Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MqovQ
AXIOMATICS,
FUNDAMENTALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
VERIFICATIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE SPACETIME THEORY
C ESTOVEST^
Editrlce Internazionale
^
Stefan Marinov
MqovQ
AXIOMATICS, FUNDAMENTALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
VERIFICATIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE SPACETIME THEORY
f ESTOVEST*
<
Editrice Internazionale
™^
AUSTRIA .D. 1987 Addresses of the International Publishers »EastWest« Affiliates: Morrellenfeldgasse 16. AUSTRIA — Elin Pelin 22. Bruxelles edition. (02) 66. (010) 31. BULGARIA — — via Puggia 47.73.78. DRUCK: RMDRUCK GRAZ.B.78. 16131 ITALY ul. Tel.S.. Tel. Genova.1981 Second Third edition.59.Published in Austria by International Publishers »EastWest« © International Publishers »EastWest« Marinov First published in 1977 by C. 1421 Sofia.. 8010 Graz.
To Colombe .
.
the link Marinov shows between the « rotating disk » experiment and his « coupledmirrors » (or « coupledshutters ») experiment is so clear and indisputable that one is impelled to logically accept his results. However. the changes which have to be introduced into high velocity physics are not to be so radical as some of Einstein's adversaries have claimed and persist to claim. So many articles have been dedicated One Thus. on reading the book to the end. The different variants of the « rotating disk » and « moving platform » experiments which he has performed give further evidence for accepting his absolute spacetime conceptions as adequate to One can doubt whether Marinov's carried out well physical reality. which aim to disprove those one begins to realize that is I the experimental foundation of the general (Einstein) principle of relativity far from being so firm and indisputable as out the socalled « rotating is generally accepted. expecting easily to discover fiaws in experiments theories. one is highly shocked.FOREWORD and so many experimental efforts in the last 100 years to the problem of determining absolute space that it seems almost senseless to continue spending time and money searching for a possible refutation of the principle of relativity. . This principle. as can be seen first from the part of this book. where firstorder in v/c effects were easily measured. although. One then reads the second experimental part with the same distrust. However. then the special theory of relativity will definitely have to be rejected as not adequate to physical reality. reads the first theoretical part with the due distrust with which one reads anything that contradicts wellestablished and broadly accepted theories. has obtained such a firm experimental confirmation that any researcher who. would like first to point disk » experiment. in the fourthquarter on the 20th century. on opening the book of Stefan Marinov. strains to refute it ressembles very much the seeker of a perpetuum mobile. The Lorentz transformation (although treated from an absolute point of view) and the 4dimensional formalism of Min kowski will remain an important mathematical apparatus in the hands of the theoreticians. first formulated by Galilei. performed for the time some 60 years ago. If the experimental results reported by Marinov are confirmed by other experimenters. « coupledmirrors » experiment is and whether the effects which he claims to have registered are not due to outside causes.
1 visited Sakharov in Moscow flying from Brussels (February 1978).Nevertheless. Sakharov Moscow. I wrote the above foreword and gave it to a girlfriend of mine. then the GRIO Conference in Venice (July 1983) will meet on a firm and stable absolute ground. I MUOVE published the book with the draft preface. Sakharov distanced from my theory (see the whole story narrated in detail in NATURE. For this reason I organize on the 8 II July 1982 in Genoa the International Conference on SpaceTime Absoluteness (ICSTA) which was prohibited by the Bulgarian government in 1977. D. I think that a written statement by Sakharov (positive or negative) on my when he has more time for scientific work in Gor'ki) will be decisive for the speedy restoration of absolute space. Sakharov has given only verbal opinions on my theory which are highly contradictory (as reported via the press or communicated to me). at great personal risk. 200 (1978)). If ICSTA1982 will be representative. showing how simple and. he has no time to study the theory and to analyse the experiments in detail. Absolute spacetime has already obtained such a firm experimental confirmation that for its acceptance one needs one thing only: an open and wide discussion. Prof. After the apearance of EPPUR SI MUOVE. how perfidious Nature is. As the book had to appear. decided to visit Sakharov in Moscow. at the same time. as he is dedicating all his time to social and moral activities. I invite the spacetime specialists all over the world to publish papers before the conference and to participate at theory (now — the conference.Marinov 4 . Two Nobelprizewinners. will The work of Marinov enigma will brings many hopes simple and that « be explained April 1977 in a similar one day the quantum Newtonian » manner. Grnz. Genoa and Venice. Her oral message (July 1977) was that Sakharov is highly sympathetic wih my theory and will think about the matter of the foreword. 296 and 272. Sakharov and to send him EPPUR SI via many channels. 271. September 1981 S. Salam. As 1 could not receive his final consent. and the two old rivals. A. When but in living in Bulgaria (before September 1977). will concur for the prospect of science. He said me the following: The problems raised by my theory and the conclusions to which it leads are so crucial and important for physics that he does not dare to take a standpoint. D. have already written me about their interest to visit the conference. Wigner and Prof. A. who. I frequently tried vain to establish a written contact with Acad. putting her scientific career at risk. the return to Newtonian absolute spacetime conceptions be one of the most important physics events in the secondhalf of the 20th century. On the other hand. where absolute freedom will be given to any standpoint. Later Acad. a wellknown physicist and a Jewess still living behind the curtain.
2.4.2. 1. time and energy Axioms for the different types of energy Axiom for the conservation of energy High velocity axiom 16 22 22 25 25 §3.2.3. The MaxwellLorentz equations 7. The NewtonMarinov equation 8. §7. 39 40 42 42 43 45 45 47 50 51 51 §6. The Galilean transformation The Lorentz transformation The Marinov transformation Group properties of the Marinov transformation Velocity 26 30 35 §4.1. §2.1. 4. Coordinate transformations 3. § 10.3. The relativistic consideration The Lagrange equations 6. 3. §8. and waves 54 56 56 Frequency and wavelength shifts of light 10. 3. 3. The nonrelativistic consideration 5.3.1. 37 37 38 4. 2.2.1.2. Elements of motion 4. Reduced charges and masses Particles 53 53 §9. The MaxwellMarinov equations 8. Kinematic shift (the Doppler effect) 10.2. The nonrelativistic consideration 6. 2.3. Time energy 5.1.3. The connection between densities and potentials 7.2. Acceleration Superacceleration 39 39 §5. Dynamic shift (the Einstem effect) 62 . Axioms for space. Fundamental equations in gravimagretism 8. The relativistic consideration Fundamental equations in electromagnetism The NewtonLorentz equation 7. I — THEORETICAL 10 II II Introduction Axiomatics 2.4.2.CONTENTS PART §1.1.1.2.
The HarressMarinov experiment 25. The quasiFoucault « coupledmirrors » experiment 19.5. §17. dilation 64 64 65 (Einstein) time dilation Kinematic (Lorentz) time dilation Dynamic The The §12. Time 11. 13. The HarressSagnac experiment 25. The RossiHall « meson » experiment 22. Introduction §15.1. §18. The interferometric « coupledmirrors » experiment 102 104 1 1 §20.2.1. The HarressFizeau experiment 25. The The « « watertube » experiment » 122 drag aberration experiment 127 §25.4. ultrasonic « coupledshutters experiment 1 12 The kinematic time dilation experiments 22.2. 130 133 135 136 136 Practical performance of the HarressFizeau experiments HarressMarinov and 136 .§11. The « antipodalclocks >» 115 1 16 » experi 116 1 18 §23.1.3.2.4. — EXPERIMENTAL 88 88 91 The quasiRoemer experiment The quasiBradley experiment The quasiDoppler experiment 95 » The quasiFizeau « coupledshutters experiment 97 101 §19.1. The The accelerated « coupledmirrors » » experiment §21.2. Cosmological aspects of light kinematics 12.2. 69 physical essence of rest energy physical essence of cosmological « red shift » light in a 69 71 Propagation of 13.1. medium 74 74 81 Drag Refraction Collision between photons 13. The deviative « coupledmirrors » experiment 19.1. § 13. §22. The HafeleKeating « clocksroundtheworld ment experiment 22. The Harress « rotating disk » experiment 25.3. Relation between refractive index and density 84 PART II §14. 11. 12. The Harress.3.Pogany experiment 25. §24.2. and particles 82 13. §16.
§35. 33. 30. §27.5.§26.4.3.3.3. The HarressFizeau experiment 29. The noninertial « moving platform » experiment 143 144 145 145 146 147 148 §29. The Zeeman « moving platform » experiment 28.1. The 33. The secondorder effects in the « rotating 29. « standing waves » » experiment coherent lasers experiment The inertial « coherent lasers » experiment The « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment The connection between the « coherent lasers » and light Dopplereffect experiments « 164 168 169 171 » §33. The IvesStilwell longitudinal « canal ray The transverse « canal ray » experiment The Hay « rotor » experiment The « rotorrotor » experiment The Santos experiment « experiment 154 155 156 158 160 162 163 §31. The 30. wired photocells » experiment 33.3. 33.2. 30.1. The ZeemanMarinov experiment 28.1. The ZeemanFizeau experiment 28. experiments » 154 30. The cauldron experiment The TroutonNoble experiment The « 180 182 185 §36. §32.2. The quasiWiener The 32. The HarressMarinov experiment 29. The ZeemanSagnac experiment 28. The ZeemanPogany experiment 28.4.5. synchrotron » experiment References . 30.4.2.1.1.2. The disrupted The « « rotating disk » experiment » 138 coupledshutters on a rotating disk experiment 141 §28. 32. disk » experiment 150 150 150 151 151 Connection with kinematic time dilation light Dopplereffect §30. The HarressSagnac experiment 29.2. 32. The The The The « inertial « « wired photocells » effect experiment 171 aether wind 172 effect « of relativistic distribution in the radiation » 174 174 177 wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment §34.4.5.3. The HarressPogany experiment 29.
.
PART I — THEORETICAL .
The « coupledmirrors » experiment. Two years later we carried variant (Marinov. i. In the summer of 1973 we carried out the « coupledmirrors » experi ment (Marinov. Danby (1962). Gravimagretism. » ( 1 500 typed pages of five parts Mathematical apparatus. dealing with similar subject matter (1969. performing the measurement in a laboratory. INTRODUCTION work : In 1973 we completed the writing of our encyclopaedic in English). Landau and Lifshitz (nonquantum and nonstatistical) expounded. and thus we gave the first experimental refutation of the principle of relatiHowever. §2 of this — space. Horedt (1975)]. Relativistic mechanics. Electromagnetism. IV. All other conclusions We take only three physical quantities and formulas are obtained in a mathematically logical way. II. and including celestial mechanics as all say. 1978c) out for a second time the in its « coupledmirrors » experiment on a higher technological level socalled interferometric and we measured the Earth's absolute velocity with such an accuracy that no doubts can further remain about the invalidity of the principle of relativity. as well as all important highvelocity experiments carried out in the last 100 years. for example. the accuracy of this first performance in the socalled deviative variant was too low. which prove the existence of absolute spacetime (considered in Part II of this book). we assume in that light propagates with a constant velocity along any direction absolute 10 . V. consisting « Classical Physics I. we expound classical physics proceeding from Newtoin nian absolute spacetime conceptions. III. 1959). making use exclusively of the mathematical apparatus given « Classical Physics » in part one. Nonrelativistic mechanics. energy — as undefined notions and ten axioms (presented book) as unproved assertions. 1974b) with whose help we registered the Earth's motion with respect to absolute space. are described and analysed in part three of « Classical Physics ». vity. We defend an aethertype model of light propagation.e. In this work theoretical classical is physics for undergraduates as in in. In contradistinction to conventional courses of theoretical physics. time. so that any student can read our without encountering a single difficulty of mathematical or logical character. and many others carried out or proposed by us.§1. and the scientific community remained highly sceptical [see..
Within effects of propagation order in vie (v the absolute velocity of the object all considered. in physics are : b) time. these terms only for historical reasons. as is done in our absolute spacetime theory (see §3). The fects nonrelativistsc mathematical apparatus in vU. the light « aether » is not some medium in at rest in absolute space which propagates call like sound light the air. wrongly describes the ef of second (and higher) order called by us the The socalled relativistic mathe its compaMarinov transformation). then results inadequate in regard to physical reality are obtained. We call this mathematical approach nonrelativistic. the Galilean transformation is adequate to physical reality. but we preserve his followers. we analyse several experiments for which the relativity theory leads to false results and we show why in many experiments the complex of absolute effects which arise cannot be observationally detected. However. If they are treated and manipulated from a « relativistic » point of view. c) energy (matter). so that we our model for first propagation aetherNewtonian ». We « firmly defend the corpuscular (Newton) model of light. TIME AND ENERGY The fundamental undefined notions a) space. as well as on the 4dimensional mathematical formalism of Minkowski. AXIOMS FOR SPACE.1. rightly describes the effects of any order in vie. AXIOMATICS §2. so that their apparent results can be correctly described by the relativistic mathematical apparatus. in However. The errors to which the matical apparatus based on the Lorentz transformation (and on is nion which theory of relativity leads are within effects of In first order in vie. the Lorentz transformation and the 4dimensional mathematical approach of Minkowski must be treated from an absolute point of view. as is done in the Einstein approach to the theory of relativity. tl . rejecting the wave (liuyghensFrcsnel) model. within this accuracy. which are reviewed in Part II of the present book. c the velocity of light in absolute space) physical and light phenomena can be rightly described by the traditional mathe matical apparatus and thus. articles many We shall also call highvelocity physics relativistic (in contradistinction to lowvelocity physics which will be called nonrelativistic). §2. expressing in this for the great deeds of Einstein and way our high esteem even though we establish experimentally and logically that their basic concepts are not adequate to physical reality.space.
which predict as proceeding from this image.e. The different Cartesian frames of reference (these are mathematicological conceptions) with which the images of space we can (i. We moments imagine time as a continuous.. 2. 3. Frames with different origins. if the same. The definitions of the fundamental properties of time are 12 : . 2.. the same as the actual influence displayed by the system considered. Space in is called isotropic any material system any pair of space frames of the second class. i. threedimensional totality represent space of space points. given material system is An image of a with whose help. sal. Reflectivity of space. Here frames of reference for time of the first and can be constructed. Space is called homogeneous if considering in any pair of space frames of the first class.Let us note that system » as we consider the notions « matter » and « material synonyms with the notions « energy » and « energy system ». Frames whose axes are mutually rotated. limitless. We we call two images of with their help identical systems can be if An image is is adequate to physical reality the influence of the given material system on our senseorgans. we always obtain equivalent images. or is by means of other material systems) given material system equivalent constructed. Depending on their relationship any pair of Cartesian frames of reference will belong to one of the following three classes (or to their combination) : 1. 3. we always obtain equivalent images. third class only time frames with different origins and with oppositely oriented axes.e. Isotropy of space. We 1. we always if considering obtain equivalent images. material system in Space is called reflective if considering any any pair of space frames of the third class. onedimensional totality of (time points). introduce the definitions of the fundamental properties of space : any material system Homogeneity of space. A material system is called isolated if its images are independent of the existence of other material systems. limitless. Frames with differently oriented (or reflecting) axes (right or left orientations). We imagine space as a continuous. formed in our minds) may have various relations with respect to each other. if any totality of imprints (symbols) corresponding possibilities and if their abilities are at our dispo we can construct another system identical with the given one. We call two a material systems identical influence on our senseorgans (directly.
However. Reflectivity of time. Homogeneity of time. called a light pulse) will return to the light source. 2. Thus we assume the following axioms for space and time I. A light clock represents a light source and a mirror placed at a distance c/2 length units along the « arm » of the clock. in one unit of time. called photons. Thus we imagine space as a threedimensional totality of and time as a onedimensional sequence (totality) totalities are inseparable but independent of each other. space intervals along one of the three dimensions of space) has the property of length and may be chosen arbitrarily. Axiom Axiom II. so that any photon (or a suffipropagate always with velocity c in ciently small package of photons. always remains at b) « Absolute time is rest. Time is homogeneous. it is useful even in classical physics sometimes to assume (speculatively) time frames of the third class in order to obtain a better understanding of some physical phenomena (for example. » that » which by own nature. the perties — radiation of electromagnetic waves). (length divided by time) Material points (see axiom III) of an important class. unrelated to anything else. after being reflected by the mirror. isotropy and reflectivity.1) a universal constant which has the property of velocity and is called velocity of light. Time is called homogeneous first class. in Time is called rellective if considering any ma terial system any pair of time frames of the third class. flows evenly. Experiment and observation suggest that real space has all three prohomogeneity.1.. while real time has only the homogeneity property. we always obtain equivalent images. isotropic and reflective. then the corresponding units of measurement for length and time are called natural. if considering any material system in any pair of time frames of the we always obtain equivalent images. These two a) « Absolute space is that which by its own its nature. empty space. and we can only repeat the assertions of Newton about them (in his « Principia ») : of moments. The unit of measurement T be established for time intervals has the property of time and is to from the following symbolic relation LT where r is • = r. Space intervals can be measured by rigid rods and time intervals can be measured by light clocks. unrelated to any other thing whatsoever. The unit of measurement L for distance (i. : Space is homogeneous. 13 . If we assume the numerical value off to be unity. space points.e. (2.
unrelated to anything extends evenly.. . is that in which velocity of light has the same value along all b) Absolute time is read on a light clock which rests in absolute space (i. we can say only : a) Space is that b) Time is that which extends. appealing to the intuitive ideas of the reader. whilst endorsing Newton's approach.. in However an empty space which there is no matter and in which a hypothetical time flows are purely academic notions. Of course. Therefore. because of their association with some material systems. months. we hope. After the performance of our « coupledmirrors » experiment (Marinov. we can ask which of these space and time frames of reference are the best representatives of absolute space and time and have a common significance for any observer absolute space and time wherein When we epoch determines its best representatives of man and man's thoughts stride. the world of energy surrounding us). to speak about motion (or rest) of space is inappropriate. is that which by its own nature. 1974b). and received. these « Newtonian » assumptions about space and time tell us no more than that which is apparent to the layman because it is basically impossible to define space and lime satisfactorily.e. we propose the following definitions which. we must make the Space consists of spacepoints which can in no way exert any influence on our senseorgans. will not be refined by in the Universe. Space and time which we can perceive with our senseorgans. Any historical future generations a) : Absolute space directions. the Sun and all stars of the Universe (i. which is uniform in respect of the Such is time of days. Thus space and time must be always considered related to matter.However. and we prefer to reformulate Newton's assertion about space as follows following remark : : Absolute space else. » other periodic celestial phenomena as commonly have several sensible frames representing different relative spaces and several sensible clocks reading different relative times. and he proposes : a) « Relative space : is that which is regarded immobile in relation to any sensible thing such as the space of our air as relative is in relation to the Earth. hence. relative. are called by Newton.e. because space and time which we know are associated with the Earth. » b) « Time regarded that flux or variation of any sensible thing. which endures. and and 14 is placed far enough from local concentrations of matter from stars planets).
whose dimensions and numerical value are to be established from the relation for length. (2. time measurement Material points are those points in e. an inertial Now we introduce the following axiom for energy which expresses the : philosophical principle about the unity of the world Axiom III. = m„ c' . is b) Absolute time read on a light clock whose unit of time less than that of any other clock. 1975a). (2.3) where e. called mass. The unit of measurement E for energy has the property of energy and is to be established from the symbolical relation ET = where A is h . space whose energy is different from zero. reference frame associated with absolute space (light clock) is is called an absolute called an absolute frame and any clock reading absolute time Any in reference frame which is moves with a constant translational velocity with respect to absolute space called an inertial frame.These two definitions are identical with the following a) Absolute space is : that with respect to which the energy of the Uni verse is minimum (Marinov. is 1972b). the « arms » of all light clocks being equal (Marinov. is to be established from the relation e. a proper clock reads proper time. Every material point is characterized by a parameter m. If we assume the numerical value of the numerical /i to be unity (and hence equal to value of r). (2. respect to absolute space its When is a material point moves with energy denoted by being called the proper energy or time energy.„ called the proper mass. then the corresponding units of and energy are called natural..„ is called the absolute energy or rest energy.4) 15 . All individually different material systems can be (i. characterized by a uniform character) quantity which is called energy having the same qualitative and which can only have different numerical value for different material systems. = m c' ..2) a universal constant which has the property of action is (energy multiplied by time) and called Planck's constant.e. Any clock. is the energy of the material point at rest and e. The quantity m. Any clock stationary is frame or placed near local concentrations of matter (or both) called a proper clock.
2. the images of the material system would be diffea material system cannot if this The space energy U of vectors of the material points because. called the period.Furthermore.2. Let us note here that a photon in a radio wave (which is represents an elementary particle) can have a length in time (called the wavelength) of the order of many kilometers. In this case the energy of the material system can be called space energy and will be denoted by U. have different values and thus be a function of time. whose dimensions and numerical value are to be established from the relation e„ = h/T. in general. « representing not a rigid but a Finally.5) Any equal to certain « bullet » material point crosses a given surface during a time its period. depend on the radius were so.. Evidently. In other contexts the stars are considered as material points systems. 14. then the energy U will depend on their space is individualities only as a parameter. The word particle for the a synonym term material point. If U will depend on some space individuality » of we suppose that the material points preserve their space individuality in time.e. This depends on the character of the physical problem which to under consideration. every material point is also characterized by a parameter T. rent. Let us note that their is when we speak about material points we do not define volumes. and that would contradict our first axiom. i. by analogy with the intuitive definitions on p. the energy the material points. (2. Thus any material point burst ». 16 . For certain problems the elementary particles are be considered as material points and the atoms material systems. If we measure this energy will at different moments « it will. and the galaxies material As a rule. This numerical parameter called the parameter of the space energy of the given material point. we can also define energy intuitively that of space and time given and uniquely by : c) Energy is which exists. when saying material points we shall understand elementary particles. carries with itself a strictly defined periodicity. however. AXIOMS FOR THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENERGY Let us consider a given material system only in space. the energy of the material system in different space reference frames of the first class would have different values.
and we can write U = U(r. The part of physics known as mechanics does not consider the matter of dependence of energy U on the distances between the material points and leaves this dependence unknown.. The 17 . The electrical parameters of the material points are their electric charges which are denoted by q. The individual image of a material system in its given by the value of gravitational energy C. Space energy is called also potential energy.. The gravitational parameters of the material points are their proper masses (called also gravitational charges) which we have denoted by w„.Thus material the energy (/will depend only on the mutual distances between the the material points becaue we have no other characteristics to describe system considered now only in space. The gives to also it part of physics called electrical theory denotes space energy the by (/. We can systematize all unproved assertions about both types of space : energies in the following axioms for gravitational and electrical energies Axiom space is IV. « Classical We consider (here and in Physics ») only the gravitational and electrical space energies and we ignore the energies of the socalled weak and strong interactions whose axiomatical basis and theoretical interpretation is as yet by no means clear. The existence of other material points cannot exert influence either on the parameters of space energy of these points or on the distance between them. This dependence can be only postulated.j is ij = 1.X where r. Consider now two material points of the system.. the The t/g. name electrical energy electrical (or the second type of space energy) is and assumes that the energy of two material points inversely proportional to the distance between them.2 n.6) the distance between the /th and /th material points whose total number is n. (2. we cannot say how the space energy (/of two material points depends on the distance between them. Hence the space energy of a system of material points must be the every pair of them. sum of the space energies of With the aid of logical considerations only. part of physics called gravitational theory denotes space energy by it gives to the name gravitational energy (or the first type of space energy) and assumes that the gravitational energy of two material points is inversely proportional to the distance between them. The difference between the energies V^ and V^ consists in the different parameters of space energy.
If we work with natural units and we assume the nu merical value of e^ to be unity. — q^. point is In addition to the mass parameter. is a universal constant called the rest energy of the electron. every material q. material points is The energy U^ of two ^.78. the dimensions of Y are established from (2. then the gravitational constant has the value Y = 2.8) Axiom V.10) in is Remark. In this system of units the numerical values of c.. = 861.7). The electric charge of any material point is (or to an integer multiple). The dimensions of the electric charge q and of the electric constant t„ are to be established from (2. (2. called the gravitational constant. (2. q^ proportional to their electric charges r and inversely proportional to the distance between them .7) The coupling constant y. universal constant called the charge of the electron.9). m„. shows what part of the energy unit represents the gravitational energy of two unit masses separated by a unit distance. the unit for electric charge introduced as a fourth fundamental unit of measurement. in addition to its also given by the value of its electrical energy V^.e. and inversely proportional between them U^=  y ^"' r ^"'^ .energy U^ of two material points is proportional to their proper to the distance r masses w„. The rest energy of an important class of material points called electrons is equal to e. thus the dimensions of one of them are to be chosen arbitrarily.= The coupling stant — ^^ e.. the numerical value of the I electron charge to be unity. = f'^L "^.. h. (2. and with the 18 . q^ are different from unity.. the inverse electric constant and e„ shows what part of the energy unit represents the electrical energy of two unit charges separated by a unit distance. where q^ is a equal to q^. is q. In the system of SI units. then the electric dimensionless and has the numerical value E. is system in space.. The individual image of a material gravitational energy V^. If we work — with natural units and constant we assume i. characterized by a second parameter of space energy called the electric charge. e^ .10 ^«£ 'L^T \ (2. where one avoids fractional powers the dimensions of electromagnetic quantities. V..9) r constant e„ ' is called the Inverse electric con the electric constant.. where e.
e„ depends only on the prst derivative of the space coordinates with respect to time. in this case the energy of the material system can be called time energy and this will be denoted by E„ the time energy of a single material point will be denoted by e„. have different values and thus will £"„ be a function of time.e. the energy depend on some £"„ « time individuality » of the material points. 19 . Contemporary physics. Let us now ..e. From the axiomatical point of view it is higher derivatives too. Evidently for this material system the time energy e„ will only be different from zero because for the existence of space energy this we must have its at least two material points. will Evidently. so contradicting our first and second axioms. i.. the image of the material points in time) could depend on the on the acceleration. The time energy of our material point can (i. i. then energy ties will depend on is their time individuali only as a parameter. i. Thus.e. its if we consider will material point simultaneously in space and in time. then cannot depend on the space and time coordinates of the material we must assume that e„ depends on the derivatives of the space to.. If e„ point. If we measure this energy at different moments it will.aim of avoiding factors such as In and Att appearing in formulas which do not involve circular or spherical symmetry. This numerical parameter called the parameter of the time energy of the given material point. assumes that On the grounds of general considerations till it is admissible to suppose that our experience now is insufficient.e. this may be due to the fact that careful observations and detailed analyses of strongly accelerated material systems have not been performed. respectively... depend neither on » ) its radius in vector nor on a time coordinate on the « time radius vector because such a case the energy of the material point would have different values in different space and time reference frames of the first class. in general. If until now human experience has not established such a dependence. its images would be different. on the basis of the experience of centuries. coordinates with respect time because we have no other characteristics to describe the image of the material point. and that the time energy (generally speaking. energy be equal only to time energy e.. one assumes the inverse electric constant showing which part of the energy unit represents the electrical energy of two unit charges separated by a distance of l/An length units. consider the given material system only in time. Consider now only one material point of the system. on the velocity of the material point. material point is A system of one also a material system. If we suppose that the material points preserve their time individualities in time.
e. then the energy IV depend on is It these individualities only as a parameter. in general.admissible to assume that a dependence of time energy on the acceleration of the material points can exist. the mass of the material point being the coupling constant. .1 1) Besides the space energies which depend on the distances between the material points and the time energy which depends on the velocities of the material points. we call this spacetime energy and denote it by W. Since rience of centuries has not given us 20 . These two forms of energy are clearly complementary. The existence of the other cannot exert influence either on the parameters of the time energy of our point or on its velocity (at a given moment !). the change (the diffe of the time energy is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity and the differential of the velocity. The time energy its e„ of one material point depends on rential) velocity. Thus the time energy of a system of material points must be the sum of the time energies of all material points of the system. We can systematize all unproved assertions about time energy : in the following axiom for time energy Axiom is VI. The individual image of a material system in time its given by the value of time energy £„. de„ = m V dv . called turns out that the parameters of the spacetime energy of the material points can be expressed by their electric charges. in addition to the second type of space energy. (2. a second type of spacetime energy which is called the magnetic energy. However.. have different values and thus will be a function of time. a complement to the gravitational energy. whether there exists also a first type of spacetime energy. If we measure this energy at different moments it will. in the Let us now consider our material point presence of the other material points material points of the given system. Hence there exists. This numerical parameter the parameter of the spacetime energy of the given material point. Evidently. If we suppose that the material points preserve their spacetime individualities in time. a type of energy also exists which depends simultaneously on the distances between the material points and on their velocities. the energy W^ will ality » depend on some « spacetime individuwill of the material points. systems may lead to the discovery of entirely unexpected and that experiments with strongly accelerated phenomena. The logical question arises i. our present state of experimental technique cannot reliably establish whether or not a first type of spacetime energy exists. The expe grounds to assume that such an energy does exist.
divided by c and inversely proportional to the distance between them J^ h ...12) called the proper momentum of the in The individual image of a material system space and time given by the value is of its magretic energy ^^. is (2. . is where the gravitational and magretic energies are the part where the electrical and called electromagnetism. The part of physics is considered called gravimagretism.1 '"„•• ^'i • ^ c^r r r is The coupling constant y..' "'. magnetic energy ments/..14) called the electric current element of the material point. The energy W^ of two material points proportional to thescalar product of their proper momenta/?. magnetic energies are considered the The manner of dependence of the energy Pf of two material points on distance between them and on their velocities is to be postulated. r W^ is also given by the value of its The energy W.the internal logic of the mathematical apparatus with which we describe physical reality (first of all the logic of the 4dimensional mathematical first apparatus) does lead to the existence of a shall type of spacetime energy. (2. of two material points is . in addition to its magretic energy W. we hvpotheiicallv assume it its existence. Every material point with proper energy e„ moving at velocity v is characterized by the quantity p„ = ni„ V material point./. and we shall call the magretic energy. by analogy with the magnetic energy. Every material point with electric charge q moving at velocity v is characterized by the quantity j=qv. divided by c and inversely proportional to the distance r between them P„i 'P. proportional to the scalar product of their electric current ele.. called the magretic constant. Axiom VIII./?. The individual image of a material system in space and time.. sum of We gies can systematize all unproved assertions about the second type of spacetime energy in the following axioms for magretic and magnetic ener Axiom VII.. equal to the gravitational constant.. We consider the spacetime energy of a system of material points to be the the spacetime energies of every pair of them.
this is not true. 2. of classical physics we assume the velocities of the material points to be too small in c. Let us assume that the shaft rotates with a is no friction or torsion. i... However. W. of a material system are functions of time and their numerical values can. Indeed.4. W^ . (/. represents the axiomatical grounds of cla.e. thus = /i„ l/c„. Then.ssica! relativistic physics. HIGH VELOCITY AXIOM On the grounds of the nine axioms formulated above. let us have a rotating rigid shaft on whose ends two identical cogwheels are fixed and let us number any two cogs which lie oposite each other on the ends of a certain generatrix of the shaft. Total energy //„ is the full energy plus the spacetime energy W.. together with the nine axioms. £„ . : expressing the philosophical principle about the unity of space and time Axiom IX. Conventional physics assumes that information can be transferred from one space point to another only if a certain quantity of energy can be sent from the first space point to the second. system of units it is assumed that = l/c„ r'. that is dH„ = 0. AXIOM FOR THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The five types of energy U^ . vary with time. if a certain cogwheel makes contact with an indicator placed at one end of the shaft.3. and it is equal to the inverse electric constant.. (2. Full energy //„ of a material system is called the sum of the time energy E„ and the space energy U. The unproved in assertion about the change of the energies of a material system time is given by the following axiom for the conservation of energy. which we wish to consider the given physical At velocities of the material points comparable with we must first take into account also the tenth axiom which. we know that the corresponding cog of the other cogwheel will also make contact with an indicator placed symmetrically at the opposite end constant angular velocity and there cog of the first 22 . in general.The coupling constant Remark. c. .16) 2. In the SI n„ is called the magnetic constant ju. in which comparison with light velocity points small in comparison with light velocity Whether we can consider the velocities of the material depends on the precision with problem. The numerical value of the total energy of an isolated material system remains constant in time. the theory of classical nonrelativistic physics can be built.
and nor on the material systems. then we call this an Einsteinian time synchronization. after taking into account the time delays which the signals need to cover the different distances to the clocks placed at different space points. independent of the orientation of their « unit « is arms ». Light clocks with equal « arms » have the same rate in any inertial frame. 1974a)..e. that space that the in the coordinates are involved Lorentz transformation formulas for time. say that the velocity of the photons does not depend on their that it does not depend on the velocity of the source of radiation. It turns out. on the potential fields. these points. In any frame moving with respect to absolute space the Einsteinian time synchronization differs from Newtonian since In in moving frames the velocity of light is anisotropic. and assume that the velocity of light has the same numerical value in all directions with respect to any inertial frame. interchanging light signals between them. Here are some remarks on this axiom : When we history. The material all points called photons move with velocity c along directions in absolute space and their velocity does not depend on their history. 23 we mean . however. between both these space points no is transfer of energy takes place. arms light clocks with equal independent of the velocity of the frame and the local be defined by the period of concentration of matter. is and this implies that the constancy and isotropy of light velocity essentially only a convention. The Einsteinian time synchronization can be reduced to a Newtonian time synchronization only if the frame in which we the are working is attached to absolute space. Obviously. A Newtonian time synchronization can be realized also by the help of signals which proceed with the same velocity in any direction. i. nor on which it was « hitched » (Marinov. in such a case. nor on the velocities of all material points with which the photon has collided. however. The mathematical apparatus adequate to physical reality is for a description of highvelocity physics to : be obtained by assuming the following highvelocity (reiativistic) axiom Axiom X. At any point of any frame the time to ». If we synchronize spatially separated clocks. there an information link between We call the synchronization of spatially separated clocks by the help of a rotating rigid shaft placed between them a Newtonian time synchronization. Marinov (1975a) we show leads to the Galilean transformation tion leads to Newtonian time synchronization and the Einsteinian time synchronizathe Lorentz transformation.of the shaft. crossed by the photon.
e.20) from where T„.17).:\ = d vt. against the direction have for these two cases = d + vT. (2. covers the shall « if we denote by T^'„ = Tp'/.1 8) from where T = T ^ T = /per /per + /per " ' ^^j Id _ ^y^^yn and ... r' r^.^ (2. t will be ' = Iper Tp.17) periods of the « longitudinal » light clock will correspond.:. we shall .22) we obtain (2. supposing (as shall we always do) that the Indeed. « ticks ». = rp. however. then the » light nonrelativistic conceptions should lead to the result that to n^^. = T„. Indeed. along the direction of propagation of the clock) and of propagation of the clock). + r„..assertion of our tenth axiom affirms that any proper Ught clock does not depend on the orientation of its « arm ». it tenth axiom asserts.^. covers the « if we denote by T^'^r T^il the times in which light arm » d of the « longitudinal » clock « there » (i. = 2d . that "par must be (224) = "per . periods of the « transverse clock "par = 'Ip. « arms » of the clocks are equal.y2 the times in which light arm » d of the « transverse » clock « there » and « back ». « ticks » and « longitudinal » n^^..:i = cP + V' T. « back » (i.22) and the if for a certain time / the « light clock makes n^^._^.rCl " V'/c')^" (2. 24 . (2..' = d' + v' T. if we try to find the rates of two identical The most important unproved the rate of light clocks their « arms proceeding with velocity v with respect to absolute space when » are.19) "^ > ^ On the other hand..23) and (2.. = ''par T^p. This assertion represents a crucial boundary between nonrelativistic and relativistic mechanics which has concerned the human mind almost the whole of this century. cr.:i .21) Hence it will be T^per = nar(l " transverse it >» V^/C^)^'' (2.:7 . ^^. (2.e.r . respectively. cT. this empirical fact was first proved by the historical MichelsonMorley experiment.r • (223) From Our and (2. perpendicular and parallel to v. we have for these two cases c' T.
The Lorentz however.24) contradicts the transformation (as a matter of fact point of view. shall In the next section we is show that transformation of the space and time coordinates transformation. showing to how the be treated from an absolute point of view. » we have transformation leads to the result (2. that at the initial zero fig.It can be shown that the empirical fact (2. latter is in a certain aspect. and to be considered as a companion of the Lorentz transformation.e. Fig. it represents a vv/j^/jcv/.1 THE GALILEAN TRANSFORMATION All transformations of the space in this section are between a frame K attached To and time coordinates which we consider to absolute space and a frame avoid trivial K' moving inertially with a velocity V. §3.v of these two. « relativistic » it has failed to Gahlean shown this). 31 25 . and which our tenth axiom leads to a we have called the Marinov different from those of Galilei and Lorentz. when treated from a explam other experiments. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS 3. is However. we is shall suppose moment the origins of both frames have coincided (see 31 where for simplicity's sake a twodimensional case presented). we shall consider the socalled homogeneous transformation. such just as our « coupledmirrors experiment.. i.24). constants.
yi. r. is is r' (called the in The radius vector of the origin of frame It is K ' frame K R (called the transient radius vector). y=y„.Vt.4) Thus in such a case we can write the transformation formulas for the space and time coordinates in the form r r = r. Let us decompose 'p. we have that the t = i„. t„. t Formulas (3.Let us have a point P whose radius vector in frame K \s r (called the absolute radius vector) and whose radius vector in frame A" relative radius vector). we shall have (3.'pr and « longitudinal » light clocks.r (3.1) is the time read on a clock and Vh the velocity of frame is time read on a clock which velocity of at which is at rest in frame K (an absolute A" measured on this clock.. THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION Now we shall search for a transformation of the space and time coordi nates which will lead to the relation n. clocks attached to K and A^' read the we obtain (3. = r' + y„t„. (3.„r.'. and formulas mogeneous Galilean transformation. = r' t„ = = t. (3. is the frame A" measured on to the traditional this clock. R = vt = where clock) / y„t„. while /„ is the rest in K' (a proper clock) and V. (3. ''.7) between the periods of « transverse required by our tenth axiom. Adding these two equations.2) (3. respectively.6) (3. ho 3. r.3) r r = r.1)..5) represent the direct.T = » T.2. If we assume same time.5) (3. 26 . 31) the radius vectors r and r' into components and r. as (fig.6) the inverse + yt. According Newtonian conceptions.. perpendicular and parallel to the direction of propagation of K '.„r.
... ..r is expressed by — Vt) neither a physical effect. We ask the reader to pay due attention statement and not to blame our theory for mathematical imperfection..(l .) (3. — ^'z represent the. as obtained by Einstein..8) the following relation for the transformation of the radius vectors in frames K and r' = C.. = r. this mathematical we must state that after we could to this not find a way to get of it. This imperfection exists in Nature itself. nor a result of measurement..B..„ and r..10) we introduce a blunt mathe matical contradiction into the traditional Newtonian mathematical apparatus... if we wish to meet the requirement A" (3.Vt (3..8) can meet the requirement (3.. '•par " >^ / = T. taken at a given Thus r. we have = V. We have called this peculiarity in the propagation of light the aefherIMarinov character of light propagation..7) of our tenth axiom if we lake the component of the relative radius vector contracted by the factor J^/c'^)"^ when expressed by the coordinates in frame K..According r' to the traditional Newtonian conceptions.'.....r moment. if we (I — axiomatically assume as valid instead of the Newtonian relations parallel '' We = Vr. According toour theory.V t) = r ..10) only because the velocity of light has not an exact aetherNewtonian character.^ — is f^l is expressed by or « dilation » (when rj. as supposed by Lorentz... + C= r.e. (N..10) contraction (when r. . i. r. We must realize once and for all that light has not an exact aetherNewtonian character of propagation since its « thereandback » velocity (in a frame moving in absolute space) it is isotropic. h J^' ~Jjy„ • (3. (3.. we have to write instead of the relation (3.. Making a transition from (3. h r. As we have shown in detail in contradiction remains for ever in the formulas and years of intensive mathematical speculations rid Marinov (1975a).. Thus. + (r. or between two nonmaterial points. while according to the aetherNewtonian conceptions must be anisotropic..7).. About lengths one can speak only at a given moment !) and r^^^ ~ ^t are equal and we write the second relation (3.11) 27 .9) to (3..„.9) the « Lorentzian » relations Vr = This « C » r.Vyc')''K Tp..vawe length (distance) between two material points which can be connected by a rigid rod or which can move with respect to each other.Vt = r„„r r.
This formula, written
vector r
is
.
in
such a manner that only the absolute radius
its
represented, but not
transverse and longitudinal
components
Vr
'
''par
has thc form
1
r
=
r
+
r.V
1 1
t
[\
^
^(1
 V'/cy^
'
K'
(1

