# COMPUTER

APPLICATIONS
IN

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HYDRAULIC
ENGINEERING

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Connecting Theory
to Practice
Seventh Edition

Revision History..............................................................................................................xii
Foreword ........................................................................................................................xiv

CHAPTER 1

BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES

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1.1 General Flow Characteristics..................................................................................1
Flow Conveyance.......................................................................................................1
Area, Wetted Perimeter, and Hydraulic Radius .........................................................1
Velocity......................................................................................................................2
Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow, and Reynolds Number ............................................3
1.2 Energy .......................................................................................................................5
The Energy Principle..................................................................................................5
The Energy Equation..................................................................................................6
Energy Losses and Gains ...........................................................................................7
1.3 Orifices and Weirs....................................................................................................8
Orifices.......................................................................................................................8
Weirs ........................................................................................................................10
1.4 Friction Losses........................................................................................................13
Manning’s Equation .................................................................................................14
Chézy’s (Kutter’s) Equation.....................................................................................14
Hazen-Williams Equation ........................................................................................15
Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Equation ........................................................15
Typical Roughness Factors ......................................................................................16
1.5 Pressure Flow .........................................................................................................17
1.6 Open-Channel Flow. ..............................................................................................18
Uniform Flow...........................................................................................................18
Specific Energy and Critical Flow ...........................................................................20
1.7 Computer Applications..........................................................................................22
1.8 FlowMaster .............................................................................................................23
1.9 Tutorial Example ...................................................................................................24
1.10 Problems .................................................................................................................27

CHAPTER 2

BASIC HYDROLOGY

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2.1 Rainfall....................................................................................................................35
Basic Rainfall Characteristics ..................................................................................35
Return Period and Frequency...................................................................................35
Types of Rainfall Data .............................................................................................36
2.2 Rainfall Abstractions and Runoff Volume...........................................................45

Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering

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.....................................................99 3..........103 3...............................................................................................................49 NRCS (SCS) Curve Number Method.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................t Watershed Area ..............................................................3 Inlets on Grade ...................................................................................................................4 Inlets in Sag........................................................................................................................................................................................................67 Creating Runoff (Effective Rainfall) Hyetographs................60 NRCS (SCS) Peak Flow Estimation..........4 Computing Hydrographs........................................................105 3.......100 Energy Balance .......................................................95 3........2 Gutter Sections on Grade ....................89 3...........98 Inlet and Gutter Problems Using FlowMaster..................................107 Profiles ..........5 Problems......................................10 Tutorial Examples .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Inlet Design Overview ...............................................107 Analysis and Design...........................................................................................................................64 2..................................................................................................................................................................108 Tutorial 2 — Alternatives Analysis with Scenario Manager.....................................................................................................45 Determining Runoff Volume.............................................9 StormCAD ........................................................................................104 Sealing Conditions ..........................................5 Inlet Design Overview ...............................................................................8 Storm Sewer Applications .................................................................107 3...............................................................................................................51 2......................................................................................106 How Can You Use StormCAD?.................................................................................................56 The Rational Method..72 Discrete Convolution...........................................................................................................................................77 2..............108 Tutorial 1 — Design of a Network with Auto Design...........................56 Time of Concentration...................................................................................................90 3.............113 vi Bentley Institute Press .......................................................................................105 Hydrology Model ...........................................................92 Curb Inlets on Grade .............................................7 Mixed Flow Profiles ........................48 Runoff Coefficient..104 Rapidly Varied Flow .....................................................................................................................96 3..99 Flow Classification....................................................................69 Unit Hydrographs......................................104 3...................................................46 Horton Infiltration Equation.........................92 Grate Inlets on Grade .....................................6 Gradually Varied Flow .........................45 Rainfall Abstractions.......................................................98 Inlet and Gutter Network Problems Using StormCAD ...............................................93 Combination Inlets on Grade .................................82 er p CHAPTER 3 INLETS................................................... AND STORM SEWER DESIGN 89 Ex c 3............3 Computing Peak Runoff Flow Rate...................................................................................... GRAVITY PIPING SYSTEMS..............

