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AXIOMATICS,
FUNDAMENTALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
VERIFICATIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE SPACETIME THEORY
C ESTOVEST^
Editrlce Internazionale
^
Stefan Marinov
MqovQ
AXIOMATICS, FUNDAMENTALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
VERIFICATIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE SPACETIME THEORY
f ESTOVEST*
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Editrice Internazionale
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AUSTRIA — Elin Pelin 22.B.73. Genova.78.59. Bruxelles edition. (02) 66.Published in Austria by International Publishers »EastWest« © International Publishers »EastWest« Marinov First published in 1977 by C. AUSTRIA . DRUCK: RMDRUCK GRAZ.. Tel.D. (010) 31..78. 16131 ITALY ul. 8010 Graz. Tel. 1987 Addresses of the International Publishers »EastWest« Affiliates: Morrellenfeldgasse 16.1981 Second Third edition. 1421 Sofia. BULGARIA — — via Puggia 47.S.
To Colombe .
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One then reads the second experimental part with the same distrust. would like first to point disk » experiment. as can be seen first from the part of this book. However. in the fourthquarter on the 20th century. on reading the book to the end. expecting easily to discover fiaws in experiments theories. then the special theory of relativity will definitely have to be rejected as not adequate to physical reality. « coupledmirrors » experiment is and whether the effects which he claims to have registered are not due to outside causes. If the experimental results reported by Marinov are confirmed by other experimenters. The different variants of the « rotating disk » and « moving platform » experiments which he has performed give further evidence for accepting his absolute spacetime conceptions as adequate to One can doubt whether Marinov's carried out well physical reality. performed for the time some 60 years ago.FOREWORD and so many experimental efforts in the last 100 years to the problem of determining absolute space that it seems almost senseless to continue spending time and money searching for a possible refutation of the principle of relativity. the link Marinov shows between the « rotating disk » experiment and his « coupledmirrors » (or « coupledshutters ») experiment is so clear and indisputable that one is impelled to logically accept his results. one is highly shocked. However. first formulated by Galilei. The Lorentz transformation (although treated from an absolute point of view) and the 4dimensional formalism of Min kowski will remain an important mathematical apparatus in the hands of the theoreticians. although. has obtained such a firm experimental confirmation that any researcher who. on opening the book of Stefan Marinov. which aim to disprove those one begins to realize that is I the experimental foundation of the general (Einstein) principle of relativity far from being so firm and indisputable as out the socalled « rotating is generally accepted. where firstorder in v/c effects were easily measured. So many articles have been dedicated One Thus. reads the first theoretical part with the due distrust with which one reads anything that contradicts wellestablished and broadly accepted theories. strains to refute it ressembles very much the seeker of a perpetuum mobile. This principle. . the changes which have to be introduced into high velocity physics are not to be so radical as some of Einstein's adversaries have claimed and persist to claim.
where absolute freedom will be given to any standpoint. I wrote the above foreword and gave it to a girlfriend of mine. 271. When but in living in Bulgaria (before September 1977). Sakharov distanced from my theory (see the whole story narrated in detail in NATURE. I think that a written statement by Sakharov (positive or negative) on my when he has more time for scientific work in Gor'ki) will be decisive for the speedy restoration of absolute space.Nevertheless. decided to visit Sakharov in Moscow. Sakharov has given only verbal opinions on my theory which are highly contradictory (as reported via the press or communicated to me). 1 visited Sakharov in Moscow flying from Brussels (February 1978). If ICSTA1982 will be representative. After the apearance of EPPUR SI MUOVE. the return to Newtonian absolute spacetime conceptions be one of the most important physics events in the secondhalf of the 20th century. Her oral message (July 1977) was that Sakharov is highly sympathetic wih my theory and will think about the matter of the foreword. September 1981 S. how perfidious Nature is. Sakharov Moscow. showing how simple and. at great personal risk. then the GRIO Conference in Venice (July 1983) will meet on a firm and stable absolute ground. A. have already written me about their interest to visit the conference. Sakharov and to send him EPPUR SI via many channels. he has no time to study the theory and to analyse the experiments in detail. For this reason I organize on the 8 II July 1982 in Genoa the International Conference on SpaceTime Absoluteness (ICSTA) which was prohibited by the Bulgarian government in 1977. Genoa and Venice. On the other hand. and the two old rivals. I invite the spacetime specialists all over the world to publish papers before the conference and to participate at theory (now — the conference. putting her scientific career at risk. Absolute spacetime has already obtained such a firm experimental confirmation that for its acceptance one needs one thing only: an open and wide discussion. 200 (1978)).Marinov 4 . will concur for the prospect of science. He said me the following: The problems raised by my theory and the conclusions to which it leads are so crucial and important for physics that he does not dare to take a standpoint. Two Nobelprizewinners. I MUOVE published the book with the draft preface. will The work of Marinov enigma will brings many hopes simple and that « be explained April 1977 in a similar one day the quantum Newtonian » manner. Prof. Later Acad. D. 296 and 272. at the same time. A. Grnz. As 1 could not receive his final consent. As the book had to appear. I frequently tried vain to establish a written contact with Acad. Wigner and Prof. who. as he is dedicating all his time to social and moral activities. a wellknown physicist and a Jewess still living behind the curtain. Salam. D.
Coordinate transformations 3. The nonrelativistic consideration 6. Acceleration Superacceleration 39 39 §5. and waves 54 56 56 Frequency and wavelength shifts of light 10. 2.CONTENTS PART §1.2. The Galilean transformation The Lorentz transformation The Marinov transformation Group properties of the Marinov transformation Velocity 26 30 35 §4.1. Fundamental equations in gravimagretism 8. 39 40 42 42 43 45 45 47 50 51 51 §6. The connection between densities and potentials 7. Time energy 5.1. 2. The MaxwellLorentz equations 7. Axioms for space.3.3.1.2.2. Dynamic shift (the Einstem effect) 62 . time and energy Axioms for the different types of energy Axiom for the conservation of energy High velocity axiom 16 22 22 25 25 §3. 3. The relativistic consideration The Lagrange equations 6.1.3. 2.1. § 10. §8. 4. §7. 1.3.1. 3. I — THEORETICAL 10 II II Introduction Axiomatics 2.2. Kinematic shift (the Doppler effect) 10. Elements of motion 4.2.4. The relativistic consideration Fundamental equations in electromagnetism The NewtonLorentz equation 7. The MaxwellMarinov equations 8. 3.1. §2. The nonrelativistic consideration 5. 37 37 38 4.2.2. The NewtonMarinov equation 8. Reduced charges and masses Particles 53 53 §9.3.4.2.
Time 11.5. Relation between refractive index and density 84 PART II §14.4.2.1. The HafeleKeating « clocksroundtheworld ment experiment 22. §22. The The « « watertube » experiment » 122 drag aberration experiment 127 §25. The RossiHall « meson » experiment 22. The quasiFoucault « coupledmirrors » experiment 19. The The accelerated « coupledmirrors » » experiment §21.3. The HarressSagnac experiment 25. ultrasonic « coupledshutters experiment 1 12 The kinematic time dilation experiments 22.3. The Harress. 69 physical essence of rest energy physical essence of cosmological « red shift » light in a 69 71 Propagation of 13.1.1. medium 74 74 81 Drag Refraction Collision between photons 13. The interferometric « coupledmirrors » experiment 102 104 1 1 §20. The Harress « rotating disk » experiment 25.2.Pogany experiment 25. The « antipodalclocks >» 115 1 16 » experi 116 1 18 §23. §17. § 13. 12.2. Cosmological aspects of light kinematics 12. 13. 11.2.1.4.2.§11.1.1. §18. Introduction §15. and particles 82 13. — EXPERIMENTAL 88 88 91 The quasiRoemer experiment The quasiBradley experiment The quasiDoppler experiment 95 » The quasiFizeau « coupledshutters experiment 97 101 §19. §16. The HarressMarinov experiment 25. 130 133 135 136 136 Practical performance of the HarressFizeau experiments HarressMarinov and 136 . The HarressFizeau experiment 25.3. §24. The deviative « coupledmirrors » experiment 19. dilation 64 64 65 (Einstein) time dilation Kinematic (Lorentz) time dilation Dynamic The The §12.2.
synchrotron » experiment References .3.4.1. The HarressSagnac experiment 29. wired photocells » experiment 33. 33.1. The disrupted The « « rotating disk » experiment » 138 coupledshutters on a rotating disk experiment 141 §28.5. §27. The quasiWiener The 32. The secondorder effects in the « rotating 29.4. 32. « standing waves » » experiment coherent lasers experiment The inertial « coherent lasers » experiment The « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment The connection between the « coherent lasers » and light Dopplereffect experiments « 164 168 169 171 » §33.1. 33. The The The The « inertial « « wired photocells » effect experiment 171 aether wind 172 effect « of relativistic distribution in the radiation » 174 174 177 wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment §34. The ZeemanSagnac experiment 28. 30.2. The cauldron experiment The TroutonNoble experiment The « 180 182 185 §36.§26.2.4.3.5.5.2.1.3.3. The HarressMarinov experiment 29. The IvesStilwell longitudinal « canal ray The transverse « canal ray » experiment The Hay « rotor » experiment The « rotorrotor » experiment The Santos experiment « experiment 154 155 156 158 160 162 163 §31. The HarressPogany experiment 29. §35.2.3. The noninertial « moving platform » experiment 143 144 145 145 146 147 148 §29. experiments » 154 30. 30. disk » experiment 150 150 150 151 151 Connection with kinematic time dilation light Dopplereffect §30. The HarressFizeau experiment 29. 30.1. The ZeemanMarinov experiment 28. The 33. The ZeemanPogany experiment 28.4. The Zeeman « moving platform » experiment 28. The ZeemanFizeau experiment 28. §32. The 30. 32.2.
