving of Mahua collection 375 Total Benefit 412.5 Total cost 100 Net Benefit 312.5

12.3. Legal Aspects of the Intervention Despite being a freely tradeable item, 2 per cent Mandi Tax is imposed on Mahua, even though it is hardly sold in Mandis which are far from the villages, and so the collectors are forced to sell it to the local traders and grocery shops. Further, a 12 per
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cent sales tax is imposed on Mahua within MP, while the interstate transportation tax is 3 per cent. Besides this 4% VAT and 14% tax on finished product has to be paid. This is irrespective of whether the enterprise is at the SHG level or a larger trader level. Although transit passes for Mahua are not required in Madhya Pradesh, they are required in the neighbouring states and hence, free trade may not always be possible. Trade restrictions in terms of the Excise Act, restriction of 5 litres of maximum storage of Mahua liquor per family have been removed by the state government.

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13.A Pilot Intervention in Lac
13.1. Introduction Lac cultivation can be promoted on the Palash trees which are found in huge numbers in Niwas and Bichchiya blocks. However, since the quantity of Lac obtained from each Palash tree is quite insignificant, Lac cultivation needs to be done on atleast 100 trees at a time. A group of 10 – 12 collectors can be formed at the village level who would own the Palash trees. This would ensure that significant quantities are collected by the group. Another option available is to take up Palash trees on lease from the Joint Forest Management (JFM) Committee which is responsible for the care and upkeep of forests in the village. The collectors need to be provided with the necessary equipments and brood Lac initially. Brood Lac is the mature stick Lac with live female insects ready to lay eggs within the encrustations. Once the eggs hatch, the larvae have a crawling period of six to seven days during which they have to be transferred to a new branch. On – field training for successful breeding of Lac can be provided to interested villagers through demonstrations and exposure visits to nearby places like Seedhi and Annupur where villagers have been cultivating Lac on similar models. The manual process of scrapping Lac from the branches using secateurs is a time consuming and cumbersome process. Machines have been developed by CIPHET, Ludhiana to reduce the labour required. The machine known as Lac scrapping machine is suitable for scrapping of Lac encrustations, faster than traditional manual process, and combined Lac scrapper cum grader (20 and 50 kg capacity per hour) is suitable for production of graded raw Lac at individual Lac grower’s level. A report prepared by the Department for International Development, India for the Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project mentions in detail the steps to be followed for designing an intervention in Lac (Enterplan, June 2006). The report does not recommend promotion of small scale producer processing of Lac at the village level because the working capital requirements are high while the margins are low. Moreover inconsistent quality Lac produced by small scale machines is sold at much lower prices.
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Lac is used in the manufacturing of a variety of products like nail polish, lipstick, aeroplane paints, ammunition, etc. Most of the processing industries are located in Balrampur, West Bengal. Traders in Balrampur can directly be contacted to purchase the Lac produced.

13.2. Financial Requirements The report by MPRLP mentions in detail the costs incurred in inputs, training and marketing of Lac by village level institutions. Specifically, the costs incurred on brood Lac and other inputs required for Lac cultivation on 10 trees are shown below: Table 11: Production Costs for Lac cultivation on 10 Palash trees Inputs Brood Lac @1kg/tree Nylon pouch @10/tree Secateurs 2 nos. Twine(sutli) 1kg Quantity 10kg@Rs65/kg 100@Rs1.70 Rs250 Rs20/kg Total Cost Rs 650 Rs 170 Rs 500 Rs 20 Rs1340

The expected production of Lac from 20 trees taking a conservative estimate of yields between 60 to 80 % is shown below: Table 12: Expected returns from 20 Palash trees Baisakhi (October Harvest) 40kg (Rs.3200) @4kg/tree Katki (May/ June Harvest) 60kg (Rs.4800) @6kg/tree