...........................................................................................................................................................................6 Problems ....186 Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering vii ..........................116 CHAPTER 4 CULVERT HYDRAULICS 135 DETENTION POND DESIGN Ex c CHAPTER 5 er p t 4...........................................................................................144 How Can You Use CulvertMaster?.............................................................................................................140 Gradually Varied Flow Analysis.........................................................4 Components of Detention Facilities .........................................................................................2 Outlet Control Hydraulics.................................................................................................................142 Submerged Flow .............5 Tutorial Example ...................................................................................................................9 Tutorial Example ................................................................................................................................................181 5...................................................................................................1 Culvert Systems....................................................................................158 Pond Bottoms and Side Slopes.................................................180 How Can You Use PondPack for Windows? ..................................3 Detention Pond Modeling Concepts ................................................159 5...............................................................................................1 Overview of Stormwater Detention ...........136 4.................................175 5......................................167 5...........................................171 5..............................................................157 Dam Embankments .........4 CulvertMaster ..................................................................135 Culvert Hydraulics ....................10 Problems .........144 4.....................................2 Basic Design Considerations .......8 PondPack ..................................................................138 Entrance Minor Loss ............3 Inlet Control Hydraulics...180 5...................................................Tutorial 3 — Cost Estimating ..............147 153 5.........................................................................................................154 Pre-Development versus Post-Development Criteria and Recurrence Frequency ..............................................................................158 Freeboard ....................................................................6 Storage Indication Method........159 Stage versus Storage Volume.............................................................................................................................................................................................138 Exit Minor Loss ...........11 Problems ................................................154 Types and Configurations of Stormwater Detention Facilities ..........................................114 3....142 4....................................................................136 Friction Losses .............................................................................................140 4............................................................................................................................................................................144 4........................153 5.....................155 5......................................140 Unsubmerged Flow ..................159 Stage versus Discharge ................................................................................................................5 Routing Data: Storage and Hydraulic Relationships................................................7 Stormwater Detention Analysis Procedure.......................156 5...........................180 What Is PondPack? .....................158 Outlet Structures................165 Composite Stage versus Discharge Relationships........................................................................................158 Overflow Spillways.................................................

...........206 Trace............................................................7 Water Quality Analysis..........................................205 Extended-Period Simulation.....................2 Energy Losses .........................................................................................198 6............................................................................................................................................................................10 Tutorial Example...............................................................................................................................................................................5 Pipe Networks..........................................................................................................213 Tutorial 2 – Water Quality .........................................................................................................................202 Pressure Breaker Valves (PBVs).........................................................................................................207 Numerical Methods ......................206 Initial Conditions..............................................................3 Energy Gains — Pumps...................................................................................................................202 Pressure Sustaining Valves (PSVs) ................................................208 6..............228 Tutorial 4 – Capital Cost Estimating using Darwin Designer ......9 WaterGEMS .......................................................................203 6..............................................................................202 6...............206 Constituents..............................210 System Design.............................................................................195 6...............205 Age ...........229 viii Bentley Institute Press ..............................................................................201 Constant Horsepower Pumps ....200 Variable-Speed Pumps ....................................................................................................................................CHAPTER 6 PRESSURE PIPING SYSTEMS AND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS 195 Ex c er p t 6...............................................................202 Flow Control Valves (FCVs) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................197 Minor Losses ...................................204 6....................210 6..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................205 6..................................................................208 Discrete Volume Method ...........................................................................................................................................................................4 Control Valves ...........202 Pressure Reducing Valves (PRVs) ..................................................................................................211 What Does WaterGEMS Do?.......211 How Can You Use WaterGEMS? ...........219 Tutorial 3 – Pumping Costs..................203 Conservation of Mass — Flows and Demands ...................205 Steady-State Network Hydraulics ..............................................................................................................................6 Network Analysis.....209 Model Calibration ..203 Conservation of Energy.................................................................................1 Pressure Systems ...........................................................................................................................213 Tutorial 1 – Three Pumps in Parallel..............................................208 Time-Driven Method............195 Water Demands .........................................8 Automated Optimization ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................212 6.......................197 Friction Losses ..........................................................................203 Throttle Control Valves (TCVs)....................202 Check Valves (CVs).................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................364 x Bentley Institute Press ...........364 Is a Surcharged Gravity Pipe Considered a Pressure Pipe?...........................................................................................................................................................................................................364 How Can a User Model a Node as a Diversion? ......................................................353 Overriding Inheritance ...................................................................................How Can You Use SewerGEMS?......................................360 Ex c B.................350 Before Haestad Methods: Distributed Scenarios...................................358 Correcting an Error......................................................................................................................1 B.....................352 B............325 APPENDIX A HAESTAD METHODS SOFTWARE 341 A.................................................357 Analyzing Different Demands (Maximum Day Conditions) ............................................................................................354 When Are Values Local.......................................................................363 What Happens to the Flow at a Diversion Node?.........................................351 A Familiar Parallel .......................................................344 FlexUnits .................359 Finalizing the Project ....................358 Another Set of Demands (Peak Hour Conditions) ...............................342 Table Manager and Table Customization................................................351 Scenario Anatomy: Attributes and Alternatives .............................................2 General Tips and Common Tools .........................................................................................................................363 Why Do Diversions Only Exist in Gravity Systems?.....355 Minimizing Effort through Scenario Inheritance .............................................342 Online Help ......3 B............................................310 Tutorial 1 – Stormwater Conveyance System Performance.........342 Graphical Editor .........................................................................................................7 Tutorial Examples .1 Software Packages..........................7 A Water Distribution Example ....................349 About This Appendix ............................345 349 Overview ...............8 Problems.............................................................................................................................................................................................309 8............350 With Haestad Methods: Self-Contained Scenarios ..........354 Minimizing Effort through Attribute Inheritance ...........359 Analyzing Improvement Suggestions..............................................341 A...........................................4 B..........................................................................................................................................356 B.............. and When Are They Inherited?................................................................................354 Dynamic Inheritance .....................................................310 Tutorial 2 – Pump Stations and Force Mains in a Sanitary Sewer System.....2 B.............................................351 The Scenario Cycle...................................................................6 Scenario Behavior: Inheritance............................................................................1 What Are Diversions? ..............357 Building the Model (Average Day Conditions) ..................................................318 8.............................................................................................................................5 er p t APPENDIX B SCENARIO MANAGEMENT APPENDIX C GRAVITY FLOW DIVERSIONS 363 C..............................