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PART I — THEORETICAL .
making use exclusively of the mathematical apparatus given « Classical Physics » in part one. The « coupledmirrors » experiment. and the scientific community remained highly sceptical [see. All other conclusions We take only three physical quantities and formulas are obtained in a mathematically logical way. Landau and Lifshitz (nonquantum and nonstatistical) expounded. dealing with similar subject matter (1969. energy — as undefined notions and ten axioms (presented book) as unproved assertions. which prove the existence of absolute spacetime (considered in Part II of this book). we assume in that light propagates with a constant velocity along any direction absolute 10 . We defend an aethertype model of light propagation. 1974b) with whose help we registered the Earth's motion with respect to absolute space. we expound classical physics proceeding from Newtoin nian absolute spacetime conceptions. Two years later we carried variant (Marinov. Nonrelativistic mechanics.e. Horedt (1975)]. In contradistinction to conventional courses of theoretical physics. II. for example. INTRODUCTION work : In 1973 we completed the writing of our encyclopaedic in English). time. III. Danby (1962). the accuracy of this first performance in the socalled deviative variant was too low. IV.§1. performing the measurement in a laboratory. » ( 1 500 typed pages of five parts Mathematical apparatus. Gravimagretism. §2 of this — space. In the summer of 1973 we carried out the « coupledmirrors » experi ment (Marinov.. are described and analysed in part three of « Classical Physics ». Relativistic mechanics. vity. and thus we gave the first experimental refutation of the principle of relatiHowever. and many others carried out or proposed by us. i. 1978c) out for a second time the in its « coupledmirrors » experiment on a higher technological level socalled interferometric and we measured the Earth's absolute velocity with such an accuracy that no doubts can further remain about the invalidity of the principle of relativity. V. as well as all important highvelocity experiments carried out in the last 100 years. and including celestial mechanics as all say. Electromagnetism. so that any student can read our without encountering a single difficulty of mathematical or logical character. 1959). consisting « Classical Physics I. In this work theoretical classical is physics for undergraduates as in in.
the light « aether » is not some medium in at rest in absolute space which propagates call like sound light the air. AXIOMS FOR SPACE. as well as on the 4dimensional mathematical formalism of Minkowski. rightly describes the effects of any order in vie. but we preserve his followers. expressing in this for the great deeds of Einstein and way our high esteem even though we establish experimentally and logically that their basic concepts are not adequate to physical reality. in physics are : b) time. then results inadequate in regard to physical reality are obtained. The errors to which the matical apparatus based on the Lorentz transformation (and on is nion which theory of relativity leads are within effects of In first order in vie. which are reviewed in Part II of the present book. c) energy (matter). as is done in our absolute spacetime theory (see §3). within this accuracy. as is done in the Einstein approach to the theory of relativity. so that we our model for first propagation aetherNewtonian ». If they are treated and manipulated from a « relativistic » point of view. the Galilean transformation is adequate to physical reality. Within effects of propagation order in vie (v the absolute velocity of the object all considered. tl . TIME AND ENERGY The fundamental undefined notions a) space. articles many We shall also call highvelocity physics relativistic (in contradistinction to lowvelocity physics which will be called nonrelativistic). these terms only for historical reasons. The fects nonrelativistsc mathematical apparatus in vU. We call this mathematical approach nonrelativistic. so that their apparent results can be correctly described by the relativistic mathematical apparatus. wrongly describes the ef of second (and higher) order called by us the The socalled relativistic mathe its compaMarinov transformation). c the velocity of light in absolute space) physical and light phenomena can be rightly described by the traditional mathe matical apparatus and thus.space. However. in However. the Lorentz transformation and the 4dimensional mathematical approach of Minkowski must be treated from an absolute point of view. We « firmly defend the corpuscular (Newton) model of light. we analyse several experiments for which the relativity theory leads to false results and we show why in many experiments the complex of absolute effects which arise cannot be observationally detected.1. §2. rejecting the wave (liuyghensFrcsnel) model. AXIOMATICS §2.
formed in our minds) may have various relations with respect to each other. 2. We moments imagine time as a continuous. given material system is An image of a with whose help. i.. Isotropy of space. Reflectivity of space. We imagine space as a continuous. Frames with differently oriented (or reflecting) axes (right or left orientations). We call two a material systems identical influence on our senseorgans (directly. limitless. if any totality of imprints (symbols) corresponding possibilities and if their abilities are at our dispo we can construct another system identical with the given one. We we call two images of with their help identical systems can be if An image is is adequate to physical reality the influence of the given material system on our senseorgans. Space in is called isotropic any material system any pair of space frames of the second class. or is by means of other material systems) given material system equivalent constructed. limitless. introduce the definitions of the fundamental properties of space : any material system Homogeneity of space. Depending on their relationship any pair of Cartesian frames of reference will belong to one of the following three classes (or to their combination) : 1. Here frames of reference for time of the first and can be constructed. we always if considering obtain equivalent images. The different Cartesian frames of reference (these are mathematicological conceptions) with which the images of space we can (i. The definitions of the fundamental properties of time are 12 : . 3. A material system is called isolated if its images are independent of the existence of other material systems. 2. sal. onedimensional totality of (time points). 3. we always obtain equivalent images. Space is called homogeneous if considering in any pair of space frames of the first class. material system in Space is called reflective if considering any any pair of space frames of the third class. Frames whose axes are mutually rotated. third class only time frames with different origins and with oppositely oriented axes. which predict as proceeding from this image. we always obtain equivalent images.Let us note that system » as we consider the notions « matter » and « material synonyms with the notions « energy » and « energy system ». We 1. the same as the actual influence displayed by the system considered.e. if the same. threedimensional totality represent space of space points. Frames with different origins..e.
» that » which by own nature. empty space. Axiom Axiom II. Reflectivity of time. space points. isotropic and reflective. A light clock represents a light source and a mirror placed at a distance c/2 length units along the « arm » of the clock. Time is homogeneous. called photons. Experiment and observation suggest that real space has all three prohomogeneity. after being reflected by the mirror. 2. If we assume the numerical value off to be unity. These two a) « Absolute space is that which by its own its nature. so that any photon (or a suffipropagate always with velocity c in ciently small package of photons. we always obtain equivalent images. in Time is called rellective if considering any ma terial system any pair of time frames of the third class. Time is called homogeneous first class. flows evenly. Thus we assume the following axioms for space and time I. unrelated to anything else. (2. unrelated to any other thing whatsoever. always remains at b) « Absolute time is rest. it is useful even in classical physics sometimes to assume (speculatively) time frames of the third class in order to obtain a better understanding of some physical phenomena (for example. if considering any material system in any pair of time frames of the we always obtain equivalent images. (length divided by time) Material points (see axiom III) of an important class. the perties — radiation of electromagnetic waves). and we can only repeat the assertions of Newton about them (in his « Principia ») : of moments. Homogeneity of time. then the corresponding units of measurement for length and time are called natural. isotropy and reflectivity. 13 . in one unit of time.1) a universal constant which has the property of velocity and is called velocity of light. space intervals along one of the three dimensions of space) has the property of length and may be chosen arbitrarily.1.. The unit of measurement L for distance (i. Space intervals can be measured by rigid rods and time intervals can be measured by light clocks. : Space is homogeneous. The unit of measurement T be established for time intervals has the property of time and is to from the following symbolic relation LT where r is • = r. while real time has only the homogeneity property. Thus we imagine space as a threedimensional totality of and time as a onedimensional sequence (totality) totalities are inseparable but independent of each other. However. called a light pulse) will return to the light source.e.
appealing to the intuitive ideas of the reader. we hope. these « Newtonian » assumptions about space and time tell us no more than that which is apparent to the layman because it is basically impossible to define space and lime satisfactorily. Therefore. is that in which velocity of light has the same value along all b) Absolute time is read on a light clock which rests in absolute space (i. After the performance of our « coupledmirrors » experiment (Marinov. » other periodic celestial phenomena as commonly have several sensible frames representing different relative spaces and several sensible clocks reading different relative times. are called by Newton.e. and received. which is uniform in respect of the Such is time of days. is that which by its own nature. » b) « Time regarded that flux or variation of any sensible thing.. and he proposes : a) « Relative space : is that which is regarded immobile in relation to any sensible thing such as the space of our air as relative is in relation to the Earth. . and and 14 is placed far enough from local concentrations of matter from stars planets).e. because space and time which we know are associated with the Earth. the world of energy surrounding us). which endures. relative. whilst endorsing Newton's approach. Of course. 1974b). we must make the Space consists of spacepoints which can in no way exert any influence on our senseorgans. we propose the following definitions which.. we can ask which of these space and time frames of reference are the best representatives of absolute space and time and have a common significance for any observer absolute space and time wherein When we epoch determines its best representatives of man and man's thoughts stride. we can say only : a) Space is that b) Time is that which extends. unrelated to anything extends evenly. Thus space and time must be always considered related to matter. because of their association with some material systems. and we prefer to reformulate Newton's assertion about space as follows following remark : : Absolute space else. the Sun and all stars of the Universe (i. to speak about motion (or rest) of space is inappropriate. Space and time which we can perceive with our senseorgans. Any historical future generations a) : Absolute space directions. will not be refined by in the Universe. months. hence.However. in However an empty space which there is no matter and in which a hypothetical time flows are purely academic notions.
Any clock stationary is frame or placed near local concentrations of matter (or both) called a proper clock.„ called the proper mass. If we assume the numerical value of the numerical /i to be unity (and hence equal to value of r).. an inertial Now we introduce the following axiom for energy which expresses the : philosophical principle about the unity of the world Axiom III. The unit of measurement E for energy has the property of energy and is to be established from the symbolical relation ET = where A is h . = m„ c' .2) a universal constant which has the property of action is (energy multiplied by time) and called Planck's constant. a proper clock reads proper time.3) where e. The quantity m.4) 15 . 1975a). Every material point is characterized by a parameter m. reference frame associated with absolute space (light clock) is is called an absolute called an absolute frame and any clock reading absolute time Any in reference frame which is moves with a constant translational velocity with respect to absolute space called an inertial frame. is 1972b). then the corresponding units of and energy are called natural. respect to absolute space its When is a material point moves with energy denoted by being called the proper energy or time energy. called mass. time measurement Material points are those points in e. = m c' .e. All individually different material systems can be (i. is the energy of the material point at rest and e. (2. is to be established from the relation e. is b) Absolute time read on a light clock whose unit of time less than that of any other clock. (2.. whose dimensions and numerical value are to be established from the relation for length. the « arms » of all light clocks being equal (Marinov. characterized by a uniform character) quantity which is called energy having the same qualitative and which can only have different numerical value for different material systems. space whose energy is different from zero. Any clock.„ is called the absolute energy or rest energy.These two definitions are identical with the following a) Absolute space is : that with respect to which the energy of the Uni verse is minimum (Marinov. (2.