Scraped lac @Rs80/kg OR Scraped lac @Rs80/kg Brood lac @Rs65/kg

120kg (Rs.7800) @12kg/tree

30kg (Rs.2400)@ 3kg/tree PLUS 30kg (Rs.1950) @3kg/tree

These tables show that a yearly investment Rs 1990 in Lac cultivation gives a yearly yield of Rs 7410 in the first year and in subsequent years (based on 2006 rates).
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13.3. Legal Aspects of the Intervention Promotion of Lac production in MP has been under MP Chief Minister’s Fellow programme since 2002. Lac cultivation has been promoted under various programmes by the Department of Rural Development, GoMP and MP Minor Forest Produce (Trade and Development) Co-operative Federation limited and other additional programmes like the Integrated Tribal Development Programme, Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project, Rajiv Gandhi Watershed Development Mission, etc. The programme is now being mentored by the Development Commissioner, RDD and the Managing Director, MP MFP. Thus, various Govt. agencies can be contacted and their guidance sought in order to make the intervention successful.

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14.Fuel wood Study
14.1. Introduction Fuel wood is used in households, restaurants, tea stalls, schools etc. for heating and cooking purposes. It is cheaper than commercial LPG which is the main reason for its widespread use in restaurants and in tea stalls. Schools implementing the mid – day meal scheme are forced to use fuel wood instead of LPG because they are not given enough subsidies. According to the State Forest Policy (2005), villagers living within five kilometre radius of the forest borders have been granted permission to bring head loads of fallen dry fuel wood for their own consumption18. Only broken branches and twigs can be used as fuel wood and that too, cannot be sold to commercial establishments. However, improper implementation and regulation of such laws have created a huge market for fuel wood in towns like Bichchiya and Mocha. In fact, according to our estimate, 5000 – 6000 Kg of wood is burnt every day in restaurants and tea stalls in Bichchiya.19 The aim of our study was to understand the status of demand and supply of fuel wood for commercial establishments (restaurants and tea stalls) in these two towns. We also tried to analyze the seasonal variations in prices for fuel wood and the underlying reasons for these variations. Since charcoal forms a close substitute for fuel wood and is mostly used by small tea stalls, some time was also devoted to understand the market conditions for charcoal.

14.2. The Study The fuel wood study was conducted in two clusters i.e. Bichhiya and Mocha. The study was conducted by tracking fuel wood supply routes through which fuel wood was supplied to the towns early every morning. The market dynamics (determination of prices) in play were observed and informal interactions with dhaba and tea stall owners were carried out to assess the consumption at a particular place. Interactions with villagers supplying fuel wood were also done to assess the demand and supply patterns and fluctuations in prices in different seasons.

18

Referenced from http://www.mpinfo.org/mpinfonew/english/cd/040405.asp on 12th December, 2010 19 Calculated assuming a wood to charcoal conversion ratio of 10:1

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However, reluctance of villagers to reveal the real rates and quantity of fuel wood supplied proved to be a major limitation for our study since villagers know that fuel wood trading is illegal and have been harassed by police officials in the past. Moreover fluctuations in prices and quantities supplied are mostly based on the opinions of dhaba owners. 14.3. Supply Patterns Bichchiya is a market town with many small and big restaurants and tea stalls consuming up to 90 gatthas20 of fuel wood every day. Fuel wood and charcoal is supplied to these every morning from the nearby villages such as Burra Tola, Bhanpur, Kanharikala, Mawalamal, Gitti Tola, Banjari, Katanga, Deelwada, Shari, etc. Generally women from these villages bring head loads of fuel wood early in the morning every day in huge numbers. The supply of fuel wood is higher on the weekly market day i.e. Friday. An increase of almost 50% was observed in the supply of fuel wood on Fridays (97 gatthas) as against that on other days (64 gatthas). Each gattha weighs around 35 – 40 Kg. Charcoal is also brought along by these villagers in sacks weighing around 50 Kg. The supply of fuel wood is quite unorganised in Mocha as compared to Bichchiya. Most of the fuel wood is supplied as and when demanded by the resorts and dhaba owners. Khatiya and Manegaon are the two main villages where fuel wood comes from. The villagers here do not have a fixed routine of bringing fuel wood to the market every morning. Thus the fuel wood market in Mocha is demand driven while that in Bichchiya is supply driven. The size of a gattha in Mocha is also much smaller and weighs around 20 – 25 Kg. The use of charcoal in Mocha was not observed and may be considered to be negligible.