...............376 C.............................................................................................................369 What Does a Diversion Look Like in the Drawing? ...........380 Where Can I Enter and View Data on Diversions in Scenario Manager? .................373 What Is the Difference Between Local and Global Diversions in the Model?.............................................................................................................................................................379 In Some Cases.......367 Are There Any Rules for the Diversion Target? ............................375 How Can the Values for the Rating Curve Be Determined? ...........377 If a Hydraulic Restriction Causes an Overflow Upstream............................................................................................................379 How Should the Models Be Used to Handle Basement Flooding? .........................2 Rating Curves .......380 BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering 381 387 xi ......378 How Can Diversions Be Used to Model Off-Line Storage? ................................................................................. How Do Diversions Affect This?...................................376 What If Flow Measurements Cannot Be Obtained?................................................... Should the Diversion Node Be at the Location of the Restriction or the Overflow? ...............380 How Can I Divert Flows Out of a Wet Well in SewerCAD?....................................................380 C.......378 How Can Parallel Relief Sewers Be Modeled? ..........................374 How Many Data Points Do I Need to Describe a Rating Curve?....................................................................380 Which Program..............372 What Happens to Flow that Is Not Diverted? ........................................................4 Model Loading.........................Ex c er p t What Happens to the Diverted Flow? ........... StormCAD or SewerCAD...... Should I Use to Model My Diversions?...............374 C............371 What Is the Diversion Network View? ...............379 Can I Divert Water Uphill? ......................................3 Special Cases..........................380 SewerCAD Has the Ability to Calculate Extreme Flow Factors............................... the Tailwater Depth in the Receiving Stream Can Affect the Rating Curve......373 How Does a Diversion Node Split the Flow between Flow Being Piped Downstream and Flow Being Diverted?........ Can This Be Modeled?..................................................377 What Can Be Done for Overflows Caused By a Hydraulic Restriction Downstream? .............................................................................................................................................................................................................

The basic concepts discussed in the following pages lay the foundation for the more complex analyses presented in later chapters. it is called a prismatic channel. slope. the weight of a column of water in a backed-up sewer manhole or elevated storage tank. it is said to be open-channel flow or free-surface flow. The water’s journey may also be aided by man-made structures such as drainage swales. . streams. and rivers. as with a water distribution pipe. as with any technical topic. Flow Conveyance Water travels downhill from points of higher energy to points of lower energy (unless forced to do otherwise) until it reaches a point of equilibrium. it is said to be operating under full-flow conditions. If a channel is flowing completely full. pipes. culverts. Pressure flow is a special type of full flow in which forces on the fluid cause it to push against the top of the channel as well as the bottom and sides. and roughness. a full understanding cannot come without first becoming familiar with basic terminology and governing principles. If the flow in a conveyance section is open to the atmosphere. When a channel has a consistent cross-sectional shape. and Hydraulic Radius The term area refers to the cross-sectional area of flow within a channel. Area. This tendency is facilitated by the presence of natural conveyance channels such as brooks. A section’s wetted perimeter is defined as the portion of the channel in contact with the flowing fluid. Hydraulic concepts can be applied equally to both man-made structures and natural features. such as in a culvert flowing partially full or in a river. This definition is illustrated in Figure 1-1. for example.CHAPTER 1 Basic Hydraulic Principles er p t 1. Wetted Perimeter. and canals.1 General Flow Characteristics Ex c In hydraulics. These forces may result from. such as an ocean.