Thus any material point burst ». « representing not a rigid but a Finally.. In this case the energy of the material system can be called space energy and will be denoted by U. the images of the material system would be diffea material system cannot if this The space energy U of vectors of the material points because. and that would contradict our first axiom. the energy the material points. Evidently. carries with itself a strictly defined periodicity. have different values and thus be a function of time. depend on the radius were so. called the period. by analogy with the intuitive definitions on p. and the galaxies material As a rule. 16 . rent. If U will depend on some space individuality » of we suppose that the material points preserve their space individuality in time. The word particle for the a synonym term material point. every material point is also characterized by a parameter T. 2. AXIOMS FOR THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENERGY Let us consider a given material system only in space. In other contexts the stars are considered as material points systems. i. then the energy U will depend on their space is individualities only as a parameter.e. 14. This depends on the character of the physical problem which to under consideration. (2. For certain problems the elementary particles are be considered as material points and the atoms material systems. whose dimensions and numerical value are to be established from the relation e„ = h/T. when saying material points we shall understand elementary particles. in general. This numerical parameter called the parameter of the space energy of the given material point. the energy of the material system in different space reference frames of the first class would have different values.Furthermore. Let us note here that a photon in a radio wave (which is represents an elementary particle) can have a length in time (called the wavelength) of the order of many kilometers.5) Any equal to certain « bullet » material point crosses a given surface during a time its period.2. Let us note that their is when we speak about material points we do not define volumes. If we measure this energy will at different moments « it will. we can also define energy intuitively that of space and time given and uniquely by : c) Energy is which exists. however.
Hence the space energy of a system of material points must be the every pair of them. Consider now two material points of the system.. « Classical We consider (here and in Physics ») only the gravitational and electrical space energies and we ignore the energies of the socalled weak and strong interactions whose axiomatical basis and theoretical interpretation is as yet by no means clear. The difference between the energies V^ and V^ consists in the different parameters of space energy. The gives to also it part of physics called electrical theory denotes space energy the by (/. We can systematize all unproved assertions about both types of space : energies in the following axioms for gravitational and electrical energies Axiom space is IV.. and we can write U = U(r. name electrical energy electrical (or the second type of space energy) is and assumes that the energy of two material points inversely proportional to the distance between them.2 n. This dependence can be only postulated. The electrical parameters of the material points are their electric charges which are denoted by q. The 17 . Space energy is called also potential energy. The existence of other material points cannot exert influence either on the parameters of space energy of these points or on the distance between them.Thus material the energy (/will depend only on the mutual distances between the the material points becaue we have no other characteristics to describe system considered now only in space.j is ij = 1. The part of physics known as mechanics does not consider the matter of dependence of energy U on the distances between the material points and leaves this dependence unknown. the The t/g. The individual image of a material system in its given by the value of gravitational energy C..6) the distance between the /th and /th material points whose total number is n. sum of the space energies of With the aid of logical considerations only. we cannot say how the space energy (/of two material points depends on the distance between them.X where r. (2. The gravitational parameters of the material points are their proper masses (called also gravitational charges) which we have denoted by w„. part of physics called gravitational theory denotes space energy by it gives to the name gravitational energy (or the first type of space energy) and assumes that the gravitational energy of two material points is inversely proportional to the distance between them.
. the dimensions of Y are established from (2. If we work — with natural units and constant we assume i. — q^. If we work with natural units and we assume the nu merical value of e^ to be unity. = 861. In the system of SI units. thus the dimensions of one of them are to be chosen arbitrarily. material points is The energy U^ of two ^.10 ^«£ 'L^T \ (2. the unit for electric charge introduced as a fourth fundamental unit of measurement.. (2.energy U^ of two material points is proportional to their proper to the distance r masses w„. The dimensions of the electric charge q and of the electric constant t„ are to be established from (2. in addition to its also given by the value of its electrical energy V^. q^ proportional to their electric charges r and inversely proportional to the distance between them . characterized by a second parameter of space energy called the electric charge. is system in space.= The coupling stant — ^^ e. The electric charge of any material point is (or to an integer multiple). universal constant called the charge of the electron. The rest energy of an important class of material points called electrons is equal to e.9). the numerical value of the I electron charge to be unity. is a universal constant called the rest energy of the electron. V. point is In addition to the mass parameter. In this system of units the numerical values of c. called the gravitational constant.9) r constant e„ ' is called the Inverse electric con the electric constant. m„. = f'^L "^.e. the inverse electric constant and e„ shows what part of the energy unit represents the electrical energy of two unit charges separated by a unit distance.8) Axiom V. and with the 18 .7) The coupling constant y.7).78. where one avoids fractional powers the dimensions of electromagnetic quantities. and inversely proportional between them U^=  y ^"' r ^"'^ . every material q.. (2... then the electric dimensionless and has the numerical value E. is q. q^ are different from unity. (2. e^ .. h.10) in is Remark. then the gravitational constant has the value Y = 2. The individual image of a material gravitational energy V^. where q^ is a equal to q^.. shows what part of the energy unit represents the gravitational energy of two unit masses separated by a unit distance. where e.
The time energy of our material point can (i. coordinates with respect time because we have no other characteristics to describe the image of the material point. Evidently for this material system the time energy e„ will only be different from zero because for the existence of space energy this we must have its at least two material points.e. This numerical parameter called the parameter of the time energy of the given material point.. in this case the energy of the material system can be called time energy and this will be denoted by E„ the time energy of a single material point will be denoted by e„.. Let us now .e. i. the image of the material points in time) could depend on the on the acceleration. If we measure this energy at different moments it will. then cannot depend on the space and time coordinates of the material we must assume that e„ depends on the derivatives of the space to. so contradicting our first and second axioms. Consider now only one material point of the system. depend neither on » ) its radius in vector nor on a time coordinate on the « time radius vector because such a case the energy of the material point would have different values in different space and time reference frames of the first class. Thus. e„ depends only on the prst derivative of the space coordinates with respect to time.e.. in general. If until now human experience has not established such a dependence. i. assumes that On the grounds of general considerations till it is admissible to suppose that our experience now is insufficient.e.aim of avoiding factors such as In and Att appearing in formulas which do not involve circular or spherical symmetry. on the basis of the experience of centuries. its if we consider will material point simultaneously in space and in time. have different values and thus will £"„ be a function of time. one assumes the inverse electric constant showing which part of the energy unit represents the electrical energy of two unit charges separated by a distance of l/An length units.. will Evidently. respectively. consider the given material system only in time. i. this may be due to the fact that careful observations and detailed analyses of strongly accelerated material systems have not been performed. Contemporary physics. then energy ties will depend on is their time individuali only as a parameter. From the axiomatical point of view it is higher derivatives too. If e„ point. material point is A system of one also a material system. energy be equal only to time energy e. and that the time energy (generally speaking. 19 . its images would be different. on the velocity of the material point... If we suppose that the material points preserve their time individualities in time. the energy depend on some £"„ « time individuality » of the material points.
our present state of experimental technique cannot reliably establish whether or not a first type of spacetime energy exists. The time energy its e„ of one material point depends on rential) velocity. called turns out that the parameters of the spacetime energy of the material points can be expressed by their electric charges. the energy W^ will ality » depend on some « spacetime individuwill of the material points. If we measure this energy at different moments it will. the change (the diffe of the time energy is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity and the differential of the velocity. in addition to the second type of space energy. systems may lead to the discovery of entirely unexpected and that experiments with strongly accelerated phenomena. whether there exists also a first type of spacetime energy. The individual image of a material system in time its given by the value of time energy £„. Thus the time energy of a system of material points must be the sum of the time energies of all material points of the system. the mass of the material point being the coupling constant. a second type of spacetime energy which is called the magnetic energy. We can systematize all unproved assertions about time energy : in the following axiom for time energy Axiom is VI. If we suppose that the material points preserve their spacetime individualities in time. The expe grounds to assume that such an energy does exist. The existence of the other cannot exert influence either on the parameters of the time energy of our point or on its velocity (at a given moment !). we call this spacetime energy and denote it by W.e. in the Let us now consider our material point presence of the other material points material points of the given system.1 1) Besides the space energies which depend on the distances between the material points and the time energy which depends on the velocities of the material points. a complement to the gravitational energy. Hence there exists. However..admissible to assume that a dependence of time energy on the acceleration of the material points can exist. Evidently. The logical question arises i. This numerical parameter the parameter of the spacetime energy of the given material point. Since rience of centuries has not given us 20 . These two forms of energy are clearly complementary. have different values and thus will be a function of time. in general. . (2. de„ = m V dv . a type of energy also exists which depends simultaneously on the distances between the material points and on their velocities. then the energy IV depend on is It these individualities only as a parameter.
divided by c and inversely proportional to the distance between them J^ h . by analogy with the magnetic energy.14) called the electric current element of the material point. The individual image of a material system in space and time.. sum of We gies can systematize all unproved assertions about the second type of spacetime energy in the following axioms for magretic and magnetic ener Axiom VII. (2./. Every material point with proper energy e„ moving at velocity v is characterized by the quantity p„ = ni„ V material point. called the magretic constant. We consider the spacetime energy of a system of material points to be the the spacetime energies of every pair of them.. equal to the gravitational constant..1 '"„•• ^'i • ^ c^r r r is The coupling constant y. Every material point with electric charge q moving at velocity v is characterized by the quantity j=qv.' "'. in addition to its magretic energy W.. we hvpotheiicallv assume it its existence. magnetic energy ments/./?. The part of physics is considered called gravimagretism. magnetic energies are considered the The manner of dependence of the energy Pf of two material points on distance between them and on their velocities is to be postulated. r W^ is also given by the value of its The energy W. is where the gravitational and magretic energies are the part where the electrical and called electromagnetism.12) called the proper momentum of the in The individual image of a material system space and time given by the value is of its magretic energy ^^. and we shall call the magretic energy.. proportional to the scalar product of their electric current ele. divided by c and inversely proportional to the distance r between them P„i 'P.the internal logic of the mathematical apparatus with which we describe physical reality (first of all the logic of the 4dimensional mathematical first apparatus) does lead to the existence of a shall type of spacetime energy. of two material points is .. is (2. The energy W^ of two material points proportional to thescalar product of their proper momenta/?... Axiom VIII. .
we know that the corresponding cog of the other cogwheel will also make contact with an indicator placed symmetrically at the opposite end constant angular velocity and there cog of the first 22 . Full energy //„ of a material system is called the sum of the time energy E„ and the space energy U.e. of a material system are functions of time and their numerical values can. . Then. Indeed. in general. c..4. The numerical value of the total energy of an isolated material system remains constant in time. of classical physics we assume the velocities of the material points to be too small in c.16) 2. £„ .3. (/. HIGH VELOCITY AXIOM On the grounds of the nine axioms formulated above. the theory of classical nonrelativistic physics can be built. if a certain cogwheel makes contact with an indicator placed at one end of the shaft. thus = /i„ l/c„. represents the axiomatical grounds of cla. However. i. vary with time. W^ . (2. W.. which we wish to consider the given physical At velocities of the material points comparable with we must first take into account also the tenth axiom which. In the SI n„ is called the magnetic constant ju.. and it is equal to the inverse electric constant. system of units it is assumed that = l/c„ r'. AXIOM FOR THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The five types of energy U^ . this is not true. 2.ssica! relativistic physics. Let us assume that the shaft rotates with a is no friction or torsion.. : expressing the philosophical principle about the unity of space and time Axiom IX.The coupling constant Remark. let us have a rotating rigid shaft on whose ends two identical cogwheels are fixed and let us number any two cogs which lie oposite each other on the ends of a certain generatrix of the shaft. Total energy //„ is the full energy plus the spacetime energy W. in which comparison with light velocity points small in comparison with light velocity Whether we can consider the velocities of the material depends on the precision with problem. that is dH„ = 0. Conventional physics assumes that information can be transferred from one space point to another only if a certain quantity of energy can be sent from the first space point to the second. The unproved in assertion about the change of the energies of a material system time is given by the following axiom for the conservation of energy. together with the nine axioms.