14.4. Demand Patterns The demand pattern for fuel wood in the two towns is quite distinct from each other. In Bichchiya, fuel wood is used to a large extent by dhabbas, restaurants and snack shops for cooking purposes. The town has 8 sweets and snacks shops which require 5 - 6 gatthas of fuel wood every day on an average. Three dhabas (Rajput Bhojanalay, Madhuvan Dhabba and Annapoorna Dhabba) cater to a larger customer base (more
20

A gatta or a head load is a commonly used measure for quantity of fuel wood. Each gatta weighs around 35 – 40 Kg though there may be large variations.

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than 100 customers every day) and hence require up to 15 gatthas of fuel wood. The demand for fuel wood in these dhabas remains almost constant right throughout the year except during the festive seasons when the demand for sweets and snacks shoots up. The demand for fuel wood is also higher on the weekly market day i.e. Friday as Bichchiya has the biggest mandi in the area and hence there is a huge inflow of people from nearby villages. On the other hand, the market for fuel wood in Mocha is highly demand driven with large variations in the demand for fuel wood based on the tourist inflow. Fuel wood is mostly used by resorts for heating purposes and by a few dhabas. All the tea stalls in this town have switched to kerosene because they find it cheaper and hassle free. The dhaba owners are also slowly switching to LPG for the same reasons. These factors have reduced the dependence on fuel wood over time. However, it is still being used in water boilers and room heaters by tourist resorts which are more than 50 in number and 3 dhabas which burn around 15 gatthas of fuel wood every day for cooking food. Each water boiler requires 1 gattha of fuel wood if burnt for an entire day. The demand for fuel wood shoots up both in resorts and dhabas during the holiday season (Christmas and summer) and is almost zero in the rainy season when the park is closed for visitors.

14.5. Consumption and Prices of Fuel wood The consumption of fuel wood and charcoal is much more in Bichchiya than in Mocha. Though the resorts and dhabas continue to use fuel wood for cooking and heating purposes in Mocha, the consumption has reduced over time as more and more of the resorts and dhaba owners are switching to alternative sources such as LPG and Solar energy. The current prices for fuel wood in Bichchiya are Rs 50 – 60 per gattha with each gattha weighing around 35 – 40 Kg. The prices can shoot up to Rs 70 per gattha during the rainy season when dry wood is hard to find and during winters when the villagers are busy with harvesting and other agricultural activities. Prices are relatively low (Rs 30 – 40 per gattha) during the dry summer season when villagers are not busy with agriculture. Besides weather and the agricultural cycle, NREGS has also affected the prices of fuel wood. Availability of employment for villagers during the summer months has reduced their dependence on fuel wood for additional
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income. Surprise checks by the forest department also cause the prices for fuel wood to shoot up sometimes. The major supply routes for fuel wood in Bichchiya block are depicted in the figure below.
Katanga Banjari Jhulup Deelwada

Burra tola

Gitti tola Sarhi Taktouwa Bhanpur

Fig. 7: Fuel wood supply routes and consumption points in Bichchiya The use of charcoal is comparatively lesser as it is much costlier (current price is Rs 200 per bora) and only small tea stalls use it for making tea and boiling milk. Each bora of charcoal weighs around 50 Kg and lasts for 8 – 10 days21 on an average. Around 30 such tea stalls are operating in and around the Bichchiya market area presently. The prices for charcoal also show some variation in the range of Rs 180 to Rs 250 per bora. In Mocha, the smaller sized gattha (20 – 25 Kg) costs Rs 30 at the current prices. Though there are fluctuations in prices, they are not as striking as in Bichchiya. This may be due to the fact that villagers supply fuel wood only when demanded and know that the resort and dhaba owners will come to them for their fuel wood requirements.

21

Consumption of charcoal also depends on the wood it is made from. Charcoal from Harra, Dhawa, Saaja and Tinsa is considered good as it is heavy and burns for longer periods of time while that from Teak and Bamboo burns out very quickly.