)
V
(3 12)
^
^
V'/c'V'^'
^
Let us
r' to
r.
now find the formula for Here we have two possibilities To assume To assume
is
the inverse transformation,
:
i.e.,
from
a)
that also in
frame K' the velocity of
light
is
isotropic
and
equal to c (the Einstein way).
b)
that the velocity of light
is
isotropic
and equal
to c only in
frame
K which
attached to absolute space (the Marinov way).
The
Einstein
way
leads to transformation of the time coordinates
i.e.,
where
the radius vectors should appear,
to relative
time coordinates, while the
Marinov way leads
to
transformation of the time coordinates where the
i.e.,
radius vectors should not appear,
to
absolute time coordinates.
in §3.3 the second.
Now we shall
If the velocity
follow the
first
way and
of light in frame A" is a55Mme^ to be isotropic and equal to assuming further that the velocity with which frame K moves with respect to A" (and measured on a clock attached to A") is equal with opposite sign to the velocity V with which frame A" moves with respect to A (and measured on a clock attached to A^, we can write (let us note that both these assumptions follow from the principle of relativity)
f,
then,
Adding formulas
'(1
(3.12)
I
and
(3.13),
we
obtain
t
r.V
J
'
,7\\/2  v'/c'y^
v
1/2
+
(I
 v'/c'y^
^^^^^
'(!

^'Vc')''^
y
^(1  KVc')''^
(3.12),
If in this
formula we substitue r'from
in
we
shall obtain the transl
formation formula for time
which Twill be expressed through
and
r
t
=
t
(1
 r. Vic' r,  V'/cy^
.
(3.15)
28
On
through
the other hand,
if in
formula (3.14) we substitute r from (3.13).
in
we
shall obtain the
transformation formula for time
which
t
will
be expressed
rand
r'
('
t
=
(1
+ 
r'.
Vic'
.
(3.16)
V'/c')*'^
Formulas
the inverse
(3.12), (3.15) represent the direct,
and formulas
(3.13), (3.16)
homogeneous Lorentz transformation. These formulas show
r'
t
that
not only the radius vectors r and
are two different quantities, but also the
time coordinates
and
f'
are two different quantities and are to be called
absolute time coordinate and relative time coordinate.
Thus, since the time coordinates
relative quantities, the light velocity
in
the Lorentz transformation are
in this
constancy
transformation
is
only
apparent. In
Marinov (1975a). we show how. proceeding from the Lorentz transformation, one can obtain the expressions for the light velocity in any inertial frame which are adequate to physical reality. Hence, according to
is
absolute spacetime theory, the Einstein general principle of relativity
invalid
and the Lorentz transformation is adequate to physical reality only if it is treated from our absolute point of view. Since Einstein treats the light velocity constancy as a physical fact and the general principle of relativity as
a
law of Nature, we consider the Lorentz transformation
in the
context of
special relativity as inadequate to physical reality.
Note
quate
physical
a given
that
we
consider the Galilei limited principle of relativity as ade
to physical reality.
This principle asserts that there
is
no mechanical
phenomenon by whose help one can establish the inertial motion of material system. Hence for the mechanical phenomena any inertial
is
relative space
isotropic.
relativity
For the electromagnetic phenomena the principle of
hold good. Thus for the electromagnetic
spaces are not isotropic.
does not
phenomena
the inertial relative
However, as Minkowski has shown, if we consider a 4space in which the any intertial frame are unified with the corresponding time coordinate multiplied by r (and by the imaginary unit), then this 4space turns out to be isotropic and homogeneous. As the Galilean
three space coordinates in
transformations
make
a group in the 3space. so the Lorentz transformations
is an exclusively great mathematical advantage and the 4dimensional mathematical apparatus developed by Minkowski has given an enormous help in the investigation of highvelocity
make
a group in the 4space. This
physical
In
phenomena.
our absolute spacetime theory, we work intensively with the 4dimensional mathematical formalism of Minkowski, always keeping in mind
29
that the fourth
dimension
is
not a time axis but a length axis along which the
time a)ordinates are multiplied by the velocity of light, and here the apparent
absoluteness of the light velocity
is
time coordinates. As a matter of
light velocity relative, as in the
fact,
always connected with the relativity of the the time coordinates are absolute and
shown by
the help of
Marinov transformation and as we have numerous experiments analysed in Part II of this book.
that
if
We
must note and emphasize
setting experiments
where only
electromagnetic
phenomena
are involved, then the principle of relativity
apparently holds good because of the mutual annihilation of the appearing
absolute effects. This principle breaks down only when setting experiments where combined electromagnetic and mechanical phenomena are involved,
as
is
the case with the
»
clocks
« coupledmirrors » experiment, the « antipodalexperiment and the ultrasonic « coupledshutters » experiment.
3.3.
THE MARINOV TRANSFORMATION
As
a result of our theoretical
is
and experimental work, we have come
to physical reality.
to
the conclusion that time
an absolute quantity and the Marinov transis
formation (Marinov, I978d)
this
adequate
all
By
the help of
transformation, one can explain
highvelocity experiments, including
if
those which contradict the Galilean as well as the Lorentz transformation,
the latter be treated in the
frame of special
relativity.
To
axiom
in
obtain the Marinov transformation,
we
shall
proceed from our tenth
(§2.4),
noting that
now we
shall not take into
account the influence of
the gravitating masses
on the
rates of the light clocks, a
problem considered
Marinov (1976a).
Thus, according to the tenth axiom
a) Light clocks with equal «
:
arms
»
have the same
rate,
independent of
the orientation of their «
arms
».
b) In any frame the time unit
clocks with equal
«
arms
»,
is to be defined by the period of independent of the velocity of the frame.
light
As we have shown in §2.4, the first assertion drastically contradicts the Newtonian conceptions. The second assertion represents not such a drastic contradiction because in the frame of the traditional Newtonian spacetime conceptions also one can define the time unit in any inertial frame by the period of light clocks with equal « arms ». However, in the traditional Newtonian frame, the inconvenience exists that one has further to define that the « arms » of the light clocks must always make the same angle with the velocity of the inertial frame used, e.^., their « arms » must be perpendicular to this velocity. In such a manner the absolute time dilation phenomenon will be introduced also into the traditional Newtonian theory. Thus, at first
traditional
30
Under this stipulation we shall obtain and (3.19) where T and T„ are measured same time from (3. So far there is no experimental evidence permitting one to assert that the period of any system (say. we think the statement about the time dilation is to be considered not as a stipulation but as an axiomatical assertion alien to the traditional Newtonian theory. = 1(1 .glance. 19)) Id " ~ c(l  VWc')''^ _ ~ (1 T . This problem needs additional theoretical and experimental investigation. light clock (see p. 15) The period ofan absolute whose « arm » is </ will be T^ldlc. t absolute seconds and /„ proper seconds have elapsed. it as the first seems that the second assertion has not such a « natural » character one and represents only a stipulation.KVc')"2 T as ^^'^^ a time unit in frame K frame A" (called proper second). (3. the relation between them will be If (at an appropriate choice ofd) we choose (called absolute second) and T„ as a time unit in tjl = T/T„ = in the  V'/c')''\ (3. Let us find written if first how the Galilean transformation formulas are to be one should assume that in any inertial frame the time unit is to be defined by the period of light clocks with equal « arms ».1) units (absolute or proper). supposing for definiteness that the « arms » of the light clocks must be always perpendicular to the absolute velocity of the frames.19) V = (1 y  V = (1 y/c')''^ V + K'/f')"^ we .V'/c'y'\ (3. then it is clear that when between two events.20) Thus the transformation formulas (3. A in (3.19) are to be written in the following form t„ r=ryt. it turns out that not only the periods of light clocks become greater velocity in absolute space (we repeat.3) to which attach the relation (3. However.2).21) 31 . At any rate. the pulse of a man) becomes greater with the increase of its absolute velocity. the meanlives of decaying elementary particles). the period of a spring clock. a in the traditional Newtonian theory) when they move with phenomenon which exists also but also the periods of many other greater physical processes (the periods of atomic clocks. (3.17) » proper light clock with the same « arm which moves with velocity V absolute space will have a period (see (2.
(i.. then a transformation of the space and time coordinates adequate to physical reality. we proceed from the formula (see (3.Vr')' ^ (3. when proceeding from the traditional Newtonian conceptions.^r + + rp„.e. = r' '^ in + (3.23) This formula.t„. (3. would be given by the relativistic Galilean transformation. at the assumption of the time dilation dogma.10).4). the same If.r . the traditional Newtonian conceptions lead to the conclusion that a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock have different rates (see §2. such a manner that only the relative radius its is .22) the inverse Formulas (3. written vector r' 'p.+ ( ( + v„' to)yn .12). V is is K' with respect to absolute frame K) measured V.„ + <„. The introduction of this axiomatical (empirical) assertion into the Galilean transformation leads to the Marinov transformation. represented. is to be done in the following manner exactly in the same way as in we come to the conclusion that if we wish to meet the requirement of our axiom about the independence of the light clock's rate on the orienta« arm ».22) (3. as well as along the « arm » of the proper clock measured in proper seconds. transient velocity).2. V„ I ] r=^r.. seconds (called the absolute (called the proper transient velocity) velocity measured in proper seconds and c is the velocity of light along the « arm » of the absolute clock measured in absolute seconds. without trying to explain why Nature works in such a manner.A\ + K. However. one would come to the result that a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock would have the same rate.24) (I + v„'/cy^ 32 . the experiment (the historical MichelsonMorley experiment was the first one) has shown that the rates of a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock are equal.(! . tenth tion of the clock's To obtain the inverse transformation. the velocity of frame in absolute In these formulas.r = r' + y. relativistic and formulas homogeneous space to Galilean transformation.21) represent the direct. the transformation between the radius vectors r and r' is to be written in the form (3.V^n^''^ Vt = V„t„ . = r. (3. t = i. : This §3. but not perpendicular and parallel components 'par will havc the form 1 r.20)1 = r.1) and r (3. On the other hand. We have assumed this empirical fact as an axiomatical assertion..
22).24) we can obtain the second formula (3.27) v= The will « V + (((1 .26) the inverse homogeneous Marinov transformation. 33 . we can (3.12) with the second formula (3. 1 1 V 1 ^. and formulas (3.26) =^ /^(I + vj/c')"^ Formulas (3.24) with the second formula (3.25) represent the direct. Let us combine formula (3. = in dr/dl„ for the proper absolute velocity and = dr'/dt„ for the proper relative velocity. in a manner similar to that used in §3. then from and (3.21) and formula (3. ^ '•"'• (3.28) the inverse Marinov transformation for velocities written in absolute lime. 12) V according to the first formula (3.'. through (3. On the other hand. r.26) t/r. dt.27) represents the direct.25) ' = ''^ < ' (TttW= / " " 4^^ . absolute transient velocity y and not the proper transient velocity Formula (3. dt. Let us now obtain the Marinov transformation formulas for velocities. v' = dr'/di. Thus v must be rule. ^ r'. (1  ' V'/c')''^' {„== t(\  V'/c')''^ (3. Writing obtain in the first formulas (3. dt„ instead of r. and formula (3. dr'. the adjective called the absolute absolute velocity (as a rule. we can obtain the Marinov transformation for velocities written proper time.20). /. Writing r'.28) velocities v and v' are measured in absolute time. 12) we express y through y„ according to the second formula (3. (3.20). then from (3. /.y/c')'"  1 ] ^^^ + I } ^'.„ dividing them by dt and introducing the notations v = dr/dt. if in obtain the second formula (3. For this reason we have written in (3.If we express here K.„ in the first formulas (3.24).25) and (3. we v' = V + 1 {\  V. dr\ dt„ instead of r.2.21).26) dr.22) *" "*""*" ^ ' (I  V'/c')''' ~ ' ' 1^ .28) the K. ) y .12) and (3. (3. the first adjective « absolute » be omitted) and v absolute relative velocity (as a » will absolute be omitted). dividing them by dl„ and introducing the notations v„ v.25) and (3.
Denoting the angle between v and yby 6 and (3. finally we are also called absolute.KVc')"^+ V\ where c' is we suppose measured = c and if we write v' i.One can write also the transformation formulas for velocities in which is the relative velocity expressed in proper time and the absolute velocity in absolute time. the lute » will adjective « abso be omitted) c will be c I c. the adjective « absolute » will be omitted). that the velocities with respect to the moving frame A" are called while the clocks attached to A" are called proper. the absolute relative light velocity (as a rule.^ (3. this K decided to use a single word.y^cos'9/c') + Iv'ycose' v in {\ .27) and m the following form. . even though terms.29) (3.V'/c' 1 l^cos^ + V (3./Vr')"2 \ (I r ^^ 1 . + VCOS0/C its (331) If we denote by c.2 V . shall write the transformation formulas for the velocities' magnitudes. then first connection with the absolute absolute light velocity (as a rule.' the proper relative light velocity. then these two equations to v') give (the second after a solution of a quadratic equation with respect c' = c .Vcose/c = (1 . This will be the Marinov transformation for velocities written in mixed time. the relative light velocity absolute time.^(1 . the velocities with respect to the rest frame K are called absolute and the clocks attached to To have in the second case a terminological difference similar to the first case. However.KVf')"2 —. = c'.V'sm'e/c') .e. (3. . we have considered calling the absolute clock and absolute time « universal ». because of the confusion in using too many different 34 .31).32) and its connection with the proper absolute light velocity Co = (I  v^cy^ r.30) ^^ = If 1.33) will be the same as that given by formula (3. might sometimes lead to misunderstandings.: = 1 c 1 — Vcos0/c = . having squared them. v'(l . Note relative.28) the angle between we can write formulas (3.. Now we v'and ^'by after 0'.V'/c' + Vcosd'/c — . On the other hand.
. we shall suppose./.34) The frame A'. i\ — V^/c^V'^+ y. is vaxis of the rest r X = moving with X (I X./) in A.Vf')"^ where the velocities and ^'^ measured in absolute time. t (I _ are — J/ / = (I 2/^2)1/2'  ' r. For transformation (where time time absolute). in the Lorentz the relative time coor relative)./) in the absolute frame A and the coordinates {XiJ. Here we must again repeat that the absolute and proper time intervals are phvsicallv different quantities.) in a proper frame Kj moving with velocity V.. However.v. the aetherMarinov cha racter of light propagation leads to the introduction of the notion ».We designate the relative quantities by upperscripts (primes) and the this proper quantities by subscripts (zeros). The distance distances are always absolute. 3. ^ O) along the positive direction of the vaxis X.4./c) ^'. it can easily be established that they form a group.) in a proper velocity V^iV^S^ O) along the positive direction of the frame A and the coordinates (.v. Since the mathematical analysis in the general case is too cumbersome. while the difference between proper distances and distances is only a contradictory mathematical result which appears because of the aetherMarinov character of light propagation engendered by the bidirectional light velocity isotropy in any inertial frame. = t{\ V. we designate dinates by upperscripts (primes) is and in the Marinov transformation (where we designate the proper time coordinates by subscripts (zeros). 35 .26) [see also formulas (3. The problem about is the eternal contradiction in detail in distances and distances considered « proper between proper Marinov (1975a). t. From formulas (3. that the velocities of the different frames vaxis of the rest (absolute) frame.^ {V. .20)). we shall ignore them.and z coordinates are subjected to an indentical transformation. according to formulas (3.'/c'y'\ (3. ' (3. for simplicity's sake. = ^ ~ —i^.25) we obtain the following direct transformation between the coordinates (. is reason. GROUP PROPERTIES OF THE MARINOV TRANSFORMATION After a due examination of the Marinov transformations.35) ^^.. and As in their vaxes are parallel to the this simple case the y. inverse transformation between the coordinates (v.
r„ = r„ (3.. *' I K.'/c'y'^{\  ' V.36) give a transformation Ty. a transformation T. . (I  v. we obtain a transformation 2 is which has the same form as (3.36) for the transformation Ty. is set. = 7. (3. . .. identify form of the transformation (3. T^.. n. 3.K.^ . Ty..'/c')"^ t^=. Ty. = Ty. set is equivalent to a member of the the product r. Thus the transitive property is proved We mention here that the transitive property for the Lorentz and Galilean transformations can be proved only velocities.36) occurs : = V. which a is also a member of the set has a unique recipromember of the set. : Tji .34). responding formulas for the transformation .Substituting formulas (3...^ through the coordinates .37) being defined as performing T.. . Thus 2.e..36) in which the number right. . if The one takes into account the corresponding transformation for transitive property for the Marinov transformation is proved i....3 = T. directly. will have the same form in which the number I is replaced by 2 and the number 2 by r.Vc' T7T7T 1 ' )  V. T. (3. and If formulas (3.. Identity property The set includes one « identity » transformation. T. forms a group if it has the following properties 1 .36) These formulas are absolutely symmetric with respect in to the coordinates both frames. (3.Vc' "' '• ' V..35) into formulas (3. and . we can express the coordinates in frame .39) 36 .. successively.. Now we shall : prove that these transformations form a group. Transitive property : The product of two transformations of the set.t. r. The 3.K. without taking into account the transformation for velocities. A set of transformations. . where 7!. Thus the inverse of Ty. into the corT. { ^— ) . is member of the 7. . whose product with any other member of the set leaves the latter unchanged. Substituting formulas (3.. ^^ = ( n .. 7. Reciprocal property Every cal (or inverse) r^j. in frame K. replaced by 3.38) for V.
fine. the driver will always register a higher velocity and Newtonian time synchronization).e. thus.4. the distance between whom a is supplied with two clocks (imagine for clarity.. will register the time df in will will even when he surpasses the prescribed speed limit (according to his calculation) he would not be stopped by the policemen to pay a In relativistic physics. .T. 4..„ The proper y = velocity dr dt„ = dr dlO  = (1 v . Two policemen. (3.) = (T. Obviously.)T.40) The associative property can easily be proved.. will measure the proper velocity v„. and vice versa. Thus the Marinov transformations form a group.. in which the car will cover the same distance and.. 4.the The reciprocal of the transformation number 2 instead of I.. 37 . §4.36) can be obtained by writing Associative property : If three succeeding transformations are performed. consider suppose at rest in dr...1. The driver supplied with a single clock will register the proper time dl. v'/c')"^  (4. we introduce the following two types of velo city The velocity dr v=. light clocks) which (i.AT. we work with the proper velocities (in general. a car moving along which we absolute space. (3. ELEMENTS OF MOTION VELOCITY As already stated (§3. with the proper elements of motion) because in such a case the problem about the synchronization of spatially separated clocks is eliminated. then T.2) i'Vc')"2 a given road For example. cover the distance and. thus.3).T.. are synchronized by the help of a long rotating rigid shaft by the help of which the car measure the velocity v of the car.
dr.vVc')"2 its (43) The product of the mass of a momentum.2. first proper kinetic force and second proper kinetic force of the material point. — = dt. respectively.u r. = (I u  + v c' v'/c')'" i\ v. ACCELERATION We introduce The the following three types of acceleration : acceleration u = dv d'r —— = —— dt dt' (4. The proper velocity represents the space part of a 4vector called the The time component of the 4velocity is the proper light velocity (see (3. the p„ = mv„ (4.v'/c^y (4. dt„ d dr — ^dt: — ) = 1 u  + v — v..8) are.4velocity. material point by its The product of the mass of a the kinetic force.4) momentum and proper momentum of the material point.33)] c = ^) dt„ = (1 f . thus acceleration is called f= mu f„ = m u„. thus material point by velocity is called the p = mv. respectively.5) ^ The first proper acceleration dv„ M = — dt = d — — ( dt W ) ( . foo "= f^ i*<m (4.7) v'^c'Y The second proper easily acceleration represents the space part of a 4vector called the 4acceleration. 4. are. the kinetic force. v'/c' cMi  (4.u .6) The second proper acceleration u = dv. 38 . The time component of the 4acceleration can be expressed through the acceleration and velocity.
4.3.
SUPERACCELERATION
We introduce the following four types of superacceleration
The superacceleration
du
dt
:
(Pv
dt'
cPr
(4.9)
do
The
first
proper superacceleration
du„
dt
d^v^
d^
do
do
(—
^
,
dr
.
)
.
dL
(4.10)
The second proper
superacceleration
du^
d'v„
d
d
.
dr
The
third proper superacceleration
du,„
d
,
dy„
.
d
d
,
dr
.
Putting (4.7) into (4. 12), we obtain the following expression for the third proper superacceleration through the velocity, acceleration and superacceleration of the material point
111
^
(1
H'
4
2)
u{v
.
u)
\
V
lO
\
v{v
.
w)
4
Av
c*
{v
(I
.
uY
(4.13)

v'/c'y^
c'{\

v'/c'Y'^

v'/c'y^
The
third proper superacceleration represents the space part of a 4
vector called the 4superacceleration.
The time component of
the 4super
acceleration can easily be expressed through the superacceleration, acceleration
and
velocity.
its
we do
For the product of the mass of a material point by not introduce a special name and symbol.
superacceleration
§5.
5.1.
TIME ENERGY
THE NONRELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION We obtain the form of the time energy of a material point with
mechanics by integrating the axiomatical relation
e„
mass
m in
(5.1)
nonrelativistic
(2.1 1)
= mv'/2 +
Const.
39
Por
rest
»/
=
t\
,
the time energy of the material point
energy
which
is
given by the relation
(2.3),
so that
must be equal to its we can assume
Const
=
e,
and thus
e„
= m c^ + m
v^ 11
=
e^
+
^^
(5.2)
The
difference between the time and rest energies
is
called the kinetic
energy. Thus, in nonrelativistic mechanics, the kinetic energy has the form
ey
= m
v'/2
.
(5.3)
5.2.
THE RELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION
To
obtain the time energy of a material point
in relativistic
1)
mechanics
we
have to put into the axiomatical assertion (2.1
v.
the proper velocity v„
instead of the velocity
There are three
de°
possibilities
= m
v„.
dv
dv„
(5.4)
de„
= mV =
.
(5.5)
de„„
m
v„. dv„
,
(5.6)
and
after the integration of these three formulas
we obtain
three different
expressions for the time energy in relativistic mechanics
go ==
 mc'O 
v'/c'y'\
(5.7)
e^
=
(1
 v'/cy~
'
(5.8)
€„„
=
I
m c'
I
T

'
(5.9)
v'/c'
where
all
constants of integration are taken equal to zero, so that for v '^z c
we obtain
e°
=  mc' + m
e„
v'/2
= =
e,
e,
+
e^,
,
e^
(5. 10)
= mc^ + m
v'/2
+
(5.
1
1)
e„„
= m cyi + m
v'/2
= ej2 +
all
e^
.
(5. 12)
Thus
relativistic
for
i^
«
r the kinetic
energy of
these three forms of the
time energy has the same value as
rest energies are different.
in nonrelativistic
mechanics,
f'„
though their
Only the
rest
energy of
has the
40
value
e,
postulated by our third axiom.
if
The
rest
energies o{ e" and
e...,
can be
obtained equal ioe,
this reason,
additional constants of integration are introduced. For
we choose e„ as trnie (or proper) energy of the material point. However, we must emphasize that e" and e„„ can adequately play the same
role.
We introduce
e" e„
e„„
the following terms
:
— — —
v„
Lagrange lime energy, Hamilton time energy, Marinov time energy.
velocity of light represents the time part of
Theproper energy divided by
a 4vector called the
/)„
4momentum whose space
is
part
is
the proper
momentum
= m
.
This quantity
denoted by
A,
=
—
e„
=
nt c„
=
— mc
—
tnc
is
(5.13)
and
is
called the proper time
(absolute) time
momentum; the quantity p = momentum. Thus p = mv can be called the
c,
called the
(absolute) space
momentum, v and
on.
respectively, (absolute) space
and time
velocities,
and so
Obviously, the Hamilton time energy
energy and the
rest
e.,
can be called the proper time
symbol
latter,
c,
when
this
is
as a rule,
it by the cannot be confused with the charge of the electron; the denoted by us by q,. (see axiom V^.
energy
e,
the (absolute) time energy, denoting
All three types of time energy e"
physics.
,
e.,
,
and
e„„
are used in theoretical
The time energy e„ plays the most important role, though many formulas obtain a more compact form when Lagrange time energy e" is used
(see, for
example,
(6.14)].
Comparing
proper mass
is
(5.8) with (2.4) [or the
(4.2)],
second relation
(4.4) with (2.12)
when
taking into account
we conclude
that the relation
between mass and
m„ =
(1
m