Light clocks with equal « arms » have the same rate in any inertial frame. Marinov (1975a) we show leads to the Galilean transformation tion leads to Newtonian time synchronization and the Einsteinian time synchronizathe Lorentz transformation.e. At any point of any frame the time to ». It turns out. arms light clocks with equal independent of the velocity of the frame and the local be defined by the period of concentration of matter. 23 we mean . The material all points called photons move with velocity c along directions in absolute space and their velocity does not depend on their history. A Newtonian time synchronization can be realized also by the help of signals which proceed with the same velocity in any direction. then we call this an Einsteinian time synchronization. If we synchronize spatially separated clocks. i. say that the velocity of the photons does not depend on their that it does not depend on the velocity of the source of radiation. after taking into account the time delays which the signals need to cover the different distances to the clocks placed at different space points. that space that the in the coordinates are involved Lorentz transformation formulas for time. and assume that the velocity of light has the same numerical value in all directions with respect to any inertial frame. however. In any frame moving with respect to absolute space the Einsteinian time synchronization differs from Newtonian since In in moving frames the velocity of light is anisotropic. in such a case. is and this implies that the constancy and isotropy of light velocity essentially only a convention. on the potential fields. and nor on the material systems. between both these space points no is transfer of energy takes place. these points. The Einsteinian time synchronization can be reduced to a Newtonian time synchronization only if the frame in which we the are working is attached to absolute space. nor on which it was « hitched » (Marinov. however. nor on the velocities of all material points with which the photon has collided. 1974a). independent of the orientation of their « unit « is arms ». Obviously. The mathematical apparatus adequate to physical reality is for a description of highvelocity physics to : be obtained by assuming the following highvelocity (reiativistic) axiom Axiom X. Here are some remarks on this axiom : When we history. interchanging light signals between them.of the shaft.. crossed by the photon. there an information link between We call the synchronization of spatially separated clocks by the help of a rotating rigid shaft placed between them a Newtonian time synchronization.
= rp.r • (223) From Our and (2...22) and the if for a certain time / the « light clock makes n^^. periods of the « transverse clock "par = 'Ip. « arms » of the clocks are equal.e.assertion of our tenth axiom affirms that any proper Ught clock does not depend on the orientation of its « arm ». against the direction have for these two cases = d + vT. = ''par T^p. perpendicular and parallel to v. if we try to find the rates of two identical The most important unproved the rate of light clocks their « arms proceeding with velocity v with respect to absolute space when » are.:7 . 24 .:i .21) Hence it will be T^per = nar(l " transverse it >» V^/C^)^'' (2.1 8) from where T = T ^ T = /per /per + /per " ' ^^j Id _ ^y^^yn and . = T„. supposing (as shall we always do) that the Indeed.22) we obtain (2. « ticks »...r . respectively.rCl " V'/c')^" (2. t will be ' = Iper Tp.y2 the times in which light arm » d of the « transverse » clock « there » and « back ». Indeed. however. = 2d ..:i = cP + V' T.. along the direction of propagation of the clock) and of propagation of the clock). + r„.:.19) "^ > ^ On the other hand. « ticks » and « longitudinal » n^^. we have for these two cases c' T. cT.17). we shall .e. this empirical fact was first proved by the historical MichelsonMorley experiment. covers the shall « if we denote by T^'„ = Tp'/.23) and (2. « back » (i.:\ = d vt. covers the « if we denote by T^'^r T^il the times in which light arm » d of the « longitudinal » clock « there » (i. it tenth axiom asserts.20) from where T„. cr. (2. ^^.^ (2. This assertion represents a crucial boundary between nonrelativistic and relativistic mechanics which has concerned the human mind almost the whole of this century.^. that "par must be (224) = "per . (2.. (2.17) periods of the « longitudinal » light clock will correspond._^.' = d' + v' T. then the » light nonrelativistic conceptions should lead to the result that to n^^. r' r^.
i. Fig. and to be considered as a companion of the Lorentz transformation. The Lorentz however. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS 3.. » we have transformation leads to the result (2. is However.It can be shown that the empirical fact (2.24) contradicts the transformation (as a matter of fact point of view. shall In the next section we is show that transformation of the space and time coordinates transformation. it represents a vv/j^/jcv/. §3. when treated from a explam other experiments.e. we is shall suppose moment the origins of both frames have coincided (see 31 where for simplicity's sake a twodimensional case presented). latter is in a certain aspect.24). we shall consider the socalled homogeneous transformation. showing to how the be treated from an absolute point of view. « relativistic » it has failed to Gahlean shown this). 31 25 .v of these two. constants.1 THE GALILEAN TRANSFORMATION All transformations of the space in this section are between a frame K attached To and time coordinates which we consider to absolute space and a frame avoid trivial K' moving inertially with a velocity V. and which our tenth axiom leads to a we have called the Marinov different from those of Galilei and Lorentz. such just as our « coupledmirrors experiment. that at the initial zero fig.
we have that the t = i„.. as (fig. According Newtonian conceptions. while /„ is the rest in K' (a proper clock) and V.T = » T.r (3. (3.'pr and « longitudinal » light clocks. THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION Now we shall search for a transformation of the space and time coordi nates which will lead to the relation n. ho 3.2.6) the inverse + yt. is the frame A" measured on to the traditional this clock.Let us have a point P whose radius vector in frame K \s r (called the absolute radius vector) and whose radius vector in frame A" relative radius vector). If we assume same time.5) (3. t Formulas (3. t„. (3. 31) the radius vectors r and r' into components and r.. r. (3.6) (3.1).yi. = r' + y„t„. y=y„.1) is the time read on a clock and Vh the velocity of frame is time read on a clock which velocity of at which is at rest in frame K (an absolute A" measured on this clock.Vt.7) between the periods of « transverse required by our tenth axiom. ''. is is r' (called the in The radius vector of the origin of frame It is K ' frame K R (called the transient radius vector). we shall have (3..2) (3.3) r r = r.„r. R = vt = where clock) / y„t„.'.5) represent the direct. clocks attached to K and A^' read the we obtain (3. Adding these two equations. 26 .4) Thus in such a case we can write the transformation formulas for the space and time coordinates in the form r r = r. Let us decompose 'p. perpendicular and parallel to the direction of propagation of K '. r. and formulas mogeneous Galilean transformation. respectively.„r. = r' t„ = = t.
.. About lengths one can speak only at a given moment !) and r^^^ ~ ^t are equal and we write the second relation (3..B. — ^'z represent the... We ask the reader to pay due attention statement and not to blame our theory for mathematical imperfection..8) can meet the requirement (3. if we wish to meet the requirement A" (3..„. or between two nonmaterial points..9) to (3.According r' to the traditional Newtonian conceptions.. (N.. Making a transition from (3. if we (I — axiomatically assume as valid instead of the Newtonian relations parallel '' We = Vr.11) 27 ..7)..V t) = r . h r.. we have = V.e.9) the « Lorentzian » relations Vr = This « C » r... . (3.r is expressed by — Vt) neither a physical effect. i. we have to write instead of the relation (3.Vyc')''K Tp....vawe length (distance) between two material points which can be connected by a rigid rod or which can move with respect to each other..^ — is f^l is expressed by or « dilation » (when rj..„ and r. r. while according to the aetherNewtonian conceptions must be anisotropic. nor a result of measurement.. As we have shown in detail in contradiction remains for ever in the formulas and years of intensive mathematical speculations rid Marinov (1975a)...) (3..7) of our tenth axiom if we lake the component of the relative radius vector contracted by the factor J^/c'^)"^ when expressed by the coordinates in frame K.(l . h J^' ~Jjy„ • (3.. We have called this peculiarity in the propagation of light the aefherIMarinov character of light propagation. We must realize once and for all that light has not an exact aetherNewtonian character of propagation since its « thereandback » velocity (in a frame moving in absolute space) it is isotropic... taken at a given Thus r.Vt = r„„r r.Vt (3. + (r. '•par " >^ / = T.10) only because the velocity of light has not an exact aetherNewtonian character.. = r.8) the following relation for the transformation of the radius vectors in frames K and r' = C. According toour theory.. + C= r. as supposed by Lorentz.10) contraction (when r...10) we introduce a blunt mathe matical contradiction into the traditional Newtonian mathematical apparatus.r moment.'. This imperfection exists in Nature itself. Thus. this mathematical we must state that after we could to this not find a way to get of it. as obtained by Einstein. .
This formula, written
vector r
is
.
in
such a manner that only the absolute radius
its
represented, but not
transverse and longitudinal
components
Vr
'
''par
has thc form
1
r
=
r
+
r.V
1 1
t
[\
^
^(1
 V'/cy^
'
K'
(1

)
V
(3 12)
^
^
V'/c'V'^'
^
Let us
r' to
r.
now find the formula for Here we have two possibilities To assume To assume
is
the inverse transformation,
:
i.e.,
from
a)
that also in
frame K' the velocity of
light
is
isotropic
and
equal to c (the Einstein way).
b)
that the velocity of light
is
isotropic
and equal
to c only in
frame
K which
attached to absolute space (the Marinov way).