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15.Conclusion
NTFPs play an important role in the role of tribals especially because they provide them with an important source of income during the dry months when they have almost no other alternative sources of income. However, unsustainable harvesting and degradation of forests have resulted in a large scale reduction in quantities of almost all NTFPs found in the region. An intervention in NTFP needs to address the collection and processing issues that villagers face. Establishing strong market linkages with industries/ markets is also important as that would ensure that the collectors receive the maximum returns. However breaking the traditional trade linkages is not easy as each link within the chain has an important role to perform. Thus, the intervention needs to look at the collection, processing and trade linkages for each NTFP separately and identify unmet needs of the villagers. Potential for intervention was identified in Mahua and Lac. SHGs could be established for the pooling and storage of Mahua. An added initiative of providing collectors with nets to collect Mahua could be taken up which would improve the returns that the collectors get for their produce. The main aim of the intervention would be to reduce both – distress sales during dry months as well as repurchase during the winters. Similar groups could be formed for promoting Lac cultivation on Palash trees as Palash trees are found in huge numbers in the region. A group needs to own atleast hundred such trees in order to make the initiative successful. In case a group does not own these many trees, they could be taken up on lease from the JFM Committee. A suitable incentive sharing mechanism between the group and the JFM committee needs to be worked out in order to avoid opportunism. The scope for intervention in all other NTFPs under study was restricted to the Pooling or Grading & Sorting stage as either the quantities obtained are too low or the technology available is very complex and cannot be implemented at the village level. An intervention in such NTFPs would first require an extensive awareness and regeneration programme so that the quantities collected improve over time.

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ANNEXURES
Annexure 1: Seasonal cycle of Major NTFPs
Product Chakoda Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug S ep Oct Broodin g 1 and Harvest ing 2 Seeds mature Fruit Collected Fruit Collected Flowering Flowering Flowering Fruit Ripens Fruit Collected Fruit Ripens Seeds mature Fruit Ripens Leaves Collected Nov Dec Seeds mature Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Lac

Broodin g2

Harvest Recupe Broodin ing 1 ration g2

Van tulsi Harra Baherra Mahua Bel Fruit Chironji Van jeera Aonla Tendu Patta

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Annexure 2: Possible Interventions in NTFPs

Type of Intervention Name of the non Area of timber Community/ Intervention Regeneration Pooling forest Harvesting private Primary Secondary Credit on public/ through produce practices storage Processing Processing linkage private lands SHGs structures Bichiya Honey Mocha Niwas Bichiya Mahua Mocha Niwas Bichiya Lac Mocha Niwas Bichiya Chakoda Mocha Niwas Bichiya Gond Mocha Niwas Bichiya Chironji Mocha Niwas X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X

X

X

X

X

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REFERENCES
1. Biodiversity Conservation, Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Programmes - Ideas for Implementation, UNDP, New Delhi 2. Reddy, K. S., Forest Working Plan (West Mandla Forest Division), 1993-94 3. Sinha, M. K., Forest Working Plan (East Mandla Forest Division), 1999-00
4. Thakur, Radha and M.Srinu Babu, Engendering the Market with Mahua A community

based initiative in Mandla 5. Chhattisgarh State Institute of Rural Development, Report of the Study on Lac Sub Sector
6. Upadhyay, Avinash, Gums and Resins NTFP Unexplored

7. Strategic Development of Lac in Madhya Pradesh, MPRLP, June 2006
8. Mehta, S., Rupela, O.P., Ramakrishnappa, K., Producer Company (PC)/Institutional PC

of, for and by the Farmers 9. NTFP Enterprise and Forest Governance, FGLG India
10. http://banajata.org/pdf/state-level/Madhya-Pradesh.pdf referenced on 10th December,

2010
11. http://www.iifm.ac.in/ntfp/NTFPGHPs.pdf referenced on 14th December, 2010 12. http://wiki.encyclopaediaindica.com/~encyclo3/wiki/index.php?

title=INDIAN_BUTTER_TREE referenced on 14th December, 2010
13. http://www.vasundharaorissa.org/Research%20Reports/Mahua%20The%20Lifeline

%20of%20Tribal%20India.pdf referenced on 12th December, 2010
14. http://www.downtoearth.org.in/node/2251 referenced on 08th December, 2010

15. http://www.alibaba.com/productfree/108404879/GUM_GHATTI_INDIAN_GUM_Dhawa.html referenced on 12th December, 2010
16. http://www.mpinfo.org/mpinfonew/english/cd/040405.asp

referenced

on

12th

December, 2010

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x