—
.
(5.14)
i/Vc')''^
Note
that the axiomatical relation (2.3) represents the
is
formula which
considered as an
«
ideological basis
»
for
famous Einstein modern physics in
call «
our nuclear century. As a matter of
introduction of a
fact, relation (2.3)
serves only for the
new
derivative
physical quantity which we
«
mass
»
and
which differs from the axiomatical quantity
factor.
energy
»
only by a constant
at all the
The whole of physics can be constructed without introducing
«
quantity
mass
»
because relation (2.3) represents a trivial tautology.
of relation (2.3)
How
ever, the establishment
was an enormous
scientific feat.
41
. Let us assume that in a time dt the space energy V and the time energy £"„ of an isolated material system of m material points have changed their values v.16) and dividing by dt.3) dr. e„. which can be proved by dividing both sides by di. we obtain i 2 TJ:(^) +r— dr. . acceleration. THE LAGRANGE EQUATIONS THE NONRELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION As can be seen from (2. . .dv. and 42 . 6.2) where we have taken into account (5. that the particleswaves is still contradiction not lucidly resolved. = I . (6. u.4) In this equation all n (as a matter of fact..dr. dl dv. Denote by r.1) = I 9'*i Time energy depends only on thus the velocities of the material points and dE„=X ^ . §6.2) into the fundamental axiomatical equation (2.1. 3n) expressions in the brackets must be identically equal to zero because otherwise a dependence would exist between the components of the velocities of the different material points. its spacetime energy is to be consispace dered only order in relativistic physics since availability leads to effects of second in vie. . = dv^ .dr. (6. .The greatest accomplishment of a scientist is the revelation of a simple truth where others see a complexity or nothing at all. (6. although we must add.2) i/j and the V. = 2 ^ . Thus in nonrelativistic physics we have to consider only and time energies. . . Substituting (6.dv. =0. relation (6.5). dU = ^ ^— i . = 2 ^ (^) . Almost the same can be said for de Broglie's relation (2. we have by dV and </£". As space energy depends only on the distances between the material points. the radius vector. velocity.15).1) and (6. and energy of the /th material point.13) and (2.1^.
/ar.' .... (4.. dv^ dv.. is the kinetic energy of the /th material point and E^ is the kinetic energy of the whole system. Introducing the notation r = and calling F. THE RELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION In relativistic physics. on the /th point and the potential force which the /th material point exerts on the /th point is F.' = — dU.9) dv.1) will preserve its form.5) de„. 8£„ (6..8). in equation (6.' potential force which the/th material point exerts ()ty.. Obviously. (6. is The F./9r. ..2..5). where t\. Since U.4) we obtain the following system of n vector equations 7/^="!)^' '^''^ "' ^^^^ which are called the Lagrange equations and represent the fundamental equations of motion in nonrelativistic physics.2).6. dE„ dv./dr. of the /th material point. and the first relation (4. we see that side of (6. depends on the distance between both points..8) Thus the potential forces with general. 6.e. the potential force the /th point.5) represents the kinetic force/... where U. i./dr.  ^ all // (6. (6. it =  will be at/. i = 1.2.7) which form they are called the Newton equations (or Newton's second law). equation (6.9)). which  I material points exert on we can write equations (6.5) in the form A = in F. we can write 8fk.' =  F. since the electric 43 . This is obvious for the electric space energy (see formula (2. =  dU.w.this would contradict our sixth axiom which asserts that the time energy of a its material point of a system depends only on own velocity. This result called Newton's third law. Taking the left into account (5. F. two parts of a system) act which two material points of a system (in on each other are always equal and is oppositely directed along the line connecting them. is the space energy of these two material points.. Thus from (6.
„ I i= 9«'i . (6.. In relativistic physics. = d I j ^ W. However. The peculiarities from formulas (2.].15)] 2 d{. (6. as can be seen gravitational space energy physics.)= 2 9if.2 /J. 44 .v. instead " of equation " (6. . . As the spacetime energy material points and on their depends on the distances between the velocities.e.13) into the energy conservation law (2.+ d{) dv.dr + d(—.dv.13) =1 Substituting (6.v. (6.11) = I However. dW dW dv. = 2 i [^. velocity independent. dr.10) where e'] is the Lagrange time energy of the /th material point. de. it is (see (2. (6. assume that the gravitational charges (the proper masses) are constant.. the becomes velocity dependent in highvelocity of the fundamental equation of motion in graviin §8. in magrctism will be considered the present general analysis we shall i. dW . ov.dr. we have to take into account also the spacetime energy VV.14).14) which we call the full Lagrange equations. is the part of the spacetime energy in which the /th material point From the last two equations we obtain dW= ^ i [ dW — or.charges and the distances between them do not depend on the velocities of the charges. (6. I .V.) di—). takes part. dW dv. i dW.7) and (5.12) = I i = ^ where W. + —.1 and dividing by dt.= 9»'i (6.13) and (2. = 2dW.1).v. we obtain by the help of the same reasonings the fundamental equations of motion in relativistic physics as in i = 1.].10) and (6.) = . we shall have . dW= i "2 = 1 (— 9r.16) §6.2) we shall have 9£. In relativistic physics. dW 9ri dW .
0=2^. the laws of energy. and proper energy e„ is placed.The quantity f. and angular momentum conservation in nonrelativistic and relativistic physics (the first one representing time. The full Newton equations are where /. we can easily obtain. ^=2m„^^ and magnetic potentials at (7. IV) (6. The full Newton's third law is Using the Lagrange equations and proceeding from the homogeneity of homogeneity of space. IV = ^ c v. §7.A . is called the full kinetic force of the /th material point. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETISM THE NEWTONLORENTZ EQUATION Let us have a system of ai electric charges </. whose distances The quantities to a certain space point (called the reference point) are . . respectively. momentum. and istotropy of space. electric charge q..1) the reference in We f„ shall further ' work in the COS system of units which it is assumed = /i„ = I. respectively. r.1. then the electric and magnetic energiesof the whole system of AJ+ charges in which this charge^ takes part velocity v. electric point. (1. 1 will be t/ = <7<I). ^ = — i^(U Br.1) 45 . If at the reference point a material point with mass m. moving with velocities v. are called. the assertion of our ninth axiom).15) is called the full potential force acting on the /th material point. 7.
we can write the scalar supplement in the form — =qE ^ dt + — c vy. the Lorenlz equation represents the think that Newton equation rename it in electromagnetism.B. (7.4) where (H/J/OO (i^ .9) Taking partial derivative with respect to r. and we reasonable to the its NewtonLorentz equation. scalar To this equation we always attach its supplement which can be obtained after multiplication of both sides by the velocity of the charge  = I..8) ot called. (7./. respectively. we obtain diV/4 = 1 a* .7) Introducing the quantities E=  grad <^  18/4 — — c . (v. ./<) = (v.Pulling (7. grad) /i (7.10) c at 46 . dl is is the change of A for a time dt at a given space point grad) A dt the change of A dt.(gradcl>l B= ). — dt = qv. 14). . grad) i^ + w x rot^ + A x rotv (7..= dt which is q (grad 4) + 1 9/4 )+ I i^x rot^.E ^ (7. grad)/! + {A .3) c This is the full Newton equation in electromagnetism and we call it the NewtonLorentz equation. = ^i. q grad ( <!> ) (7.6) c dt commonly it is called the Lorentz equation. the electric NewtonLorentz equation and its and magnetic intensities.2) inlo (6...*)) under the condition v in the form dp„ = Const. we can write the NewtonLorentz equation a c V ^ f. (7. ^ .1) as functions of time) and divergence from the magnetic potential A. (7. Since it is dA dt dA d/ + . V during this time and motion of charge q with velocity and taking into account the mathematical relation due to the grad(v. voiA . time from the electric potential the following relation $ [consider the distances in the expression (7.. we obtain q (p^+^A)= at c d  V A . full As one can see.
we shall obtain for the integral of the lefthand side S^{l/r)dy = fd\w[grad{\/r)]dV = fgTadi{\/r). Indeed.\) 6(i) 8(z) Now we shall establish the differential electric connection between the charge potentials. (7. (7. (7.)\ 1=1 J {r) = V 1=1 >. 12) is valid also for r = 0. and current densities and the and magnetic A. putting into (7.8(rr.V' + V' + 2')*'\ (7. r.JS V .).13) we obtain an identity. 7. and the righthand side give the uncertainty 5(0). The static and quasistatic cases. = 8{. let us integrate 12) over an arbitrary sphere with radius R which has a centre at the frame's origin.d'/dy^ + 9V8z' is the Laplace operator and r is the distance between the frame's origin and a space point with radius vector r. we equation of potential connection. (7.2. To establish whether relation (7. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN DENSITIES AND POTENTIALS The charge and current densities at a given reference point arc the following quantities (these are the socalled 5densities) Qir)= i q. prove the validity of the following mathematical relation We shall A(l/r) =  4 77 5(r). and 8{r) 6function of Dirac. Only for r = does the lefthand side give the uncertainty 0/0.This relation is commonly called the « Lorentz condition ».12) r = r 0 = (.12) where A = 8V9. 47 .v' I. 6(rr.14) V s where is 5" is the surface of the sphere of integration whose volume is l' the elementary area (taken as a vector) of the integrational surface and JS whose direction always points outside from the volume enclosed. Using the Gauss theorem. is are the radius vectors the threedimensional of the single charges.11) where r is the radius vector of the reference point. Since call in it our the approach it is a logical result obtained from the axioms.
(7.The vector grad( /r) 1 = — rlr^ is directed to the frame's origin.16) are equal and.. In the domains of must be Thus the relation (7.vaxis of a rest frame K and at the initial A^' zero moment = crosses the frame's origin.12) taken over the same arbitrary sphere.e.18) The dynamic case. A/< =  — c y. . then. or on the grounds of our axiom A(l/rwhere r.47r5(r r. In such a case the radius vector of the /point in A" will be If the radius vector = (0.„. we obtain.i9) 48 . A<I>=47r^. Let us consider a point (calling it the /point) which moves i at velocity v along the .16) and (7.). the radius vector r' of the same reference point in the moving frame A" will r=(x. since the integration represent spheres with arbitrary radii.zT =  . {l. by the corresponding electric charge. and summing taken into account (7. or electric current them.v.j.\l) are the radius vectors of « different space points.r. for homogeneity and isotropy of space.34). Ti I) = . 2 n. in of a reference point frame be K is r = (.. the following differential connection between potentials and densities for static and quasistatic systems with velocity equalities (7. B.15) '^ s The integral on the right of (7. gives The integrals (7.' be attached to this /point and the special one.z).11). we can prove the validity of the following relations same way. Let a moving frame transformation between K and K' he a r. (7.17) where a moving Multiplying any of the a charge q. and thus S ^{\lr)dV= V /^= ^JdS= s '^ 47r.v.. that r. i. both integrands also equal. i = 1. is (static case) or where at any moment can be found (quasistatic case). after having element divided by c. ^.". is the radius vector of a space point charge q. according to the Marinov transformation (3.V.15) 4 7r/ 8(^)f/^^= V  4 tt .1) and (7. (7.^l 0. Let us now assume placed v. in a direction opposite to the direction of the vector dS.0.12) is valid also for r first = 0. }Jc. on the grounds of the fundamental propery of the 6function.0)..
v. r„ we obtain an Only for r. putting into (7. V = 0.47r5(r— where and r„ . =  0.r) and moving point with a radius vector = ..23).\ = [{X — V ty y' + z' ] "\ (7. As a matter of fact.e. I „ the proper distance between a a space point with radius r. the point with coordinates given by (7. r will 49 .20) for identity. let us whether relation (7. for X vt = 0.r.e... i.23) does the lefthand side give the uncertainty 0/0..). r. The proved validity of the following mathematical relation can now easily be ZA(l/0 = . (7. The difference between these two distances.21) the proper distance and we have considered Marinov (1975a).22) the expression (7.0)..23) To establish integrate (7. But at r„ — it is /r^ — oo. Thus we can spread 1 the integral over a small i.3.Att f V 8(r .The distance between the /point and the reference point considered frame K' but expressed through the coordinates in frame K will be r„ in = r'r: = rr. = (^ This distance considered in /_ K and + ^.20) frame expressed through the coordi nates in frame K will be r = \r — r. here we are considering the distance between two points moving with respect to one another which cannot be connected by a rigid rod and thus it is senseless to We call r the distance and r„ in detail in them speak about contraction of such a rod.22) over fC V {\/ r„)dV = . K '. 'l (7. and the righthand side the uncertainty fi(0). (7. (7. 2 = 0.22) is valid also for r„ = an arbitrary sphere with radius R which has a centre at the point whose coordinates are given by (7. on the lefthand side is domain around around the frame's origin of to . and the derivatives with respect v.24) For all points of the volume V the integrand equal to zero. Indeed. as already said in §3.22) = r d'/dx^ + is d'/dy' + d'/dz  d'/c' 3/ is the d'Alembert operator = I  r.)dV. is due to the aetherMarinov character of light propagation and this has nothing to do with a physical length contraction (with the socalled « Lorentz contraction »).^^.r. (w. vector r = (v.0.
8).25) densities Q{t) and J{t) are functions of time. gives the same result.27) now take partial derivatives with respect to time from both sides (7.24). /J.24) to the integral (7. c (7.29) and put here the mathematical relation AA = grad(div/l)  Tot(rotA). Thus the relation (7. on the grounds of the fundamental property of the 6function.3. (7. (7.23). we conclude that the integrands must be equal. I we obtain dE "" ''''^= 50 Att 7 87 7'^ (73') .25) in the form 4  \ ci'A rr = . THE MAXWELLLORENTZ EQUATIONS Taking rotation from both sides of the first equation (7. div (rotA) = .26) we obtain the first pair of the MaxwellLorentz equations TotE Let us =  —— I f) R . divfi = 0. /.2A.15) which gives — Att. of the first equation dividing it by I c.30) Putting (7. (7. as in §7.Hence the last one So we reduce the integral on the lefthand side of (7.22) we can obtain between potentials and densities for the most general dynamic case C\^ where the = 471 Q(t).2A.AA ^ J 77 (7.8) and diver gence from both sides of the second equation (7.28) and taking into account (7. In the same manner as in §7. and. much can be neglected with respect for the case (7.10).A=—J{t).22) is valid also increase faster than the derivative with respect to to the first ones. the following connection from the relation (7. I dE 80 I d'A Write the second equation (7.8) and making use of the following mathematical relations rot (grad O) = 0.29) into (7. 7. The integral on the righthand side of (7.
.1 the fundamental equations of motion gravimagretism —[ 1 + (— — .v. /9^« I J 9^.10) and (6. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS IN GRAVIMAGRETISM THE NEWTONMARINOV EQUATION In §6.«i) — = — . is the acceleration of the .Let us now take divergence from both sides of the first equation (7.13). v. (8. spacetime energy of two material points moving with velocities . dr.34) ^nQ. . ^ i r 9f^. Thus we can assume magretism is that the differential of the spacetime energy in gravi given by formula (6. is very small with respect to space energy (the v.2 we pointed out that the gravitational energy in highvelocity physics is velocity dependent. di^i J . a7.2 n. (6. = I dv.2) where u.33) into (7.^ = or. (7.25) in the form ^^=77 div£ = Equations (7.16).31) and MaxwellLorentz equations. Thus in relativistic gravitation instead of equation (6.13) into the energy conservation law (2.10). and we can consider the gravitational charges (the proper masses) in the magretic energy as constants. 9t/.8) div£= *A<I)Write the first — c —(di\A). 51 .th material point. 1) we shall have ^ .1) Spacetime energy represents a v. I = 1. (7._.32) and taking into account (7. v^/c'^ part of their space energy). represent the second pair of the §8. v.34) 4v Q . at (7. 8. v.33) Putting (7. (8.. we obtain by the help of the in same reasonings as in §6.32) equation (7. we obtain (7. Putting (8.1).1.
Let us consider a system of n masses m.3) where r. X roL4.m„(grad$.. W. = = I '•i 2y ^^ cr. motions with large in tangentional accelerations cannot be realized and. The masses in gravitational and magretic energies of the whole system of + I which mass U.14).4) into the full Lagrange Newton) equation (6. (8. w takes part will = m„<I).. ^. we obtain the NewtonMarinov equation ^^ =/o = . the quantity dU^/dv.4) Putting (8.11.5) and its scalar supplement  ^v. assuming (dU^/dVi) .f„= m„v. = 2y— i .14). + at ^) + c dt " c i. In gravitation.A^ . we can write the fundamental equations of motion gravimagretism in the general form (6. (8. and having proper masses tials m. =0.7) and (5. = c (full v. Introduce the gravitational and magnetic poten O. are the distances to a certain reference point where a mass m moving // with velocity v and having proper mass m„ be is placed.14).. (8. i= \ . v.+^).{gr2id^. moving with velocities v.As it has the direction of the vector can be seen from formulas (2. as a rule.. (8..6) Introducing the quantities .
=  Y r v.) (8. ^. = 1 (see the beginning of §7.1). c at divfi. = q/c. THE MAXWELLMARINOV EQUATIONS In the same manner as in §7.15) r U.16) 53 .10) we can case establish in the these densities same manner as in §7.= are —ynAt). (8.= y r c^ .3 we can obtain the first and second pairs of the MaxwellMarinov equations rotG=^. 8. = /u. 8.3. m. With the reduced charges and masses the space and spacetime energies of two material points will be written U. (8.2 the following relation between and the gravimagretic potentials for the most general dynamic ^<lf^= 4 77 Y MO.25).„ 8(r  r. m.13) c whose analogues electromagnetism are the MaxwellLorentz equations. are written at the assumption that l/e„ working the COS system of units. f in (8. ^Ar) = I 2 « I p.12) rot B^ = in \ dG dt 4 — c 77 ^ Y "„ div G =4 tt y M„ . (8. as well as equations (7.= lSlL^c\ Co yv^:^^^ ±1±L '' ^^. = 0.^^^ (8. we shall establish that it is more reasonable to work with the reduced electric charges and reduced masses.. and masses. REDUCED CHARGES AND MASSES If we take a general look at the fundamental equations of electromagnetism and gravimagretism..S(rr).'V.11) We where wish to emphasize that equations (7. q.2. q. we ^A.14) instead of the electric charges. = m/c (8. 18).Introducing the proper mass and proper the socalled 6densities) momentum densities (these are ftoir)= I i >= I m„.
5).E.5) where n 54 is the unit vector directed along the velocity of the material point. (9. (8. ^=q. called our third axiom. the NewtonLorentz equation (7. In PARTICLES AND WAVES T. according to relation (2. (9.2) i^Vc')' Multiplying both sides of point. For ex. we introduced the quantity the period of the material point. have considered the fundamental electromagnetic equations in Marinov (1978a) and the fundamental gravimagretic equations in Marinov (1978b).v. . In Marinov (1978b) we give a detailed analysis of the socalled « We Mercury problem ».3) = V v/c' (9.3) in the Write equation form niv„ = htn.5) and (5.2)] mv„= — The quantity t is V.9) will be written as follows (see (5.4) called the wave number of the material point m. The quantity ..17) It is electron and the mass of the electron but important to note that universal constants are not the charge of the their reduced values (see §12).1) called the frequency of the material point considered. §9.13)) '^P" =^(^cE+vXB).8)1 e„ — (1 '^ "  = hp. (9.All equations in electromagnetism and gravimagretism will obtain more symmetric forms when the reduced charges and masses are used. ample. this equation by the velocity v of the material we obtain (see (4. (9.'= \/T is (9. Thus we shall have (see (2.
. Nevertheless. ^r. equal to zero and the rest wavelength. of the material point and are Obviously the rest wave number of A. « particle » character of the material « and the quantities said at the T.11) These formulas are called de Broglie's relations. as the reader can see on reading book. where. T.4)] : a) with the help of the frequency hp (9.2) can be written (see (4.The vector quantity *=Xn=— i/n=— is V (9. respectively.10) (9.. infinitely Formulas (9. and we have (9. The quantities points /71. . according to our categorization. large./J.9) are called the rest frequency rest period equal to v and T. end of §5. for v is = 0. We have the feeling that this contradiction will never be understood with such clarity As we example. for physics.7) called the wavelength of the material point. in classical (nonquantum) as. The quantity A is = \lk = c'/vv (9.. v. = and = mc'/h (9.2. i..6) called the wave vector of the material point. then v = c. the particleswaves » contradiction docs not originate logical difficulties. e„ describe the 1c. c.8) v\ = The quantities v.5) and (9. the dialectic unity of opposites which the ideas of particles and waves offer is still not lucidly enough resolved. is any material point. \ describe their wave » character.e. If the material point considered is a photon. defined Vr by the relation \/T. the « phenomenon this inter ference is not considered. 55 . highvelocity physics will be understood after the acceptance of our absolute spacetime theory.
10. The relation between them Let us suppose that there is a source (emitter) of absolute space. photons which rests in by an observer (receiver) who is also at rest in absolute space and the wavelength X. KINEMATIC SHIFT (THE DOPPLER EFFECT) The light Doppler effect is the difference between the frequency is and wavelength with which a photon those emitted from a source of radiation and to the measured by an observer. 10 56 . due motion of source and observer kinematic frequency in it with respect to absolute space. are called emitted frequency and emitted wavelength. B. Source moving. The frequency p registered is given by formula (9. we call this effect also the and wavelength shifts of light. A review of the theoretical part of this given in this A.§ 10. and we have considered paper is Marinov (I978e). subsection. FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH SHIFTS OF LIGHT 10. Source and observer at rest.1) that the observer is at rest in absolute space at the point O' and the light source moves with velocity v from the Fig.8). which he can measure.1. Let us now suppose (fig. observer at rest.
reception and middle mo: ments. the observer at rest will not register the measure the wavelength A which are to be registered the source be at rest and which we have called the emitted is we present the emitted wavelength by the segment S'Q. by that segment equal and parallel If in fig. photon (we have enlarged the wavelength diagram for Since the photon moves in absolute space with velocity c. = c.„ A„.. position will be written The upperscript « ' » will be attached to the emission and angle. different quantities. We repeat that we consider the case where the is distance between source and observer the much greater than the wavelength of clarity). 1972a.3) = r'/r. moving. 1973). 0' is called the emission angle.position 5" where a photon is emitted to the position S where the source will be at the moment when the photon will be received by the observer. the emission and reception positions of the source can be considered as points. we make the following stipulation The emission. 1970. whose final point is Q). respectively. When the source frequency v and will not and measured if frequency and wavelength.„ at the middle moment between the emission and reception moments. p. (10. distance. We attach the subscript « „ » to the received (observed) will frequency and wavelength and not to the emitted which without any subscript.1) p„K. From (9. thus. We shall suppose that the wavelength of the interchanged photon is much less than the distance between source and observer and. while the reception distance. we have to present the observed wavelength A„ by the segment S'Q. 101 then. which we call the observed (or received) frequency and wavelength. 6 the reception angle and d. in general. we have (10.„ the middle angle..1) we obtain vJp = \/K. (as a matter of fact.8) and (10. 57 . The source will be at the middle position S. once and for all. proceeding {oS'Q. We must note that when defining these angles a certain freedom is inevitable which leads to certain differences in the notations and in the formulas from those of our earlier papers (Marinov. from our third axiom in which the « burst » model of the material points is postulated. reception and middle angles are subtented by the velocity of the moving object and the line connecting the object at rest with the moving object at ihe emission. Now. but some other. position and angle be written without any upperscript.2) The triangles S'Q„Q and O'S^'are \/\„ similar and thus (10.
^^^ Multiplying. if we should suppose that the source is at rest and the observer moving from the emission position O' to the reception position O. antetraverse and traverse Doppler effects are called common name. call the effect antetraverse. both formulas (10. n/l v/lc. we call the 0. transverse Doppler effect. we obtain within the necessary accuracy ^\ + vcosOJc' = 0. For^ = For ^„.3) (and then formulas from (10.6) can be obtained directly from (10.v^/c'Y'^ (1 r 1 . 0' = tt/I + v/lc. (10. both measured on an absolute V= From V. (10. call the effect traverse. 0. moving observer). following our present notation.vcosO/c — .v'/c')'" vcosd/c' Formulas (10. on one hand.6)] if we should use formulas (4. . which give the relation between the emission and reception distances and where. cosO = cos^. For For 0=0 0' = (or 77).„ — a. on the other hand.„ + a.„ 77/2 v/lc. respectively.6). propordonal to to the abso to the velocity of light with respect absolute space) to and the to the relative light velocity c '(i.5) v'/c'Y _ ^" 1 + vcosO/c _ (1 . = 77/2 + v/c..v'/c'Y'^ . we obtain from the similar triangles r'/r S'Q„Q and S'OO' = c'/c. 7r/2.e. (10.21) obtained in Marinov (1975a). = = = 7t/2 +  v/2c. and S'Q are. = 11/10' v/c. (1  (10.On the other hand./) ^.vcosdjc Doppler effect longitudinal.2) and (10.31) in which we write obtain (1 1  v'/c')^'^ 1 vcosd/c + vcosd/c . using formulas (3..5) 0„ = <?'. we we we call the Doppler Doppler Doppler effect posttraverse.e. where a is an algebraic quantity. we have to write /„ = r'.4) since the segments S'Q„ lute light velocity c (i. we the last three relations.i/Vc')''2 (' I . = 77/2. squaring them and writing cos^' = cos^. The by the 58 posttraverse. to the velocity of light with respect clock. thus obtaining r = 1 r + vcosO'/c = (1 .5) and.„ = 77/2. both formulas (10.„ ^\ .
10) we obtain c/c. we have A.31) in which we write V = 1 i/. even in the case of a moving observer. We must emphasize that the wavelength is to be measured always with respect to absolute space. ( 10. We have to stress also that a direct measurement of the wavelength cannot be performed. their wavelength can change only when the source moves with respect to absolute space. i.8). All measurements of the wavelength of unidirectionally propagating photons are indirect (see §32). The motion of the observer with respect to absolute space leads only to a change in the velocity and frequency of the observed photons but not to a change in their wavelengths. does not correspond to physical reality. of « to and fro » propagating photons which interfere (see §31). Thus for our case of source at rest and moving observer. Source at rest.9) and ( 10. observer moving. f Here again a formula analogical effects. (10.11) vjv = Making use of formulas p„ (3.1) that the source is at rest in absolute space at the point 5 and theobserver moves with velocity v^from the emission position O'to the reception position O. (10. 10. the relation between the observed frequency and wave length will be kK = c. If one should accept that the motion of the observer leads to a change in the wavelength.8) can be introduced. One can measure directly only the wavelength of standing waves.10) A. as well as the definitions for longitudinal and transverse Doppler 59 . = From (9. (10..C.e. to the first formula (10..9) According to our « burst » model for the photons. we obtain (10 12) = (1 . then one is impelled to accept Einstein's dogma about the constancy of light velocity in any inertial frame which. Let us now suppose (see again fig.vcosd/c .v^cy^ f —= . as we have experimentally shown. Since the photon proceeds with respect to the moving observer with the relative velocity c'.
and B„ are and reception angles if the source were at rest at its emission position.vco^Qlc (1 . wavelengths.6)] ^^'^2 .14) If now an imaginary source is at rest at point 5" (the emission position of and emits a photon with frequency »». while for others the angles B\.„ so that 5".12) and (10.„. will be (use the first and second formulas (10.. O are their reception suppose (fig. Now 102) that the source positions.i^Vc^) = + vcosO'/c (1 1 V .. Q[.13) Ai„. Source and observer moving.v'/c')''^ — V cos d/c (10. (1 . For certain problems it is convenient to use the angles B\ Q„. ^ A — (1 : \ + vcosO/c — v'/c')^'^ • — A 1 . d. respect to absolute space the moves with velocity v with and the observer with velocity v. then the frequency and wavelength registered by the real observer when he crosses point O will be (use formulas (10.Fig. O' are emission positions of source and observer and S*. The frequency and wavelength registered by him.j^Vc')"^' 1 (10. called intermediary. and wavelength A.10)] the real source) 60 .. 102 D.. while Q' and Q are the emission and reception angles if the observer were at rest at its reception position. between the emitted and received frequencies and Let us suppose that the real source emits a photon and an imaginary observer is at rest at point O (the reception position of the real observer). We introduce two pairs of emission and reception angles : the emission .5) and find the relation To we proceed as follows : (10.
.21) ^ cos 0/c and now »'„A„ Co' = c.d\ 01 = tt  ^.„. 61 .n.17) ^ V = A— When reduce to v. 1 1 \ . In is case 6 the angle between the opposite line of light propagation and the velocity of source 6' is and observer registered with respect to both of them..v!. 18) remain the same. then = tt .22) being the proper relative light velocity with respect to source and observer. A in the corresponding formulas is 10. 13) and ( 10.16) 10. 15) and I ( 10.18) = V. v is formula (10.19) while formulas ( 10.i^Vc' ...K = (1 »'in.. v'/c')^'^ rT=^5 1 vcosd/c ^ (10. (10.15) V= Putting ( ./c' . also at Ao = vcosO' A—+ — i^Vc' /c = .v!...vcosO/c + v„ 1 \ 1 cos d'/c 1 . ". If the at rest in absolute space (remember that same source should remain only when the source is at rest in rest. (10. 14) 1 into ( 10.v„cose/c 7717^72^ j— ^TT = A.  »^„Vr')"' 1 . the frequency of the photons emitted by the ( source moving at velocity v^and. (10. measure the emitted frequency and wavelength).18) the emitted wavelength of such photons. so that instead of (10. (10. and "0^ = c ' ^'. thus the emitted wavelength X of such photons will become shorter [by the factor (1 . we obtain ''^ 1 v„cofi ejc ^ "''"'' \ + vcosO/c . the period of the emitted photons will become shorter (and the frequency higher) because of the absolute time dilation./c' . (10. thus..v'/c' ^ '^2 ~ (10.20) this being the relative light velocity with respect to source and observer.19). 16).17) Vo = v.18) we have to write absolute space can an observer.ir'/c^)''^]. 7j (10. 1  ^— . and formulas (10. while the In same angle registered with respect to absolute space. (1 6..
25) or I ''"" = + O/c' " I +^/c^ =M1 +(^  ^o)/cn^ (10. u = c).. However.19) shows as the light source. according to contemporary physics which proceeds from the principle of relativity. These conclusions are of extreme importance. taking into account (9. Let us note that. then the 10.e.8) and (10.26) 62 . formula (10. we have shown that a Doppler effect appears also when source and observer move with the same velocity. we obtain of (10. namely.21) shows that the measurement of the wavelength can give such information.2 DYNAMIC SHIFT (THE EINSTEIN EFFECT) The light Einstein effect is the difference between the frequency is and wavelength with which a photon those measured by an observer the points emitted from a source of radiation and due to the different gravitational potentials at where source and observer are placed.14)] velocity v in the gravitational field of mass M.7) r (I — v^lc^y"for this case According to the ninth axiom we have dejdt = . we call this effect also the dynamic (or gravitational) frequency and wavelength shifts of light and we have considered it in Marinov (1976a). Let us have a mass M which is at rest in absolute space and a mass m (m <^ \f) which moves with The gravitational energy of and (5. a Doppler effect appears only when source and observer move with respect to one another.24) "o" M v° p "= y— (——) r r„ =  — I ("„" r c' ^o p^). Formula (10.24) Putting here (5. In contradistinction to this conclusion. supposing m = 0.dVJdt (10.2) and supposing that the material point after the integration is a photon (i.that if an observer moves with the same velocity measurement of the received frequency can never give information about their absolute velocity.23). these two masses will be [see formulas (2. (10. the received wavelength is different from that which should be measured if source and observer be at rest in absolute space (see §32). A review of this paper is given in this subsection.
28) we obtain \. 63 . 16) and ( 10.. (10. (10. stronger.where <^ =  y \f — . (10.e. while the period T„" and the frequency »'„" of the received photon are measured on a clock placed in the region where the photon is received (i. independent of the local concentration of matter. formula ( 10.2).1) and on the gravitational potentials (as we shall see in §11. while the wavelength is measured by the help of rigid rods whose lengths depend neither on their velocities nor on the gravitational potentials.. p.e.°\„ = c.29) The physical quantity frequency (respectively.29) clearly shows that the wavelength of a photon which crosses a region with a stronger gravitational potential will a smaller length. where the gravitational potential is <I>). at the point is rand at the point of ofemissionof the photon whose distance from mass reception (observation) of the photon whose distance from mass is r„ (we consider A/ as a point mass or as a homogeneous sphere). then A„ < A.. From ( 10. where the gravitational potential is 0„). if ^„ > I^I^I.27) are the gravitational potentials caused by mass respectively. o. Thus. Since according to our tenth axiom the photons move with velocity c in measured by the help of a nearby light clock.. We must emphasize that the period Tand the frequency r of the emitted photon are measured on a clock (imagine a light clock) which is placed in the region where the photon is emitted (i. we shall have absolute space this velocity is when "A = where X is c.e. Now we shall find the formula for the gravitational wavelength shift.26) is the formula for the gravitational (dynamic) frequency shift. = ^ Y_ M.28) A„ the wavelength of the emitted photon and is the wavelength of the observed photon... This gravitational potential.4 and shall further see in §1 1. = I + 0. i./c' A ^ . independent of the gravitational potential in the space region considered. is have in that is region whose absolute value greater. period) is a relatively more complicated notion than the physical quantity wavelength because the frequency is measured by the help of clocks which have different rates in dependence on their velocities in absolute space (as we have seen in §2. Hence. Thus the subscript « „ » of the period and frequency signifies « observed » and the upperscript « " » signifies that time is measured on a clock placed in a region with gravitational potential 4). M M Formula (10.
TIME DILATION III. in general. easily show ».e. Proceeding from formula valid we can v.v^/cy^ (I T .7) and calculating the path with respect to absolute space which the light pulse has to cover during its « there » and « back » trips. the experiment has shown that also the periods of other generalized for the period of any physical systems are influenced by the kinematic time dilation. V.I) can be also obtained proceeding from formula (10. the arm » of the first being perpendicular and of the second parallel to the to clock's velocity. the clock's period. if measured in absolute time. i. are.. Thus it is ^' = 6'.18) called the kinematic time dilation. According our absolute spacetime theory.3. being given by formula (3. clock's « this effect is the same forany orientation of the and is arm ». (3.. is the period of the same clock when being at « rest. its light clock's « arm the light clock absolute velocity and the arm » of angle between them 6' then Indeed. the « . KINEMATIC (LORENTZ) TIME DILATION In §2. §11. 6' ' and 6' are the angles (for the « there » and back » trips) i. but the problem whether 64 this phenomenon can be .4 we have shown that the period of any light clock increases when its absolute velocity increases. the angles subtended by the direction of clock's propagation and the directions of light propagation. 0' = tt . that formula (3. between the velocity of the and the relative light velocity.2.31).e. measured with respect to absolute space. * Let us note that the angles^' and 6 (for the « there » and « back » trips) between v and c.v^cy^ ' (111) where T = 2d/c clock. is ^ r. moving clock. c'.. According to the Newtonian conceptions this is effect « different for a « transverse » and « longitudinal » light clock. = C* d — + d — C = d c \ ¥ (1 V cos O'/c  r^ + d C I + {\ i^cos^' /c v'/c'Y'^  v'/c'Y'^ c{\ Id . As stated in §3. not complementary.The problem about the photons is the relation between the frequencies (the periods) of in considered more detail in § 1 1 .0'. The result (I I. the angles subtended by the direction of clock's propagation measured with respect to the and the directions of light propagation.18) if is forany orientation of the is d.
and popular books and papers have been dedicated to it. for example. this phenomenon. Consider. we can be sure that if the period of determined by the motion of massless particles (i. according to which the period of any clock increases proportionally to the square of velocity. and « arm ». then this period will be influenced by the kinematic time dilation. Lorentz treated time dilation in many publications also from an absolute point of view. potential. However. The period (frequency) of the radio waves will be determined by the time in which the potential of the antenna's top passes through two successive is determined by the time in which first to light crosses the antenna's maxima. At any rate. since it tried to explain time dilation as a relative effect. is its absolute which Archimedus came. Time dilation is one of the most controversial problems in physics.material system remains open. 11. clocks attached to absolute space have been called by us absolute (with precision absolute space have been called proper (with The clocks more precision we shall call them kinematically proper). It was only the theory of relativity which threw theore no more paradoxical than the conclusion to tical physics into confusion. DYNAMIC (EINSTEIN) TIME DILATION it is Now we shall show that the period of any light clock increases when placed in a region with a stronger gravitational potential (we repeat §10. whose absolute value is greater..2. dilation. call this effect the As we are not interested in the kinematic aspect of the time dilation in this subsection. or the Einstein time since Einstein (1907) was the first to introduce it into physics. Thousands of scientific. Clocks placed far enough from local concentrations of matter are to be called dynamically absolute and clocks placed near we shall call them kinematically absolute). Einstein (1905) analysed this phenomenon five years later and wrongly considered it as a relative effect.2 — see — that this gravitational We stronger). cutting its natural logical tie with the absolute motion of the material systems. semiscientific. we shall work in a frame which rests in absolute space. an aerial which emits radio waves. this Larmor sidered it (19(X)) was the introduce time dilation and rightly con an absolute effect. These regions which in the problem considered have the weakest gravitational 65 . since this effect follows logically from the transformation to which his name is attributed.e. The more moving in local concentrations of matter are to be called dynamically proper. we think that the kinematic time dilation should be called the as Lorentz time dilation. establishing that all bodies lose weight proportionally to their volumes when put in a liquid. particles with a system is m = 0). is dynamic time dilation.
66 T„ = Xjc". is to As riods) the absolute times of emission and reception (i. change its velocity from c.. If these velocities are measured on a unique clock (say.. respectively. for clarity. we have (11..4) field This formula shows that the velocity of light is lower if measured on a unique clock. after the head of the « burst »..potential (which conditionally is to be assumed equal to zero) can be considered as lying far enough from local concentrations of matter.region are T=\/c. between c" and c suppose that the gravitational from the emission to the potential point in a stepped form. Obviously the space in which velocity of light is isotropic (i.2) If from the emission to the reception point there are n « steps ».. always with a time delay Ar. = A. According to our tenth axiom. the absolute peof the photon emitted in the 4>region and received in the 0. according to our « burst » model for photons. will be equal to c. has the same value along any direction) be called kinematically absolute space./c. (11. (11. dynamically proper light velocity.3) From ( 1 1 . (11.. Thus the wavelength of the photon. A/. in a stronger gravitational The space regions in which velocity of light has the maximum possible value can be called dynamically absolute space. by c and c" and call them dynamically absolute light velocity and Consider two points with gravitational potentials conditionally assume <l> we can = 0).e.e. The potential « steps » can be infinitely near to each other. will be A.3) and (10. = — c. A. we have to find the relation potential changes To conclude that the rear of the will « burst ».29) we obtain c" = cI 1 + + <t>Jc' ^ 4)/f' . we shall designate them.. = c. after crossing the /th potential « step ». when passing the /th potential « step ».5) . on a clock placed in the ^region). but. . Suppose that a photon is emitted from the first point and received at the second. Now. to C. the velocities of the emitted and received photons. we shall assume the distances between them to be larger than the photon wavelength.. being the wavelength of the photon in the /th region. if measured on dynamically proper clocks. <l> and ^„ (if <l>„>4>.
<^.. let us consider a light source which emits photons with frequency v when being the placed at a point with gravitational potentional emitted photon is The period T of equal to the time in which the emitting system passes through its two specific states.29) and T. (1110) if for a certain period of time the absolute (the <I>lightclock) has <I>„lightclock) time units and the proper (the has measured r time units. Regarding the generalization of dynamic time dilation in the case where is not determined by the motion of massless particles.7) \/c.29) we obtain r„" = T 1 + ^o/C f— (11. it must be "" = » "• (11.6) The proper periods of the emitted and received photons are T= From (1 1.. in absolute time).6) {p„) we conclude that if the frequencies of the emitted (i') and photons are measured in the same time (say. To explain in more detail the essence of dynamic time dilation. T„ = (11." = \Jc.1). r. say. the relation between them will be 1 + <^. (11. absolute. that the relation between the periods T and be P light clocks and arms if measured on placed in the regions with gravitational a unique.8) From received (1 1. taking into account (10. say.4) we conclude with equal « 4>o. then the time in which. 67 . and we shall call T also the period of the emitting system. clock will _ T^ Hence measured / = T 1 + O/f^ .7) and (10.we obtain. we have to say the same as regarding the generalization of kinematic time dilation (see the period §11.9) From of two potentials (1 1. (1 1./c' and this represents the phenomenon which we call the dynamic time dilation.4). the potential of the antenna's top passes through T is two successive maxima. If we consider again an aerial emitting radio waves.
the cause which leads to a shift in the spectroscopic lines observed in the spectra on the Earth of chemically identical stars' and Earth's gases. then. according to kinematic time dilation. the period of the system.8) and (10.9)].vj/c — vWc^ "2 . 68 .4)]. at velocities v and v„ with respect absolute space.*^/^M (11 12) Hence if an observer is placed in a 4>region and he receives photons which are emitted by two identical sources of radiation. but the frequencies of two identical a measured <l>. the relation between them being given by formula (11.24) and taking into account (5. say. the first placed in a <I>region and the second in a 0.10). ¥= 0) which. we find 1 (1 + ^Jc' .. Let us consider a mass m{m <I>.v'/c')^'^ mass (11.12).19)] . will become equal to T' and the relation between Tand will be given by formula (11. is Since the velocity of light c" (see formula (1 1. in two regions with gravitational potentials <l> and ^„ will be 4>clock. Thus the relation between the frequencies v and v° (measured on a unique. having velocity v in the region v„ in with gravitational potential acquires the velocity the region with gravitational potential 0„ only as a result of the gravitational interaction between this mass and the masses producing the field. measured on unique clock.and Oosources are not equal. will be [see (3. he will register a frequency v for the photons arriving from the ^source and a frequency v" for the photons arriving from the <I>„source. P ^"^^ 1 1 + + <t>Jc' <D/c^  "•' +(*^. measured on the measured on the same <l>clock.v„'/c'y'^ 1 (1 + ^/c' .region. 1 I . if two clocks move /„. This is due to the fact that the frequencies of a photon emitted in the <I>region and received if in the <l>oregion are equal if on a unique clock between them This is is [see (11. is the energy conservation law for a point in a gravitational On to the other hand. respectively. and the relation given by formula (11.23).Transfer potential <^„. Proceeding from formula (10. absolute clock) of two identical material systems placed. now the source of radiation to a region with a gravitational in the <I)„region. the relation their readings t between and which correspond to the same absolute time interval.12).13) This field.
/r . with the Since in §8.1) the distance between a mass dm and our mass m. we come to the following very we have to change either its velocity or its gravitational potential.2) The second equation Its numerical value is (12.13) we obtain. This can be established also If we wish to slow the rate of a clock « kinewe have to enhance its absolute velocity./r or c = y/ V dm.Comparing (11. while if we wish to achieve this « dynamically ». important conclusion If we wish change the rate of a clock. (12. (12.3 reduced masses. and thus do negative work. and thus do positive work.3) 69 .13) : and to (11. = . COSMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT KINEMATICS 12. within an accuracy of second order in 1/c.1) in the following form y m.11). we mentioned that logic requests one to work we have to write (12. §12.14). c = m^ f V dm. Thus we can mass m its universal gravitational energy.yfdm/r V or ^. —m 2 i^ ' m 2 v' = .2) gives the physical essence of light velocity. and represents the universal gravitational potential (divided by c!) ^ = . while the kinetic energy is positive. gravitational energy with the = mc^ of a material point is its mass of the whole Universe taken with a negative sign mc^ = where r is my j dm/r V P^ or c' = y J dm/r V . (11. In both cases we have to expend the same quantity of work. determined by the matter of the whole Universe and its distribution. : clock from a point with a weaker gravitational potential to a point with a stronger gravitational potential.(m 4>„  m 4>) (1115) and the gravitational energy (together with the gravitational potential) is negative. THE PHYSICAL ESSENCE OF REST ENERGY We assume that the rest energy e.1. since from (11.yfdmjr V (12. Here we must mention that we have to expend the same quantity of work in absolute value. we have to transfer the with the following reasoning matically ». the integration call being carried out over the volume the rest energy of of the whole Universe.
. Formula (10... its value. when a mass changes position. changes its position from a will a ^core gion. change with (12. it energy is the same thing as the universal gravitational must be Ai/.15). can be written Let us note that its in the form (1 1. while formula (12.7) and from (12.1). and hence its reduced absolute (rest) time momentum Pr=p/c = has to change with m. according to the energy conservation its law (11. taken with a its negative sign. (12. as a reasonable approximation. Thus. the velocity of light must cor respondingly change identical quantities. However.7) represents an equality between two We shall now briefly discuss the problem about the experimental con firmation of our hypothesis (12. its reduced universal gravitational energy At/.c. we can consider the Universe as a sphere with radius R tending to infinity and with an average constant mass density /u.7) we 1 obtain r = c + ^... kinetic energy changes by the same amount.8) 1 which. 0. then. (12..4).4). By the help of observations. is its universal gravitational energy also changes./c° its . within the necessary accuracy.c (12. = A/7.taken with a negative sign. 70 . Since the energy. it has been established that the Universe represents a system of galaxies and clusters of galaxies which are distributed homogeneously in space. when a mass changes position..region to universal gravitational potential.6) and c" are the velocities of light in the ^^rest and O^oregions.4) (see §5) = m. where c (12. <P...24) represents the energy con servation law. If a reduced mass w.. First we have to answer the question about the model of the Universe which our absolute spacetime theory puts forward.6) and (12..„  m. The potential 0^ is to be called the reduced 4> .Jc I ^ ^. and since the rest energy another form of writing the universal gravitational energy.5) ^p^ = m^c" — m. and correspondingly gravitational energy changes. (12.
f r dr =  2 tt y ju. = 10"gcm\ /? = SlO^'cm.9) we obtain the following expression for light velocity c' =27rYM. which are experimen must satisfy the relation jLi.. Since it is X„>K then the visible spectral lines are always shifted to the is red end and this effect called also the cosmological « red shift ».. galaxies are receding tional to the distance Conventional physics and astronomy hypothetically assume that the from each other. the recession velocity being propor between them.12) 12.13) where X in the is the wavelength of the photons which the luminescent gas observed is galaxy emits on the Earth.10^' gem . so that the cosmological « red shift » is 71 .../?' ^ c'/lTry = 2. thus jii. adequate to physical reality. (12.We shall suppose that outside this sphere there is a void. the average mass » of the Universe. R' .10" gem ' . /?^ (12. el al.9) From (12.11) since always some mass « will remain outside the sphere with radis ».i. (12. /?^ = 9. r is the distance to the galaxy and H is the socalled Hubble constant.yf ^ dV = ''  4 77 y H:. (12. R which 1970) ' has been taken as a radius of the observable Universe At the present time the experimental data are (Menzel . A„ the wavelength actually observed..10) Thus if our hypothesis is density and corresponding « radius tally established.3) and (12. will The universal gravitational potential for such a model of the Universe be 4) = . blished that the wavelengths of light on the grounds of statistics of observational data.1). THE PHYSICAL ESSENCE OF COSMOLOGICAL « RED SHIFT » Hubble (1937).. (12..2. estacoming from distant galaxies are shifted according to the law (called Hubble's law) ^^^1' \ \ =//.. (12.
Doppler effect*. Since we have established by means of » experiment (§19.2) that the Sun moves at a velocity of about 300 km/s with respect to absolute space, then one has to accept that our Sun is situated very near to the « centre » of the Universe, because the cosmological « red shift » for remote galaxies, if considered as a Doppler effect, corresponds to recession velocities approaching c. So, for instance, the quasar PKS 023723 has a « red shift » AA/A = 2,22, and if we should accept that this shift is due to a longitudinal Doppler effect, then on the grounds of the second formula (10.8), where we put 6^ = 0, we shall obtain v = 247.000 km/s.
due
our
to the appearing
«
coupledmirrors
Thus we consider the
probability that
«
recession hypothesis as highly artificial, since the
it is
among
millions of galaxies
is
ours which
is
exactly at the
centre » of the Universe
very low.
In our absolute spacetime theory
shift »
it
we
explain the cosmological
«
red
by
the gravitational action of the masses of the
whole Universe, calling
the cosmological gravitational frequency and wavelength shift, while the
«
red shift
» in
the spectral lines of light emitted from a star
and due
to the
gravitational action of the
tional frequency
mass only of
shift.
this star is called the stellar gravita
and wavelength
Let us consider mathematically the cosmological gravitational
If there
shift.
central
is a sphere with radius R whose mass density n = /i(r) has a symmetry, then the gravitational potential at a point distance r from the centre can be calculated from the following formula
R
^(r)
= Airy J
fir'dr'
 —yfur'^dr'.
4
'
IT
(12.14)
*
Burcev [Phvs.
Lett.,
galaxies) explaining the large red shifts as a transverse
27A. 623 (1968)) put forward the hypothesisof rotating quasars (and Doppler effect. This conclusion is due to
al.so
an incorrect treatment of the light Doppler effect formulas. Taking into account §10.1 (see
§30),
one should immediately establish that Burcev analyses only the formula for the posttraverse Doppler effect (i.e., he a.ssumes that there is no radial component when the angle between the sourceobserver line and the direction of the relative velocity is equal toir/2 at the moment of emission). If one should analy.se the formula for the antetraverse Doppler effect (i.e., if one assumes that there is no radial component when the angle between the sourceobserver line and the relative velocity is equal to ir/l at the moment of reception), then one should come to the conclusion that at a suitable valueof the tran.sverse component a blue shift would be seen for any
value of the radial component.
72
Supposing
ft
=
/lav
=
Const,
we
obtain for the difference between the
gravitational potentials at the centre of the sphere
and
at a point distance
r(<R)
the following expression
A<D(r)
^
<D(0)