The
Einstein
way
leads to transformation of the time coordinates
i.e.,
where
the radius vectors should appear,
to relative
time coordinates, while the
Marinov way leads
to
transformation of the time coordinates where the
i.e.,
radius vectors should not appear,
to
absolute time coordinates.
in §3.3 the second.
Now we shall
If the velocity
follow the
first
way and
of light in frame A" is a55Mme^ to be isotropic and equal to assuming further that the velocity with which frame K moves with respect to A" (and measured on a clock attached to A") is equal with opposite sign to the velocity V with which frame A" moves with respect to A (and measured on a clock attached to A^, we can write (let us note that both these assumptions follow from the principle of relativity)
f,
then,
Adding formulas
'(1
(3.12)
I
and
(3.13),
we
obtain
t
r.V
J
'
,7\\/2  v'/c'y^
v
1/2
+
(I
 v'/c'y^
^^^^^
'(!

^'Vc')''^
y
^(1  KVc')''^
(3.12),
If in this
formula we substitue r'from
in
we
shall obtain the transl
formation formula for time
which Twill be expressed through
and
r
t
=
t
(1
 r. Vic' r,  V'/cy^
.
(3.15)
28
On
through
the other hand,
if in
formula (3.14) we substitute r from (3.13).
in
we
shall obtain the
transformation formula for time
which
t
will
be expressed
rand
r'
('
t
=
(1
+ 
r'.
Vic'
.
(3.16)
V'/c')*'^
Formulas
the inverse
(3.12), (3.15) represent the direct,
and formulas
(3.13), (3.16)
homogeneous Lorentz transformation. These formulas show
r'
t
that
not only the radius vectors r and
are two different quantities, but also the
time coordinates
and
f'
are two different quantities and are to be called
absolute time coordinate and relative time coordinate.
Thus, since the time coordinates
relative quantities, the light velocity
in
the Lorentz transformation are
in this
constancy
transformation
is
only
apparent. In
Marinov (1975a). we show how. proceeding from the Lorentz transformation, one can obtain the expressions for the light velocity in any inertial frame which are adequate to physical reality. Hence, according to
is
absolute spacetime theory, the Einstein general principle of relativity
invalid
and the Lorentz transformation is adequate to physical reality only if it is treated from our absolute point of view. Since Einstein treats the light velocity constancy as a physical fact and the general principle of relativity as
a
law of Nature, we consider the Lorentz transformation
in the
context of
special relativity as inadequate to physical reality.
Note
quate
physical
a given
that
we
consider the Galilei limited principle of relativity as ade
to physical reality.
This principle asserts that there
is
no mechanical
phenomenon by whose help one can establish the inertial motion of material system. Hence for the mechanical phenomena any inertial
is
relative space
isotropic.
relativity
For the electromagnetic phenomena the principle of
hold good. Thus for the electromagnetic
spaces are not isotropic.
does not
phenomena
the inertial relative
However, as Minkowski has shown, if we consider a 4space in which the any intertial frame are unified with the corresponding time coordinate multiplied by r (and by the imaginary unit), then this 4space turns out to be isotropic and homogeneous. As the Galilean
three space coordinates in
transformations
make
a group in the 3space. so the Lorentz transformations
is an exclusively great mathematical advantage and the 4dimensional mathematical apparatus developed by Minkowski has given an enormous help in the investigation of highvelocity
make
a group in the 4space. This
physical
In
phenomena.
our absolute spacetime theory, we work intensively with the 4dimensional mathematical formalism of Minkowski, always keeping in mind
29
that the fourth
dimension
is
not a time axis but a length axis along which the
time a)ordinates are multiplied by the velocity of light, and here the apparent
absoluteness of the light velocity
is
time coordinates. As a matter of
light velocity relative, as in the
fact,
always connected with the relativity of the the time coordinates are absolute and
shown by
the help of
Marinov transformation and as we have numerous experiments analysed in Part II of this book.
that
if
We
must note and emphasize
setting experiments
where only
electromagnetic
phenomena
are involved, then the principle of relativity
apparently holds good because of the mutual annihilation of the appearing
absolute effects. This principle breaks down only when setting experiments where combined electromagnetic and mechanical phenomena are involved,
as
is
the case with the
»
clocks
« coupledmirrors » experiment, the « antipodalexperiment and the ultrasonic « coupledshutters » experiment.
3.3.
THE MARINOV TRANSFORMATION
As
a result of our theoretical
is
and experimental work, we have come
to physical reality.
to
the conclusion that time
an absolute quantity and the Marinov transis
formation (Marinov, I978d)
this
adequate
all
By
the help of
transformation, one can explain
highvelocity experiments, including
if
those which contradict the Galilean as well as the Lorentz transformation,
the latter be treated in the
frame of special
relativity.
To
axiom
in
obtain the Marinov transformation,
we
shall
proceed from our tenth
(§2.4),
noting that
now we
shall not take into
account the influence of
the gravitating masses
on the
rates of the light clocks, a
problem considered
Marinov (1976a).
Thus, according to the tenth axiom
a) Light clocks with equal «
:
arms
»
have the same
rate,
independent of
the orientation of their «
arms
».
b) In any frame the time unit
clocks with equal
«
arms
»,
is to be defined by the period of independent of the velocity of the frame.
light
As we have shown in §2.4, the first assertion drastically contradicts the Newtonian conceptions. The second assertion represents not such a drastic contradiction because in the frame of the traditional Newtonian spacetime conceptions also one can define the time unit in any inertial frame by the period of light clocks with equal « arms ». However, in the traditional Newtonian frame, the inconvenience exists that one has further to define that the « arms » of the light clocks must always make the same angle with the velocity of the inertial frame used, e.^., their « arms » must be perpendicular to this velocity. In such a manner the absolute time dilation phenomenon will be introduced also into the traditional Newtonian theory. Thus, at first
traditional
30
V'/c'y'\ (3.21) 31 . the meanlives of decaying elementary particles).19) are to be written in the following form t„ r=ryt. So far there is no experimental evidence permitting one to assert that the period of any system (say.17) » proper light clock with the same « arm which moves with velocity V absolute space will have a period (see (2. However.19) where T and T„ are measured same time from (3. A in (3.1) units (absolute or proper).glance. the relation between them will be If (at an appropriate choice ofd) we choose (called absolute second) and T„ as a time unit in tjl = T/T„ = in the  V'/c')''\ (3.20) Thus the transformation formulas (3. Under this stipulation we shall obtain and (3.3) to which attach the relation (3.19) V = (1 y  V = (1 y/c')''^ V + K'/f')"^ we .2). a in the traditional Newtonian theory) when they move with phenomenon which exists also but also the periods of many other greater physical processes (the periods of atomic clocks. (3. (3. it as the first seems that the second assertion has not such a « natural » character one and represents only a stipulation. t absolute seconds and /„ proper seconds have elapsed. the pulse of a man) becomes greater with the increase of its absolute velocity. it turns out that not only the periods of light clocks become greater velocity in absolute space (we repeat.KVc')"2 T as ^^'^^ a time unit in frame K frame A" (called proper second). supposing for definiteness that the « arms » of the light clocks must be always perpendicular to the absolute velocity of the frames. the period of a spring clock. = 1(1 . then it is clear that when between two events. 15) The period ofan absolute whose « arm » is </ will be T^ldlc. light clock (see p. At any rate. we think the statement about the time dilation is to be considered not as a stipulation but as an axiomatical assertion alien to the traditional Newtonian theory. This problem needs additional theoretical and experimental investigation. 19)) Id " ~ c(l  VWc')''^ _ ~ (1 T . Let us find written if first how the Galilean transformation formulas are to be one should assume that in any inertial frame the time unit is to be defined by the period of light clocks with equal « arms ».
.e. the experiment (the historical MichelsonMorley experiment was the first one) has shown that the rates of a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock are equal.. such a manner that only the relative radius its is . (3.4).t„. is to be done in the following manner exactly in the same way as in we come to the conclusion that if we wish to meet the requirement of our axiom about the independence of the light clock's rate on the orienta« arm ». We have assumed this empirical fact as an axiomatical assertion. the traditional Newtonian conceptions lead to the conclusion that a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock have different rates (see §2. (3. However. we proceed from the formula (see (3.A\ + K.^r + + rp„. represented.1) and r (3. when proceeding from the traditional Newtonian conceptions. seconds (called the absolute (called the proper transient velocity) velocity measured in proper seconds and c is the velocity of light along the « arm » of the absolute clock measured in absolute seconds.(! .. then a transformation of the space and time coordinates adequate to physical reality. V„ I ] r=^r. = r.10). (i. The introduction of this axiomatical (empirical) assertion into the Galilean transformation leads to the Marinov transformation. transient velocity).V^n^''^ Vt = V„t„ . without trying to explain why Nature works in such a manner. tenth tion of the clock's To obtain the inverse transformation.22) (3.24) (I + v„'/cy^ 32 .12). the same If. the transformation between the radius vectors r and r' is to be written in the form (3. = r' '^ in + (3.21) represent the direct.2. relativistic and formulas homogeneous space to Galilean transformation.r = r' + y.r . would be given by the relativistic Galilean transformation.Vr')' ^ (3. On the other hand.20)1 = r. but not perpendicular and parallel components 'par will havc the form 1 r. at the assumption of the time dilation dogma.23) This formula.„ + <„.+ ( ( + v„' to)yn . : This §3. as well as along the « arm » of the proper clock measured in proper seconds. the velocity of frame in absolute In these formulas.22) the inverse Formulas (3. one would come to the result that a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock would have the same rate. V is is K' with respect to absolute frame K) measured V. t = i. written vector r' 'p.