and therefore has units of length. ft) cross-sectional area (m2. ft2) wetted perimeter (m. it varies with location. ft) Velocity As shown in Figure 1-2. Instead. the velocity of a section is not constant throughout the crosssectional area. For example.Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering Figure 1-1: Flow Area and Wetted Perimeter t The hydraulic radius of a section is not a directly measurable characteristic. Figure 1-2: Velocity Distribution 2 . A Pw or Rcircular = where R A Pw D = = = = Ex c R= er p The hydraulic radius can often be related directly to the geometric properties of the channel. ft) pipe diameter (m. the hydraulic radius of a full circular pipe (such as a pressure pipe) can be directly computed as: π ⋅ D2 4 D = π ⋅D 4 hydraulic radius (m. It is defined as the area divided by the wetted perimeter. The velocity is zero where the fluid is in contact with the conduit wall. but it is used frequently during calculations.

and is in units of length per time. A minimal increase in model accuracy does not warrant the time and effort that would be required to perform an analysis with changing (unsteady) flows over time. the word steady indicates that a constant flow rate is assumed throughout an analysis. storm sewers. Turbulent Flow.Basic Hydraulic Principles Chapter 1 The variation of flow velocity within a cross-section complicates the hydraulic analysis. V = Q/ A where V Q A = = = average velocity (m/s. and Reynolds Number Laminar flow is characterized by smooth. the eddies contribute to the velocity of a 3 . For most hydraulic calculations. Ex c When analyzing tributary and river networks. At times. the streamlines are erratic and unpredictable. Figure 1-3: Instantaneous Velocity Distributions for Laminar and Turbulent Flow Eddies result in varying velocity directions as well as magnitudes (varying directions not depicted in Figure 1-3 for simplicity). predictable streamlines (the paths of single fluid particles). and other collection systems in which it is desirable to vary the flow rate at different locations throughout the system. This average velocity is defined as the total flow rate divided by the cross-sectional area. the flow velocity does not change with respect to time at a given location. the network can often be broken into segments that can be analyzed separately under steady flow conditions. Turbulent flow is characterized by the formation of eddies within the flow. ft3/s) area (m2. ft2) Steady Flow er p t Speaking in terms of flow. ft/s) flow rate (m3/s. In turbulent flow. Laminar Flow. this assumption is reasonable. An example of this type of flow is maple syrup being poured. resulting in continuous mixing throughout the section (see Figure 1-3). so the engineer usually simplifies the situation by looking at the average (mean) velocity of the section for analysis purposes. In other words.

0 m 4 . laminar flow occurs when the Reynolds number is less than 500 and turbulent flow occurs when it is above 2. if the Reynolds number is above 4. The water in the channel is 1.000 and 4.0 m × 1.0 m + 2 × 1. Example 1-1: Flow Characteristics A rectangular concrete channel is 3 m wide and 2 m high. For flow in closed conduits. ft/s) hydraulic radius (m. ft) kinematic viscosity (m2/s.000. and hydraulic radius.5 m = 6.5 m deep and is flowing at a rate of 30 m3/s. however. depending on how insulated the flow is from outside disturbances. and will be far more chaotic than the velocity distribution of a laminar flow section. the flow is transitional. A = 3. In open channels. Between 2. not the total height of the cross-section. Re = V = R = ν = er p where 4VR ν Reynolds number (unitless) average velocity (m/s. the flow is generally laminar. By strict interpretation. so the flow is assumed to be steady. The result is that velocity distributions captured at different times will be quite different from one another. the average velocity at any given point within the section is essentially constant. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? Solution From the section’s shape (rectangular).000. wetted perimeter. It is computed as follows: If the Reynolds number is below 2. The wetted perimeter can also be found easily through simple geometry. Turbulent flow velocities are closer to the mean velocity because of the continuous mixing of flow.000. Between 500 and 2. Over time. the flow may be either laminar or turbulent. the changing velocities in turbulent flow would cause it to be classified as unsteady flow. and at other times detract from it.000.5 m = 4. the flow is generally turbulent. The velocity at any given point within the turbulent section will be closer to the mean velocity of the entire section than with laminar flow conditions.000. Note that the depth used should be the actual depth of flow. Determine the flow area.5 m2 Pw = 3. we can easily calculate the area as the rectangle’s width multiplied by its depth.Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering given particle in the direction of flow. ft2/s) Ex c Re = t To classify flow as either turbulent or laminar. an index called the Reynolds number is used. particularly the mixing of low-velocity flow near the channel walls with the higher-velocity flow toward the center.