4)(r)
= 

tt
y
,i,, r'.
(12.15)
We
assert that always the point of emission
is
is
to
be put
at the centre
of
the Universe because the point of emission
only one, while the points of
that there
is
reception can be an infinite quantity, and
centre as the Universe
is
we assume
no such
without limits and thus any point can be considered
as its centre. Here our conceptions are almost identical with those of Nicolaus Cusanus (14011464), one of the most brilliant minds in history, who forwarded the following cosmological model « The Universe is a sphere whose centre is everywhere and the surface nowhere ».
:
photon emitted from a space region with gravitational potential has a wavelength A, then in a space region with gravitational potential <I>„ = A4>(/) this photon will have a wavelength A„ and the relation between all these quantities will be given by formula (10.29). Thus, substiand r = r, we obtain tuting into this formula the potential (12.15) for r =
If a
4>
=
A<1)(0)
A„=
'
,
(12.16)

2
TT
T 4 /^ H 3
c^
Y
which formula for
r
<^
/?
[see (12.10))
can be written
77
\„
—
\
2
Y
^,
3
M/^
(12.17)
Denoting
„ ^M =
2
27r Y
y
^/^.v,
(12.18)
and calling form
H^
the HubbleMarinov constant,
we can
writte (12.17) in the
A„
A
A
AA
A
=
Hm''^
(12.19)
which we
call the
HubbleMarinov law.
red
shifts
Plotting
the
AA/A of
the
remote
galaxies
(observed
spectroscopically) versus their distances to the Earth (estimated from their
visual magnitudes at the assumption that the absolute magnitudes are equal), one can find the value of the HubbleMarinov constant, and then from equation (12.18) one can calculate the average mass density in the Universe.
73
have done this in Marinov (1978g), establishing //^ = 1.98.10 " Taking for /i,„ the statistically established value (12.12), we find, according to formula (12.18), //^ = 1,25.10 "cm
We
cm
'.
'.
We
(12.19)
«
show
fits
in
Marinov (1978g)
»
that
much
better to the experimental
our theoretical quadratic relation points of the dependence
red shift
— distance
(12.16)
[see
it is
then the hypothetical linear Hubble relation (12.13).
r > R,
Formula
Universe,
shows that for formula (12.10)]
where R
is
the « radius
»
of the
l5
so that A„
1 a R'^ 3c''
even
will
2
TT
c'
/x,.
/?'=!,
(12.20)
—
CX3.
For
this reason,
if
there
is
a matter outside the sphere
it
with radius R, we can receive no information about
because the photons
i.e.,
which would come from there low energy.
Hence, according
cannot
(12. 10).
«
be extremely
faint,
with an extreme
to
infinite Universe, factually the
our conceptions, even under the assumption of an Universe must be regarded as finite as we
look
»
outside the sphere with radius
if
R
established from relation
Of course,
«
a space traveller undertakes a cosmic journey, then
new
galaxies will enter into the sphere of his Universe along the line of his motion
and the most
red
»
galaxies in the opposite direction will disappear; sailors
experience similar
phenomena when
they pass islands and other ships.
»
Thus
».
we can call R
Ending
is
not « radius of the world
this section,
but
«
radius of the world's horizon
that, since
we must emphasize
cosmology operates
with conditions at infinity, one can never be sure whether one's world model
adequate
to reality.
§13.
PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
IN A
MEDIUM
13.1.
DRAG
In classical
(i.e., nonquantum) physics we consider only the gravitaand electromagnetic interactions of particles (with masses different from or equal to zero). In the axiomatics of classical physics we do not introduce any assertion about the phenomenon « collision » (respectively, « coalescence » and « disintegration ») of particles. All these problems are to be considered in quantum physics. However, under certain idealized as
tional
sumptions we can consider some aspects of these phenomena also physics. These assumptions are
:
in classical
a)
The
sizes
of the material points are small enough with respect to the
distances between them, so that
we can
ignore their sizes altogether.
74
As a rule. these papers follows. Medium and observer at rest. This is our « model » for the propagation of light in a medium. 1976b).b) When the particles collide (respectively. applying them to the particles before and after the collision (respectively.e. In the medium « opaque » and in the last « transparent ». for the sake of we assume always being reemitted by the particles in the same direction along which it hits them. then we must conclude that the photon propagates (l/w)th part of the time unit as a « free » photon and (1 . it moves with the mean velocity c^ = c/n. The absorption (reception) of a photon by a particle represents a The emission of a photon (i.l/«)th part of the time unit it rests « absorbed » (or « hitched ») by the particles. When a photon propagates through a medium it (i.1) The factor n is called the refractive index of the medium.. medium and if. in this « model » we do not introduce additional charactefirst case we call the ristics for the quantity « particle » other than those introduced in our third is axiom. A review of the theoretical parts of A. As a matter of fact.e. (13. of a coalescence of particles. many particles are dispersed) will collide with the first and be absorbed. through a space region in which « hit » particle.. and thus there the axiomatics. 75 . Let us have a medium which that it is rests in absolute space. the reemission of a photon by a particle occurs a certain time after its absorption. a photon crosses a distance c/n through the simplicity. Thus with respect to an observer who is also at rest in absolute space. no new assertion which merits being introduced in the The problem about the velocity of light in a transparent medium when medium or the observer or both move with respect to absolute space is considered in Marinov (1974a. coalescence or disintegration).2). in a unit of time. coalesce or disintegrate) we take into account only the laws of conservation (see the end of §6. reflected (dispersed) or reemitted. If. particle with mass equal to zero) by a from zero represents a disintegration of a parparticle with mass different ticle.
where the distance CD is covered by this molecule in the time in which the photon covers distance BD. medium moving who is at rest. If we consider the path of the photon between two successive absorptions. AB/v + BC/c = we obtain (13. i.Fig. (13. 1 3 1 . Supposing that the time between two successive absorptions unit.2) AB = v(\  \/n) BC = c/n (13.4) the distance covered by the photon between two successive BC but + BD = BE + ED = (— 76 — sin'^' — n cos 0' . Let us observer at rest..3) If now we suppose that the medium moves with velocity v during the whole time. 131 B. CD = Thus now reemission and absorption will not be v/n.e. (13. when with Suppose 131) that the medium moves this with velocity v along the the photon is vaxis of the used rest frame K only during time absorbed by some particle (molecule) of the medium and suppose that during the time between the reemission and next absorption the medium (the molecule) is at rest. then the next molecule will be caught not at point C but at point D.5) . then this path can be presented by the broken line A BC in is fig. Medium moving.. chosen for a time that 1 . now calculate the velocity of light in a velocity i/ in absolute space with respect to an observer first (fig.e. i.
. having in mind (13. and working with an accuracy of second order in v/c.6) is the angle between the « free path » of the photon medium with respect to the observer (i. is obtain the velocity of the t„. to angle with respect to the medium The angle (i.. as first we is enough to consider it with an accuary of order Within the same accuracy of first order in v/c we can write. for the in v/c.10) photon with respect to the observer. to and the velocity of the frame A^ while 6„ is the same the moving frame K' which is attached to the medium).where 0 = e„ y (13.e.e.3).5) and (13. we have to divide the distance /ID by the time for which the broken line A BD is covered. mean velocity of the at rest. within an accuracy of second order 77 . c (13. + 1 l^' n sin' 1 c 6... taken with an accuracy of second order in v/c. n (13. Y = arc sin —— CE BC ^ v/n sin ^' c/n ^— c v sin ^„ (13. in v/c. To mean = AB — v + BD — c = I + V — cos6.iiJ 1 (13. 1 + + —• — «^' sm' .7) represents the difference between these two angles which shall further see. it is small and.. photon in the moving medium measured by the observer we get.. (13.9) Putting here (13. (13.8).— — 1 v' sin' 6' = en ^ . This time.. c' we 2 obtain AD = {— + n' —cos9„ + n VC '^^ v') = C — + u cos ^. cos^' = cos(9„ + — sin^^„.6) and (13. 2 c'n rn 1^ (iJ. — cos^o en 2 c'n = where we have used Thus.4)..8) The distance covered by the photon between two successive absorptions with respect to the observer will be AD' = {AB + CD)' + Ba + 2{AB + CD)BCcose.3) and (13.7). « 0.
but always tried to « gain » more distance by walking. 11).16) I . where (13. 78 ..12) ' having suppressed the factor n right side of (13.—(1 en — \ )cos'^  n' —v' nil  2 e — )sin'^. (13.15) Substituting this into (13. = AD — = c — + 1/(1  — )cos^„ I   v'. we never waited could never be higher than that of the cars.13) and (13. when crossing countries by « same point where being dropped by the previous one. Let us mention that hitchhiking ».14) ' the difference between the angles B„ and Q which is small and can be considered only with an accuracy of first order in vie. cos^„ = cos<9 find — c sin'^.13) «= is — — — = vn sm^ v'sin^ . n' ^ + . n' 1 The in « model is » for the propagation of described here called by us the « hitchhiker our youth. 1 (13. c/n c (13. en  (1  1 )cos'^. Of course. having in mind (13. we C.12). denominator of the last term on the Let us introduce the angle between the velocity of the medium and at rest the mean velocity of the photon which is measured by the observer = O„a.v'n (I — I 2 in the c//'  — )sin'^„. our pedefor the next car at the strian velocity photons in a moving medium » model.n = — n ^' c + 1/(1  — )COS^ n' 1 (13.14). Within the same accuracy of first order in y/lc we can write.c„.
and suppose that the . 132) a medium with refractive index n that is at rest in absolute space and in which light propagates along a direction that makes an angle 6 with the vaxis of a frame K attached to absolute space.vaxes colinear. At such a choice of the time unit a photon propagating along the direction AF in the rest frame K is « hitched » (1 — \/n)th part of the time unit on a molecule which rests at point/!.17) since during the time in which the photon has covered the broken line A BC in frame K' the molecule that rests at point F in absolute space has covered distance FC in K' with velocity v. Let there be (fig. The mean proper relative light velocity in 79 . Medium at rest. Let an observer attached to a frame K' tion of the Xaxis of move at velocity v along the positive direcof both frames are frame K. 132 C. We choose again the time between two successive absorptions of a photon on the molecules of the medium as a time unit. : it will In the moving frame K' we have the following picture During the time which the photon is « hitched » it will cover distance AB with velocity v and during the time in which the photon propagates with velocity c in absolute space it will cover distance BC in A" (under an angle 6' to the Xaxis) with the proper relative velocity [see (3. be « hitched and (l/n)th part of the time unit moves along the line/lFuntil » again on another molecule which rests at point F. observer moving.32)] in I + ' vcosd'/c (13.Fig.
frame K' (i. n^i'i\ (13.24) where a accuracy is a small angle and. I) sm . Putting into (13.23) 80 .„ we obtain sxn'B' = — n  1/cos^' + — en cos'^' + —— 2 c n{\ . « ^ c ^ ^— c . 1) sm „ »„ (13.20) The angle which (13.—) n .„ = AC = {AB' + BO  lABBC cos e)"\ (13.22) we obtain c' = n . within the necessary we can take sm y = ABsin — ^ — (n— AC 6' v ^ . (13.23) the direction of propagation of light and the velocity of the observer which should be measured in frame K is 6. and working within an accuracy of second order c„.19) V cos 6 /c n in v/c. where y accuracy is (13.21) a small angle and. putting into 9'=e„y.^)sin'^„. . within the necessary we can take sin a = CFsin^ AC V = — e nsm^. n' (13. putting into 6^ = we + a.^cos^„+ en cos'^„ 12 e /I (I .18) since the time between two successive absorptions of the photon is taken equal to unity.23) The angle between (13..e. the average light velocity measured in A" by the help of a clock which rests there) will make an angle 6„ with the x'axis and have magnitude c. (n — . direction of propagation of light and his own velocity Thus.18) AB = v{\).. n BC = ——^——\ + (13. as we shall further see. Thus. as shall further see.20) the observer in frame K' will measure between the is d„. (13..
we obtain c„ = c —  ^ i^cos^ + — v' cos'^ + n en —— 2 \ v' n{\ + c — )sin'tf «' 1 . respectively. (1 — l/n)th part of the time unit the photon is and does not move with respect to the moving frame K' which is attached to the medium.32) V = v/n] 1 1 V — cos c„ = 1 c =c 1 en . (13.32). then the « effective » velocity of the frame with respect to the trajectory of the « free » photon will be v/n.28) ^ 1 + en — cos^ V n 1 v^ e^n^ the velocity of the and 6 are the angles between the direction of light propagation and medium measured. (13. according to formula (3. + — cos^' en V (13. Thus. the proper velocity of the « free » photon with respect to K' Since in such a case for » « hitched will be [write in (3.26) D. find the velocity of light in a now medium moving at velocity v with respect to absolute space measured by an observer attached to the medium. 13. We shall light perform the calculation by considering a bundle of photons is (a beam) which incident under an angle <p on the boundary between the 81 . REFRACTION In this subsection we shall show that our model for the propagation of light in a medium as a process of successive « absorptions » and « reemis sions » of the photons leads immediately to Snell's law for the refraction of light.2. Medium and Let us observer moving. en . in the moving and rest frames.27) v^ c^n^ unit. so that the The photon moves with this velocity only ( /n)th part of the time mean proper velocity of light with respect to K' will be 1 — V — cos 6 c'=e'=n n where 6' 1 r 1 = c .
where is the refractive angle (note that when the second flankphoton has reached the boundary the first /.30) From the last two formulas we obtain sin sin t// Snell's law /I A (13. We shall consider the more general case of collision between a photon and a moving particle where the Doppler essence of the Compton scattering becomes more obvious. the « mirrorreceiver » changes its velocity.e. 13. the second Hankphoton has to move a refractive indices /j media A and B with ^and n „.31) (p «(. \// and second fiankphotons must bundle).29) During this time the first photon will move with velocity c/n^'\x\ the medium B and will cover the distance ^sin»//. several authors have pointed Compton and Doppler effects.Consider two photons which is perpendicular to the bundle.3. AND PARTICLES phenomenon. However. when particles collide. Suppose that the distance between the points at which both flankphotons cross the boundary is d. out the equivalence between the As we have mentioned 82 . all these authors have treated this problem by considering the Compton scattering on particles at rest.. A . After the instance at which the first flankphoton crosses the boundary. it medium A and cover Thus we can write a distance t = J sin c/n q> ^—. We shall show that the Compton effect « represents nothing but a light Dopplereffect where the energy of the rorreceiver » is mirthat. he on the extremities of the bundle and on a line which certain time dsirvp. COLLISION BETWEEN PHOTONS As we said. In this subsection collision in we shall consider only the elastic collision (i. a which the masses of the particles before and after the collision remain the same) between a photon and a particle with mass different from zero (the socalled Compton effect). in Marinov ( 1978h). (13. we shall describe the taking into account only the laws of conservation and applying them to the systems of particles before and after the collision. until / with the velocity c/w^in the also reaches the boundary. under the hit comparable with the energy of the striking photon so of the photon. Thus we can write t lie on a line which is perpendicular to the = ^sin —^ \b (13.
.
Thus the Compton scattering represents a « observes reflection of light from a the action of mirror » Doppler effect where one which changes its velocity under any single incident photon. Formulas (13. RELATION BETWEEN REFRACTIVE INDEX AND DENSITY The relation is and its density ^ between the refractive index n of a transparent medium given by the wellknown formula of LorentzLorenz (see. 13.33).32) represent four relations for six unknown quantities Thus two of these quantities must be taken arbitrarily and they are determined by the unit vector n. we can find n. which is perpendicular to the « reflecting plane » of the moving mirror (Doppler treatment) or by the unit vector n' along the direction of propagation of the « reemitted » photon (Compton treatment)..^ is a constant which we call the LorentzLorenz constant. between them there is a moving « mirror » (the particle) which. are given. However. Using the law of light reflection (the incident and reflected rays lie in the same plane with the perpendicular to the reflecting plane and make equal angles with it). an atom). In the Compton effect source and observer are at rest. Lorentz (1916)] w' —  I — I = K. n' . electron) its mass cannot change and the « reemission » must follow an immediately after the « absorption ».36) where 84 /l . changes its velocity under the hit of the photon. its mass can change and the « reemission » can follow a certain time after the absorption. i. or n when n and : v'. (13. .since 6' = (« {v\ n) is the angle between the velocity of the source and the of opposite direction of the wave vector of the reflected light at the moment emission reemission »). Hence it is obvious that the relation to which the Doppler effect formulas lead (where we are interested only in the mirror's velocity before and after the reflection of the photon) must be the same as the relation which can be obtained from the momentum and energy conservation laws. moreover. when n and n' are given. We The Doppler respect to effect formulas give the relation between the frequencies of the emitted and observed light when source and observer move with one another. the photon will only be « reflected » by the particle.e. must emphasize that when the particle is elementary (for example. v'. From the last two formulas we obtain the result (13. n. for example. If the particle is compound (for example.4..
Marinov constant.37) jit in the following extremely simple is way : As slated (§13. on average.Our « model » for the propagation of light in a transparent medium leads to the following relation n  1 = K^. from /. (13. 1  l/n seconds and has traveled \/n seconds it will now be « hitched » . is the time during which. For that distance for which the photon was « hitched » which. respectively. to n'. Now suppose that the density of the medium has changed from ju toju The refractive index will change.37) where A^^ is a constant which we call the We come we in I to formula (13. l/n the time in vacuum and on average. at a density of the transparent medium. the photon travels with velocity c I — //. . the photon remains « hitched » to the molecules of the medium.1).
36).36) is at the experiment. n= According + 2K. The experimental points are taken from Michels et ai (1947).) + n n From !n here formula (13. with the increase of the density. 133 we give the graphs of « as a function of /u according to formulas (13. formula (13.36) form "^ . this dependence for ethylene (/i is given in Amagat However.. The Lorentz theory exists.36) and (13. Lorentz (1916)] cannot offer a sound explanation to this peculiarity. index increases very rapidly and for a certain critical = \/ Ky it becomes equal to infinity. since the » sum of the « « free flight » distances hitchpoints remains the same and only the number of the has changed. support who have measured units).39) to this formula. According to our and n becomes equal to infinity 86 . [see.37) can immediately be obtained.38) '^(1 . (13./i jT^) {. In fig. that our formula (13. for example.37) finds a better Marinov (I978i) we show in the experiment than the LorentzLorenz formula (13. will travel l/nseconds. the refractive density ft. in the I Indeed. no such peculiarity only for /x equal to infinity.(/!i7/[i)(l  l//i)secondsand. we can show that unsound.37). write formula (13. Thus we can write aI I  1 = r^ IX u n .37). (13. even without looking formula (13. as before.
PART II — EXPERIMENTAL .
INTRODUCTION In this second part we shall give short accounts of the most important experiments which we consider decisive for the refutation of the principle of relativity. Additional references to other authors can be found in the same papers. experiment. The analysis of the other experiments (ours and of other authors) can strengthen one's faith in spacetime absoluteness. This problem 1 is considered in detail in Marinov ( Suppose (fig. for the rejection of the relativistic spacetime conceptions and for the restoration of the old Newtonian absolute conceptions dressed in the clothes of our absolute spacetime theory. concentrating our attention on their essence.e. § 15.. moment t"..§ 14. effects when today's experimental technique We describe all these experiments. i. Let us observe the zeroth eclipse of the satellite at the a terrestrial clock. We tein's consider the « coupledmirrors » experiment (§19) and the « rota ting disk » experiments (§25 and § 26) as decisive for the rejection of Einsconceptions. it Now we shall show that according to our absolute spacetime theory the Earth's absolute motion cannot be revealed by the help of the quasiRoemer I978j). each other in the effect to be measured. others cannot reveal it practically because all absolute effects cancel used. when the Earth and Jupiter are at the positions £. On the other hand.„ half a year before the moment when they will be in opposition.. we call the quasiRcemer experiment. If this experiment be performed with the aim of measuring the Earth's absolute velocity. without entering into the details which the reader can find in the original papers. read on 7. certain experiis ments can give reliable others cannot. Certain of the experiments can reveal the absolute motion of the laboratory. . the observation of the from the Earth during the course of a year) for the first time in history the velocity of light was measured.1) that at the initial year of observation when the Earth and Jupiter are in opposition the absolute velocity of the Sun system v^ makes an angle 6 with the opposition line. 5. THE QUASIR(E1VIER EXPERIMENT eclipses of a Jupiter satellite With the help of the Roemer experiment (i..e.
2) we can consider angle fig.Fig. Thus line (15.. we have (15.e.2) Cn = 1 » = i^gCos S' /c 1 — 1 i^jCos 6/c c  vi/c^ registered where 0' is the angle between v^ with respect to the and the line of light propagation moving Sun's frame and is the same angle registered with respect to absolute space. 151 The first eclipse will occur at the moment (15. to According formula (3.J^ are the positions of relative velocity the Earth of light and Jupiter at the moment t\ and c'„ is the proper coming from Jupiter with respect to the Sun system. J„ are very near to one another. i.1) /' = r + r where T \s the period of revolution of the satellite.. Since Jupiter covers (l/12)th part of shall its orbit during an Earth year. we in assume that the positions 7. 6' (^ 6 within the necessary accuracy) to be equal to angle 6 in 151.32). 89 . where we write V = v^.. E^. to the angle between the opposition and the Sun's absolute velocity.
— 1 c c^ ^cos^ = Ar " initial ^cos^.4) in (15. However.5) Any opposition line takes different values in the range of 360". Indeed.5) this time interval which follows the if moment. The Ac read on the proper terrestrial clock will be [use the second formula (3.1).Let the nlh eclipse be observed at the Jupiter are in opposition. When Roemer made he established c.„. if we measure the time on a then no positive effect can be registered. (§11. interval A/. if Ar.3) where R the radius of the Earth's orbit. he compared the calculated time interval At" and. traditional absolutist would conclude that making use of formula one could establish the component v^ of the Sun's absolute velocity in the plane of the ecliptic when performing observations of the eclipses of a Jovian satellite during 12 years in which the angle 6 between i^^ and the (15. we can determine we fmd the period T of revolution of the satellite. after whose elapsing one has to observe the nth eclipse the absolute velocity of the is Sun is equal to zero. Ac = where ^t" is —^ .„. another halfyear when the Earth and Jupiter are at the positions E.25)] 90 . moment /" when the Earth and We shall " " have " " Ar„ = rr is = nT ~ c„ = /»r c (1 +^cosg). we .shall we take into account the absolute kinematic time dilation come to the conclusion that. time let us assume that the Earth covers the path £"„£„ during the absolute time interval (read on a clock which rests in absolute space) Ar. c^ (15. his observations. suppose that the 2/ith eclipse is observed at the moment / '" after . will vary in the range  (2 Rv^/c^) =^ 6/ =^ (2 Rv^/c^).".JE '^^ = InT (15. c (15.4) From here Using (15.3). 7 We have t'" AH: = . Finally..r = 2 nT  ^^^^ J E .V72 with the really measured time knowing R. or if the velocity of light not direction dependent. terrestrial clock. so that the difference 8i = Ki?.
6). ' )Ar + —— c' ^ cos^. Thus we have its moves with velocity u.. THE QUASIBRADLEY EXPERIMENT (i..<^ 2 c'  J ^'cos( —  ^ + nOc// (15. that the Earth's absolute motion can be revealed by the quasiBradley experiment. with part moves with velocity v^ (16. 91 . S2 is 2 is c' the Earth's velocity with respect to the Sun. which a traditional absolutist expects to be registered. will be compensated for by a change in the rate of the terrestrial clock. (10. (16. Now we shall show nov(l978j).6) = where v. we conclude that no positive quasiRoemer experiment because the time interval between the zeroth and «th eclipses actually registered on a terrestrial clock will vary exactly in such a manner that the effect 8(. This problem is considered in detail in Mari If we observe a star on the celestial sphere from a platform (the Earth) moving with an absolute velocity v. then the relation between the emission angle 6' which represents the angle between the velocity v and the sourceobserver line at the moment of emission.2) V = v^+ v^. (1  z ' .e. is With the help of the Bradley experiment differences in the angles under which a given star the registration of the observed from the Earth during a year) for the second time in history the velocity of light was measured. If this experiment be performed with the aim of measuring the Eath's absolute velocity. we call it the quasiBradley experiment.5)] (1 + ^cos^')(l c — cos^) c = 1  — c^ . Comparing formulas can be registered (15. and the reception angle 6. i2R. its angular velocity.1) Now suppose respective to that our platform (the Earth) respect to another platform (the Sun) which for absolute space. and thus Vy = and (15. which represents the same angle at the moment of reception.5) eflect in the §16. will be (see formula .
the velocity of light being equal toe's. the emission angle SO ' Is proportional to relative light velocity b) Observation by the Earth's observer in absolute space. picture a) : We have the following Observation by the Sun's observer in absolute space. and 9 the reception angle.By analogy with (16. distance SO is velocity with respect to the Sun c'^ (since this is the velocity of light which travels along the given direction with respect to a frame attached to the Sun) and distance SO' to the relative light velocity with respect to the Earth c'. For this case ^'jis and 9^ the reception angle. 161). ^'p is the emission angle tional to For this case and d^ the reception angle. Consider now an imaginable emission which occurs the Earth's observer is at the moment when at the point O' and a reception which occurs at the at the moment when this observer arrives point O. We must emphasize that we suppose all velocities (absolute and relative) to be measured in absolute time. distance SO is proporthe absolute light velocity c and distance SO'^ to the relative light c'. 1 6 Let us suppose that at the moment of emission an Sun light Earth's observer and an observer at the at the who rests with respect to the (called the Sun's observer) are this point O'^ point (fig.1) we have 92 . The emitted at S will be received by the Sun's observer moment by a star which is when he crosses point O' and by the Earth's observer when he crosses point O.Fig. distance the absolute light velocity c and distance SO'^ to the with respect to the Sun c'^. velocity with respect to the Earth c) Observation by the Earth's observer is For this case 9' the emission angle proportional to the relative light in a frame attached to the Sun.
on orbit The angle a^ star 5"^ will be observed from the Earth's positions E. in the terms of second and third order in 1 /c). putting 6 = 6= ' 6„. £4) fig.4) ^ cos^.3) and working within an accuracy of third order in 1 /c (i. four different positions of the Earth 162 its we have shown (£". around the Sun {S) at four different moments with intervals of three months when four different stars (5^.6) Designating by a necessary accuracy = ^ the aberration angle. Sy^. (16.7) is the aberration angle caused by the motion of the Earth the Sun light at rest in absolute space and the star Aa is the variation caused by the absolute velocity of the Sun. to the is the relative velocity of light in a frame attached Sun and ^^m «s the middle angle between ^'^and 6^. if the Sun be at rest in 93 .e.. if being observed from the Sun. find within the a=— sin^ where a were f +^^^sin^ cos^^ =a^»Aa. The real positions of the stars S ^ and S^ and their positions observed from the Sun coincide. tilted to an = v^/c. 5^) are in range with the Earth in the plane of the ecliptic.12)] (9. since for these two stars the angle O^m is equal to tt/I. E^.3) ^s 1 where [see formula (10. i.4) into (16.. Putting (16.e. i. in beam coming from In £3.(1 + ^ cos^')(l ^s f cos^) = 1  ^ ^s . ^ni ) + — C ^ cos 1/2 c^=c{ 1 (16.e.. dependence on the angle ^^m subtended by the and the velocity of the Sun..e. i. we obtain cos ^ = cos ^ + ^' ^  sin^ ^ (1+ —^cos^^J. they will be seen along the directions to 5"b and S'^. The positions of the stars 5"^ and S^ observed from the Sun are tilted to an angle a^ = v^/c with respect to their real positions. S^. if (16. we (16. 1) and the 1 text after formula (10. along the direction to 5'ai.. since the angle ^sm between the Sun's velocity v^ and the propagation direction of the light coming from these stars is equal to tt or toO.
p = 2a p — Iv^v^/cK Analogically we conclude that the stars which lie near the Sun's antiapex will describe a small arc equal to 2«aniiap = 2a p + 2vf:V^/c\ FoT the difference between these two arcs we obtain ^ = It 2a_. i. position Ej tilted additionally to an angle a to 5b2 = v^/c.Sm. is c + Vs. — Aa = C + ^=«BV along the direction to 5^1.e. along the direction and the same star will be observed after months from the position 94 .e. when the Sun moves and the velocity of light coming from to 5"^ c.. tilted to an angle Vc w./c' E S will (16..8) a ap i. 162 absolute space and the velocity of light coming from 5^ be equal However.. along the direction to S^y Thus in a year the stars which lie near the apex position of the Sun should describe over the celestial sphere a small arc equal to 2a.e. this star will be seen from £. r.„= 4Aa = ap aniiap 4v^v. ^6 ^B* Fig.The same star when observed from the £". (16.2a. = a .9) ' ^ can be seen immediately that the star p 5b six be observed from the i.„. after six months will be tilted oppositely to the same angle a„^.
one can measure the light velocity and we this the Doppler experiment. where observer <jp and the velocity of the first between the sourceobservers line and the velocity vat the moment of reception. cos 2 V V.. we call it Now we shall show Marinov (1978k). cos . §17. lie on the same (p (p .. line with the centre of v. we get frequency . All angles are qp is the angle between the velocity v v^i Denote by 5 the angle taken positive clockwise and negative counterclockwise.^. v„ = v^. (it is v^. . v^ = 300 km /s (see §19). Writing in this formula first p„ = p. d„ = 6. i/„ = V.. that the Earth's absolute performed with the aim for the measurement of the Earth's absolute velocity. received by the first observer and the frequency p^ received by the second observer does not depend on the velocity of the source v^. i/. and then v^ = p. Obviously 6 is a constant angle.'/c' ''2 ^'^"^^ ^ ' Thus the relation between the frequency f.. both and at motion of the Sun.. while changes with Ztt during the period of rotation of O... Supposing that the source moves with velocity v^ and emits light with f we obtain that an observer moving with velocity v„ will register a frequency v„ given by the first formula (10. = v. the quasiBradley expe riment can be considered only as a challenge to the experimenters. 102. 9>5 . cos^. absolute velocities of O. The O. If the Doppler experiment should be the quasiDoppler experiment. motion cannot be revealed is by the quasiDoppler experiment. THE QUASIDOPPLER EXPERIMENT cies call Observing from the Earth during a year the differences in the frequenof light emitted by a given star./c 1 v. along the direction to S^^^.. = 30 km/s. Thus at the present state of technique.e. (see fig.) about some centre C which for its part moves with an absolute velocity v. This problem considered in detail in Let us have (fig. i. + — 2 vv. 171) a distant light source (a star) 5 and two observers O. = v.. who rotate with relative velocities v. 8„ = 6. and O. 171) and dividing the formulas obtained.17) in which we have to write V = Vs. ^ _ ~ 1 1  »^. Taking rad i^[./c 1  VjVc' v.The angles 6' and 6„ can be seen in fig. and O^ which rotation are ."08. we obtain A = 4. f.£< tilted oppositely to the at rest same angle a.10 ' = 0./ = = v^ v^ + + v^' V...cosO..
4) This final expression is convenient for discussion. will be = Pii^ + 2vv. 171 From fig.Fig. 171 we have ^. 5 = will be »'. V2 cos $2 = = V cos S V cos b + — v^ cos (S cos (5 + <p) (17. however if 6 = 7r/2.2).3) v^ . and If Pi V2 received from a given light (radio) source for which 6 0./c^)[oT<p = This result leads to the conclusion that we can 96 .<p) Substituting (17. cos ^. = p^ for 0. it + <p it = tt/I. qp = tt/I. we find within an accuracy of second order in \/c 2 = 1  2— cos (6 + c <p) » 2 — c ' (cos <p  cos 6 cos (6 + <p)] + 2 — c' cos' (5 + <p) (17.1) and (17.3) into (17. Let us mesure i'.
0. Thus. If now due i'. Such an angle is large enough to be reliably registered.. the quasiDoppler expe riment leads practically to a null result. not change in the frequency depends only on the rotational on the velocity of the disk as a whole. and f. THE QUASIFIZEAU « COUPLEDSHUTTERS « . Imagine for simplicity that this middle point is at the pole and that the Earth : 1 represents a flat disk.e.» EXPERIMENT The historical coupledshutters >» experiment represents a modification of the velocity can be Fizeau experiment for the measurement of the light velocity by a rotating cogwheel with whose help the Earth's absolute measured. = moment when the radio source is on the line 0. 4 .5) Taking v = 300 km/s cos (5 (§ 19). c/ 181) is which set in rotation two cogwheels C.measure the Earth's absolute velocity in the following manner Let us have two receivers placed at a parallel with 80" difference in the longitudes.Oy concludes an angle a with the sourceobservers line.. will be equal precisely t Tr/2. This signifies that when the line 0. sent from the rim of a rotating disk to centre.6) where a is the angle between the line 0^0^ and the sourceobservers line. and v. § 18.0.. Intensive 97 . (17. will be equal when [see (17. then for 6 at the = the frequencies and v. so that even the traditional Newtonian kinematics leads to results adequate to physical reality. to the daily rotation we compare f. Earth.4 when considering the socalled its « rotorrotor » experiment.„ i. As we show if light is in §30. the source will be seen along the direction 0.4) and take into account that for the case considered cos(5 + <f') s 0] cos (6 + we <p) = v/c . and C^ fixed on a common by the electromotor EM. (17. Hence v^ and Vn when of the received at the pole will suffer equal changes. Let us observe a radio source when it should « cross » the line OyO. However.. effects we take into account only the of first order in v/c.. and let the frequencies received be sent to some middle point and there compared.0. In the « coupledshutters » experiment. then the velocity. Let us have shaft with length (fig. the angle a is exactly equal to the aberration angle due to the motion of the Earth with velocity v... for 5 qp however for 6 = tt/I the frequencies v. We consider this experiment in Marinov (19780. for different radio sources which « cross » the line 0. obtain + qp) = sina ^ Q = 10^ = 3. because of the appearance of the aberration.
We call this number. number of ») cogs placed respectively against each other « cogs against cogs and they are set in rotation. and C. to O. for passing of the and c ¥ v chopped n. f. and « opposite » the same. If any of the wheels has p notches and makes N revolutions per second.1) photon flux can be written n . will observe maximum » minimum) photon when d^ = d. C.e. opposite » If the velocity directions (or is the same. light is emitted by the sources the cogwheels C.. « opposite ». After passing through the notches of and C.. « direct » and from 5". and d^ of light in « direct » of the light beams between both wheels. and O^.2) 98 .. With the help of the verniers and « and we can change the paths c/. then. = A V. the wheels will rotate f = pN notches in a second. Obviously. fluxes and O.. We shall call the direction from S. the the same time that the wheels are rotated frequency of chopping.Fig. » d. = c V + V f. then the observers will establish fluxes in the case in maximum phioton where the distance d between the wheels is covered by light an integer number of notches. (respectively. K. (18. obviously.. equal to If both wheels have the same (i. where n is an integer. to O. and « opposite The conditions beams will be /".). Now suppose that the velocity of light is c — in « v in the « direct » the « opposite direct » directions. this light is observed by the observers O. O. the condition for observing a maximum (18. Suppose directions is that the velocity of light in the « direct » c. 181 5". = c — n. and S.
It can easily be shown that the intend to observe.e. Now the two following problems arise : opposiie direct Fig. will exactly cancel the effect that we 99 . d. and. 182) is driven by a common chopping mechanism. between the pairs. we shall now speak not of two independently rotating cogwheels but of two independently operating pairs of shutters (for instance. if d^  d^ = 2 — c V (18. = n. if we transmit the signals for opening closing the shutters by an electric line.Assuming that. </. near the shutters and 5b. The first difficulty can be overcome if we use the same resonator for both pairs of shutters. then a « phase difference » will appear ». and d.3) or Ad = Obviously. It is easy to see that the chopping frequency which can be achieved steel shaft so by a rotating cogwheel requires a independent cogwheels not fixed long that practically it cannot be constructed. two resonators R ^ and R g. = d{\ + v/c). How How to to maintain e^ywa/ chopping frequencies for both pairs of shut b) i. how to maintain a « phase difference » between them equal to zero. = d{\  v/c). (18. thus. « phase difference appearing at the motion of our apparatus in absolute space. we shall have «. Kerr cells). say. ensure that both pairs of shutters will close and open together. with a decrease of v towards zero. 182 a) ters. For the sake of generality. Thus the question may be posed about the use of two on a common shaft but rotating with the same angular velocity. Any pair of these shutters (fig. which can be put near the shutters S a.4) we choose a lower chopping frequency a longer shaft must be used.^ should become equal to d. we obtain d.. However.^ = n. or in the middle.
light clocks) attached io R^ and /?„ be t\. use independent shutters. and only (18. taking into account the absolute time dilation.v^/c'V'dt. When « the axis of the apparatus » perpendiput the phase difference between both shutters so and O. one can rotate the apparatus is with respect to absolute space. the Thus their time rates will » that will if new « phase difference cancel the effect to be observed be different and exactly such that appear after the rotation will exactly the « phase difference » after the rotation had remained the same as before the rotation.^ of the resonator /?^ if we tune f\ in such a manner that the « beating » of the light spot observed by O. we can easily see that this prediction of Dart will not correspond to reality. during the rotation both resonators will move at different velocities with respect to absolute space.^ would see no light. Let the proper times /^ = t'^ . how far from opening is the second pair of shutters). will if we change distances ^.4). its let us suppose that the axis of the apparatus is first perpendicular to absolute velocity. If now the apparatus is so that the « direct » direction will coincide with the direction of light will d^ then some be seen by the observers. will always be reduced to zero. To prove this. ^B^fter the rotation.25)] l^= f(\ . two atomic clocks can be taken.e.\ > » B + (— uY + 2 t^ (/ o) /) are the velocities of the resonators during the rotation of the apparatus. until the « direct » direction its axis becomes parallel to v. and with the help of the verniers V^ and K to give a difference A^ according to formula of the coupled shutters.t^j^ = /„'  t'^ correspond to the same absolute time interval t. Let the readings of two clocks (suppose. say. rence open. we have [see the second formula (3. Hence again we When we » are unable to measure the absolute velocity v. The chopping frequency f^ of the resonator /?„ can be maintained equal to the chopping frequency f. for simplicity. we cannot know the « phase diffewe cannot know when the first pair of shutters is between them (i.Hence the resonators producing the chopping frequency must be independent and for such. Indeed. about the middle point. Let us then rotate the apparatus with of angular velocity w. where t^^' /b= /(> .v^/cydt. /„ before the rotation and /\'. parallel to V. as Dart (1971) has suggested. cular to i^one will arrange the that both observers O. (18. i^.. However. no light be left to pass through both pairs However. 100 . Because of the absolute time dilation.5) = = i^' I (— w)'  i^ J to cos (w cos (w » (\%f.
minimum photon fluxes will pass through both coupled shutters. after performing the integration.. the « coupledshutters » experiment can « work » only when for two cogwheels fixed on a common shaft are used. a change in the phase difference » between both cogwheels cannot occur.. shutters more clearly the difference between the independent and the cogwheels connected by a rigid shaft. THE QUASIFOUCAULT COUPLEDMIRRORS » EXPERIMENT basis in Fizeau's rotating cogwheel With the aim of shortening the experiment.7) This formula shows that if before rotation the « phase difference » between both pairs of shutters is equal to zero. we obtain. then after the rotation the shaft would be found to be twisted.5) because the wheels are rigidly connected is a unique clock the motor driving the shaft. we do not Let us explain f^ have the right by a to use common if shaft and there formulas (18. In such a case a Newtonian time synchronization is realized. but the axis which one has to use to obtain a registrable effect must be so long that it cannot be practically Thus shutters constructed. while the shutter 5^ will open with the same anticipation relative to the shutter Thus for the . then after rotation the shutter S\ will open with a delay A/ relative to the shutter S\. = nil. « § 19. same light paths. which. The relations between the absolute time and the proper times elapsed on two clocks moving with and Ug ^r^ given by formulas (18. obviously. « Foucault developed » his rotating mirror experiment.S"'.If we work within an accuracy of second order in vie. and subtracting the second of ^^ = ^^= dv 77 • ("8. Thus. placed at the middle. If such a change appeared.5) from the first. </. does not change its velocity during the « rotation. after the rotation. Our experiment represents a modification of this historical Foucault experiment with whose help for the first time in history we have coupledmirrors measured the Earth's absolute velocity. putting w/ formulas (18. If we consider both rotating cogwheels as clocks. — which. = ^. is nonsensical.5) only if the clocks are velocities v independent. 101 ..
after passing reflected by the semitransparent mirrors is A^.). THE DEVIATIVE In the « COUPLEDMIRRORS we » EXPERIMENT summer of » 1973 carried out the deviative variant of the its « coupledmirrors experiment. On each disk two antipodal facets are cut and one is made a mirror.) whose by the (from is distance from the rotating mirror (/?A/.) will illuminate screen from the the left) at a certain point. while the other and the rest of the disk's rim are not light reflecting. is In fig.^. the rotating mirrors are at rest. The light path from the rotating mirrors to the d/2. The light beam then M. (or ^2) rent mirror A'.).19. (RM^)..If p. is is reflected by the semitranspathrough the semitransparent mirror incident on the mirror facet of /?A/.1. The report on performance is given in Marinov (1974b). cylindrical mirrors D and from the cylindrical mirrors to the screen 102 . 191 we give the driven always exactly with the d Intensive light from the source 5. the light beam 5" reflected right cylindrical mirror CM^ is (CA/. The distance between both disks. called the rotating mirrors RM^ and RM. s. is incident on the mirror facet of RM.. Let us have two disks same phase difference (imagine the wheels of a bicycle). 191 scheme of this experiment. (N. (M^) and. and N^ (A^2 and ^V.<g> —y Fig.