the first adjective « absolute » be omitted) and v absolute relative velocity (as a » will absolute be omitted).24) we can obtain the second formula (3.24).2. (3. /. then from (3. dt. Let us now obtain the Marinov transformation formulas for velocities.12) and (3. 12) V according to the first formula (3. Writing obtain in the first formulas (3.20).26) the inverse homogeneous Marinov transformation.26) =^ /^(I + vj/c')"^ Formulas (3. 1 1 V 1 ^.25) and (3. we can obtain the Marinov transformation for velocities written proper time.28) the inverse Marinov transformation for velocities written in absolute lime.21).27) v= The will « V + (((1 . in a manner similar to that used in §3. 33 . dr\ dt„ instead of r.'. Let us combine formula (3.24) with the second formula (3. /.28) velocities v and v' are measured in absolute time. the adjective called the absolute absolute velocity (as a rule. we can (3. then from and (3.22). = in dr/dl„ for the proper absolute velocity and = dr'/dt„ for the proper relative velocity.25) and (3. Thus v must be rule.y/c')'"  1 ] ^^^ + I } ^'.25) represent the direct. dt„ instead of r.22) *" "*""*" ^ ' (I  V'/c')''' ~ ' ' 1^ .25) ' = ''^ < ' (TttW= / " " 4^^ .If we express here K.21) and formula (3. absolute transient velocity y and not the proper transient velocity Formula (3. and formula (3.26) dr. and formulas (3.28) the K.27) represents the direct. we v' = V + 1 {\  V. ^ '•"'• (3. dr'. For this reason we have written in (3. Writing r'. On the other hand. (1  ' V'/c')''^' {„== t(\  V'/c')''^ (3. through (3.12) with the second formula (3. r. dividing them by dl„ and introducing the notations v„ v. ^ r'. dt.26) t/r. 12) we express y through y„ according to the second formula (3. (3. ) y . if in obtain the second formula (3.„ in the first formulas (3.„ dividing them by dt and introducing the notations v = dr/dt. v' = dr'/di.20).
e. even though terms. However./Vr')"2 \ (I r ^^ 1 . + VCOS0/C its (331) If we denote by c.27) and m the following form. the lute » will adjective « abso be omitted) c will be c I c. having squared them. the velocities with respect to the rest frame K are called absolute and the clocks attached to To have in the second case a terminological difference similar to the first case. This will be the Marinov transformation for velocities written in mixed time. v'(l . we have considered calling the absolute clock and absolute time « universal ». Denoting the angle between v and yby 6 and (3.KVc')"^+ V\ where c' is we suppose measured = c and if we write v' i.One can write also the transformation formulas for velocities in which is the relative velocity expressed in proper time and the absolute velocity in absolute time. this K decided to use a single word. On the other hand.. the absolute relative light velocity (as a rule. Now we v'and ^'by after 0'.30) ^^ = If 1.' the proper relative light velocity. shall write the transformation formulas for the velocities' magnitudes. that the velocities with respect to the moving frame A" are called while the clocks attached to A" are called proper. because of the confusion in using too many different 34 . .: = 1 c 1 — Vcos0/c = . = c'.V'/c' 1 l^cos^ + V (3.y^cos'9/c') + Iv'ycose' v in {\ .31).33) will be the same as that given by formula (3. the adjective « absolute » will be omitted).28) the angle between we can write formulas (3. then these two equations to v') give (the second after a solution of a quadratic equation with respect c' = c . might sometimes lead to misunderstandings. . finally we are also called absolute.^ (3.32) and its connection with the proper absolute light velocity Co = (I  v^cy^ r.KVf')"2 —. (3.Vcose/c = (1 .^(1 .V'sm'e/c') .29) (3. the relative light velocity absolute time. Note relative.2 V . then first connection with the absolute absolute light velocity (as a rule.V'/c' + Vcosd'/c — .
20))./. Here we must again repeat that the absolute and proper time intervals are phvsicallv different quantities. ^ O) along the positive direction of the vaxis X. = ^ ~ —i^. we shall ignore them.26) [see also formulas (3. GROUP PROPERTIES OF THE MARINOV TRANSFORMATION After a due examination of the Marinov transformations. is vaxis of the rest r X = moving with X (I X.^ {V. we designate dinates by upperscripts (primes) is and in the Marinov transformation (where we designate the proper time coordinates by subscripts (zeros)./c) ^'. t.25) we obtain the following direct transformation between the coordinates (. inverse transformation between the coordinates (v. From formulas (3. that the velocities of the different frames vaxis of the rest (absolute) frame.) in a proper velocity V^iV^S^ O) along the positive direction of the frame A and the coordinates (. and As in their vaxes are parallel to the this simple case the y. is reason. i\ — V^/c^V'^+ y. while the difference between proper distances and distances is only a contradictory mathematical result which appears because of the aetherMarinov character of light propagation engendered by the bidirectional light velocity isotropy in any inertial frame. it can easily be established that they form a group. However. the aetherMarinov cha racter of light propagation leads to the introduction of the notion ». ' (3.and z coordinates are subjected to an indentical transformation. = t{\ V./) in the absolute frame A and the coordinates {XiJ. Since the mathematical analysis in the general case is too cumbersome.34) The frame A'. For transformation (where time time absolute). . in the Lorentz the relative time coor relative)..We designate the relative quantities by upperscripts (primes) and the this proper quantities by subscripts (zeros). we shall suppose.'/c'y'\ (3..35) ^^.4..Vf')"^ where the velocities and ^'^ measured in absolute time. 35 . according to formulas (3./) in A. 3. for simplicity's sake.v. The distance distances are always absolute.) in a proper frame Kj moving with velocity V.v. The problem about is the eternal contradiction in detail in distances and distances considered « proper between proper Marinov (1975a). t (I _ are — J/ / = (I 2/^2)1/2'  ' r.
Thus 2. T.e.. (3. without taking into account the transformation for velocities. is set.36) These formulas are absolutely symmetric with respect in to the coordinates both frames. *' I K.38) for V. will have the same form in which the number I is replaced by 2 and the number 2 by r. is member of the 7. .. ... whose product with any other member of the set leaves the latter unchanged. 7.. .. in frame K. ^^ = ( n . Substituting formulas (3.36) for the transformation Ty. directly..34).K. we obtain a transformation 2 is which has the same form as (3. . T. = Ty. A set of transformations.. responding formulas for the transformation .^ through the coordinates .36) give a transformation Ty.3 = T. Ty. Thus the transitive property is proved We mention here that the transitive property for the Lorentz and Galilean transformations can be proved only velocities... Thus the inverse of Ty. The 3.Vc' T7T7T 1 ' )  V..'/c'y'^{\  ' V. and If formulas (3. replaced by 3. a transformation T..Substituting formulas (3.. and .K.39) 36 . which a is also a member of the set has a unique recipromember of the set.37) being defined as performing T.35) into formulas (3. 3. r„ = r„ (3. identify form of the transformation (3. { ^— ) . set is equivalent to a member of the the product r. Now we shall : prove that these transformations form a group.t.Vc' "' '• ' V. Transitive property : The product of two transformations of the set. where 7!. Reciprocal property Every cal (or inverse) r^j.. . . we can express the coordinates in frame . (3. T^.. Identity property The set includes one « identity » transformation. (I  v. : Tji .36) occurs : = V.36) in which the number right. successively...'/c')"^ t^=. . Ty. n. into the corT. if The one takes into account the corresponding transformation for transitive property for the Marinov transformation is proved i.^ . forms a group if it has the following properties 1 . (3. = 7. r.
with the proper elements of motion) because in such a case the problem about the synchronization of spatially separated clocks is eliminated. will measure the proper velocity v„.. light clocks) which (i.AT. Obviously. 4. the distance between whom a is supplied with two clocks (imagine for clarity. we work with the proper velocities (in general.T. in which the car will cover the same distance and. cover the distance and.36) can be obtained by writing Associative property : If three succeeding transformations are performed. thus. we introduce the following two types of velo city The velocity dr v=..2) i'Vc')"2 a given road For example.the The reciprocal of the transformation number 2 instead of I. a car moving along which we absolute space. the driver will always register a higher velocity and Newtonian time synchronization). will register the time df in will will even when he surpasses the prescribed speed limit (according to his calculation) he would not be stopped by the policemen to pay a In relativistic physics. 37 .T. v'/c')"^  (4..40) The associative property can easily be proved.4... 4. are synchronized by the help of a long rotating rigid shaft by the help of which the car measure the velocity v of the car. The driver supplied with a single clock will register the proper time dl. and vice versa. §4. then T. fine. ELEMENTS OF MOTION VELOCITY As already stated (§3. (3. Two policemen. consider suppose at rest in dr. (3. thus. .)T..1.) = (T. Thus the Marinov transformations form a group...„ The proper y = velocity dr dt„ = dr dlO  = (1 v .e.3)..
4.6) The second proper acceleration u = dv.. foo "= f^ i*<m (4. the p„ = mv„ (4. 38 .u . respectively. first proper kinetic force and second proper kinetic force of the material point.v'/c^y (4. The proper velocity represents the space part of a 4vector called the The time component of the 4velocity is the proper light velocity (see (3. respectively.dr.5) ^ The first proper acceleration dv„ M = — dt = d — — ( dt W ) ( . thus material point by velocity is called the p = mv.4velocity.u r. ACCELERATION We introduce The the following three types of acceleration : acceleration u = dv d'r —— = —— dt dt' (4.7) v'^c'Y The second proper easily acceleration represents the space part of a 4vector called the 4acceleration. thus acceleration is called f= mu f„ = m u„. — = dt. the kinetic force.4) momentum and proper momentum of the material point.vVc')"2 its (43) The product of the mass of a momentum. v'/c' cMi  (4. The time component of the 4acceleration can be expressed through the acceleration and velocity.33)] c = ^) dt„ = (1 f .2. material point by its The product of the mass of a the kinetic force. are. dt„ d dr — ^dt: — ) = 1 u  + v — v. = (I u  + v c' v'/c')'" i\ v.8) are.
4.3.
SUPERACCELERATION
We introduce the following four types of superacceleration
The superacceleration
du
dt
:
(Pv
dt'
cPr
(4.9)
do
The
first
proper superacceleration
du„
dt
d^v^
d^
do
do
(—
^
,
dr
.
)
.
dL
(4.10)
The second proper
superacceleration
du^
d'v„
d
d
.
dr
The
third proper superacceleration
du,„
d
,
dy„
.
d
d
,
dr
.
Putting (4.7) into (4. 12), we obtain the following expression for the third proper superacceleration through the velocity, acceleration and superacceleration of the material point
111
^
(1
H'
4
2)
u{v
.
u)
\
V
lO
\
v{v
.
w)
4
Av
c*
{v
(I
.
uY
(4.13)

v'/c'y^
c'{\

v'/c'Y'^

v'/c'y^
The
third proper superacceleration represents the space part of a 4
vector called the 4superacceleration.
The time component of
the 4super
acceleration can easily be expressed through the superacceleration, acceleration
and
velocity.
its
we do
For the product of the mass of a material point by not introduce a special name and symbol.
superacceleration
§5.
5.1.