00 × 10-6 m2/s.000 for turbulent flow. the engineer is expressing the energy of the system in terms of “head.” The energy at any point within a hydraulic system is often expressed in three parts. When using these length equivalents.5 m2 = 6. ft) velocity (m/s.00×10-6) = 2×107 The Energy Principle er p 1. To do this. Although internal energy may be significant for thermodynamic analyses. as shown in Figure 1-4:  Pressure head p γ  Elevation head z  Velocity head V 2 2 g where p γ z V = = = = pressure (N/m2. Using these length equivalents gives engineers a better “feel” for the resulting behavior of the system. it is commonly neglected in hydraulic analyses because of its relatively small magnitude. lbs/ft3) elevation (m.75 m In order to determine whether the flow is likely to be laminar or turbulent. kinetic energy. The energy referred to in this principle represents the total energy of the system. and internal (molecular) forms of energy such as electrical and chemical energy.67 m/s × 0. the change in energy (ΔE) is equal to the difference between the heat transferred to the system (Q) and the work done by the system on its surroundings (W) during a given time interval. Ex c The first law of thermodynamics states that for any given system.5 m2 / 6. lbs/ft2) specific weight (N/m3. first find the velocity of the section and a value for the kinematic viscosity.0 m = 0.2 Energy t This value is well above the Reynolds number minimum of 4. V = Q / A = 30 m3/s / 4. we must determine the Reynolds number. resulting in units of length.Basic Hydraulic Principles Chapter 1 R = A / Pw = 4. In hydraulic applications.67 m/s From fluids reference tables.75 m) / (1. energy values are often converted into units of energy per unit weight. Substituting these values into the formula to compute the Reynolds number results in Re = (4 × 6. which is the sum of the potential energy. we find that the kinematic viscosity for water at 20°C is 1. ft/s) 5 .

and even present health risks. gardening. adequate supply. the network of interconnected pipes. and so forth. so the best source of information for estimating demands is directly recorded system data. some areas may have low pressures. People use water for drinking. and this water needs to be delivered in some fashion. water distribution system analysis is driven by customer demand. and can be used to calculate average demands. including well pumping systems and heating and cooling systems. Water Demands Just as storm sewer analysis is driven by the watershed runoff flow rate. and good water quality throughout the system. If designed correctly. cleaning. culture. peak demands. The main purpose of a water distribution system is to meet demands for potable water. and regulating valves provides adequate pressure. minimum demands. poor fire protection. If incorrectly designed. A secondary purpose of many distribution systems is to provide water for fire protection. Every system is different.CHAPTER 6 er p t Pressure Piping Systems and Water Quality Analysis Ex c 6. Metered Demand Metered demands are often a modeler’s best tool. This data can also be . pumps. Water usage rates and patterns vary greatly from system to system and are highly dependent on climate. storage tanks. and local industry. and any number of other uses. This chapter deals primarily with the topic of pressure piping as it relates to potable water distribution systems.1 Pressure Systems Pressure piping network analysis has many applications.

Throughout the night. many systems still do not have complete system metering. Patterns allow the user to apply automatic time-variable changes within the system. this relationship is written as: Using a representative diurnal curve for a residence (Figure 6-1). and then jumps instantaneously to another level where it again remains steady until the next jump. A stepwise pattern is one that assumes a constant level of usage over a period of time. the modeler is often forced to use other estimation tools (including good engineering judgment) to obtain realistic demands. Notice that. Different categories of users. we see that there is a peak in the diurnal curve in the morning as people take showers and prepare breakfast. A continuous pattern is one for which several points in the pattern are known and sections in between are transitional. whereby a multiplication factor of 1. A diurnal curve is a type of pattern that describes changes in demand over the course of a daily cycle. such as residential or industrial customers. another slight peak around noon. the magnitude and slope of the pattern at the start and end times are the same — a continuity that is recommended for patterns that repeat. resulting in a smoother pattern.) There are two basic forms for representing a pattern: stepwise and continuous. Because of the finite time steps used in the calculations. Qt = At × Qbase Qt = demand at time t = multiplier for time t At Qbase = baseline demand Ex c where er p t Demand Patterns A pattern is a function relating water use to time of day. for the continuous pattern in Figure 6-1. For these systems. and a third peak in the evening as people arrive home from work and prepare dinner. the pattern reflects the relative inactivity of the system. special events. most computer programs convert continuous patterns into stepwise patterns for use by the algorithms. In equation form. 196 . reflecting times when people are using more or less water than average. with very low flows compared to the average. and annual reports that show how the demands are influenced by weather. weekly. Most patterns are based on a multiplication factor versus time relationship. Unfortunately. and other factors. with the duration of each step equal to the time step of the analysis. (Note that this curve is conceptual and should not be construed as representative of any particular network. will typically be assigned different patterns to accurately reflect their particular demand variations. monthly.0 represents the base value (often the average value).Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering compiled into daily.