and 9 are shown and R is the radius of the cylindrical mirrors. this component we v. let us adjust the cylindrical mirrors so that the chopped light beams if n becomes parallel the distance between will illuminate the both light same point O on the screen 5*. for the time spent by light of RM. (19.. component of hours Our apparatus it will make takes part in the diurnal rotation of the Earth all and in 24 possible angles with the the Earth's absolute velocity in the plane determined by the different positions of the apparatus during the day. + v. the latter will rotate to an v and along the direction from RM. the latter will rotate to an angle 6 reach RM„  a. beams will illuminate point P. 191 = 2(a + ft) and ft = 2a (D/R) sec <p. the facet !) exact parallelism will rotate not necessary to the corresponding facet of RM. that light velocity along the direction Suppose now from RM. y. (19.3) a = Qdv/c'. and for have (suppose (p O and P we shall s = tt/A) = y — +2a D. because of the . angles fi.^ {RM^) which is cover the distance d is + 2p.) by a certain angle 8 = c ^ $2.If the rotating mirrors are set in motion.1) where fl is the angular velocity of the rotating mirrors. we call (which we call (which angle 6 will « direct ») is c « opposite ») the light pulse reflected RM. to is — c + a. R : secqp (19. is perpendicular to and to v..4) where y in fig.5) The establishment of velocity intervals v is to be performed as follows In regular of time during a whole day we maintain such a rotational velocity S2 103 . However.). In such a case during the time in which by RM. (RM. only the hght which is reflected will by /?A/. shall refer to as the Earth's absolute velocity and designate by Suppose first that the unit vector along the « direct » direction n v. while during the time in which the light pulse reflected by RM.. {RM when the latter is perpendicular to parallel (an the incident to beam reach RM2 (RM. to RM.) slit T. will reach RM. Thus we have s= cPv[\ c^ S2 +2Dia 1 + ^)]. Now. and we shall have C h V c from where (assuming 1/ <^ c) we get (19. then.
the « direct » direction being the one after midnight. The observed displacement was maximum 3 ± 2 hours after midnight and after noon and corresponded to a velocity V = 130 ± 100 km/s. taken from an old torpedoboat. 1975 we carried out the interferometric « coupledmirrors » ex periment. For this reason. However the inconstancy of the cylindrical mirrors radii and the trembling of the images were too considerable. and our experiment could not lead to an accurate quantitative measurement of v. 104 . This displacement is large enough to be reliably registered. then the fluctuation error is ± 100 km/s. in the summer of velocity. the radius of the cylindrical mirrors was R = S cm. obtaining a very sure and reliable value for the Earth's absolute The report on its performance is given in Marinov (1978c). which drives the shaft. THE INTERFEROMETRIC EXPERIMENT « COUPLEDMIRRORS » The result obtained with our deviative « coupledmirrors » experiment was very inaccurate and the scientific community remained sceptical whether we really registered the Earth's absolute motion. According to the calculation for our real adjustment it must be s = 0. The light spots were observed over two different screens because in our factual experiment both rotating mirrors lay in two different parallel planes. The error ± 100 km/s was established in the following manner : An observer maintained for 23 minutes one of the light spots in a certain position.2 m. both rotating disks were fixed on a « common » shaft because the most important requirement of the coupledmirrors lasers experi between both rotating were used as light sources. that the Then the light In our factual setup.48 mm. adjusting by hand a corresponding tension of a dc electromotor Another observer registered the diapason of trembling of the other light spot which was normally 23 mm.62 mm for v = 100 km/s. If this diapason is As = 2.2. and the velocity of rotation of the shaft. 19. was fi/2 tt = 80 rev/s.chopped Ught beam from the left will always illuminate point O. The azimuth of the apparatus was 84" and the observations were performed in JulyAugust in is ment the maintaining of an equal phase difference mirrors during the Earth's rotation. Two HeNe Sofia. The distance between both rotating mirrors was 7. We used three cylindrical mirrors for each beam and such a combination of cylindrical mirrors which increases enormously the « arm » of a light beam is called by us the « cylindrical mirrors indicator ». beam from the right will illuminate point O when n is perpendicular to v\ it will be displaced over a distance Is upwards when n T T v and over the same distance downwards when nM v.
by the rotating mirror RM. again by M. (^ 10 '• s) to be governed by the rotating shaft slits itself. then. {RM. (SM. SMi (M. (A/ J. (or S.). (RM..). The « refracted » beam is then reflected successively by the mirror A/... We call the direction from /?A/. 192) a shaft with length don whose ends there are two and RM.) is partially refiected and partially refracted by the semitransparent mirror ^A/. and 105 . fi and let us put and Sh. the last one being reflected by the rotating mirror /?A/. and the observer O. (O. If the « reflected » light pulse reaches RM.. « direct » and from RM. in the case of rotating shaft..^).Fig 192 Let us have (fig. (RM2) and refracted by 5A/. and RM.^ (RM. SM^). to disks with radius R. « opposite ».. Instead of the second we also used simple placed along the light paths to the rotating mirrors. are Monochromatic parallel light emitted by the source 5".) when mirror « is in the position RM. which we call the rotating mirrors. two mirrors /?M.. are perpendicular to the incident beams. This synchronization is performed by making the opening of Let us now set the shaft in rotation with angular velocity in action the shutters Sh^ the shutters shutters.) registers the interference which the « refracted » beam makes with the « reflected » beam.). fixed On the rims of the disks.. the in the position RM'^' refracted » pulse will reach the second rotating mirror in the position RM'^ velocity of light is (RMl) when the equal to c. to RM. (SM. /?A/. which should allow light to pass through them only when the rotating mirrors RM.
duIf the wavelength of the used velocity 12 = 2 ttN (N is the ring the rotation of the apparatus over 360" in a plane parallel to the direction of the absolute velocity v. „ N ». (RM.8) A wavelengths. Thus the reflection of the « direct » beams and are tangent to their « opposite » in » beams proceeds on the same planes of the mirrors. should always register the same interference picture. should register a . The « observers our actual arms » of a Wheatstone bridge. Denoting by 5 the RM!. » The wind difference in the optical paths of the « refracted and « reflected » « light pulses in the cases » will of availability and nonavailability of an aether be A = 2a/? = where v. but need merely to register the difference in the illuminations over the photoresistors during the of the rotation. . V (19. is d Ril 2 v^=2^^— v. This (together with the high resolution of the interferometric is method) « the » most important advantage interferometric coupledmirrors experiment. and RM\) and by or the angle and is equal tor between the radii of RM:. change in his interference picture within ' z = « 2 — /^ = dR 87r T . then.(/?A^. In our actual setup. the observer O. (19.7) the linear velocity of the rotating mirrors. and RM!/ (RM'. 106 . and RM\'). (19. the direct » « Ac' beams are tangent to the upper parts of the rotating disks. In the interferometric variant one need not keep the illumination over one of the photoresistors constant by changing the velocity of rotation when rotating the axis of the apparatus about the direction of its absolute motion.vie + i^). light is \ and we maintain such an angular number of revolutions per second) that the observer O. A « very important difference between the deviative and interferometric » coupledmirrors experiments is that the effect registered in the latter is independent of small variations in the rotational velocity. Thus in our apparatus the mirrors RM.') when the velocity of light angle between the radii of RM. while the opposite » light lower parts.3). we shall have 8 ± a = c) n. and RM2 are exactly parallel and the photoresistors are illuminated not by a pattern of interference fringes setup represent two photoresistors which are put in the « but uniformly.6) from where (assuming v <^ we get the result (19.v . The changes in both interference pictures are exactly opposite.
i. + 1) (\/4). The energy I flux density which cos' will fall on the photoresistors will be = c — 8 IT E' ""P' = c — E' '"'•' w —= 2 / ""' w cos'^ = 2 2 TT I ^ 2 (1 + cos <p) (19. (or SM^) are. Let us consider this problem in detail. (19. when «p the difference in the optical paths is of the « reflected » and « refracted » beams (2 n tt. = the £^^^ sin (wO . = 2E^^^sm{ojt + )coSy = op op £^^p. respectively. then the apparatus has the highest sensitivity when the illumination over the photoresistors is average (for maximum and minimum illuminations the sensitivity falls to zero).sm(<of + y).Since the illumination over the photoresistors changes with the change « refracted » and « reflected » beams according to the sine law.13) 107 I . 5" A/. The sensitivity falls to zero for = 0. + E. The sensitivity ^ d(p = _ jLmi 2 i. n being an is integer. Hence a change in of the difference in the optical paths of the the velocity of rotation can lead only to a change in the sensitivity.11) where /„a. sincp (19.e. intensities We suppose that the electric of the « reflected » and « refracted » beams when they meet again on the semitransparent mirror £. = E^^^ sin (w/ + <p) (19. is the maximum is possible energy flux density.10) (JP where E^. when this difference n (A/2)._^^ cos ((p/2) is the maximum electric intensity (the amplitude) of the resultant beam. 3 ir/l..„. E..e. The resultant electric intensity after the interference will be £=£.12) and is highest for <p = v/l. then to a small change dl in in dR = kdl  k ^ sintpdq) (19. and <p is the difference between the » and « refracted » beams. If the resistance the illumination (as the energy flux was the case density a change = of the photoresistors changes linearly with the change in our setup).9) where E^„^ (a) is maximum electric intensity is the angular frequency of the radiation « reflected phases of the intensities in the which is equal for both beams. = 2 E.„^.
we make the axis of the apparatus to be perpendicular to the absolute velocity v of the laboratory. After that we make the illumination average. setting a rotational rate N = (A'. k being a constant.15). R.. to be calculated from (19. y. The absolute velocity is through the diagonal galvanometer. it is A<p = ln^/X.16) .. + N. we make the axis of the apparatus parallel to the absolute velocity v and we transfer resistance A/? from the arm where the illumination over the photoresistor has decreased to the arm where it has increased. and we by diminish correspondingly the variable resistors. and R. as well as through the arms of the constant resistors.8). so that again the same initial current has to flow through all arms of the bridge and no current Now. Then we set such a rotational rate A'. is : First. (it must be /?. = /?.). the illuminations over the photoresistors were average a change 10 ^ /? in any of the arms of the photoresistors (positive in the one and negative in the other) could be discerned from the fluctuation of the bridge's galvanometer and thus the resolution was ^''' 8v= 108 ATT'dRN R  = ± 17km/s. We set such a that the illumination over the photoresistors to be mini mum.. 13). R.15) we ^'' ^^ An'dRN R The measuring method rotational rate A'.)/2. and no current will flow through the galvanometer in the bridge's diagonal. as it follows after the integration of (19..„ has to flow through all arms of the bridge. tion Let us denote the resistance of the photoresistors under such a condi/?. When 8R = 8. (19.in the resistance of the photoresistors tt will correspond. so that the same current J„ (called the initial current) will flow through the arms of the photoresistors. sensitivity is the we shall have J Substituting this into (19. so again the same initial current will flow through all arms and no current through the diagonal galvanometer. so that again the intial current. Since highest. that the illumination over the photoresistors is maximum and we connect in series with them two variable resistors. then for <p = tt/I. We put the same constant resistances in the other two arms of the bridge. Jobtain (19. For a change A<jp = the resistance will change with R = — k where the 7^.
0 cm. and A' = 120 rev/s are substantially smaller than the resolution and can be ignored. moment measure the Earth's absolute velocity lies in the plane of the laboratory's meridian. 193 During bridge is a in equilibrium whole day we search for the moment when the Wheatstone if the axis of the apparatus points eastwest. At this the axis of the apparatus northsouth. R = 40. rotate in the a couple of The whole apparatus horizontal plane and the is mounted on a platform which can measurement can be performed in seconds.. but metry of the method and of its is easy to see that thermal disturbances cannot introduce errors because of the complete symrapid performance. is to be we can made after 12 hours. errors The The experiment was not performed in vacuum.d = which can be introduced from the imprecise values of 140 cm. \i/ Thus turning in the horizontal plane of the laboratory.17) 109 . The same fig. To guarantee sufficient certainty we take 8v = ±20 km/s. As can be seen from 193. The magnitude and established as follows : the apex of the Earth's absolute velocity have been Fig. = i^ sin (5  qp) i^. the components of the Earth's absolute velocity in the horizontal plane of the laboratory for these two moments are v'. it The room was not temperaturecontrolled. = v^ sin (6 + <p) (19.
„ (19.18) 22 September .where (p is the latitude of the laboratory and 8 is the declination of the apex. From these we obtain ( ^'a' + »^i.' — 2 i^a k'h (cos' <p qp — sin' <p) "^ ] 2 sin op ^ cos ^ ^ .
since for this case ( u„ > v. THE ACCELERATED COUPLEDMIRRORS » EXPERIMENT Since the masses of the material points are a measure of their kinetic energy as well as of the gravitational energy to which they contribute.23' ±4". 6 =  21" ± 4". postulating that it is by no means possible to establish whether the acceleration which is exerted on material points in a laboratory has a kinematic (mechanic) character (thus being due to the accelerated motion of the laboratory.Thus 1/ = 327 ± = 20 km/s (r„). then ^i which is taken as the second must differ with 1*" 58'" from t^y which is taken as the first. 1 The magnitude and the equatorial coordinates of the apex of the Sun's absolute velocity will be given by the arithmetical means of : the figures obtained for the Earth's absolute velocity in July and January 1/ = 303 ± 20 km/s . Its essence is : 111 . because of the difference between solar and sideral days. If our experiment is accurate enough.e. supposing for simplicity = 45".. and made absolute this « mechanical » (or Galidone with the Galilean principle of relativity see §21). a = 14M7"' ± 20'". error.22) For V and 8 we have taken the <p r. registered. The right ascension is calculated from the   moment when i/.. ) the sensitivity is better. (19. is from (^si). (19. such a generalization of the principle of equivalence contradicts physical reality.. . for example. 6 = ..23) « §20.. by the Earth's attraction).m. so that the behaviour of material points in an inertial frame of reference in the presence of a gravitational field would be indistinguishable from their behaviour in a suitable noninertial frame without the gravitational field. a = 14M1'" ± 20"'. i. for example. The accelerated coupledmirrors as follows » experiment proposed in Marinov (I978t) can imme diately reveal the invalidity of Einstein's principle of equivalence. the socalled principle of equivalence can be formulated. Einstein generalized lean) principle of equivalence (as he has — According « to our absolute spacetime conceptions.s. by thrust of a space ship) or a dynamic (gravitational) character (thus being generated by the action of nearby masses. this asserts vitational field in a small region : Any gra around a given space point can be replaced by a suitable noninertial frame of reference (and vice versa).
no experiment exists which has contradicted the mechanical principle of relativity. spacetime theory. performing measurements in a laboratory which moves inertially with respect to absolute space. in our « coupledmirrors * experiment the rotation of the shaft represents a mechanical phenomenon. In our absolute By the help of our « coupledmirrors is » experiment.sotropic. and in a frame moving with respect to absolute space this rotation is inde pendent of the axis' orientation. On the other hand. while the propagation of light is ani. however if the acceleration is dynamic (gravitational). THE ULTRASONIC COUPLEDSHUTTERS » EXPERIMENT By the help of observations and logical generalizations. calling it the general principle of relativity. the general principle of relativity invalid. moments « §21. thus. the propagation of light pulses represents an electromagnetic phenomenon. and in a moving frame it depends on the direction of propagation. for the electromagnetic the restricted (or mechanical) principle of relativity. The propagation of sound is isotropic in any inertial frame. the absolute velocity will two be different. establish the absolute velocity of a laboratory. The principle of relativity which does not include light propagation phenomena was called general. Briscoe (1958) has pointed to another combination of mechanical and phenomena which permits the registering of the absolute motion of a laboratory. by comparing these two types of signal transfers. one can electromagnetic establish the absolute velocity of a laboratory.Let us measure with the help of our the acceleration different « coupledmirrors » apparatus the in these absolute velocity of an accelerated laboratory at two different moments. Galilei formu: lated the socalled principle of relativity. since this is a mechanical phenomenon. the absolute velocity will always remain the same. and. which asserts the following The two inertially moving frames of reference is identical. lutely valid. we consider the restricted principle of relativity as abso we have come to the conclusion that only by the combination of mechanical and light (electromagnetic) phenomena can one Moreover. If is kinematic (mechanic). Einstein assumed that this principle is valid also for light propagation (in phenomena) and generalized it for all physical phenomena. So. one cannot establish this absolute behaviour of a material system in motion. 112 . we have shown that However. Briscoe proposed the parallel transfer of light and sound signals.
211) two electric high frequency operating shutters S/Ia. S^ (lasers) : The ultrasonic pulses same period T propagate through water at velocity V (thus their wavelength is \^ = VT) and are received by the receiver R g. After being amplified by the amplifier A ^. the distance light between which is d. Let us suppose for simplicity the water homegeneous and the elements of the y4part (as well as of the BpSLVt) very close to each other. (iii) are sources 5"^. applied to the horizontal plates of the oscilloscope Osc. After being transformed into electric pulses and amplified by the amplifier A g. Now. of the oscilloscope. which seems be more reliable. O.iiiiiiiTiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii[^ rJIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIlK Fig. Behind the shutters there are the and the observers O^. In such a case that time in which the electric pulses cover the lines between shutters and ultrawe can affirm when on the screen of the oscilloscope the emitted pulses (the high ones) is coincide with the received pulses (the low ones) there a whole number of 113 . they are applied to the horizontal plates shutter Sh^. Shf^. 211 Let us have (fig. wzzzzmL 1W/////A L J\22Z2Ml VM \ \ty//yM r DCZZH ''.We describe Briscoe's proposal in Marinov (1978u).. emitted by E^ with the they : (i) are applied to the emitter of ultrasonic waves £„. (ii) are applied to the emitter of ultrasonic waves E^. (ii) govern the The ultrasonic pulses emitted by £b propagate backwards in the water with the same velocity V and are received by the receiver R^. The generator G produces electric pulses with period r(peak to peak time) which (i) govern the shutter Sh^. we give the to description of a variant proposed by us in Marinov (1978s). so that the sonic emitterreceiver system can be ignored..
(NB.whileOBwillseea(2A/i)th part of the d/X = n + nominal maximum light intensity. the average light intensity plus a A/7th part of the maximum while the observer O^ will see the average light intensity minus a A/Jth part of light intensity.2) we obtain ''A="B7:r7 =n^+2 114 ^ n = n^+ An. U An < 1/2. certain position with respect to the high peaks. in the « direct » and « opposite U An = the n^ — n^ is less than (or equal to) 1/2. O^ will see a maximum and O^ no light. d d _ d _ light pulses between the shutters Sh^ and » directions. which direction we Xfi= {c shall call « direct The v) light wavein the length in the « direct » direction will become X^ = so there will be (c — d T and opposite » direction + v) T. where n is an integer. by the help of sound signals. Such will be the case if 3/4. E^R^ back and forth we can change is the Moving the emitterreceiver number of pulses on that The propagation of sound principle of relativity holds a it. mechanical phenomenon and the Thus.1) between the shutters Sh^ and S'/ip. good Suppose \ first that the absolute velocity of the laboratory (the Earth) is perpendicular to the axis d The wavelengths of light in both directions will be = cT. we can reduce the time during which the shutters remain open to An T (see the small segments shaded in maximum light intensity blackinthefigure)obtainingthatOAwillseenolight. pointing ». Thus for An = 1/2. the observer (7„ will see light intensity. if d/X = n + 1/4. system track. In such a case a halfinteger number of sound waves is placed along the track E^R^^E^R^. where the time lost by the pulses along the electric tracts cannot be ignored. Suppose now from « left to right. and the low peaks will be exactly between the high peaks. In the real experiment. Shf^. and there will be «= light pulses ^ V= cT A d d (21. From (21. a Newtonian time synchronization between spatially separated points can be for realized.3) .ultrasonic pulses along the track E^R^Ef^R^. the low peaks will have a system E^^R^. that the absolute velocity v becomes parallel to d. respectively. (21. all will be vice versa). Moving the emitterreceiver we choose such a position that O^ and O^ should see an average light intensity.
Thus throughout the experiment.1) we obtain c for the absolute velocity ^n c'TAn Taking /"= \/T = 0.). and the low peaks will « creep » with respect to the high peaks. we = 300 km/s. this is of no importance because the « direct » different influences (temperature. thus not waiting the shutters Sh^.3 MHz (this frequency is used obtain. as a result of In an actual experiment the water will not be less. = 0. homogeneous. According is time dilation Indeed. This experiment will be successful the low peaks can be main tained at their initial positions a whole day with an inaccuracy much less than one A/Jth part of the period T. then the absolute velocity V can be measured by changing the multiplication factor and by using a method similar to that used (and explained in detail) in §27. currents. This signifies that during different moments different numbers of sound waves will be placed along the tract E^R^EgR^. If one can realize a stable multiplication of the frequency /"and govern Sh^ by this enhanced frequency. Nevertheand « opposite » sound waves cross exactly the same way and the number of sound waves in the « direct » and « opposite » directions will be the same. for the Earth's rotation. the water can change its sound conductive properties. the experiment should be performed in winter is when the water for long covered by ice and preserves its sound conductive properties if enough. §22. However.1). a corresponding shift of the emitterreceiver system E^R^ is to be performed and the low peaks are to be maintained at their initial positions. if two clocks A and B move with the absolute velocities v^.19)] 115 . then the relation between their readings A/^. density.1. for v in the hydrolocators Aai of Soviet submarines). If the « creep » of the low peaks is conspicuous.and making use of (21. ^^b O^. etc. THE KINEMATIC TIME DILATION EXPERIMENTS to our absolute spacetime theory the kinematic (Lorentz) an absolute phenomenon (§11. For convenience and higher accuracy the compensation of the « creep » is to be made not in the ultrasonic but in the electric tract. d = 50 km. Thus the comparison of the readings of clocks which move with different velocities with respect to absolute space can give information about these absolute velocities. proper time intervals) which correspond to the absolute time interval A/ read by an absolute clock will be (use formula (3. v^.
(22. (1977) and has very reliably proved the relation (11.2. 22.1). (22.. namely /nmesons. the time in which {\/e)ih part of T = 2. Rossi and Hall measured the distance d covered by highvelocity jnmesons produced near the top of the atmosphere caused by primary cosmic radiation. The corrections which are to be made when the planes fiy at different heights can be performed by taking into account the dynamic (Einstein) time dilation In our treatment of this (§1 1.10 s.2).1. A/^v of the clocks carried by the eastern and western planes were compared with the reading A/ of a third atomic clock left in Washington.1) 22.(1  ^ v'^/c')^'^ « = (1  ^ v'^c')''' . is i. experiment the planes made many landings during the thus changing their gravitational potentials.e.2. It consisted of the following : Two jet planes carrying atomic clocks left Washington in eastern and western directions. they have proved the relation (11. and socalled « meson their « readings » were the mean lifetimes of the mesons. at rest. The readings A/p.2) Comparing Twith T„. * The meanlife of /xmesons them will decay. In the actual trip. THE HAFELEKEATING EXPERIMENT The first « CLOCKSROUNDTHEWORLD » help of macroscopic clocks was the experiment where the Lorentz time dilation was proved by the « clocksroundtheworld » experiment of Hafele and Keating (1972). exactly along the parallel of experiment we assume that both planes fly Washington at the same height above sea level. A similar experiment for positive has been recently performed by Bailey and negative muons in a circular orbit et al. and the HafeleKeating experiment proved both the Lorentz and Einstein time dilations. In this experiment the « clocks » were elementary particles. THE ROSSIHALL The first MESON » EXPERIMENT experiment which proved the Lorentz time dilation was the » experiment performed by Rossi and Hall (1941). which is near to c. at which height a stationary clock in Washington is also placed.1). they calculated the proper meanlife r„ of the mesons from the relation as a result of nuclear interactions Knowing their velocity v T„ = d/v. 116 . flew round the world and returned to the starting point.
while the westbound clock which i^vv velocity = ^r ~ v'with respect to absolute space will be fast. (22.3) where R is is the Earth's radius.1). + v' 5^w . + v with respect absolute space will be slow.In our treatment. their we ignore the motion of the Earth around the Sun and in combined motion all relative to absolute space because the average fluence of these motions on our clocks account only the rotational velocity of the in the Thus we take into Earth which leads to an asymmetry is the same. is = — R cos(p . If we denote by v the velocity of the planes with respect to the Earth. obtain within an accuracy of second order in \/c differences S^F 8t^ we _ 2vv. motion of the different clocks and which V. Sr^ = A/vv — A/. according to formula (22. moves with and for the = ^^f ~ Ar. then the eastbound clock which to moves with velocity Vf:= v. <p is the latitude of Washington's parallel and T the length of the sideral day.
respectiEarth's equator (see fig. vely. . we shall have for the absolute velocities of these clocks. Taking the initial zero moment when it is sunrise for the first atomic clock (clock A) and sunset for the second atomic clock (clock B). the north celestial pole).3. 221 Sun Let us have two atomic clocks placed at two antipodal points of the where we have shown the Earth as seen from and the linear rotational velocity of the equator be v. Fig. THE « ANTIPODALCLOCKS » EXPERIMENT Marinov (1972b) and it The essence of this experiment with whose help one can measure the in detail in absolute velocity of a laboratory was proposed by was considered Marinov (19781). 221. v^^ = v^ + vl — Itt t 2 vVr sin (22.22.6) lirt i^ f i^J » 2 i^ I'r sin where v 118 = v^ + Vp. and Tis the length of the sideral day. Suppose for the sake of simplicity that the Earth's axis is perpendicular to the plane of the ecHptic and that we consider such a day of the year when the absolute velocity of the Sun (or at least its component in the plane of the ecliptic) i^s is parallel to the velocity of the Earth about the Sun v^. Let the Earth's absolute velocity be v .
Suppose that points a and b lie on a diameter t\. The greatest difference will be when one clock it is noon and for the other midnight. at different we see that the rates of our clocks will be different for hours of the day. and only during the sunset and sunrise hours will these rates be equal. 222. a realization of Newtonian time synchronization between two is problematic and later we shall show that a realization of time synchronization by the exchange of electromagnetic signals.. i. leads to an annihilation of the appearing absolute effects. For this reason the « antipodalclocks » experiment is to be performed on a turnabout.If we use these formulas in (22. This represents the essence of the « antipodalclocks » experiment.e. If we compare the readings of our clocks for equal absolute intervals of time between sunset and sunrise. Let the readings be 119 . However. of Einsteinian time synchronization. t\' which is parallel to the absolute velocity v. we should establish the absolute character of the Lorentz time dilation and we could measure the Earth's absolute velocity.1). antipodal points on the Earth Fig. as shown in fig. 222 Let us have a ring ab which encircles the turnabout but does not rotate with respect to absolute space.
respectively. respectively. points the The times A/^y = /'/ . \ v^ ir v\ 2 vv. Supposing 0.9) having taking into account that approximately it is Ar^^A/.. .^A/ = where Tis the period of rotation. points a. v' + 1 vv.t'^ obviously correspond same absolute time interval which we shall denote by A/. (22. we obtain from (22. where A/^ is the time read on a clock 1 D which ) does not write On A/ the grounds of formula (22.9) St = 4 vv. clock will receive the signal B will A (i. We shall consider the « antipodalclocks » (fig. Ar = we the have 5//A/ = 4. be registered on clock B when it touches.10) only in the terms of second order in 1/c. it touches. (i.. experiment on the rotating Earth Let clock A send the initial electromagnetic signal being at point sunrise) when for this clock it is and let its reading at this the light signal travels a certain time. J ^ ^i = V R (22. 221).6) and working within an accuracy of second order ^ I /c. and let the readings h.10 while the portable cesium beam clocks show time with a relative inaccuracy ± 10 ".^^b and taking into account (22. that the revolutions per second of the turnabout are 5 '°. (22. It is ^t to = Ar„(j  v'/c')^'^ . we obtain vl ^. (22.10) Denoting 8t = A/^ .e.11) 6/ 4 Taking v shall = 300 km/s and /? = 3 m. Now we result shall show that the realization of an Einsteinian time synchroin nization in the « antipodalclocks » experiment leads to a negative (null) because of the mutual annihilation of the absolute effects and thus such a manner the absolute velocity of the laboratory (the Earth) cannot be measured.e..t\ and A/^ = /'„' . Since move with the Earth and ' being at point B'. h. moment be i\. r/2.a. /'(.. (22.7) rotate. v^ from (22. we find = 4. we can = H^(I j in I v\/c^)^'^du M = A/„ /"(I  ^yc^)''^c//.registered on clock A when r'.8) Substituting here i^^. Here we do not take into account the 120 I . 10 " s.1 s).
have been received. (22. a higher accuracy not necessary. 13). taking into account the velocity v. we obtain '„=r..V^ V. as is we [formula (22.'b+ ^ d 2 V 1 . (22. It can be that if the signal covers a trajectory along the Earth's surface (a shown radiorelay tract). With respect to absolute space the final signal will cover the following distance d" = Let us denote by initial signal t'^ c/(l + v/c).13) the reading of clock and by /'b the reading when Making use of formulas 'a If (22. as it can be will shown. using (22.. 14).10).e. For the sake of simplicity we suppose also that the electromagnetic whose length is d.. is perpendicular to the transiational velocity if v.. (22. and. T'. from this relation between the readings of clock initial (22.^A= (^'b  ^b)(1 + 4 . 121 . when and let its reading at this moment be t'^ Clock B will move with the Earth and will receive the signal being at point B". (22.rotation of the Earth because in the case considered the linear rotational velocity v. A sends the final signal at point A" (i. and. then the effects calculated additionally will be cancelled in the final result..r.14) we denote by final signals. ) = 'b . and T'^ the readings of clock B when the initial and respectively.15)].16) A when the and final signals are sent and the readings of clock B when these signals have been received we cannot establish the absolute velocity v.=r. . and (22.12) which we calculate within an accuracy of shall see further first order in v/c because. then. 2) and (22.^(i^). for this clock it is Clock sunset). we can write B when clock .8). the effects calculated. Putting (22..„ = r.. (22. cancelled in the final result. be signal propagates along the Earth's diameter. . l5) into (22. obviously.9) clock A has sent the A has sent the final signal.15) we find .'^(i + ^). With respect distance to absolute space the initial signal will cover the following d' = d(l  v/c).
Let us have two passage instruments at a point on the Earth's equator whose fixed axes lie in a vertical plane parallel to the eastwest direction. « The essence of the watertube » experiment is as follows : Let us have a tube with length L along which water propagates with velocity v. which will now be reviewed. Thus. and we can use formulas (22. and performing an analysis as above. § 23. In that paper. we reconsider the historical « watertube » experiment of Fizeau (1851) which was repeated by Zeeman (1914) with the aim of establishing the Dopplereffect influence on the drag of light. R = 6370 km. and the sight line of the second telescope at the moment (\'. It is very instructive to compare the analysis of this experiment with the analysis of the quasiRoemer experiment (§15). Taking v = 300 km/s and R = 150. using as a of the Earth about its axis but the yearly revolution around the Sun. 10 result (22. we obtain 8t = 2 s. crosses the sight line of the first telescope at the moment i\. Taking v = 300 km/s. the angle between them being 6. read on an exact clock. ). we get 5/ = 8. then in formula (22. which lies about 90" from the projection on the celestial equator of the apex of the Earth's absolute velocity. assuming for simplicity 9 = tt. we shall obtain the ^ s. Suppose that an equatorial star A. introducing the notation 5/ = A/a — A/r. We generate two light pulses at the same moment and let them go through this tube.8). 1 1 experiment be performed throughout a year. Let us further suppose that a star B which is antipodal to the first one crosses the sight line of the first telescope at the moment /„ and the sight line of the second telescope at the moment /„'• Since the Earth rotates uniformly.5.1 1) we have to take for V the component of the Sun's absolute velocity in the plane of the ecliptic If a similar « rotating disk » not the diurnal rotation and for R the radius of the Earth's orbit.10' km. THE « WATERTUBE » EXPERIMENT In Marinov (1978i). verifying it by a very careful repetition of the « watertube » experiment (see also §28).6). correspond to the same absolute time interval A/. we have shown that the formula proposed by Lorentz and Einstein for the drag of light in a moving medium is not true and we have given the true formula. the times A/^ = ([^  t\ and ^^B — 'b ~ ^B' obviously. where v^ and i/„ are given by formulas (22.Now we shall propose a variant of the « antipodalclocks » experiment with whose help the equatorial component of the Earth's absolute velocity can be measured. so that one pulse (called « direct ») travels with the How of 122 .
.16)for^ = photons in 0. we obtain for the velocity of fiowing water. the pulse travelling against the flow will be late for the rendezvous. taking into account the dispersion (and within an accuracy of first oder in v/c). (23.12) for accuracy of first order in v/c. j/ yields n{v) ± dn — dp dv = n ±— c V dn V — . tt.3) dp Thus putting (23. A Taylor expansion of the n {v„) =^ refractive index as a function of . However._!).3)into(I3.the water and the other (called « opposite ») against pulses cover paths with the same lengths water in is at rest. c/n (23.1) where we have used formula (13.„+^*L. working within an Here n is the refractive index of water for the frequency p of the used monochromatic light. However.2) but These authors come to formula (23.1) we have Ar= '4^"'^^"'). r d\ where A is (23.4) dp tv For the time delay instead of (23. a Doppler effect occurs and the water molecules will receive photons with a frequency K = yO ± where the sign « v/c)..^=^.. Obviously. in Lorentz (1916) and Einstein (1914) give for the time delay « the watertube » experiment the following formula ^'= 2 "^ Lv ^"'""^^ dn ~ ')• (236) (23. n n^ (23. if the water is motion. they will arrive at the it.2) « + » is for the « opposite photons and the sign — » is for the « direct » photons.6) proceeding not from the relation from the following relation p„ = pil ± ^). = 0.7) 123 . c B„ (23. Suppose that both and meet again. since the molecules of the liquid move with respect to the light source.5) the wavelength of the emitted light. if the same moment. the time delay being A/= L c L c 2Lv =(„. 77. » (23.
2). F'623l Our experimental arrangement was by the source S is Light emitted by the semitransparent mirror SM into two beams. the velocity of light in a medium is c/n and not c.5) is Formula but only for the drag of light in obtained also by Lorentz (1916) and Einstein (1914) moving solids. proceeds through the tube T. ^ SM /^ Y as follows (fig. Thus they make a substantial difference between the propagation of light in a liquid flowing in tubes and in For our theory there are only molecules.Their argument they first is the following : When the photons enter the water tube and the frequency received by these shield molecules will be equal to the emitted frequency p. The beam refiected by SM is split additionally by the semitransparent mirror SM. moving bulk materials. Thus in the « watertube » experiment there is a Doppler effect for light « emitted » by water molecules at rest and then « received » by the moving water molecules. using our very sensitive bridge method for shifts (see §19. meet water molecules at rest According to our « hitchhiker velocity c. 7^^ SM. » model (§13). responds « With the aim of establishing which « dragoflight » formula corto physical reality we have repeated (Marinov. the photons move only in vacuum and always with c/n is One measures velocity c/n in a medium only because for a certain time the photons are hitched to the molecules and their average velocity. 231) . after reflecting on mirror A/. according to these authors.. measurement of interference A 7^ SM.. vacuum and photons (free or hitched).. (23. and a Doppler effect always appears when the « emitting » and « receiving » molecules move with different velocities. into two daughter beams the beam refracted by SM. However. while the beam split : 124 . 1978i) the » watertube experiment.
between the daughter beams in any pair are exactly the same."3 C. at the semitransparent mirror SM. wing way sensitivity can be established and maintained in the folloChanging the temperature of the tuner Twe change the level of illumination over /*. interfering there.by 5" A/. temperature range of 6" we change the light paths of the beams proceeding through Tand T. and when the path difference A = A. SM^ put and. illuminate also uniformly the photoresistor in the other arm of the Wheatstone bridge.10 *degree Changing '. (23. is The method of measurement as follows : over /*. and P. If equal to (2 /j + I) (A/2). which meet together at /*. The If this sensitivity of the method depends on the the light paths of the beams going through is T. an integer). when the water is at rest. resistor Pi which is in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge. and P. proceeds through the tube T. so that we can maintain the light path through T and T.. If we now set the water in motion. from left to right and in tube T. The also into situation is similar in the case of the at beam refracted by SM . With the increase in the water's velocity. It splits two daughter beams SM. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. (where A. passes through a maximum disequilibrium. by 300 nm. after reflecting on mirror meets again the beam which has crossed T. rate its temperature Its length is is cm and the temperature dn/dT = 5. then no disequilibra tion this of the bridge sum be achieved when increasing the velocity of water. sum is is exactly equal to n\ (here n will sum of the differences in and T.^ from minimum (when the current in the arms of : Maximum 125 . I.1).^. constant in the limits of 5A = ± 2 nm. and. must be equal. so that it flows in tube r. The water is circulated from a reservoir where it is thermo stabilized at a temperature 20" ± 0. will begin to change oppositely. The temperature of Tcan be thermostabilized within 8T = ± 0\04 C.^. These two beams interfere and illuminate uniformly the photoreflected A/. become equal to \ the bridge comes again into Thus we can verify formulas (23. from right to left.5) and (23. is the change in the difference between the light paths of the daughter beams propagating the water is When at rest the illuminations since the phase differences from there right to left) will equilibrium. the illuminations over P^ and P.A..6). = of its refractive in the index about C. then the sensitivity of the bridge is the highest. We of the / search for a « 1 tuner » maximum sensitivity by changing the T which represents a small piece of glass. writing A = c A/ = A. is the change in the difference between the light paths of the daughter beams propagating from left to right and A.
10 ' an(i8idn/d\)/(dn/d\) = ± '. 5.P. (and vice versa) when changing the velocity of the water. The manometer was calibrated with a precision 8v/v = ± 4. then we put resistances R/2 in any of the and by changing the level of illumination over them (by the help of the tunner T) we adjust the current to be J^.„ always has to flow through the armsof /*.„. respectively.10 *A.5.. 10 \ The values for n and cin/Jk.„) to maximum (when the current in the arms of P.. If additional resistances R. will reduce toy^m. arms of y..0 ± 0.. corresponding to the different wavelengths. and P2 is J„.^ is y... if measured as shown in the figure. and P.  y„ The lengths of the tubes T. P. The light source in the a tuned dye laser with is neodymium glass oscillator. are L = 262.). into the arm of P. /*. It is expedient to always maintain the current in the diagonal galvanometer (the zero galvanometer) equal to zero. and T. The inaccuracy chosen wavelengths 5A/A = ± 10 TABLE 231 A nm .10 '.. The maximum sensitivity of the bridge is 5A = ± 2. and P. At this condition the sensitivity is highest and the temperature of T must be maintained so that current y. The inaccuracies estimated by us are.^. since the fluctuations of the zero galvanometer are about 4000 times smaller than the current the current in the last case /*. transferring resistance from the arm of T'.„„.„„.„.5 cm. put in a^jjof the arms of P. 5/1//7 = ± is 2. are taken from a graph which we have plotted on the basis of the data given in LandoltBornstein (1962).
It must be/C = 0, A Marinov formulas (23.1).
I
=
/?,
Acm
=
1,
according to the Fresnel, Lorentz and
0,10,
(23.6)
and
(23.5).
sources of errors,
we obtain
6A//:
= ±
Taking into account forA = 300 nm.
all
possible
§24.
In
THE «DRAG ABERRATION
to
»
EXPERIMENT
call
Marinov (1978m) we have pointed
an effect we
the drag
aberration, which will
now be
analysed.
\v
*>
where d
is
the thickness of the
medium, we obtain
be dragged
for the resultant distance
QR
along which the photons
will
QR =
Thus
v{\