TIME ENERGY
THE NONRELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION We obtain the form of the time energy of a material point with
mechanics by integrating the axiomatical relation
e„
mass
m in
(5.1)
nonrelativistic
(2.1 1)
= mv'/2 +
Const.
39
Por
rest
»/
=
t\
,
the time energy of the material point
energy
which
is
given by the relation
(2.3),
so that
must be equal to its we can assume
Const
=
e,
and thus
e„
= m c^ + m
v^ 11
=
e^
+
^^
(5.2)
The
difference between the time and rest energies
is
called the kinetic
energy. Thus, in nonrelativistic mechanics, the kinetic energy has the form
ey
= m
v'/2
.
(5.3)
5.2.
THE RELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION
To
obtain the time energy of a material point
in relativistic
1)
mechanics
we
have to put into the axiomatical assertion (2.1
v.
the proper velocity v„
instead of the velocity
There are three
de°
possibilities
= m
v„.
dv
dv„
(5.4)
de„
= mV =
.
(5.5)
de„„
m
v„. dv„
,
(5.6)
and
after the integration of these three formulas
we obtain
three different
expressions for the time energy in relativistic mechanics
go ==
 mc'O 
v'/c'y'\
(5.7)
e^
=
(1
 v'/cy~
'
(5.8)
€„„
=
I
m c'
I
T

'
(5.9)
v'/c'
where
all
constants of integration are taken equal to zero, so that for v '^z c
we obtain
e°
=  mc' + m
e„
v'/2
= =
e,
e,
+
e^,
,
e^
(5. 10)
= mc^ + m
v'/2
+
(5.
1
1)
e„„
= m cyi + m
v'/2
= ej2 +
all
e^
.
(5. 12)
Thus
relativistic
for
i^
«
r the kinetic
energy of
these three forms of the
time energy has the same value as
rest energies are different.
in nonrelativistic
mechanics,
f'„
though their
Only the
rest
energy of
has the
40
value
e,
postulated by our third axiom.
if
The
rest
energies o{ e" and
e...,
can be
obtained equal ioe,
this reason,
additional constants of integration are introduced. For
we choose e„ as trnie (or proper) energy of the material point. However, we must emphasize that e" and e„„ can adequately play the same
role.
We introduce
e" e„
e„„
the following terms
:
— — —
v„
Lagrange lime energy, Hamilton time energy, Marinov time energy.
velocity of light represents the time part of
Theproper energy divided by
a 4vector called the
/)„
4momentum whose space
is
part
is
the proper
momentum
= m
.
This quantity
denoted by
A,
=
—
e„
=
nt c„
=
— mc
—
tnc
is
(5.13)
and
is
called the proper time
(absolute) time
momentum; the quantity p = momentum. Thus p = mv can be called the
c,
called the
(absolute) space
momentum, v and
on.
respectively, (absolute) space
and time
velocities,
and so
Obviously, the Hamilton time energy
energy and the
rest
e.,
can be called the proper time
symbol
latter,
c,
when
this
is
as a rule,
it by the cannot be confused with the charge of the electron; the denoted by us by q,. (see axiom V^.
energy
e,
the (absolute) time energy, denoting
All three types of time energy e"
physics.
,
e.,
,
and
e„„
are used in theoretical
The time energy e„ plays the most important role, though many formulas obtain a more compact form when Lagrange time energy e" is used
(see, for
example,
(6.14)].
Comparing
proper mass
is
(5.8) with (2.4) [or the
(4.2)],
second relation
(4.4) with (2.12)
when
taking into account
we conclude
that the relation
between mass and
m„ =
(1
m

—
.
(5.14)
i/Vc')''^
Note
that the axiomatical relation (2.3) represents the
is
formula which
considered as an
«
ideological basis
»
for
famous Einstein modern physics in
call «
our nuclear century. As a matter of
introduction of a
fact, relation (2.3)
serves only for the
new
derivative
physical quantity which we
«
mass
»
and
which differs from the axiomatical quantity
factor.
energy
»
only by a constant
at all the
The whole of physics can be constructed without introducing
«
quantity
mass
»
because relation (2.3) represents a trivial tautology.
of relation (2.3)
How
ever, the establishment
was an enormous
scientific feat.
41
As space energy depends only on the distances between the material points. = I . 3n) expressions in the brackets must be identically equal to zero because otherwise a dependence would exist between the components of the velocities of the different material points.2) where we have taken into account (5.. Thus in nonrelativistic physics we have to consider only and time energies. THE LAGRANGE EQUATIONS THE NONRELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION As can be seen from (2. that the particleswaves is still contradiction not lucidly resolved.13) and (2. . Almost the same can be said for de Broglie's relation (2. (6. . . and 42 . (6. which can be proved by dividing both sides by di. = 2 ^ . =0.The greatest accomplishment of a scientist is the revelation of a simple truth where others see a complexity or nothing at all. u.1^.5).16) and dividing by dt.1) and (6. . e„.2) into the fundamental axiomatical equation (2. . = dv^ .1) = I 9'*i Time energy depends only on thus the velocities of the material points and dE„=X ^ . although we must add. we have by dV and </£".4) In this equation all n (as a matter of fact. Substituting (6.1. acceleration. . §6. and energy of the /th material point.dr.2) i/j and the V.dv. Let us assume that in a time dt the space energy V and the time energy £"„ of an isolated material system of m material points have changed their values v. velocity. ..3) dr. its spacetime energy is to be consispace dered only order in relativistic physics since availability leads to effects of second in vie. 6.15). dl dv.dv.dr. dU = ^ ^— i . (6. = 2 ^ (^) . relation (6. the radius vector. Denote by r. we obtain i 2 TJ:(^) +r— dr.
Obviously.2).. is the kinetic energy of the /th material point and E^ is the kinetic energy of the whole system.' = — dU.9) dv. and the first relation (4.2.this would contradict our sixth axiom which asserts that the time energy of a its material point of a system depends only on own velocity.5) in the form A = in F. where t\..8) Thus the potential forces with general. i.6.  ^ all // (6. is the space energy of these two material points. (6.. since the electric 43 ...9)).8).. of the /th material point. on the /th point and the potential force which the /th material point exerts on the /th point is F. i = 1. (4. it =  will be at/.' potential force which the/th material point exerts ()ty..' .2.. This is obvious for the electric space energy (see formula (2. 8£„ (6..4) we obtain the following system of n vector equations 7/^="!)^' '^''^ "' ^^^^ which are called the Lagrange equations and represent the fundamental equations of motion in nonrelativistic physics. two parts of a system) act which two material points of a system (in on each other are always equal and is oppositely directed along the line connecting them. where U. THE RELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION In relativistic physics. dE„ dv.5) represents the kinetic force/.5) de„. which  I material points exert on we can write equations (6.' =  F. we can write 8fk. Taking the left into account (5. we see that side of (6. =  dU.1) will preserve its form.7) which form they are called the Newton equations (or Newton's second law). depends on the distance between both points. dv^ dv. Since U./dr..5).e. 6. Thus from (6. (6. equation (6... is The F. the potential force the /th point./dr. Introducing the notation r = and calling F.w./ar. . This result called Newton's third law. F. in equation (6./9r..
takes part. is the part of the spacetime energy in which the /th material point From the last two equations we obtain dW= ^ i [ dW — or.13) into the energy conservation law (2.) = . (6.15)] 2 d{. the becomes velocity dependent in highvelocity of the fundamental equation of motion in graviin §8.1 and dividing by dt.) di—). 44 . we shall have . = d I j ^ W.14). However.V..1). The peculiarities from formulas (2.v. As the spacetime energy material points and on their depends on the distances between the velocities. (6.)= 2 9if. = 2 i [^.2 /J. ov. dW . assume that the gravitational charges (the proper masses) are constant.]. + —.]. i dW. In relativistic physics.10) and (6.7) and (5. we have to take into account also the spacetime energy VV. instead " of equation " (6.charges and the distances between them do not depend on the velocities of the charges. . . I .12) = I i = ^ where W. we obtain by the help of the same reasonings the fundamental equations of motion in relativistic physics as in i = 1.14) which we call the full Lagrange equations.dr.= 9»'i (6. velocity independent. (6.e. dr.16) §6. it is (see (2.2) we shall have 9£.11) = I However.dv.13) and (2.v.13) =1 Substituting (6. de. dW= i "2 = 1 (— 9r. (6. in magrctism will be considered the present general analysis we shall i. dW dW dv.„ I i= 9«'i . In relativistic physics.+ d{) dv.v. = 2dW. dW dv.dr + d(—..10) where e'] is the Lagrange time energy of the /th material point. (6. as can be seen gravitational space energy physics. dW 9ri dW .
moving with velocities v. §7.1) 45 . The full Newton equations are where /.15) is called the full potential force acting on the /th material point. IV) (6. 0=2^.A . 7. we can easily obtain.1) the reference in We f„ shall further ' work in the COS system of units which it is assumed = /i„ = I. (1. If at the reference point a material point with mass m. and istotropy of space. and proper energy e„ is placed.1. 1 will be t/ = <7<I). electric charge q. then the electric and magnetic energiesof the whole system of AJ+ charges in which this charge^ takes part velocity v.The quantity f. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETISM THE NEWTONLORENTZ EQUATION Let us have a system of ai electric charges </. the assertion of our ninth axiom). r. the laws of energy.. The full Newton's third law is Using the Lagrange equations and proceeding from the homogeneity of homogeneity of space. whose distances The quantities to a certain space point (called the reference point) are . respectively. . and angular momentum conservation in nonrelativistic and relativistic physics (the first one representing time. respectively. ^ = — i^(U Br. momentum. electric point. IV = ^ c v. is called the full kinetic force of the /th material point. are called. ^=2m„^^ and magnetic potentials at (7.
q grad ( <!> ) (7.3) c This is the full Newton equation in electromagnetism and we call it the NewtonLorentz equation. Since it is dA dt dA d/ + .. scalar To this equation we always attach its supplement which can be obtained after multiplication of both sides by the velocity of the charge  = I. we obtain q (p^+^A)= at c d  V A .7) Introducing the quantities E=  grad <^  18/4 — — c . . = ^i. (7.4) where (H/J/OO (i^ . dl is is the change of A for a time dt at a given space point grad) A dt the change of A dt.= dt which is q (grad 4) + 1 9/4 )+ I i^x rot^. .2) inlo (6. the Lorenlz equation represents the think that Newton equation rename it in electromagnetism.1) as functions of time) and divergence from the magnetic potential A. (v. the electric NewtonLorentz equation and its and magnetic intensities. grad) i^ + w x rot^ + A x rotv (7. and we reasonable to the its NewtonLorentz equation. we obtain diV/4 = 1 a* .6) c dt commonly it is called the Lorentz equation..9) Taking partial derivative with respect to r./<) = (v. we can write the NewtonLorentz equation a c V ^ f. voiA ./. — dt = qv. time from the electric potential the following relation $ [consider the distances in the expression (7.(gradcl>l B= ).*)) under the condition v in the form dp„ = Const. ^ . full As one can see.B.Pulling (7. (7.. grad)/! + {A .10) c at 46 . 14). V during this time and motion of charge q with velocity and taking into account the mathematical relation due to the grad(v. (7..8) ot called. we can write the scalar supplement in the form — =qE ^ dt + — c vy.. (7.E ^ (7. respectively. grad) /i (7.