then. 197 . both discussed in Chapter 1. so the friction slope is constant for a given flow rate. and hydraulic radius can be directly related to diameter.Chapter 6 Figure 6-1: Typical Diurnal Curve er p t Pressure Piping Systems and Water Quality Analysis Friction Losses Ex c 6.  Pressure systems flow full (by definition) throughout the length of a given pipe. separated by the constant velocity head. This means that the energy grade and hydraulic grade drop linearly in the direction of flow. Many of the general friction loss equations can be simplified and revised because of the following assumptions that can be made for a pressure pipe system:  Pressure piping is almost always circular. so the flow area. the velocity must also be constant.2 Energy Losses The hydraulic theory behind friction losses is the same for pressure piping as it is for open channel hydraulics. Several hydraulic components that are unique to pressure piping systems. The most commonly used methods for determining head losses in pressure piping systems are the Hazen-Williams equation and the Darcy-Weisbach equation. wetted perimeter. add complexity to the analysis. the energy grade line and hydraulic grade line are parallel. such as regulating valves and pumps. These simplifications allow for pressure pipe networks to be analyzed much more quickly than systems of open channels or partially full gravity piping. By definition.  Because the flow rate and cross-sectional area are constant.

the minor losses may actually have a significant impact on the energy loss. Although the term “minor” is a reasonable generalization for most large-scale water distribution models. meter. Gradual transitions create smoother flow lines and smaller head losses than sharp transitions because of the increased turbulence and eddies that form near a sharp change in the flow pattern. These minor losses are often negligible relative to friction losses and may be ignored during analysis. ft) minor loss coefficient for the specific fitting velocity (m/s. creating a drop in the energy and hydraulic grades at that point in the system. such as heating or cooling systems. the K-value is highly dependent on bend radius. contraction ratios. valve. and so forth. 198 . These disruptions are often caused by valves. As can be seen with similar fitting types. Figure 6-2 shows flow lines for a pipe entrance with and without rounding. and are generally called minor losses. ft/s) gravitational acceleration (m/s2. meters. In piping systems that contain numerous fittings relative to the total length of pipe. these losses may not always be as minor as the name implies. or fittings (such as the pipe entrance in Figure 6-2). ft/s2) = = = = er p Hm = K Ex c where t The equation most commonly used for determining the loss in a fitting. or other localized component is: Typical values for the fitting loss coefficient are included in Table 6-1.Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering Minor Losses Localized areas of increased turbulence cause energy losses within a pipe. V2 2g Hm K V g minor loss (m.

80 Contraction – Conical 0.18 θ = 30° D2/D1 = 0.92 Expansion – Conical D2/D1 = 0.0.10 D2/D1 = 0.35 .80 D2/D1 = 0.16 Ex c D2/D1 = 0.Pressure Piping Systems and Water Quality Analysis Chapter 6 Table 6-1: Typical Fitting K Coefficients Fitting K-value Fitting K-value Pipe Entrance Bellmouth 0.35 θ = 90° 0.20 D2/D1 = 0.75 .18 Rounded 0.50 0.13 Figure 6-2: Flow Lines in Minor Losses 199 .40 Branch Flow 0.80 Cross D2/D1 = 0.0.0.20 Line Flow 0.40 Projecting 0.03 .37 θ = 45° 0.25 Sharp Edged 0.49 θ = 60° 0.20 0.03 Line Flow 0.50 0.57 0.80 Mitered Bend Contraction – Sudden θ = 15° 0.80 0.07 D2/D1 = 0.25 Bend radius / D = 2 0.05 0.50 Tee t 0.50 Branch Flow 0.20 0.08 0.16 .0.75 45° Wye Line Flow 0.0.19 .50 D2/D1 = 0.12 .08 Expansion – Sudden 0.30 Branch Flow 0.30 .0.50 Bend radius / D = 1 0.05 90° Smooth Bend Bend radius / D = 4 0.80 D2/D1 = 0.50 er p D2/D1 = 0.1.20 0.80 0.05 D2/D1 = 0.

there was a lack of adequate planning and flood prevention measures. One area in the city was nearing completion of a two-year beautification and utility project that had local residents and merchants convinced would solve a history of minor.1 Introduction er p t Dynamic Modeling Ex c It was a typical summer. Otherwise.e. All calculations were performed assuming steady flows. but one accentuated with periods of extreme heat and intense rainfall. engineers used traditional methods to size the storm sewer pipes. What happened? Why was there so much flooding? When they designed the local drainage system. and open channels to accommodate estimated peak flows. . and the additive effects and timing of local inflows.CHAPTER 8 8. Non-uniform flow profiles were determined to delineate the floodplain. particularly since local regulations require sewer systems designed to accommodate peak flows from a 25-year event.7 Inches of Rain in 70 Minutes: \$50 Million to End Flooding. Consequently. They did not consider the impact of limited storage in conduits. No true picture. one of the thunderstorms resulted in damaging flooding at multiple locations. understanding of the drainage system performance was established. a modern urban drainage system should accommodate runoff from such an event. i. The headlines in the local paper the next morning read “2.” The State Climatologist reported the event return period was between 5 and 10 years. inconvenience flooding. The crux of the problem was the steady flow methods did not account for the dynamic response of the watershed and its internal drainage system. Unfortunately. culverts. The results were insufficient and potentially misleading. downstream boundary conditions and interactions among the different drainage system components were not considered. Certainly.