)t=
n^
1
dv
(n
c cos
i//
 ).
n
1
(24.2)
the drag angle will be
8=
Formula
QR cosxp PQ
"^
"^
V ={nc
1
)cos^.
n
(24.3)
^^^^^
(24.3) can be easily verified experimentally
by silvering the
parallel planes of the
has to undergo a
medium, making them light reflecting, so that the beam high number of reflections before leaving the medium. By
the help of our « cylindrical mirrors indicator » (§19.1), the appearing drag
aberration can be reliably registered. aberration » experiment. Recently
it
We
call
such an experiment the
«
drag
was carried out by Jones (1975) and considered theoretically by Player (1975) and Rogers (1975); however, the experiment and the theoretical considerations have been made only for the
special case
tp
=
i//
=
0.
Player and Rogers
gation in a
made
their analysis
by proceeding from the Lorentz
transformation and without referring to the physical model of light propa
medium,
as
one does
in
conventional physics
when
solving
all
problems about
light kinematics in a
moving medium.
We shall
(jp
show
the results deriving from such an automatic implication
of the Lorentz transformation to the drag aberration for the general case of
Tt 0.
frame
1^
Let us attach (fig. 241) a moving frame K to the medium and a rest K to the observer, so that their xaxes should be parallel to the velocity
of the
medium and
their vaxes
should point downwards.
for velocities (also called Einstein
The Lorentz transformation formulas
and
(3.15) for the direct transformation,
transformation formulas for velocities) can be obtained from formulas (3.12)
for the inverse transformation.
and from formulas (3. 13) and (3.16) For a special transformation, V must be
for the direct transformation the following
parallel to the x
and
x'axes,
and
formulas can easily be obtained
V,
=
I

,
V,
Vic'
i^v '
=
\

•,
(24.4)
V.
Vic'
where
v\
,
i^^
are the
respect to
frame
K\ and
components of the velocity of a material point with i^, Vy are its components with respect to frame K.
,
128
For our case (fig. 241) the components of the velocity of the photons which propagate in vacuum (i.e., before their entrance in the medium) are
c,
=
c
sm
<p
,
Cy
=
c cos
<p
,
(24.5)
,
_
1
csxntp
— V
,
ccos(p(l
1
 V/c^y^
—
^
W"
sin <p/c'
— V sin vp/c
Thus
the angle of incidence of the photons in frame K' will be
sin
(p
=
—
c,'
=
1
sin
<p
c

— —
in
V/c
l/sm <p/c
— ^
sin
(p

V — cos>
c
,
(24.6)
and the angle of refraction
(13.31), putting there « A
sin<p'
= \,n^=
1
.
frame A", according n ] will be
to Snell's
law [see formula
sm
yl/'
=
=
—
n
(sm
op
—
n
V — cos'(») = c
sm
.
>//
+
V — {n
en
sm'i//
—
—
1
)
(24.7)
The components of
the velocity of the photons in the
medium
with
respect to frame K' will be
Cmx
=
— sm
<^
.
.,
i//
c
=
c _ cos
i//',
n
n
velocity with respect to
(24.8)
and the components of this
frame K, according
to the
inverse Lorentz transformation formulas for velocities, will be
'1
+
'
c:. v/c'
' is
"l 1
+
cL. c;, v/c'
^24.9)
Thus, when the medium frame K will be
sin(»//
moving, the refraction angle with respect
to
+
6)
= ^ =
Cm
c
sin.//
+
V —
en—
(/I

1
).
(24.10)
and
for the drag aberration angle
.
we
obtain
^ 5^sm5=— (« c
.
11 .
)
n
cos
(24.11)
\p
This result
obviously,
it
is unsound, because for \p  tt/I it gives 8 — oo, while must be 6  0, as this is to be obtained from our formula (24.3).
129
SM ^. sixty years after its first performance. this experiment we have given also the account of in detail in Marinov (19780 where two important modifications to it which were performed by Fig. A/„. The HarressSagnac experiment. performed by Dufour and Prunier (1942) and repeated by Marinov (19780 in a slightly different ar 130 . and this phenomenon cannot be explained without referring to its physical essence.e. A/p. a (air).. mirrors can rotate and the with refractive index n medium remain = \.It is clear thai the automatic apphcation of the Lorentz transformation drag aberration leads to an unsound result. Nevertheless.„ SM. until the performance of our light kinematic experiments. '^A/^ and the mirrors M„ M^. was the and. first repeated on the rotating Earth by MichelsonGale. 25 1 presents our setup for the performance of the « rotating disk » experiment. hundreds of pens have tried to reconcile its decisive positive « aether wind » effect with the unidirectional Einstein's light velocity constancy and thus to convince the scientific community that black is white.. THE HARRESS « « ROTATING DISK » EXPERIMENT The rotating disk » experiment of HarressSagnacPoganyDufour. or only the at rest. medium. first The HarressMarinov experiment.. A/^2. the unique experiment which revealed the direction dependence of light velocity and the adequacy of the aether conception to physical reality. but a mathematical apparatus attached to to recognize that physics physical reality. in which the mirrors rotate together with the 3. after a once more a due physical analysis of the problem considered. We have considered us. The HarressPogany experiment. Thus the Lorentz transformation is not deus ex machina and is to be applied with attento the tion.... §25. performed first by Harress (1912) and repeated very carefully by Pogany (1928). Here we have is not a mathematical apparatus to which physical reality is attached. A/. or without them. which the mirrors rotate and as a medium a vacuum is taken. So four : different combinations are possible which we name 1. having shown that when the experiments speak the gods keep their silence but the theoreticians do not. performed first by Sagnac ( 1913). A medium A/^.. i. In the last case. in 2. vacuum medium can also be taken. The history of this experiment and of its mistreatment by official physics is very instructive. A/. with refractive index n can rotate (in a clockwise direction) with the semitransparent mirrors A/.
to the M3. Always when uniformly 131 Sh allows light to pass. in watertube by Fizeau ( 85 ) in a » experiment 1 1 — which the medium rotates and the mirrors are at rest. a light source emitting coherent light. in 4. The HarressFizeau experiment.. 251 sake of unification (see the which the mirrors rotate and the medium is at rest. Our performance of the HarressFizeau experiment (Marinov. 251. A/. the phtoresistors are illuminated . are two photoresistors put in both the shutter P ^ and Pr arms of a Wheatstone bridge. For the ZeemanMarinov experiment in §28. is one. 5 is Sh is a shutter which facets governed by the rotating disk and allows short strictly light pulses to pass only at a defined position of the disk when the diametrically opposite of the transperant medium are exactly parallel to the mirrors M. rangement.. The areas of the facets are small and the mirrors are placed near medium.Fig. Thus we can assume that the photons travel between the single mirrors along the corresponding chords of a circle with radius R. performed arrangement (called the « first substantially different see §23). 19780 can be first considered as the In fig.2) we call the common type of the « rotating disk » experiment where the medium is at rest and the mirrors rotate the HarressMarinov experiment.
on one hand. there are differences which are of second order in \//c\ and we consider them in §29. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. will change oppositely when changing the rotational velocity. P.— M.SM^My SM. Fig. The differences in the optical paths and second photons.by interfered rence. and third photons cover the same paths at rest and motion of the mirrors. /Vf.M. and we introduce the notation A/ = At ^ + A/g.— M. 252 "J lii . SM^ Fourth photon SM ^SM^. on the other hand. SM ^— M„— A/p. is identical with our absolute \^/c. At rest the illuminations over both photoresistors are the same and the bridge is in equilibrium. SM. When increasing the rotational velocity. With the aim of explaining the character of the interfe us consider four photons which are emitted by the following paths : S at the same moment and cover First photon SM Pa SM. let light. within such an accuracy. and of the third and fourth photons. passes through a state of maximum disequilibrium and at a certain angular velocity fi comes again into equilibrium.yM^. then A = c A/ of the first will be equal to the wavelength A of the used light.M^. Ph Second photon Third photon : SM SM Ph: M.— A/. M. spacetime theory. Af.— M. M.— M^— SM^— Since the effects in the « rotating disk » experiment are of first order in they can be considered in the frame of the traditional aetherNewtonian theory which. M. If the time spent by the second (or fourth) photon for covering its path at the angular velocity fi differs by At ^(At ^) from the time spent at rest. As a matter of fact. The first The second photon (which we direction of rotation shall call « direct ») travels along the and the fourth photon (which we shall call « opposite ») travels against the direction of rotation.
1. taking into account also the dispersion of the medium. where it photon at the semitransparent mirror reflects when the mirrors are at rest. In fig. 253 (see also fig. (25. scheme of the experiment given where the Here 5 is is a light source. in in 252a and fig. Fig. to the semitransparent mirror M a point M corresponds which can be considered as an effective point of separation. 252b.. riments. but at a point A/. a « direct » photon which separates from an « opposite » will reflect not at point A/... » photon between M and A/. A/. we proceed from the simple in fig. A/. 253 25.= 4 c n . 251.For the calculation of Ar through the parameters of the device. and thus in the case of M rotation its path will be longer by ^d=^R c/n cos —. will be with Ad less than in 133 . In the case of rotation the path of an « opposite the case of rest. 251). respectively..1) where d = R/cos (7r/4) is its path when the mirrors are at rest and R is the distance of the mirrors from the centre of rotation. Sh a shutter governed by the rotating turnabout. whose schemes are given. are mirrors and O is an observer who registers the diferent interference pictures. THE HARRESSMARINOV EXPERIMENT First we shall consider the HarressMarinov and HarressDufour expefig. According to fig. 252 and fig. A/ light pulses separate into « direct » a semitransparent mirror « and opposite ». A/. 252. We suppose that the mirrors rotate a direct (clockwise) direction and the medium is at rest in absolute space.
because of the Doppler effect.4) c^ b) for the HarressDufour experiment d c/n* + M _)_4( b^d ^ d c/n ^d^ __.4 A/hm=4 —j^ 4 c/n* d + ^d d  QR' —j— = —^ c/n t^d S 8 („^ in' . 25 appears along the contour SM — SM^— M — SM^— SM when the mirrors we obtain for the rotate. the following additional time anticipation 134 . then.3) Thus after if the mirrors rotate. area enclosed by this contour „ S= co\{^a) 2 b' m 4 = {1 b^ .7) Thus. the refractive index of the medium for the « direct » photons becomes n* = n (fo) = n + y/2 c ^ — dv . .. (25. Denoting by b the distances between SA/^and SM ^. when the mirrors rotate with an angular velocity fl. the second with photon will come for a rendezvous with the first photon on mirror SM . a « direct » photon will return to mirror » M an « opposite photon with the following time delay : a) for the HarressMarinov experiment .2) 4 opposite photons received by the molecules of the medium if will remain the same. c ^^R' „ c' ^. the frequencies of the « direct » photons received by the molecules of the medium will be M SM K = i'{\+2—cos c while the frequencies of the « V — TT ) = »  fl /? p(\ + x/2 c ). d\ dn (25. and sm(l o) = ^ n.(or mirrors Since mirror ^ and SM^ in fig. dn^ .6) where a is the difference between the angles of incidence and we have used Snell's law (13. Hence. c d\ (fig.^. . 251) moves. Let us note that in our realization of the HarressMarinov experiment we have to take into account the difference in the light paths which 1 ).n'Y''' In . (25. (25. (25..^iT A_).. we take into account the dispersion.31) which for our case gives refraction. .
.A/„. the molecular velocity that makes an angle 6 with the direction of propagation of the « direct » photons will have a magnitude that the rotates in direct (clockwise) direction We suppose medium the mirrors are at rest in absolute space. 252b which we shall call. respectively. calling it We shall HarressFizeauMarinov and HarressFizeauDufour exconsider only the first one.5)] the medium » M before an « opposite ^t. 253. different arrangements respectively. (25.dn \— d\  I). the frequencies of the direct » and « opposite » photons received by the molecules will be. V c p„ = if u(\ :^ cosd) = T ~ \/2 2 ^R ). (25. as can be seen ^= ^^ 2 Since the the cos^ with respect to the mirrors. — . 252a and fig. (25. the periments.Ad . the HarressFizeau experiment. then.10) ^_^ Hence. if n Y^ p (25. n±=n(^^) = ^ Thus. respectively. — — =8 n^' — c„. c (25. because of « M u(\ . Now. (n'  . the third photon on 25. and from fig.12) c. the we take into account the dispersion. c' 135 . p= "~^ Ad .somewhat shown in fig.2.= — .9) medium moves Doppler effect.8) while the fourth photon will mirror 5'A/b with the come for a rendezvous with same time delay. the refractive indices for « « direct » and opposite » photons become. a « direct » photon will return to mirror photon with the time anticipation (use formula (13.16) and compare with formula (23.„ = ^. which was carried out by us.11) 2 c dv rotates. THE HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENT The HarressFizeau experiment can also be performed in two .
4) and (25.13) 25. However the effects in these two experiments are substantially different because in the HarressMarinov experiment the medium rests with respect to absolute space. oppositely. 252) the following : In our realization the « direct » and « opposite path. ^'ms=87 . Thus from formulas (25.. 25.5. the mirrors A/. however semitransparent mirror is not tangent and cannot be placed close enough to the medium. 251) and the traditional is scheme of the disk » experiment (fig.25. light pulses interfere with light pulses that always cover the same photoresistors P ^ and y^ change in §23. THE HARRESSPOGANY EXPERIMENT In the HarressPogany experiment the time delay with which a « direct » after an « opposite » photon is equal to the photon returns to mirror difference in the time delays in the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau M experiments. 251 is reported in Marinov (19780. Thus the illuminations over the and we can use our convenient in the follo bridge method described In fig.5).= 8?^. A/j. A second difference consists wing the : 252.12) we obtain A/„_p=Ar. the separation of 136 M .2.4) and (25. (25. The difference between our « rotating scheme » (fig.4. The theory of relativity meets severe difficulties experiments there We when trying to explain this difference. putting there n = I. THE HARRESSSAGNAC EXPERIMENT The formula for the effect in the HarressSagnac experiment is to be obtained from (25. In our realization. (25. A^i are tangent to the circumference of medium. PRACTICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE HARRESSMARINOV AND HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENTS Our performance of the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau experiments by the help of the setup shown in fig.14) must emphasize that in the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau is the same relative motion between mirrors and medium._^A/„_. while in the HarressFizeau experiment the mirrors rest with respect to absolute space.
6A = ± When sum is equal to n\ the sensitivity 137 .. this is by no means necessary and the light paths of the first^ We have made the light paths of the first and and third photons can be substantially reduced. Also R = 0.6 and 8(dn/c/\) = used. assuming 8n = laser of the HeNe ± 0.5.2 cm. Af„ A/. had been immersed have // = 1. A/. Taking into account the thickness of the glass plates and their refractive index. assuming 8h = cm. 0. at rest this is (2 aj + 1) A/2. for light = nm 632. Proceeding from formulas M ^H It M=8 ('''^J{^ ^^ — is (25. Let us repeat be obtained when the sum of the differences and second photons and in the light paths of the to third and fourth photons 2. where // is an integer.8 nm ' '.0 cm. which also has to compensate for large enough error. iit such positions that the actual light path (distance multiplied by refractive index) along the contour A/t — A/ We M — M^ — M.7.^ — if is exactly equal to the light path that in water. we obtain the following formula for the calculation of the effect in the HaressMarinov experiment performed with our setup SM^.2 possible errors introduced in the measurement of the thickness of the glass plates and errors that could appear from the replacement of the actual light 30.the photons that will later interfere proceeds first at semitransparent mirror SM and then at semitransparent mirrors S\f ^ and is mirror M.12) and runs As a a as medium we have shown taken distilled water in a metallic vessel at points form in fig.4) and (25.10" A. since laser light with good of the third and fourth photons) equal.3317 and dn/d\ = — 2. coherence is used. there enough to (25. A/2. Glass windows are placed which has where light beams must cross the walls of the vessel. would be covered mirrors A/. so that instead of an effective point of separation which can lie close the circumference of the medium.8). we have metallic interfaces put the mirrors A/. second photons (as well as However. sensitivity The that a of our bridge method is maximum sensitivity first in the light paths of the is analysed in §23.15) can easily be seen that the formula for the calculation of the effect in the HarressFizeau experiment directly performed with our setup to be obtained from (25. being falls to zero. 251.. h =«= 8R = ± path by an idealized light path only in water.10 of wavelength X and taking a 10. Glass windows also are placed in the which divide the ring into compartments.
c„_^=(3. <"> ' I) r4^ c„ "PP = c' „ CvzosOdr..0\ ± c„_f.04 rev/s for the HarressMarinov experi 50.97 ± 0. however in our method where we change the rotational A = r Ar becomes equal to A no calibration need be made. (25. We rotated the disk first counterclockwise S2_„ with angular velocity S2 and then clockwise with angular velocity taking = (1/2) + n.1) where we have used formula 138 (3. J (26.02 rev/s. and we have taken an average » = ± 10 '\.10'm/s. Substituting the numerical values into formulas (25. However. we an unknown quantity. . and A/„. The number of measured by a precision light revolutions per second of the disk. The « tuner described in §23 can be used also for calibration during the velocity until run.04 rev/s for the HarressFizeau experiment. supposing that the velocity of light is and (25.32) and with </ we designate the whole path. or A/rv If we do not care disequilibrated with a certain fi do this and if at the beginning the bridge « positive » current. A' = U/ln. ment and We obtained N = A^ = 22. S2. then at the angular velocity (counterclockwise or clockwise) the bridge will be disequilibrated with the same « negative » current. is When to the disk at rest the equilibrium by a micrometrical move of mirror is Wheatstone bridge can be set into A/ ^.60 ± 0. as §23.16).^. is stroboscopic cyclometer maintained automatically with 0.= where for 8c 0.07). SN = ± (J2. we have taken the maximum measuring § 26.We have not searched described in for the highest sensitivity by the help of a sensitivity (SA « tuner ». error. THE DISRUPTED in the « ROTATING DISK » EXPERIMENT The proper time delay be written in the HarressSagnac experiment (see §25.07).15) obtain.17) (2. a maximum sensitivity can be achieved by a micrometrical move of both mirrors A/^.3) can form A/„=.10«m/s. In the case where the apparatus is thermostabilized.68 ± 0.). in such a case at rest the shutter has to operate with the same chopping frequency with which it operates at the rotational velocity S2.r4^^ o C.
photons must be a closed curve.1) can be written in the form 2 r (26. In the « rotating disk » experiments (§25) the point of separation of the « direct » and « opposite » photons « is the same.If working within an accuracy of first order in i//f. If we should disrupt these closed paths and make the points of separation meeting different. Its We call such an experiment the disrupted is « rotating it disk » experiment..e. performance disk. the light paths of the « direct » and « opposite » which are different at rest and motion of the disk can be made straight and photons lines. 261 139 . and formula (26. a difference between proper and absolute time intervals cannot be made [i.2) where dr is the element of the light path of the « direct » photons velocity of the corresponding point and v is the on the rotating disk with respect to absolute space. as well as of the opposite ». so that the light path of the « direct ». reported in Marinov (1978n) and is patently shows that the velocity of light direction dependent even along a straight line on a rotating Fig. we have to assume A/o = A/(l — I'Vc')"^^ At].
The scheme of the disrupted 261) The light source 5" is : « rotating disk » experiment is as follows a HeNe laser. Then we set the disk in rotation. both photoresistors are illuminated by equal light intensities. They are illuminated uniformly by interfered light.3) shorter than the time in which the (the second) will reach The photoresistors P^. changing in such a way the path difference » equal to the wavelength A of the used equilibrium. the shutter Sh is unnecessary. /*„ are put in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge.(fig. With the increase of rotational velocity. photon (26.~ P„. is i.2) and will fig.. passes through a state of maximum disequilibrium. Using formula (26.4) c A = X. SM — SA/f — SM ^ — ^^ — ^^b — ^nSM — M — SM — SM ^^ SM\. If this metrically not the case. Let four photons be emitted by they cover the following paths First : 5 at the same moment and suppose that photon : Second photon Third photon : : Fourth photon : S— S— S— S— SM — SM^ — SM^ — SM). — P^.— SM\. SM is a semitransparent mirror. and which reduces the number of equal the number of photons along the M SM B . b P ^. we move micro SM\ first third photons until the bridge comes into equilibrium. P„ are illuminated. when the sum of the differences in the optical paths A = (Ar^ A/r) c will become between the and and S'M'b. and at a certain angular velocity fl. (26.. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. In the case where S. P ^ and P^ would also be mounted on the rotating disk.e. (^'b= first ^— sm^). . we find that in the case of rotation (with respect to the case at rest) the time in which the third (fourth) photon reach /'a(^b) will be with Ar = tan—. light.— SM — M — SM ~ SM. the bridge will come again into Thus we shall have 12 /?' A = where we have 140 to put (2 tan — 2 + sin 6) . Sh is a shutter which is governed by the rotating disk and lets light pass only at a strictly defined position of the disk when both photoresistors P^. 261.— SM). S^^^ a corrective semitransparent mirror to photons along the path path to SM ^^ to a mirror. Let us suppose that when the disk is at rest the bridge is in equilibrium.
is obtain. Putting the figures into formula (26... taking = 632.02 rev/s.07). proposed in Marinov (1975b).4).98 ± 0.A/k are placed close enough to each other.0 ± a'. = 60".2 method see §23 and cm. 10 'A (concerning the sensitivity of our bridge 1978n).. Its scheme is as follows (fig. §27. (26.90 ± 0. represents a variant of the disrupted « rotating disk » experiment for the case where the rotation of the disk cannot be changed at will. 271) : Along the rim of a disk the mirrors A/. as it is on our Earth. 271 141 .5.We 5A = ± §25).5) where for 8c we take the maximum absolute measuring error. supposing that the velocity of light c an unknown quantity. 10' m/s .. THE « COUPLEDSHUTTERS ON A ROTATING DISK» EXPERIMENT The « coupledshutters on a rotating disk » experiment. The number of revolutions per second A^ = S2/27r measured by a light stroboscopic cyclo meter and maintained automatically with a precision 5 A^/ A' registered A' = ±2.10 V We we = 92.8 nm. = (2. Light emitted by the source Fig. is R = 40..0 ± 0. A experimentally checked this formula (Marinov.
As light sources lasers can be used. The chopped on the mirrors A/..). then O^ will register maximum photonian flux at the condition that = (d/c) f{\ + v/c) is an integer.The shutters operate with the same chopping frequency f.S^ (or 5n) passes through the semitransparent mirror M ^ (A^b) ^nd through light reflects the high frequency operating shutter Sh^ (SVj. For v = 0. As a matter of fact. say... d and v are given « should register see equal » or and /"changes. (27. since the distances between the common resonator and the shutters which the electromagnetic signals have to cover are equal (with respect to the disk but also with respect to absolute space !). An = 1/2 for/ = 5.1) = 2d v f/c^ register « equal » pictures and an integer. ^0 I 142 . if This can be practically realized puts the iLsed.. Thus.9put at the centre of the disk. At the condition that n = (d/c) /"is an integer (or an integer plus 1/2). the shutters will always be opened and closed together.. Thus the shutters operate synchronously at rest and when the disk is in motion. . Indeed. is observed by the observer O (^h). and so on. changing the commanding frequency in this range. one should have An An = [or f = 10' Hz. d= 100 km. we have ^ n^=n„^ Thus observers If the if Aaj ^ is /!„+ 2 — /J = /!„+ A/t .45 km/s (that is approximately the linear rotational velocity of the Earth's equator) and for /^ low. passes through the shutter 5/j„ iSh^) and.10' Hz. while the observer Op will register maximum photonian flux at the condition that «b ~ (^^^')fO ~ w/c) is an the observer If integer. the observers O ^ and O^ should if An is equal to an integer plus 1/2. one takes our Earth and the equator common resonator at the pole.^ Let us suppose first that the disk is at rest and let us denote by d the light path between both shutters. both observers will register maximum (minimum) photon n ^ flux. being reflected by the semitransparent mirror A^„ (M ^).A/^. the O^ and O^ should is register « opposite » pictures. If now we set the disk in rotation in a clockwise direction. The commanding signals can be sent from the pole to the shutters by the help of several retranslation stations. or « O^ sees maximum light when O^ sees minimum light ».. As shutters two Kerr cells can be separated by a short distance d (about 100 km) along on the peaks of two mountains). Itt angle 6 almost equal to and the radius of the disk R as a rotating disk is very large. being driven by the common resonator/?e. one should change the pictures registered by both (placed.. then we can consider the motion of the coupled shutters as inertial. e. then both observers consequently « opposite » pictures.g. « O^ and O^ together maximum light ».
The ZeemanMarinov experiment. This experiment was performed first by Fizeau (1851) ( 1 with water and by Michelson and Morley very carefully repeated by solid 886) with a solid medium. Now.2) An = 2 fi/? df{cos(p„  cos<p) § 28. 1920. in which mirrors and medium are at rest. can easily be seen that the resonator is put on a parallel with latitude <p.observers from « equal » to « opposite ». in which the mirrors move and a vacuum (air) is taken as a medium. in which mirrors and medium was performed by Marinov (1978m) and. 1922) with liquid was and media.^n:w////A Fig. The ZeemanFizeau experiment. move together. should change d»iring a day when the absolute velocity of the implement changes as a result of the Earth's rotation. in which the mirrors are at rest and medium moves. four combinations can be realized which we call : the 1. The ZeemanSagnac experiment. again. 'mmmmf?^ 7777 V////M. it can be carried out by anyone who would take the care to observe whether the interference picture in a Zeemantype implement. as a matter of fact. This experiment was performed by Marinov (1978m). It Zeeman (1914. and measured using dependence of light velocity along a if straight line. in which the medium is at rest and move. 281 143 .„ it and the coupled shutters along a parallel with latitude will be (27. THE ZEEMAN « MOVING PLATFORM » EXPERIMENT The « moving platform » experiment is considered by us in detail in Marinov (1978m) where we give also an account of three important modifications performed by us. The « disk » experiment. the mirrors 3. This experiment was performed first by Marinov (1978m). This experiment 4. moving platform » experiment is an analogue of the « rotating where the motion of the medium or/and the mirrors (the is interferometer) not rotational but inertial. 1915. the linear rotational velocity of the Earth's equator can be the direction It (p and so on. again to « equal ». The ZeemanPogany experiment. 2.
e. c/n c (28. 281) The box S contains cing two parallel monochromatic source together with a device producoherent beams — B^ which propagates in vacuum and B„.2) c will When 281 itis^ the medium is set in motion the time delay become (for fig.photon) will arrive at box O with delay after a photon proceeding along the parth B. if measured by an observer at formulas (13. /=—. distance L. Then one realizes the four different combinations mentioned above. . they enter a second box in O 28. = 0) /. We suppose that the motion of the medium..1. for the ZeemanFizeau experiment. After travelling a which they are united and their interference observed.\)cose dp . proceeds from left to right. the effect to be observed the interference picture will correspond to a time difference in ^ti_f= 144 t  t = —^ c (n' + v^. First the boxes (also called mirrors) and the medium are at rest and a specific interference picture is observed. a photon proceeding the following time along the path B^ (a 5. For methodological reasons again deduce this formula. (a fivphoton).= (« 1). When mirrors and medium in fig.. Both boxes are halfway immersed in the medium. = ——=— c^ c [ n  1  — c {n'  p — dp  I) cos ^ ] (28. for the experiment [see formula (23. or both. 281 are at rest.1) n rv dv the frequency of the light used and ^ the angle between v and the direction of light propagation. ») we have obtained The velocity of light in a rest.3) c Hence. n^ is 1 (28. THE ZEEMANFIZEAU EXPERIMENT In §23 « watertube shall we the formula for the ZeemanFizeau (i. to the following ideal arrangement (fig.16) and (23.4)] c^= where v is c  +vi\ ^ . stripped of all fun: damentally irrelevant details.Let us reduce the « moving platform * experiment.. (28. or of the boxes. is [see medium moving with dn V velocity v.)cos<?. and from the difference in the observed interference pictures conclusions can be drawn about the character of light propagation. a in a which propagates medium with refractive index n.5)].4) .
26) account formula (25.28)] c.6) a is When ^ the mirrors are set in motion the time delay with which fln. the effect in the interference picture will be observed correspond to a time difference ^^z  M = ^  ^z .9) where is the angle between v and the direction of light propagation..5) where v is the frequency of the light used light propagation. as we do in absolute spacetime theory.e.7) c c Hence. if measured by who moves with the same velocity. c to V (28.5. the angle between v dv is (28. we obtain c' = c — vcos^ .8) ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiment are however these two experiments physically are not equivalent. .photon arrives at box O after a 5. no physical difference can be made between the ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiments. = c p dn i^(— n n^ — + I)cos». is [see formula (13. an observer = — ^ cos ^ . According to the principle of relativity. for the ZeemanMarinov experiment. (28. THE ZEEMANPOGANY EXPERIMENT The velocity of light in a medium moving with velocity v..= ["c^ . With the aim of showing that these two experiments are physically different. (28. and d and the direction of For n = for vacuum. and special The effects in the exactly the same. 1 + («' + »'. where the identical effects can be explained only if the formulas used for their calculation are different. relativity considers the latter only as trivial tautology of the former. \.M =  L —v (n' 77 ("' c' + dn p " ^ ~ ZT dp  1) cos ^ .l)cos^]. and the formulas with which we obtain identical results are different. photon becomes dn dp (for fig. 145 . we have performed them in the noninertial variant considered in §28. i.28.2 THE ZEEMANMARINOV EXPERIMENT The velocity of light with respect to a and take into measured by an observer who moves with velocity v that rests in absolute space is (use formula (13.3)] medium c„. 28. 281 it = 0) 'zM= L L L .3. (28.
_. A/.8). = 0) z .1 1). and thus no change can be registered.4... for the ZeemanPogany experiment.e.When 281 itis^ the mirrors are set in motion with the medium.P L c^  = {nc L \).^B3 Fig..11) 28. the effect be observed in the interference picture will correspond to a time difference ^^zP=^'zp=0.10) to Hence. (28. the time delay will with which a ^. THE ZEEMANSAGNAC EXPERIMENT effect for the The diately ZeemanSagnac experiment can be obtained imme from formula (28.= (28..photon arrives at box O L c after a ^.S»te.photon be (for fig.12) pB. putting n = 1. (28.S^e2. or from formula (28. i. 282 146 .
Glass windows are placed at points where the light beams must cross the walls. and A/„ and also A/.^.. enters into the medium.. lets light Sh a shutter which pulses (of a duration is governed by the rotating 10 ' turnabout and ^ s) pass only when the A/. A/. while the variant shown in fig.. leaving the medium. and. were immersed in water.. Taking into account the thickness of the glass plates and their refractive index. A/. Glass windows are placed also in the metallic interfaces which divide the ring into compartments.A/.and A "daughterbeams (25. and point distance between mirrors A/. M. We call this variant of the Zeeman experiment the noninertial « moving platform » experiment. and.... plane of the figure.A/ should be exactly equal to the light path which is to be covered if mirrors A/. reflects successively on mirrors A/„ A/. illuminates the photoresistor P^. and goes upwards.A/. the Aon semitransparent mirror ^A/^. and ^4.. As a transparent medium we have taken distilled water put in a form shown in fig. The A daughterbeam reflected on SM ^2 then reflects on mirror A/ ^2. THE NONINERTIAL EXPERIMENT « MOVING PLATFORM » The scheme of our setup for the performance of the Zeeman experiments is shown in fig.. A/. reflects on mirror A/g.28. reflects successively on mirrors A/. reflects on mirror A/^a. Then it reflects on semitransparent mirror SM^2 ^nd' going downwards through the semitransparent mirror 5'A/b. A/. A/. The light beam emitted by S splits at semitransparent mirror this SM into y4beam and fibeam which follow identical paths and for follow only the /Ibeam. A/. 282. and. we have metallic vessel of the put the mirrors A/. 282.VA/ ^i which is placed above SM ^^ and their planes make a right angle. which was the same as that used in the « rotating disk » experiment (§25).. going downwards through the semitransparent mirror 5A/b2 (where it interferes with the /I daughterbeam) and through semi M beam refiects M transparent mirror SM^i.7). Then it reflects on mirror A/g.. The between mirror A/. before the entrance of the A' beam into the after its exit. in such positions that the real light path (distance multiplied by refractive index) along the contour A/. 281 can be called the inertial « moving platform » experiment. is 2R. illuminates the photoresistor /*b The angle a between in the the projections of the A '. proceeding above the medium.. A/. medium and can be determined from Snell's law 147 . S mirrors the is a light source. The /< "daughterbeam refracted on SM ^2 goes further upwards. Then it splits into two daughter beams at semitransparent mirror . are parallel to the diametrically opposite small sides of medium. M..... A/. After reflection on mirrors reason we shall ^ and A/^.5.
01 ± ± 0. the identical effects in the §29.04 rev/s for the ZeemanMarinov experiment. Indeed. and we have assumed an average sensitivity 6A= ± ± 10 'A. supposing that the velocity of light an unknown quantity. as described in §23.3317 0.14) c. We had cm.02 maximum In the ZeemanPogany and ZeemanSagnac experiments we registered no perceptible disequilibration of the bridge when rotating the disk. ^ . 1962) n = 1.8 nm of the HeNe laser used.10 ' 10 * degree '. ZeemanFizeau experiments 148 a dif . From same source 0. the other hand. Putting these figures into formulas (28.p = 50. « rotating disk » aiming to use the setup constructed for our we think that the results of the noninertial variant are more important than the same results which could be obtained with the inertial variant. absolute measuring error.= (3. velocity of light with respect to a rotating disk is On direction dependent. We measured A^^. = 50.04 rev/s for the ZeemanFizeau experiment and A^^i^.8) and taking into account that it is we have taken 30.2 ^ 2 is cos 6 we obtain.94 ± 0. We with A take (LandoltBornstein. Let us mention that the measuring procedure in the « rotating disk » experiment (§25) is very similar to that in the noninertial « moving platform » experiment. We have not searched for the highest sensitivity by the help of a « tuner ».4) and (28.80 ± 0. then ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiments can be explained only by our theory which obtains these effects by proceeding from substantially different formulas. We performed the « moving platform » experiment in its noninertial variant. is The measurement of HarressFizeau and ZeemanMarinov. 0. c^_^= where for 8c we have taken the (3.0003 for the light 6aj = 632. having N = fi/27r.07).I0'm/s. (28.10'm/s. THE SECONDORDER EFFECTS IN THE « ROTATING DISK» EXPERIMENT the secondorder effects in the HarressMarinov. assuming 8(dn/d\) = ± 0. since we already know that the experiment.07).6 dn/dK =  nm '. which is described in more detail in §23 and §25.The photoresistors interfering B and /f P ^ and /*„ which are illuminated uniformly by the daughterbeams are put in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge.7. The error corresponds the to a change in the refractive index with the temperature which was maintained at it T = R = 20" ± 3" C since is dn/dT = 2.
as in Marinov (1976b). Fig. 291 The scheme « rotating disk » rigidly measurement of the second order effects in the experiment is shown in fig. secondorder effects are motion between mirrors and meand ZeemanSagnac experiments the and thus only the HarressSagnac and convenient for HarressPogany secondorder experiments are the measurement of in vie effects. the ZeemanPogany null. i. such an experiment possibilities for its very delicate. 5 is a light source which is connected with the mirrors.e. When calculating the effects. discredit the experiment.. and in our laboratory there are no this performance. Mk Thus we can assume that the photons fly along the circumference of a circle put in arm there is a variable resistor. A/. because the effect to be measured is too for the is small and the use of a shutter which probably. without entering into the details of an eventual practical performance.ficult problem because there In is a relative dium. we shall not take into account the dispersion of the medium. is Nevertheless. and cover a path d = lirR. since these effects are very faint. is a photoresistor illuminated by one arm of a Wheatstone bridge and in the other We assume that the mirrors A/. 291. For reason we shall consider the expein the « rotating riment for the measurement of the secondorder effects disk » experiment. M^ . It is P governed by the rotating disk would. we shall suppose dnIdK = 0.. 149 .. interfered light. are placed near to the rim of the medium's disk and close to each other.
counterclockwise and. we obtain from formula A/ H "' . for the secondorder effect in the HarressSagnac expe(29. after refraction on SM. = cL(\ . H ^. 29. after reflection on SM.3) 29..2.Suppose first that the disk is at rest...V d Id Idv' 150 . The refracted beam reflects successively on M. THE HARRESSSAGNAC EXPERIMENT For AJ = 1. (29. M = c„* I = c„ —— niln' r 1) (29. i..2)] c..e. difference in the absolute times which the refracted covering its path in the cases of rest and rotation of the we find that the beam has to spend medium will be nfiA\ d H . on A/h. The and.. Now we shall calculate this time difference for the four different types of the « rotating disk » experiment.2) riment. THE HARRESSMARINOV EXPERIMENT Using formula (13.1.3.12) at the condition e„ = 0.^VO''2^ (29.A/k clockwise. illuminates P.23) at the condition ^n = and taking into account that it is [see (4.A/. illuminates reflected beam reflects on mirror P. THE HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENT Using formula (13. are equal) changes its M time with Ar.S = — ^3 .1) we to find that the difference in the absolute times its which the refracted beam has will spend covering path in the cases of rest and rotation of the mirrors be A/.. by the semitransparent mirror SM into reflected M If we now set the disk in rotation.. then the reflected beam will not change the time in which it covers its path because it moves only along the radius of the rotating disk.2) c„ 29. Light emitted by the source S is split and refracted beams. while the refracted beam (which has the same « radial motion » if the distances from SM to and M....
will be [use formula (3. by the help of a clock which is attached to the rim of the moving disk.6) the rest period of our clock. as well as the period of any light clock proceeding as a whole with 151 ... a light clock represents a light source and a mirror placed in front of it. (29... Thus T= c is (29.e.31) at the condition = d = J" 0] _ d d J.. It is of importance only that a light pulse which leaves a given point returns to it and repeats this cycle uninterruptedly. also repre Let the time which a light pulse spends covering path d to and fro be T when the mirrors are at rest.4.32) at the condition = 6=0] Too = ^ d Co + d ^ = 2d c„ =T..e..5) This formula for n gives again the secondorder effect (29.5.. M . CONNECTION WITH KINEMATIC TIME DILATION As we have said (§2. M. will be [use formula (3. where S2 is in the mirrors are set in motion with a the angular velocity.3) in the HarressSagnac experiment.1).1 and §2.29. the period of the i. Instead of one mirror we can have an arbitrary number. Thus our mirrors A/. rotational velocity v light clock in When = QR. by the help of a clock which e rests in absolute space.. (29. A/^. A/.. sent a light clock. motion measured absolute time.28) at the condition find that the difference in the absolute times spend covering its path in = 6 = and formula (29. THE HARRESSPOGANY EXPERIMENT Using formula (1 3. = 2d = i. between which a light pulse goes to and fro.. 29. we which the refracted beam has to the cases of rest and rotation of mirrors and ^' medium will be A/„ = = ^ 1 + ^ =^n... T (29 7) while the same period measured in proper time. the period of our light clock rotating with velocity v in absolute space.8) c Thus..4).
is Any proper second larger than the absolute second and the relation are given in the light 7" and T„ same time. We from A/. this time. treated by Burcev (1974) who proposed measu rement. The secondorder effects in the HarressSagnac experiment have been also an experiment for their . his is second is called proper. Burcev's proposal consists of the following Let us have a number round (^3) of artificial satellites moving along v.7). according to formula (29. If we should compare the period of the light clock considered with the periodical process of a system which constantly moves with the same velocity as the light clock. for example.velocity v^ becomes longer according efTect the absolute to formula (29. assuming that clock C (an atomic clock) is attached to the mirrors M. Thus the change in the duration of the period of a clock when in motion can be established by comparing its period with a is given by formula (29. If a radar pulse is emitted from one of the by means of reflections in the other satellites. 152 . where the period of the moving light clock is given in proper time and the period of the same clock at rest in absolute time. as follows from formula (29. this radar pulse can be again received after having covered a closed path round the Earth and the time of delay can be measured with a high precision. this time unit is called a is second. 1959). to termined by the period of a our tenth axiom. the same circular trajectory the Earth with a certain velocity satellites. can be measured. This is due to the absolute time dilation. then the trajectory of the all radar wave can be assumed as circular and the gravitational potentials at points crossed by the can treat Burcev's proposal by the help of our figure 29. then no change can be registered.1. the time unit for any observer is delight clock which has the same « arm » for all When the « arm is » is </ = 150. his second called absolute.000 km. then.8). ( Landau and ( Lifshitz. All these assertions of our absolute spacetime theory can be verified experimentally if one measures the secondorder effects in the HarressSagnac experiment. If the observer at rest in absolute space.1). where the durations of periodical process of a system which at rest in absolute space (in general. kinematic time dilation (§11. If we suppose that the satellites are placed close enough to each other. We have called this According observers. If the observer moves with a certain velocity in absolute space. by which the rhythm of any periodical process decreases. one that does not change its velocity when the light clock under investigation changes its velocity). respectively.7). so that the time in which a light pulse covers the path wave as equal.7). for the « direct » is + ) and « opposite » —) pulses. and A/^. to A/k and from A/^ to A/. if the corresponding system is set in motion with velocity v. According to Einstein's theory of general relativity (see.
= t.12) Fig.I0) According (3. ^o = d = / ( I ± v/c) (29.32)] to our absolute spacetime theory time is [use formula t.9) where at rest. 292 OJ 0. it will be (use formula (3.31)] (29.8 v/c 153 .1 tr = is ± v/c ' t (1  7l^l\\/l v'/c') (29. t = d/c = ImRIc th? time registered on the same clock if the disk is According to the traditional Newtonian aether theory this time is '^ ° TV^ this <29.11) If this time is measured on a clock resting in absolute space..
THE LIGHT DOPPLEREFFECT EXPERIMENTS shall discuss certain light Dopplereffect experiments. produced in a hydrogen arc between the heater H and the perforated electrodes E and E' Between E and E' the ions are accelerated The scheme of their . 10) and (29. (29. 292 we give the graphs of the relation 1 1 ('*'/( versus v/c drawn according to formulas (29. obvious our formula will correspond to physical §30. emitted by Af.5) was performed first by Ives and Stilwell (1938) who used light emitted by the moving ions in a canal ray tube. However. We think. and we have called this the « canal ray » experiment.by the help of a clock which rests in absolute space. 301 301. consiin Now we dered in Marinov (1978e). Thus an experiment as that proposed by Burcev can choose between these three rival theories. since. This problem (theoretically i'. however. In fig.When we try to measure the absolute time intervals /. E E' Fig. when it passes near to the clock C which is at rest. THE IVESSTILWELL LONGITUDINAL EXPERIMENT The experimental « CANAL RAY » verification of the secondorder terms in formula (10. that there light reality. in the « rotating disk » experiment the problem about the time synchronization of spatially separated clocks can be eliminated if we choose an appropriate rotational velocity so that the light pulse. will arrive at M^ when M^ passes (after one or more revolutions) near to C. Positive ions are experiment in a simplified version is shown in fig. is no need it is to perform this costly experiment. the problem arises about the time is solved by us and experimentally) with the help of a rotating rigid shaft. 154 . 30.9). synchronization of spatially separated clocks.1. in the of the present book. ). which secondorder in v/c effects have been observed.
. = 6 = 0. 302. P and The mirror from it M will reflect. To analyse the energies is (i.e. passing through the large slit Q. slit Q. b) Photons with frequency i>' shifted to the « blue end » which are emitted by the moving ions. nate point R. passing through the large behind which there is when they are at fig. they will illuminate point B. illuminate the narrow slit O an indicator that gives indication only when photons are incident with frequency p equal to the frequency emitted by the ions used the excited ions. fig. scheme shown is in fig. duction and acceleration of the ions as in 301. the observer at rest. The photons emitted by the excited ions. L^.1) p =p(l± + ). with velocity Thus three groups of photons will flow to the screen v : a) Photons with frequency emitted by the ions at rest. under the condition V c 6'.2. 1 v^ 2 c^ Thus frequency the middle of these p two frequencies will be shifted from the over a frequency interval ^P= P*^ —^ i P 2 p= P. 1972a. THE TRANSVERSE The transverse « Its « CANAL RAY » is » EXPERIMENT The system for proThe photons emitted by canal ray experiment was proposed by Marinov (1970..5) we obtain that on the indicator photons will with frequency 155 . illuminate the narrow slit O which represents by an electric source. they will illuminate the zero point Z.field. first From 302 and from the fall formula (10. thus forming the beam S that represents the moving These ions proceed with a constant velocity v which depends on the voltage applied between E and £".2) 2 which was experimentally verified by Ives and Stilwell. a spectroscope the refractive prism used of which the screen D.we obtain (30. r 1 l^ (30. 1978e). According to formula (10. 30. rest. before being accelarated by the electrodes.5). the frequencies) of the photons. c) Photons with frequency p shifted to the « red end » which are emitthey will illumi ted by the moving ions and then reflected by the mirror M. the light emitted by the ions which move away v. we show the focusing lenses L.
Then the theory is to be proved by plotting 2dc versus v. (1960). 303) : 156 I .+ ^±) c p[\+ie±) c 2 V a (30.3. If we choose a *€: 0. position of slit at i. we search for a Q which the indicator will show availability of photons with frequence v. « ROTOR » EXPERIMENT et al. The scheme of the socalled « rotor » experiment performed first by Hay where the Mossbauer effect is used.3) 2c' Fig. is as follows (fig. for any velocity v of the ions..(I .v'/cy^ 2 2 = 1 + cos(.4) : Hence the experiment is to be performed as follows For any voltage applied to the electrodes. the locus must be a strainght line dividing the quadrant.e. THE HAY 30. then on the indicator photons with frequency v will fall only at the condition e = \//2c . (30. 302 where d line is the angle between the perpendicular ON to the ions' beam and the is OC connecting slit O with the centre of slit Q: a the angle under which slit Q is seen from point O.
17). This transmission was found to increase as the angular velocity the observer. we obtain the relation /?„ cos d„ = — R cos d' . The transmission of the absorber was measured for various angular velocities. A thin "Fe absorber. A detector D at rest was used to measure the rate of the yphotons emitted by the source passing through the absorber. «^„ = fi /?n (30. the Let us 303 make the calculation. (30. was put on a rotating disk at a distance R from the centre of rotation C.5) Now substituting V = ^R. magnitude of the frequency could be estimated. 303 A radioactive "Co.. representing distance was put around the circumference of the rotating disk at a from the centre of rotation. and it was found to agree with the frequency shift calculated according to formula (10. indicating a shift in the characteristic frequency of the absorber. increased. Since the line shape of the absorber at rest was known experimentally. From the triangles OPC and S'PC in fig.v//y/////A D Fig.6) 157 . /?. representing the source.
7) v'/c' which was verified experimentally. 30. we V„ obtain the relation = 1 V ( 1  i/Vc' ) (30. carried Champeney e( al.7) is valid for any position of source and observer on the circumferences with radii R and R„. shall consider the « rotorrotor » Marinov (1978e) and.17) and keeping in mind (30. THE « ROTORROTOR » EXPERIMENT experiment proposed by us out by in Now we (1963). Fig. 304 It can be realized (fig.5). thus making another rotor 158 . into the first formula (10. to a certain extent. 304) when the centre of the rotor considered above (which we shall call the small rotor) rotates at angular velocity S2 and linear velocity v„ with respect to some centre.where S2 is the angular velocity of rotation.4. We emphasize that formula (30.