Example applications include stormwater conveyance systems and wastewater pump station and sewer networks. Therefore. In any case.S. Consequently. Moreover. Environmental Hydrology (Lewis Publishers. The results provided a clear understanding of the performance of individual components and their interactions at a system wide scale. the wealth of hydrologic data produced and held by the U. System of Units er p t The basis for the problems in this chapter is real world systems designed and constructed using US Customary units. There. it is essential students.S. Boca Raton. Andy Ward and Stanley Trimble in the introduction to their book. regulators. we need to know how to use and convert quickly between both systems. most field-level work in the U. a dual system of units.. proper system evaluation will require the engineer to use both systems of units. The purposes for this chapter are to introduce dynamic modeling and demonstrate its application to the analysis and design of hydraulic systems using the SewerGEMS computer software. Customary units. The emphasis is on systems that include elements of open channel flow. “Even though the rest of the world has converted to SI units. scientific journals have switched back to English units so that published papers will have more applied impact. the city undertook a study to identify the causes of flooding and possible solutions. It is quite analogous to living in a bilingual nation. This requirement will persist for many years. similarly.Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering To overcome these deficiencies. Ex c In response to the goal to convert to a globally consistent system of units. was designed and constructed using U. several U. Those units are retained in these problems. of which the new design is to become a part. 2004) underscored this fact. many agencies in the United States changed their regulations to require engineering calculations and measurements in the International System of units (SI). FL.S. two languages must be spoken and understood. is still done in English units.S. That study included a hydraulic analysis of the drainage system using a dynamic model. and planners recognize and use contemporary units and. likely the existing engineering system.S.” 298 . The following statement by Drs. While most scientific journals use SI units. often. in the U. we must be bimensural or bimetric. is mostly in English units. Even though a new design may require SI units. engineers.

In unsteady open channel flow.2 Dynamic Modeling Simply stated. Dynamic models account for unsteady. The governing equations are the Saint Venant equations. Flow in sewers and open channels change in time and space. non-uniform flow. Flow that changes with time is unsteady. m2) Ao = inactive (off-channel storage) cross-sectional area of flow (ft. dynamic models are also known as unsteady flow models. m3/s2) 299 . Unsteady open channel flow by nature is also non-uniform. Consequently.Dynamic Modeling Chapter 8 8. the velocity and depth at any location (cross-section) continually change due to changes in loading patterns and boundary conditions. ∂Q ∂ ( A + Ao ) + −q =0 ∂x ∂t ) Ex c ( ∂Q ∂ βQ 2 / A ⎛ ∂y ⎞ + + gA⎜ + S o + S f + S i ⎟ + L = 0 ∂t ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ where Q = discharge (cfs. ft) So = slope of channel bed in longitudinal direction Sf = friction slope Si = slope due to severe local expansion an contraction effects L = momentum effect of lateral flow (ft3/s2. dynamic means change. St Venant Equations er p t Flows in stormwater conveyance systems and sewers are usually free surface open-channel flows. m) A = active cross-sectional area of flow (ft2. based on the principles for the conservation of mass and linear momentum. m2/s) β = coefficient for nonuniform velocity distribution in cross-section g = gravitational acceleration constant (ft/s2. m) t = time (s) q = lateral inflow or outflow (ft2/s. flow that changes in space is nonuniform. m/s2) y = flow depth (m. m3/s) x = distance along the longitudinal axis of the channel (ft.