. 304 (see also 102) = ZL_^.8) The angle between v. cos (jp (30. ^=^+^_«_^.9) where ''"' c R cos q>. The angular velocity of rotation of the small rotor about its own centre is denoted by to. The small angle between the observer's radii at the emission and reception moments is denoted by a and the small angle under which the is denoted by emission and reception positions of the observer are seen from the emission position of the source is denoted by ^. cosi// = u. We shall suppose that the source is placed at the tip of the small rotor and the observer is at its centre.12) = — From smopJ ^ — — c R ^o ( r + cos qp) cos (p .which we call the big rotor.cos<p . and its absolute velocity by v. 10) into (30. 1 1) cos 6„ = — sin <jp cos (a /8) + cos <jp sin (a + ^) = (30. + v„ (30. fig. The linear velocity of rotation of the source is denoted by v.14) Using the last four formulas in the first formula (10. we obtain "0= "(1. The angle between /? and r (p. are small we can \// write )S cos B' = sin cos  cos »/' sin ^ = » sin x//  — c v„ cos (p cos \// (30. (30.. » v^. 13= (30.. c ft (30. Thus it will be V = V.17) and working the following relation within an accuracy of second order in 1/c.13) V V and from here we get v'' = vl + v\ + 2 v„ V. the figure we further obtain . sini// = ^sinip .9) and taking into account that a and quantities.10) Putting (30.^. We have from ^' fig.a4^COS^)2c^ c^ R (30»5> 159 . The radii of the small and big rotors are denoted by r and R. and v is denoted by ^.
1. then celestial (fi/a5) v„ = 3. v„ = 1. without the factor relativity (with respect to the accuracy of the historical MichelsonMorley experiment)..8 m/s. When we if fi analyse Champe^ ney 's experiment with our formula. was tp measure the Earth's rotational velocity (which is 3 10 m/s on the 45" parallel). The aim of Champeney el al. where the big rotor represents the rotation of the celestial body (about its rotational axis. This effect in is lower than the accuracy of Champeney's experiment by six orders.„ Newton theory. Now we shall show tally to a certain extent. It is clear that this conclusion is untenable. since. about the primary. if we suppose shows that with the help of the « rotor » v.5. velocity). or (//) (/) about two about the same : 160 . so that the disks lie in the same plane.15) in the form .10 rad/s (the Earth's diurnal angular velocity). then (at least theoretically we can any such motion.e. v. Since all Nature !) motions of the establish bodies are rotational. The experiment has shown that v„ must be less than 1. and this result was treated as a new and better verification of the Einstein principle of however. if a rotor moves with then the effect is to be described by formula (30. THE SANTOS EXPERIMENT In the « rotor » experiment there is no relative motion between source and observer. i.6 ± 2.„ = ^(1   vl  — V.10 * m/s. 17) experiment one cannot measure the fl absolute translational velocity absolute effects in the « rotor » Champeney et al. according to the traditional the absolute translational velocity i^. that formula (30. using the « rotor ». With the aim of realizing a transverse Dopplereffect experiment where source and observer have to move with respect to one another. (1963) tried to register experiment. (30. 30. then formula (30.16) we can write (30. <^ co. the « rotorrotor » experiment. then we see that to = 1.17) which must be written.15.17) is already checked experimen Indeed.If we take into account that it is (30.17) This formula can be ptoved by the experiment. Santos (1976) proposed the following experiment : Let us have two disks rotating in opposite directions parallel axes.10' rad/s (the rotor'^ angular = 310 m/s.15... fi/to. or about the galactic centre). S2 COSqp).
that.20) Av Santos predicts tivity. when performing experiment we have to put between the rota d and aperture b.axis. antiparallel. Assume. e„ = TTll ± v„ bid. If the shielding is attached to the emitter. then for the different emitting and receiving atoms we shall have (see ting disks a shielding with length fig. we obtain b < 10^ cm. because of the inevitable appearance this of firstorder in vie effects. As already analysed. A yray emitter is placed at the their velocities are rim of one disk and a yray absorber at the rim of the other. Co and we shall have = '' ( 1 — 2vVc').  {y^  vl)l2 c' ] . putting mil. there will be an shall antetraverse Doppler effect. Within an accuracy of second order in vie we obtain v^ = = v\\ v. their relative velocity will At the moment when be Iv. we obtain (30. in Santos' experiment the shielding plays a very shielding is important tory. so that the disks lie in two parallel planes. Supposing v — 300 m/s. the experiment gives a null (traverse) effect. 18) and for v It is = v„ we get p„ instructive to note that in the Santos experiment the result is the same for antiparallel and parallel directions of the velocities. Thus the requirement bid < vie is to be satisfied. (30. there will be a posttraverse Doppler effect. 102) $' = ttII ± bid. Obviously. Q„ = experiment can be found from formula (10. if this at rest in the labora being perpendicular to the trajectories of emitter and absorber. If the shielding is attached to the absorber. his = i>„  p = ± vvblcd. The there Q' result ofthis = 7r/2.17) and assuming = v. Santos' experiment cannot be practically realized. and we have Co = c (1 + Iv^lc^).19) Putting this into formula (10. the trajectories of emitter and absorber are rectilinear and the shielding exactly perpendicular to thenvSince the emitter and absorber are not point objects. in Marinov (1977a). As we showed Indeed. the linear rotational velocity of each being v. such an experiment cannot be practically realized.17). 161 . (30. It is worth noting that role. J = 10 cm. for simplicity's sake. when proceeding from the Einstein theory of rela  experiment has to give a positive effect Av = Ivv^lc^.
on an absolute clock if frame K is at rest or on a proper clock if it moves with velocity v.3) and for the electric intensity of the produced standing wave we obtain E= E* + E = 2E„^. to ( = lnv) is the circular frequency and k(= IttIc) is the circular wave number. + kx) . and no first. The incident intensity of the and reflected light waves will interfere.19) and (10. (31.e. For the produced standing wave we obtain electric E = Suppose now E+ E we set =2 £^3.or secondorder differences in the pattern will be registered.. sin (w/) cos (kx) frame (3 1 .§31.2) that K in motion with velocity v directed its . in moving frame K so that v becomes parallel to the xaxis). where E„^^ is the amplitude of the electric intensity. Instead of w and k in formula (3 have to write the quantities [see formulas (10. k„ = — = k {\ ± v/c). the electric intensities of the incident and by the mirror light waves will be E* = £^„. essence is as follows : Let a light source and an ideal mirror be placed on the jcaxis of a given frame K.1) E = sm (o)/  kx) . sin (w/ £„„.21)] parallel to the xaxis (or that we rotate the velocity 1 1 ) we now co„ = <o. (31. (31. The unique difference 162 is : When the laboratory is at rest in absolute space (or its velocity is .4) Hence the distances between the nodes of the standing waves in the cases where the Wiener experiment is performed at rest and in motion with respect to absolute space will be exactly the same. the subscript « „ ». considered in detail in Marinov light (I978o). reflected If this frame is at rest in absolute space (or its absolute velocity is perpendicular to the xaxis).sin[u(i + ^— )]cos(kx). i. t is the time registered on a clock attached to the frame. represents a modification of the historical which Wiener measured the length of Its waves in the Wiener experiment with most direct manner. x is the distance from the frame's origin where at the initial zero moment the electric intensities of the incident ( + ) and reflected ( — ) waves are equal to zero. THE QUASIWIENER « « STANDING WAVES » EXPERIMENT The standing waves » experiment. omitting in the last case. for brevity's sake.
parallel to the direction of light E obtains moments. § 32. after having covered slightly source « different light paths. and when the velocity of the laboratory propagation. We must point out that the historical MichelsonMorley experiment shows immediately that the quasiWiener experiment cannot reveal any secondorder in v/c effect.6) is the unique effect which sceptical offered by the quasiWiener experi ment and we are about its experimental verification.. while that of other light sources is only centimeters. For a given maximum moment the its / at the different antinodes at different its electric intensity in (31. at all £ obtains at the its maximum antinodes (i. The unique interferometric experiment in which firstorder in v/c effects have been observed 163 optical experiments with whose help an . if the standing waves have different lengths (within terms of second order in v/c) in cases where the pattern is parallel and perpendicular to the absolute velocity. THE « COHERENT LASERS » EXPERIMENT by lasers is As is well known. for .4) obtains maximum at the antinodes with coordinates near to x while for this = 2m { + to I 0.5) 2 moment / it is zero at the antinodes with coordinates near to X This = {to . Before the invention of the laser.perpendicular to the direction of light propagation). The coherent length of a laser beam can be hundreds of kilometers. this should signify that different numbers of wavelengths are to be placed in the MichelsonMorley experiment between the semitransparent mirror and the two mirrors placed at equal distance from it in parallel and perpendicular directions to the absolute motion.t)V is . light beams had to cover the paths « thereandback » and the firstorder in v/c effects always vanished in the final result (as we have shown several times in this book. Indeed. V 77 c' (31..x: = nir/k. For this reason. where n is is an integer) same moment. the coherence of light emitted much higher than the coherence of light emitted by other sources.e. a single light aether was always used in all » was searched for.e. those performed with inertially moving implements). (31. The inevitable result was that in all « inertial » wind experiments (i. no secondorder effects can appear either). light emitted by two different lasers can interfere in the same manner as light emitted by a single source and split into two beams interferes if the two beams meet.
This was and also described below. light. /^ direct SM. proceeding from L^(Lg) interferes with the reflected The refracted beam beam proceeding from opposite » (« direct ») Lr (La)' ^^^^^ the latter has covered distance d in « direction and after being reflected {SM ^). if we have two different light sources which produce coherent then firstorder in vie experiments can be set up also on inertially the intention of moving implements. Let at the instantaneous electric intensities of the light beams produced by L^ A and by L ^ at point B be. light beams meeting propagating only there ». 321 Light emitted from laser L^ (or Lg) is f^ partly refiected and partly refracted by the semitransparent mirror SM {SM'^). SM. The photodetector D^ by the semitransparent mirror SM\ (Dp) indicates the result of the interference. 321) opposite SM. 32. 164 . sed the « coherent lasers » experiment. SM. respectively. THE INERTIAL The scheme of the « « COHERENT LASERS » » EXPERIMENT if coherent lasers inertial) is experiment (which. For the sake of simplicity.(excluding our experimental activity !) represents the « rotating disk » expeinertially « riment where the implement cover closed paths between « « moving splitting » and is not and the ». we shall assume that the semitransparent SM ^ and SM\ (SM ^ and SM'^ lie at the same point (see fig. analysed in detail in Carnahan (1962) who propoMarinov ( 1978p). performed in a laboratory. 322) which we shall call point A (B). mirrors Let us suppose point first that the implement is at rest in absolute space.1. will be called as follows (fig. However. Fig.
writing by / the A (point B) after the mixing in this case.1) Wa = w + AcO ^ 2 TT f 2 77 C 2 77 C 2 T 77 C \ 2 + aT — 2 (32. Fig. a a. (A^„) is the observed wavelength of the « opposite » (« direct ») beam. ag are the initial phases. 322 If mixing. we wish to find the electric intensities at point A (or point B) after the we have to add E^Sind E^. taking for the latter an additional phase former an additional phase in shift lnd/X^ (taking for the shift lird/X/^). Let us now set the implement motion with velocity v which makes an its angle 9 with the intensity at point « direct » direction of axis. we have 165 . If we wish to find the electric to add £a and ^B' taking for the latter an additional phase shift lnd/X ^^(taking for the former an additional phase shift lird/X^J.^A = where ^na" sin (w^/ + a^) £b = ^m sin (tOg/ + a^) (32.2) are the angular frequencies (0 < Aw <^ to). where Ag. Aa' '^b ^r^ ^he wavelengths. Thus. in both beams are equal.. and we have assumed that the amplitudes £^«.
Designate by t/^.. variable amplitudes of (£^ + E^)^aind{E^ + we can U^= t/B= U^.<Pa)y <]pj= 2 (. sin((o^/ + a^) + 1 £„„.„«.5) ^—COsMy 1.ttg  Aui y ) (1  V — cos ^) ^ ^ ] ) = = 2 £„a. Dp.)b. (32.«.sin{ y (2(or » a^+ a.4) Let the photodetectors transform the incident light intensity into electric tension which we lead to a point (call it point Q in the A and B. sinCw^/ lird = + a^+ ) "a — = 2£„. sm (Wg/ + a^) = = 2£„..subscript proper time of a clock attached to the implement (for brevity we omit the « .i / £^a..»).^cos'i. Up^ the electric tensions middle between points on the outputs of the squares of the write detectors D^..+ (" d — (w d Aco  )(\  V  cos9)]} . 19) and ( 10.3) fi^) and = r^. Since U ^.cos ( — 1 [ Aw/ + a^.sin{ 2 1 1 [2wr + a^+ a3+ (w + A B ^ [Aw/ + a^.2 1 )] = £„„.„. . (1 + + cos<p^).1 y <Pb) = t/„. sm(a)^/ + « + a^+ iTTd ^ ) A Ao — + £. (see ( 10.. respectively. (/„ are proportional to the £i. (1 cosfpg).a^^ y(t^ + {^ d Aw 2 ) (1 + v^ cos ^) ] } . c Aw . we shall obtain for the electric intensities at points A and B. 166 . cos ( — <p ^) sin (w/ + (32.cos( y ( y ) (1 + V — cos ^) ) } = = 2 £„„ cos y <)p b) sin (w/ + )8 g) (32.
.
10) Taking oi/lrr = a phase shift in the 5. This » U^ coherent lasers on a rotating disk experiment light is analogical to the « rotafig. 1 ^11.aB.8) are fulfilled. Df^. while there a unique light source in the former. as lasers can be seen immediately from source 5" 322 if both A/g. « and U^ will obtain additional phase shifts [see (32. 322) Let us measure the Let the first implement from fig.5)) whose sum is given by formula (32.<Pb) = —<^^ 2d (32.Ifweknowa^. with the real : along the « direct » direction. However. Let us then set the implement in motion with a certain velocity v Thus. The experiment is to be performed as follows Assuming that the conditions (32. (/g mount in rotation in a V. we shall consider the coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment (Marinov. should be replaced by a unique and the mirrors A/^.a = mil. If the disk is first at rest and then set the electric tensions (/^. we can measure only a change in the velocity of the implement. 1978p) whose is essence as follows (fig. 322 almost equal to the « Itt and the source » 5" is very near to the rim of the disk.8) be fulfilled. let us measure some phase a ofthe electric tension (t/^ + (/b)c.a = d — oi\/. we obtain argument of the resultant electric tension a' .3). c' (32.« coherent lasers » experiment. ting disk » experiment. » The substantial difference between the « rotating disk experiment and in the fact that is the « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment consists there are (n'o sources emitting coherent light in the latter.d= m. 321 on a rotating disk and on the outputs of the detectors D ^. it will be a which corresponds .4).1. If the new phase which we should measure is a . condition (32. then rotating disk time lags which should appear along path 168 experiment cannot give any positive effect because the d will be compensated by the .10). THE « COHERENT LASERS ON A ROTATING DISK EXPERIMENT » to « To show more clearly why the inertial « coherent lasers » experiment is be explained in the manner presented in §32. v = 45 m/s = 162 km/h. Thus if we should make angle d in fig. clockwise direction with a linear rotational velocity of its rim then the arguments of formulas (32. we can calculate v cos^. (32.9) in the to the following change sum of the phase shifts of the electric tensions U^ and U^ (<P'a. 10'^ Hz. the initial phases of the lasers are unknown.<Pa) + (<p'b.
. (32. when setting the disk in rotation.e.9)] ^ 8i^< ^^^^ . Choosing a' — a = irll rad. At the condition (32. the measuring error could be at most as large as the effect to be measured. the difference in the initial phases of both lasers cannot change because both lasers move all the time opposite time lags which will appear along the paths from with the same absolute velocity. to perform it under this condition one must have two lasers whose frequencies can differ from one another and vary with [see (32.S to ^ and A/g. (32.3.13) 169 . Indeed. (32. 322) give the result (32. Let us now analyse the different point of view If after we move the implement with a constant acceleration w. when « switching on the aether wind ». 1 1 ' « coherent lasers » experiment from a slightly which will show that it is not necessary to spend time and effort in its performance because.. the velocity any time interval / will be v = ut. i. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE « COHERENT LASERS AND LIGHT DOPPLEREFFECT EXPERIMENTS » As technology cannot yet produce a laser with a high enough frequency stability [Letohov and Chebotaev (1974) have achieved stability 6w/(o = 10 '* for 100 seconds].cos'[y (Aco » tt)/].6) and assuming ^ = 0. ). it has already been carried out in a very similar arrangement and has given the result predicted by us.IO rad/s for any of the lasers.IO'^ rad/s) the frequency instablility mentioned above leads to 5co = tt. Putting this into (32. d^nX. a^ ttgl — A<o = 27r«.12) we obtain (^A+ ^b)c = 2(/„. that to obtain a positive effect in the « rotating disk » expe6. we obtain Sco < (7r/2)IO rad/s. / = 100s.10) because both coherent light sources are here spatially separated and. the « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment will always (at any angle 6 in fig. while (assuming co = tt. M Remember §26). riment at any angle the source must be placed at the centre of rotation (see 32. the « coherent lasers » experiment cannot be performed under the condition Ato 0.11) where / is the time of measurement in which the velocity of the implement changes from to v. as we shall show. However.
we obtain can now have to different frequencies to^. Doppler effect. the acceleration is along the axis of the implemenet). is frequency Aco be registered. such large accelerations cannot be realized with lasers. Hence the lasers and a change in the « beat » Nevertheless. repetition of The « essence » of Bommel's is experiment and of our accelerated coherent lasers in fig. electric tension Thus. we il = (7r/2)IO ' to. mirror SM'q and the receiver (mirror SM\) move with acceleration. have conclude that also accelerated « coherent lasers » experiment cannot be performed at the present state of technique. Hence. cover distance the velocity of the receiver at the reception moment 1) its different (higher for u pointing along the emitterreceiver line) velocity of the emitter at the emission will be from the this moment. a' — a which is equal to the product of the frequency shift accelerated motion. as the velocity of light is the product of frequency and wavelength.14) represents some additional frequency increase. Indeed. 321) experiment the same. The accuracy of the Mossbauer effect {8u}/u) = 10'^) is not higher than that of lasers. Taking the data given after formula (32. Since the emitter (say. there is no need to perform it because this would be only a Bommel's (1962) experiment where the frequency change was established by using the Mossbauer effect and by accelerating a (32. However. as there is a certain time during which light has to then. Einstein (191 pointed to simple and clear physical confirmation. // = to 45 cm/s'. since it must be 5to < S2. phenomenon many years before experimental The to analysis of the « coherent lasers » experiment given here allows one understand that when the emitter and receiver move with acceleration. i. the frequency received will differ from the emitted one.where „ il = d — uiu (32. Thus the number of light 170 . however. the frequency of the resultant should increase (we repeat. this rad/s. then light velocity will be different for different velocities of the implement (with respect to the implement) because the frequency received remains unchanged.e. when accelerating the implement. then the shift in the received frequency leads to an additional phase shift fi and the time /of waves (wavelengths) placed along the distance between emitter and receiver changes (the number increases for c T T u and decreases for c T 1 u)... as a result of the d.14) gamma emitter and absorber with u = 10* m/s'..10) and t = l(X)s.
: if performed in a laboratory. performed first considered by us in detail in Marinov (1978q).. THE « WIRED PHOTOCELLS*. 331) p? .1. We review by Godart (1974). 33. THE INERTIAL The essence of the « « WIRED PHOTOCELLS.§33. this paper here. is called inertial) as folows (fig. EXPERIMENT » The is « wired photocells experiment. EXPERIMENT » wired photocells is experiment (which.
33. proceeding we conclude that in a unit is of time more photons will strike P^.. a. Thus the currents produced by the = J — Ay/2.. 33.33.P] whose axis is equal to V. Indeed. from the aether conception for photocells will be 7. = r(I  v/c). Let us rotate the axis of the implement so that the absolute velocity of the laboratory will be pointing from P. Thus the actual energy flux densities will be unit of time . we also have to take into account that cell P. b) For the case in fig. Now. 33.la and P^ will be : For the case / = r^ . (33.la demonstrates the case where the absolute velocity «/ of the flow laboratory is is perpendicular to the axis of the apparatus. J. THE* AETHER WIND* EFFECT Fig.4) v/c 172 .1) where r is the actual distance. . when the light source will at the middle position between the photocells P^ and P^ no current through the galvanometer.e. = r(I + v/c). where J the current will produced by them in the case through the galvanometer. in fig.^ = J + Ay/2. r. light to P^ (fig. = \ _^ = + v/c ^ Airr'iX \ v/cf .= ' '>\ '  ' 4nr'{\v/cy (33. (33. will collect in a all photons in a cylinder (suppose the photocells circular) whose axis is equal to c minus the photons in the cylinder P.3) However.lb). (for simplicity 33.2) where P is the energy flux radiated by the whole light source we suppose the source as a point and the radiation isotropic). while the cell P^ will collect in a unit of time all photons in a cylinder whose axis is equal to c plus the photons in the cylinder P^P'^ whose axis is equal to v. Hence a) the energy flux density over P.lb . and the difference in current Ay flow now the « effective » distances of the photocells the distances between the emission position of the source from the source and the reception positions of the cells) will be r. propagation.2. v/c)' (33. I = P 47rrf = P Anr'il + v/cy / = 4 P tt r] = Att r' {\ P  . (i.
'„ = /.2). = 47 — c . order in v/c ^= In y. Since the electric currents produced by the photocells are proportional energy flux densities. = . I it was J = 5. if these velocities are shall measured on a proper Thus we have /. (33. Let us note that if we take into account only the effect described by formula (33. i.„/c.—^ + v/c 1 .e. (33..lb J. we have to conclude A I that the « wired photocells » experiment gives a negative (null) result.= 4 J. the photons which strike (3..32)] c.5) for the case a and.— — 1 ^ .3). 77' r^ b) For the case in 33.^ have velocity [see formula = c (33.. we have thus established that the fluctuation shift was lower than 10 component of the Earth's absolute velocity in the plane of rotation of the implement must be less than km/s (we performed the experiment during different hours of the day). and P.7) and from the to the last three formulas we obtain (33. for the case b.: (33..: /*.=kl.. we shall have : a) For the case in fig. fig. the effect Ay = y.la J = kl = where /c is k P .1 1) 173 .6) v/c clock.4). « =67— c ' .v/cy first For their difference obtain within an accuracy of y.8) 4 a constant.10) our realization of the wired photocells ' » i/ experiment./f . 33. taking into account the result of our interferometric « coupledmirrors » experiment (§ 19. Since the and thus it had to be Ay = 10 A for A. (33. However.  y. (33.7c./c.Indeed. kP 77.. /. respectively.9) = kL = we kP 4 7rr'(l  v/cf (1 . velocities c'n= .10" = km/s. >. = /.r'(l J v/cy (1 + + v/cy J ' (33.
Such an effect has already been observed in betatrons and synchrotrons where the radiants are elementary particles.then it will be the same as the effect obtained by a into account that shift r. = P . we merely direct the interested reader to our original publication.12)].9) and (33. radiation is exactly equal the energy flux densities over in fig. no positive absolute effect can be observed in the « wired photocells » experiment.12) v/cy Thus. THE « WIRED PHOTOCELLS ON A ROTATING DISK EXPERIMENT • tion of the absolute effects described in §33.11) is to be the same as the effect provoked by a shift of the light source over a distance Ar = {v/c)r = 0. Such a shift of the electric bulb has provoked an electric current AJ of about 2. THE EFFECT OF RELATIVISTIC DISTRIBUTION IN THE RADIATION We explain the negative (null) result in the « wired photocells » experi ment.4). 331 and opposite to the /*.5 mm. taking into account the relativistic distribution in the radiation flux moving light source. density of a rapidly The theory of macroscopic of this the is relativistic distribution in the radiation of a shall light source given in Marinov (I978q). we obtain that for such a wind » effect described by formula (33. b) J in fig. We following 332) : 174 . 33. I978q) shows that the effect of the relativistic distribution effect. and taking velocity the « aether 33. of the light source to the photocell P. and P2 are given « : aether wind » a) For the case shown For the case shown a by the formula (33. Since in the treatment is phenomenon a heavier mathematical apparatus needed.3. as a result of these two effects (compare formulas (33. = 4 P . 7Tr'(lv/cy Anr'il + (33.. We assume that the same effect must exist also when the radiant is a macroscopic light source and we have confirmed this assumption with the help of the « wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment (see §33. in the i. 33 lb by the following formulas /.2). 10 'A. Our theoretical analysis (Marinov.2 « have proved our theoretical prediction about the mutual annihilaand §33.4.3 by the help of the wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment whose scheme is the (fig. over a (i^/c)th part of the distance Assuming v = 300 km/s we had r = 500 mm.e.
v the component of the velocity of the source or the cells or both along the line of light propagation.3) formula (33. can be slits bout which rotates clockwise. 175 . 332 The source S and/or the photocells T. are two mounted on a turnawhich are always at rest.J^ > 0] effect of relativistic distribution (33.7). moving. one J. Source and In all formulas relevant to the is « wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment. we can assume that this is the velocity of a point on the rotating disk whose radius R is equal to the distance from the centre of rotation to the centre of the light source. In such a case one registers only the in the radiation described by formulas and for the relative change of the difference in current we obtain [cf.12) appear together and one registers no change in the difference in current when changing the velocity of rotation. cells at rest.10).13) b) Cells moving. > 0) Ay — y = 2 V — c (33.1 c) — does not cells exist. All other details are as in the « wired photocells » experiment. registers only the aether wind » effect described by formulas (33...9) and (33. taking into account that now AJ = J.4) and (33. In such a case the effects described by formulas (33. We have performed a) this experiment in three variants : Source moving. and T.Fig. . /*. and for the relative in change of the difference current Ay we obtain (Ay = — y.14) see since now the « aether 1) wind » effect described by formulas (33. P. source at « rest. Thus.. supposing that the slits are narrow enough. Ay 1 =^7 In such a case V (33. with (33.12).
The distance of the lamp from the centre of rotation (measuring from the centre of the lamp's windows) was R = 79. At low rotational velocities the current 7 was periodically (with the period of rotation) increasing (when the cells were illuminated) and decreasing. The rate of rotation A^ was measured by a light stroboscopic cyclometer and maintained automatically with a precision 6A^/A^ = ± 2. equal to 6. a slight « singlesinusoidal » difference in current Ay was also observed. sed in mercury at the centre of the disk.. so we did not register a substantional In our realization.3. difference in the fluctuation of the galvanometer at rest disk.10 V We made the difference in this corresponded to a rotational rate current to be zero for v/c = 10 current was stable. (case b). For case AJ was made equal to zero when lamp and cells were at 36 Nrey/s Fig. rest.00 rev/s — by a corresponding shift of the cells (case a) or of the lamp c.e.6 ± 0. 333 176 .5.2 cm and the distance of the cells about 98 cm. 10 the rate of rotation. and at rotation of the The difference in current AJ was fed to a directcurrent electronic amplifier with a low resistance input (i.10 '' A (at maximum rotational velocities). ' — A^ = 6. At a rate of rotation higher than 5 rev/s the ^ A and did not change with the increase of For low rotational velocities.we used a stabilized gas discharge lamp as a light The conductors from the lamp and from the photocells were immersource. which can be considered as a galvanometer) whose fluctuation corresponded to 57 = ± 3.
the The essence of the « cauldron » experiment is as follows (fig. by the inaccuracy relative error is 8N are ± too small to be discussed. 7 = 2(c 10 (33. It is b.In fig. THE « CAULDRON » EXPERIMENT We have proposed the « cauldron » experiment in Marinov ( 1978r) with aim of showing not only that light propagation phenomena are absolute but also all electromagnetic phenomena.14) but Ay = 6( V 10 c '). Thus electromagnetic experiments can be set up to help register the absolute velocity of the laboratory. 341) : .25 %. Also. while the fluctuation (for v/c = ± = 6.2 account the errors introduced by the inaccuracy SR 0. The errors introduced we do not take into 0. 333 we give the results of our measurements for cases a and was registered case c no difference in current the fluctuation. 10 ' in case a) minimum relative is ± \J%. Ay y In the graphs.13) and (33. For which could be discerned from obvious that our working formulas were not (33.15) we give only the fluctuation errors. because its due to the §34. error cm.
4) . and d is the distance between will The masses be in equilibrium at the condition /. (34. If we do not take into account the mutual gravitational attraction between our masses the attraction caused by the other celestial forces will act a) and bodies.3) and the equation which we can write within the necessary accuracy for the new state of equilibrium." Y ^j^ ) = Y ^. cos = F. Suppose now magnetic forces that the velocity of the cauldron has It is changed with Ai^ > because of the yearly motion of the Earth. From (34. on the left mass.3) where 6 is the angle between the horizontal plane and the radius pointing from the centre of the cauldron to any of our masses. ciA Idt = (1 0] = ^grad(^^ )= « is ± ^ _ _)y.= ^p^yo^ (342) where the sign the sign « + » is for the electromagnetic force acting on the right mass. The masses lie in the vrplane and.1) where /w„ is the proper mass of any of the small masses. we suppose that the absolute velocity of the laboratory is parallel to the vzplane. will easy to see that the electro so that angle 9 will change with M=  change and a new state of equilibrium will be installed.smO . Dis the distance between their centres and vis the velocity of the Earth (we ignore the rotational velocity about b) its The interaction full electromagnetic force caused by the mutual electromagnetic between the charges of our masses [see formula (7.3) and take into account that for the case considered /. for the sake of simphcity. z^ = F^z% is (34. = m„grad(Y.5) in into account that for the case considered and take dAJdt = 0] f. A^ > and distance d will change with (we ignore the change AD as it is very small with 2MRsin6 < respect to D). we obtain A^= 178 — cot^. the proper mass of the Earth.  » for the electromagnetic force acting their centres.the right and the raxis (with unit vector ::") downwards to the Earth's centre. (34.3) M [write the NewtonMarinov equation (8. then the following two on any of these masses : The full gravimagretic force caused by the gravimagretic interaction is with the Earth whose mass a form analogical to (7. A/„ axis).
i. if we are on a ship sailing with velocity v in a canal.Assuming e the Earth's absolute velocity to be i/ = 300 km/s. « It is clear that the experiment cart is ave a unique result by an observerabsolutist who cauldron » at rest in absolute space. This experiment is difficult to realize. However. if gravitation is a analogue of electromagnetism. we obtain a yearly variation about the state of equilibrium (for Av = ±30 km/s and = tt/A) Oy. Indeed..served described above will be observed.2). i. in a vacuum tube their magnetic 2) If the « relativists » consent that the electromagnetic force two charges changes when they are magnetic considering the « set in between motion (because of the appearing of relativity will automatically fail. no variations about the state of equilibrium are to be observed when the absolute velocity of the apparatus changes. a « Newtonian electromagnetism. this experiment sics as is extremely fruitful for theoretical phy a thought experiment It 1) shows that magnetism is not a relative but an absolute phenome non. bodies. if experiment only as a thought experiment. according to the principle of relativity.. then the principle cauldron » then with the same velocity towards the prow. producing spheres (very likely one has to use electrets) which have to maintain a constant charge for a whole year. The same yearly i79 .= ± 10 ' . contradicts the everyday fact that when field changing the velocity of the electrons also changes. there are difficulties in can be measured.r = —7.5) angles until 10 " rad By the light lever of Jones (1975).e. light » The experiment can throw abundant If gravitation is on the law of analogue of gravitational attraction.e. Indeed. and we move our cauldron with velocity v (relatively to the ship) first towards the stern and force). However. However. (34. then a yearly variation as variation will be ob. however. This. if there is a gravitational the magnetic energy and the proper masses are responsible for the gravimagretic interaction of the bodies. another observerrelativist on the bank will conclude that all three states of the ship will conclude that the states sternbound and prowbound equilibrium must be different (remember the « clocksroundtheworld . » experiment as predicted 3) — §22. (hen an observerrelativist on of from the rest state of equibrium equilibrium must be the same and different where the cauldron is at rest with respect to the ship.. Nevertheless. then « if there is a gravitational analogue to the magnetic energy and the masses are responsible for the gravimagretic interaction of the no yearly variation Marinov » analogue to will be observed.
. r moment of force i. If the charges are at rest the force acting upon f e can be written F„ = eE= e'r . V X {v X r) = v(v. also in the case if there §35. then the positive charge will be under the action of the attraction of fild Coulomb magnetic — e and also under the influence of the B = Thus — c {V X r)lr\ the total force acting upon F„ e is given by f (^) ^ e{E + Since c V X B) = + ^ c r \^^ V X {V X r).e and . Thus the positive effect. as we have shown in §6. accep Newton's third law breaks down in the domain of ejectromagnetism.r)  r 180 . prove the principle of One ting that expects a positive effect in the TroutonNoble experiment.e. the radius vector pointing from — e to + e be denoted by r. of charges made move with a constant velo city V. THE TROUTONNOBLE EXPERIMENT TroutonNoble (1903) experiment to is The as historical generally considered relativity one of the most important experiments for electromagnetic phenomena. in toto : Consider two opposite point charges . However. Newton's third law has an universal validity and holds good also in the domain of electromagnetism. which conventional physics predicts in the TroutonNoble experiment. As the force acts in the direction of r the produced by the pair of charges vanishes. is based on wrong theoretical calculations. taking §82 and §83 of his book 82.e.is no gravitational analogue to the magnetic energy masses are responsible for the gravitational interaction of the bodies and the (as was assumed by Newton). A/„ If the pair = is r X f„ = to 0. We present here the theoretical analysis and description of the TrontonNoble experiment given by Janossy (1971).
so that the line perpendicular to the surface of the condenser plates subtended an angle of 45" with the supposed direction of the orbital velocity of the Earth.2 and 181 . In the actual experimental it suspended and The tion. experiment a charged condenser was susThe condenser was placed so that — 45".r)(r X v)/r' . If the moment is (26) exists then the elastic fibre is upon which the condenser suspended twisted to such an extent that the elastic stress arising in the fibre compensates the moment changes its M its exerted by the condenser. we find for the absolute ^=^sin(2^).1) as follows (see §6. In the actual only a negligible correction to (26). i. In the tion. actual experiment showed no such changes in orienta The negative outcome of the TroutonNoble experiment can be interpreted by supposing that the motion of the system relative to the aether produces not only an electromagnetic moment of force but also elastic stresses which compensate exactly the electromagnetic moment offeree. the direction of v. Turning the condenser together with support by 90" the equilibrium is moment M sign and so the expected to be disturbed. (26) above derivation we have neglected the effects of retarda A more detailed calculation shows that the latter effects give 83. arrangement the condenser was was watched whether or not it would change its orientation while the Earth was turning round and therefore the orientation of the condenser relative to the direction of motion of the Earth would change. pended on an elastic string..we is find that the moment offeree produced by the pair of charges equal to M{y) = r X F{v) = — r iv. Our explanation of the ment is negative outcome of the TroutonNoble experi§7.e. value of the Denoting the angle between v and moment of force by 0.
§36. Let us have a circular accelerator of electrons A. as a matter of see §13. on its screen we should see the picture shown in the figure. pass through the narrow slit S and reach the electrons revolving in the accelerator along the tangent to their trajectory. that the velocity of light is always equal to c (with respect to absolute space !) but not to the geometrical sum of c and the velocity i^ We of the emitter. according to the Newton's third law. passing through the semitransparent mirror M. and no rotational moment of force can be produced by these two charges. On the other hand. are registered by the receiver R. 361) : outline given by Karastoyanov (1972). Janossy (as well as conventional physics) does not take into account that when one of the charges moves. Chanfact. THE « SYNCHROTRON » EXPERIMENT have proposed the « synchrotron » experiment in Marinov (1977b) with the aim of showing that the ballistic (Ritz) model of light propagation is not adequate to physical reality. and he calculates the effect in the TroutonNoble expe riment by the help of inappropriate formulas. the full electromagnetic forces acting on two isolated charges are equal and oppositely directed along the line connecting them. the « synchrotron » is The essence of experiment..3) as a new source of radiation. which arose from an as follows (fig. Short light pulses (packages of photons) are emitted by the emitter E in regular short intervals of time AT. These light pulses.e. we change the velocity of this light source. Our formula (34.2) is the right one to be used in this case.During the rotation of the Earth. can consider the revolving electrons (representing. after being refiected by the semitransparent mirror M. the reference point where the other charge is placed also moves. i. Thus the full electromagnetic forces acting on them are equal to the corresponding kinetic forces. Let the high peaks described by the electronic beam correspond to the 182 . after being by the electrons. a fast moving mirror electrons. reflected The photons. then. the time for We — which the photons will will cover the distance from the accelerator to mirror M Hence if we obtain electric pulses from the emitted and received light pulses and if we lead them to the electrodes of an electronic oscillograph Osc. with the increase of the velocity v of the revolving electrons. If ging the velocity of the the velocity of light depends on the velocity of the source of radiation. become shorter. turn back and. the total time derivatives of the magnetic potentials caused by both electric charges considered above are equal to zero (the distance between these two charges as well as their velocity do not change full !).
^^z? Fig. it will be D = and D kAT. When the light pulses are emitted at intervals of AT. Let us show this. where k is is the the 183 . distance d will light depends on the velocity of the source of change when the velocity of the electrons changes. 361 emitted light pulses and the low peaks to the received light pulses. the distance d between the high and low peaks will remain the same when the velocity of the electrons along the circular trajectory of the accelerator increases. distance between them over the screen. If the velocity of radiation. If the velocity of light does not depend on the velocity of the source of radiation.
If the velocity of the source M . first The difference between the distances and m the and second cases will be If A^ = kbit.1) Ai^) c' where L is the distance between the accelerator t/. 184 . L = 9 m and Aj^ = c/300 = 10' m/s. the low peaks will be shifted with respect to the high peaks over a distance Ac/ equal to the distance D between the high peaks. LA»/ (c + v) (c I __ = «^ f LAi/ . come earlier to the receiver in the second case will be (suppose t^v <^ c) A/ = L _ c. then it must be Ac/ = increase of the electrons' velocity.  L _= c. obtain A/ If the velocity = of light our absolute spacetime theory does not depend on the velocity of the source. (36. beam covers over the screen for a unit of first v and then must be added geometrically to the velocity of light. we choose AT = 10 '° s. and mirror d^ A/.socalled constant of scanning of the oscillograph and is equal to the hori zontal distance which the electronic time. as for any asserts. c = c  Let the velocity of the electrons in the accelerator be V I Aw. accelerator to mirror Af in the second case. Thus for such an increase of the electrons' velocity in the accelerator. I' » Hence the time Ar with which the light pulses will w. we AT. then the velocity of the photons on the track from the = c + v in the first case and will be c.
27. 345. 8 Teil — Optische Konstanten. Nachr. 898. 1962. 18.. J. and Prunier Phys. Soc.. Cambridge. J. Champeney D. Pergamon Press.. 199. 15. 35. Proc. 41 1. Ann.REFERENCES 1. E. et al. Nature. University Press.. 4.. J. und Elektronic. Sept. 24. 28. Briatore L. 328. Phys. IRE.. 241. Budapest. Soc.. 1974. Phys. 10. 4. 1969. Einstein A. 1958. E. Janossy L. Dufour A. Einstein A. 203. 1938. 1975. C. Leipzig. 1962... 166. J. Verlag. Larmor J. Briscoe J. 26. The Classical Theory of Fields. 21. Rev... Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Mossbauer Effect. Phys. C. V.. 1960. Nuovo Cimento. 23. 141.. E. York. 1959.. 14. London. Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitdt Einstein A.. 12. 6. 1977. 301. 1961. Czechosl. \9\\.. Dart H..Astr. 47A.. P. D. 351. 29. The Theory of Electrons.. 16. 7. Jena. 13. 1962.. Bailey J. D. Macmillan Co. S. A. 1851. Ives H. 7. Comptes Rendus. 4. and Keating R. Lett. 268. Phys. 19. 11. 15. 22. Lifshitz E. 8. der Phys.A. Godart Hafele Harress R... Bommel 3.. and Braunschweig.. H. 215. 365. F. Am. 165. Fizeau H. 33. and Stilwell G. 289. Jones R. R. Saclay. M. and Lifshitz E. Roy. LandoltBornstein.. 891. 117. Aether and Matter. 50. New 9. Landau L. 1916. 1974. 30. 1971. et al. Karastoyanov A.. 1962. 1937. Lett. Landau L. Lett.. 111. Mechanik. Einstein A. Theory of Relativity Based on Physical Reality. B25. 20.. 1912. P. 25. No. Hubble E. 3. et Radium. \9U. W. 17. Science. 349. Lett. 1975. 1976.. Lorentz H. 5. The Observational Approach to Cosmology... F. Spectr. Opt. 15089/58 — 884830. 1907. Danby J. J. 22. 1972.. et al.. Lett.Ann.. Burcev P. 2. 4. der Phvs. 1976. 17. 1974.. Hay H. Lett. 1905. Techniques Nouvelles. Dissertation. and Leschiutta S. 17. 8. Phys. 38A.. Horedt G.. 1971. British Patent. 1942. Proc. M.. 1963.. 153.. Fundamentals of Celestial Mechanics. 185 . 1900. Vieweg. 1972. Akademiai Kiado. Carnahan C. Springer 28. Oxford.
Found 1977b. 343. 54A. 1 S.. 1928. 1975. . 235. Sc... Proc. 345. 71. 44A. Phys.. A. Lett. 293. S.. Theor. E. 8. 1. 829... J. 16. H.Found. J. Gen.. Rel.. Le((. . S. 36. 41. Phys. Phys. 1. S. 42. Lett. 45. Lett. 93 (1983)... 139. 345. Ind. Spec.31. 519. 965. 58. 50. Found. 343. 1974a.. 28. Lett. (1983). 37. S. J. et ai. Michelson A. 1978u. 63.. Phys. 7. 1972b. Phys. Theor. . . 1978b. 53. PrenticeHall. Techn. 1972a.. 403 (1981). 329 (1980). 12. A. Menzel D. 345.32\.. 115 (1981). 47. 13.. 1970.. Jnd. 48. S. 1947. 52. 433. \91%\\. Soc... et ai.. Phys. 55. Sagnac G. Roy.Found. 61. 445 (1979).. 32. 1978t.. 62.Spec. S.. Sc. . 32B. 38. Techn. 197. 11. 59.. 55B. 1973. 1978n. 1975a. 33. Roy. J. 9. 1913. Found Int. 49.. 34. 15.. der Phys. . Ind. . 6. Phys. S. and Morley W.. 70. 1976. 637. .. \91U. Phys.. Spec. Rogers G. 1978j. Phys.. 244. S.. 1885 (1983). Science. 1978i. Phys. 1970. 73.... 85. J. 1978c. Michels A. . Phys. 57 (1980). 21. Grav. J. 40A. S. Phys. 40.. 19781. \91Sd... Int.. 1978a. S. Theor. 68. dos. 64. Phys. S. Phys. 239. Phys.. 1886. 31. Marinov inov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov S. 1977a. \91 5b. Phys. 31. Pogany B. 137.. L. 60. 1976b. 67. 69. 1978q.. Chechosl. S.. N... 1976a. 19. S. \9nk.. B24.. Theor. Techn. Ann.. S. 1978r. Phys. . Theor.. Lett. 231. J. Am. Phys. 1978f. 46. Santos A. Found Phys. 57. . 56. 8. S. New 65. Player M. 9. 13.Ind. Phys. 62A.80. Proc.. \91Sm. S. 1978g. Comptes Rendus. J. Int. . 51. Survey of the Universe. 157. 1974b. Physica. // Nuovo Cimento. 43. 39. 1. 66. S. J. 947. Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Jersey. Sc. 1978s. Phys. 571.. 44. 31. 708. 1975. 1410. S. \91Sp. 189. Theor.. S. 54. 183. 41A.. Soc. 35. J. S..
1920. 1402. Rov. P. Acad Amsterdam. and Noble H. P. 512. 73. 445. P. ai. 398. 72. 74. Zeeman Zeeman Zeeman Zeeman 1914. Proc.. 187 . P. Proc.. 22. Soc. Amsterdam. et Row Acad.. Roy. 18. Amsterdam. Proc. T.72. 17. Row Acad. 23. 1922. 75. 1915. 76. Amsterdam. 132. Proc. R. Roy. Trouton F.. Proc.. 1903. Acad.
.
.
.
.
1979). In . In 1979—1981 he lived in (.luly 1982 he organized in (.lime Absoluteness (K SIA) and together with Prof. Fowvelocily mechanics. nics. from where he was expelled and pensioned as a paranoic in 1974. In 197X he lived in Washingt<m. In the Sofia psychiatries because of his September 1977 he received a passport and transferred to Brussels.S OF K SIA 1973. ( /echoslo\akC hinese carg<»es. 2. 1982). where he published the treaty FCONOMIA POI I IK A I FOS RICA home — is IFOKIA DFI PRF//I where he edited (Kst Ovest. encyclopaedic CFASSIC Al PIHSK 1. In 1982 he published the I and in 1984 the second part of the collection of documents HF I ll()R^^ WAV OF IRl ( I H (Fast West. J. 1974. and 1977 he got compulsory treatment political dissent. (.enoa. 4. (Fast West. From 1974 to 1977 Marinov mana ged his own Laboratory for Fundamental Physical Problems. P. 1981) c<msisting of the following fi\e \<»lumes: cal apparatus. studies in to ph> From 1974 he worked in as Assistent Professor in the the Ph>sical Facult> of the Sofia llniversity and as scientific researcher Physical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. in In 1966/67.en<»a the lnternali<mul onlcrcncc on Space. In I94K he finished a Soviet College in Prague and began to study physics at the Universities of Prague and Sofia. (Fast West. As a first man in histor>. 1978). Washington.ra/). In and West(ierman 1958 he came hack his I96(J to Sofia to complete sics. S 25 . Highvelocity mechafirst (iravimagretism. in registering dra/. Mathemati Aviomatics. Wesle> edited the PR(K FFI)IN(. His absolute spacetime (heor> elaborated last in the I 20 >ears explains Ihoroughh all experiiiunts in high\eloci(> phxsics. In 1951 he went to the a Varna High Nav> School as volunteer and after graduating sailed as a deck officer on Bul garian. Since 1981 his his in (ira/. where he published his collection of poems FIST OTBRUFKN (Meter Peter. in he SI essence of his theor> and description of his experiments are gi\en FPIM'R Price: MFONF. 3. (ira/. in Marinov succeeded the absolute motion of Ihe Farth in u laboralor> with the help of the de>iati\e »coupled mirrors« evpcrinunt. 5. Flectromagnetism.Stefan Marinov was horn in Sofia on Ihe in a I February 1931 family of inlelleclual com munisls. (ienova.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.