meaning the flow slows and the depth increases. the first two terms in the momentum equation) are inertial terms. The friction slope generally is evaluated using an empirical equation in the same way as the loss term in the energy equation when performing flow profile analyses. cross-sectional area and average velocity. but other similar equations may also be used. Specifically. they are solved numerically. For example. The second implies the streamlines are nearly parallel. An implicit scheme is preferred over explicit since these schemes have the advantage of maintaining numerical 300 . t The second equation is the conservation of momentum equation based on Newton's second law. This loss term encompasses not only the effects of boundary friction. Ex c er p The local and convective acceleration terms (respectively.e. friction. Venant equations. if the driving forces on the control volume (due to gravity and water surface slope) are greater than the resistive forces. and expansion/convergence effects). i. but all processes creating flow resistance. where momentum is mass times acceleration. The first assumption means it is only necessary to consider velocities in the downstream direction and not in the transverse or vertical directions. which states if a net force is acting on a body. an increase in velocity over space (convective or spatial acceleration). This reduces the cross-sectional properties to single parameters. The St Venant equations are also known as the shallow water or dynamic wave equations. a weighted four-point implicit scheme is used. expressed as slope terms. the momentum of that body will change... This means the vertical pressure distribution is essentially hydrostatic. This equation was derived by considering how forces applied to a control volume affect the movement of water through the control volume. Numerical Solution There is no known analytical solution to the St. It relates the change in the cross-sectional area of flow at a point over time to the change in flow over space. The other terms are the various applied forces (pressure imbalance. the flow will accelerate. i.Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering The first equation is the conservation of mass or continuity equation. therefore. if the resistive forces are greater.e. The solution method in SewerGEMS uses a finite difference scheme that converts the system of partial differential equations to a system of algebraic equations involving the unknowns at discrete points in time and space. increases linearly with depth. and the friction slope term can be approximated with one of the uniform flow formulae. which frequently happens upstream of undersized road cross-drains during periods of stormwater runoff. The Manning equation is commonly used. The acceleration can be an increase in velocity at one point over time (local or temporal acceleration). or both. gravity. Two assumptions implicit in the derivation of these equations are: (a) the flow is one-dimensional and (b) the flow is gradually varied. notably turbulence and internal shear. the flow will decelerate. Conversely.

particularly if a stable and accurate solution is to be obtained. Initial and Boundary Conditions Solution of the dynamic wave equations requires initial and boundary conditions.] Effectively.8. The finite difference equations are solved with a Newton-Raphson iteration routine that includes an algorithm that iterates banded matrixes and is computationally efficiency. The weighted four-point implicit scheme is unconditionally stable for θ>0.t solution domain. which are mathematical expressions that describe the speed and path by which a physical disturbance. The scheme was chosen because it handles unequal distance steps. boundary conditions are constraints the numerical solution must meet. its stabilityconvergence properties can be conveniently modified. A physical 301 . This is explained with the concept of characteristics. The numerical solution may use one or both sets of boundary conditions. Initial conditions prescribe the state of the system for the first time step and usually are specified as dry channel or baseflow.6 to 0. [Note: reach of interest indicates the length of channel or sewer through which a hydrograph is being routed. and θ is a weighting factor. Boundary conditions usually consist of the inflow hydrograph and a tailwater condition at the outlet.5.Dynamic Modeling Chapter 8 stability for large computational time steps and exhibit robustness in modeling systems that integrate the complex hydraulic interactions encountered in gravity sewer systems. The numerical analog uses the following four-point finite-difference quotients to approximate the first and zero-order derivative terms: f j +1 + f i +j1+1 − f i j − f i +j1 ∂f = i ∂t Δt ( ) ( ∂f θ f i +j1+1 − f i j +1 + (1 − θ ) f i +j1 − f i j = ∂x Δx t θ ( f i j +1 + f i +j1+1 ) + (1 − θ )( f i j + f i +j1 ) er p f = ) 2 Ex c in which f represents the unknown variables. Q and A. propagates though the x. or its influence. Boundary conditions are functional relationships between depth (or area) and flow at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach of interest. depending on flow classification. and the internal and external boundary conditions can be easily applied. The optimal range of θ for maintaining stability and accuracy for large computational time steps is 0.

meaning c > v. For supercritical flow. the influence of a downstream disturbance will propagate upstream and affect the flow conditions there. This wave speed is called celerity and is evaluated as c = gy Ex c where g is gravity and y is the depth of water. all physical disturbances are swept downstream. The backward characteristic is non-zero and negatively sloped. This influence propagates upstream. As such.Computer Applications in Hydraulic Engineering disturbance is any change in the rate and/or depth of flow due to influences such as an inflow hydrograph. For flow in a rectangular channel. v is cross-sectional average velocity. Determining the upstream conditions depends greatly on the downstream boundary condition. This causes an increased depth of flow at the culvert inlet as the headwater increases to a higher state of specific energy to overcome the flow resistance. Therefore. That is. etc. flow constriction. meaning v > c. Both the forward and backward characteristics are non-zero and positively sloped. accurate solution of the St Venant equations for subcritical flow requires properly defined upstream and downstream boundary conditions. and c is the speed at which the wave effect created by the disturbance travels. determining flow conditions in the reach of interest depends only on the upstream boundary condition.t are longitudinal distance and time. which means there is a mathematical basis for information to travel upstream. A well-known example is the backwater curve that forms upstream of an undersized culvert. There are two characteristics: forward and backward. F >1. the Froude number is expressed in terms of wave celerity as F= v gy = v c For subcritical flow. F <1. In other words. 302 . forming the backwater curve. indicated symbolically as C+ and Cand expressed mathematically as: C+ : dx =v+c dt C −: dx = v−c dt and er p t where x.