Only for r = does the lefthand side give the uncertainty 0/0. and current densities and the and magnetic A. 12) is valid also for r = 0. 7. = 8{. 47 .13) we obtain an identity.\) 6(i) 8(z) Now we shall establish the differential electric connection between the charge potentials.). Since call in it our the approach it is a logical result obtained from the axioms. Indeed.JS V .12) where A = 8V9. Using the Gauss theorem.d'/dy^ + 9V8z' is the Laplace operator and r is the distance between the frame's origin and a space point with radius vector r. let us integrate 12) over an arbitrary sphere with radius R which has a centre at the frame's origin. putting into (7. we equation of potential connection. To establish whether relation (7. (7. r.14) V s where is 5" is the surface of the sphere of integration whose volume is l' the elementary area (taken as a vector) of the integrational surface and JS whose direction always points outside from the volume enclosed. 6(rr.2. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN DENSITIES AND POTENTIALS The charge and current densities at a given reference point arc the following quantities (these are the socalled 5densities) Qir)= i q.)\ 1=1 J {r) = V 1=1 >. and the righthand side give the uncertainty 5(0). and 8{r) 6function of Dirac.This relation is commonly called the « Lorentz condition ».8(rr.v' I. prove the validity of the following mathematical relation We shall A(l/r) =  4 77 5(r).V' + V' + 2')*'\ (7. is are the radius vectors the threedimensional of the single charges. (7. (7.12) r = r 0 = (.11) where r is the radius vector of the reference point. The static and quasistatic cases. we shall obtain for the integral of the lefthand side S^{l/r)dy = fd\w[grad{\/r)]dV = fgTadi{\/r). (7.
18) The dynamic case. Let us now assume placed v. the following differential connection between potentials and densities for static and quasistatic systems with velocity equalities (7. {l.i9) 48 .The vector grad( /r) 1 = — rlr^ is directed to the frame's origin. since the integration represent spheres with arbitrary radii..zT =  ..11). in a direction opposite to the direction of the vector dS. the radius vector r' of the same reference point in the moving frame A" will r=(x. on the grounds of the fundamental propery of the 6function.„.V.. In the domains of must be Thus the relation (7.47r5(r r. or on the grounds of our axiom A(l/rwhere r. both integrands also equal. Ti I) = .34).v. In such a case the radius vector of the /point in A" will be If the radius vector = (0.0. that r.. i = 1. ^.e.12) taken over the same arbitrary sphere. according to the Marinov transformation (3. A<I>=47r^.\l) are the radius vectors of « different space points.17) where a moving Multiplying any of the a charge q.15) '^ s The integral on the right of (7. by the corresponding electric charge.z). (7.vaxis of a rest frame K and at the initial A^' zero moment = crosses the frame's origin. after having element divided by c.16) and (7. is the radius vector of a space point charge q.' be attached to this /point and the special one. and thus S ^{\lr)dV= V /^= ^JdS= s '^ 47r.^l 0. A/< =  — c y.r.15) 4 7r/ 8(^)f/^^= V  4 tt .16) are equal and.12) is valid also for r first = 0. .v.1) and (7. is (static case) or where at any moment can be found (quasistatic case). (7. i. (7.j. and summing taken into account (7.". in of a reference point frame be K is r = (. Let us consider a point (calling it the /point) which moves i at velocity v along the . we obtain. gives The integrals (7. or electric current them. we can prove the validity of the following relations same way. B. Let a moving frame transformation between K and K' he a r.). }Jc. 2 n. then.0). for homogeneity and isotropy of space.
on the lefthand side is domain around around the frame's origin of to .. (7.47r5(r— where and r„ .22) is valid also for r„ = an arbitrary sphere with radius R which has a centre at the point whose coordinates are given by (7.)dV. V = 0. putting into (7.The distance between the /point and the reference point considered frame K' but expressed through the coordinates in frame K will be r„ in = r'r: = rr. Thus we can spread 1 the integral over a small i.23) To establish integrate (7.0). for X vt = 0.r. (w.22) the expression (7.r) and moving point with a radius vector = . as already said in §3.20) frame expressed through the coordi nates in frame K will be r = \r — r.22) = r d'/dx^ + is d'/dy' + d'/dz  d'/c' 3/ is the d'Alembert operator = I  r. The proved validity of the following mathematical relation can now easily be ZA(l/0 = .. r„ we obtain an Only for r. r.e.0. the point with coordinates given by (7.23). r will 49 . vector r = (v. =  0. As a matter of fact. let us whether relation (7.^^. here we are considering the distance between two points moving with respect to one another which cannot be connected by a rigid rod and thus it is senseless to We call r the distance and r„ in detail in them speak about contraction of such a rod. I „ the proper distance between a a space point with radius r. is due to the aetherMarinov character of light propagation and this has nothing to do with a physical length contraction (with the socalled « Lorentz contraction »)..). i.v. (7..24) For all points of the volume V the integrand equal to zero. Indeed.23) does the lefthand side give the uncertainty 0/0.r. 'l (7. But at r„ — it is /r^ — oo.e. (7.3.22) over fC V {\/ r„)dV = . = (^ This distance considered in /_ K and + ^.20) for identity.. The difference between these two distances.\ = [{X — V ty y' + z' ] "\ (7. 2 = 0. K '.21) the proper distance and we have considered Marinov (1975a). and the righthand side the uncertainty fi(0).Att f V 8(r . and the derivatives with respect v.
A=—J{t).23). In the same manner as in §7.24). divfi = 0.8) and making use of the following mathematical relations rot (grad O) = 0. (7. on the grounds of the fundamental property of the 6function. I dE 80 I d'A Write the second equation (7. c (7.28) and taking into account (7.29) and put here the mathematical relation AA = grad(div/l)  Tot(rotA). /J.2A. much can be neglected with respect for the case (7.25) in the form 4  \ ci'A rr = . Thus the relation (7. as in §7. and.26) we obtain the first pair of the MaxwellLorentz equations TotE Let us =  —— I f) R .27) now take partial derivatives with respect to time from both sides (7. 7. div (rotA) = . (7. of the first equation dividing it by I c.Hence the last one So we reduce the integral on the lefthand side of (7.2A.25) densities Q{t) and J{t) are functions of time.8) and diver gence from both sides of the second equation (7. gives the same result. the following connection from the relation (7.22) is valid also increase faster than the derivative with respect to to the first ones. /.24) to the integral (7.10). The integral on the righthand side of (7. I we obtain dE "" ''''^= 50 Att 7 87 7'^ (73') .AA ^ J 77 (7. (7.15) which gives — Att.30) Putting (7.8).29) into (7.3. we conclude that the integrands must be equal.22) we can obtain between potentials and densities for the most general dynamic case C\^ where the = 471 Q(t). THE MAXWELLLORENTZ EQUATIONS Taking rotation from both sides of the first equation (7.
^ = or.2 n. and we can consider the gravitational charges (the proper masses) in the magretic energy as constants. v.10) and (6. 1) we shall have ^ . (8.2) where u. v^/c'^ part of their space energy). Thus in relativistic gravitation instead of equation (6.1).25) in the form ^^=77 div£ = Equations (7.33) into (7. Putting (8. dr. is the acceleration of the .1 the fundamental equations of motion gravimagretism —[ 1 + (— — .«i) — = — . di^i J . at (7. 51 . /9^« I J 9^. (7.th material point.16).. Thus we can assume magretism is that the differential of the spacetime energy in gravi given by formula (6. (6.34) ^nQ.31) and MaxwellLorentz equations. is very small with respect to space energy (the v._. v. 9t/.1. spacetime energy of two material points moving with velocities . I = 1. (7. . a7. we obtain (7. .13) into the energy conservation law (2. (8. ^ i r 9f^.2 we pointed out that the gravitational energy in highvelocity physics is velocity dependent. v.8) div£= *A<I)Write the first — c —(di\A).10).v.32) and taking into account (7.13).33) Putting (7. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS IN GRAVIMAGRETISM THE NEWTONMARINOV EQUATION In §6.1) Spacetime energy represents a v. we obtain by the help of the in same reasonings as in §6. represent the second pair of the §8. = I dv.34) 4v Q . 8.Let us now take divergence from both sides of the first equation (7.32) equation (7.
we obtain the NewtonMarinov equation ^^ =/o = .. + at ^) + c dt " c i. v.+^). moving with velocities v. (8.f„= m„v. motions with large in tangentional accelerations cannot be realized and. Introduce the gravitational and magnetic poten O... w takes part will = m„<I). i= \ . are the distances to a certain reference point where a mass m moving // with velocity v and having proper mass m„ be is placed.A^ .14).{gr2id^. = 2y— i ..3) where r. = = I '•i 2y ^^ cr. (8. and having proper masses tials m.m„(grad$. In gravitation. assuming (dU^/dVi) . The masses in gravitational and magretic energies of the whole system of + I which mass U. (8.5) and its scalar supplement  ^v. (8. X roL4. =0. the quantity dU^/dv. Let us consider a system of n masses m. ^.As it has the direction of the vector can be seen from formulas (2.4) Putting (8. = c (full v.14).7) and (5. as a rule. we can write the fundamental equations of motion gravimagretism in the general form (6.11.14). W.6) Introducing the quantities ..4) into the full Lagrange Newton) equation (6.
c at divfi.= y r c^ .3. and masses. ^Ar) = I 2 « I p.2.3 we can obtain the first and second pairs of the MaxwellMarinov equations rotG=^. are written at the assumption that l/e„ working the COS system of units. 8. 18).2 the following relation between and the gravimagretic potentials for the most general dynamic ^<lf^= 4 77 Y MO.14) instead of the electric charges. 8.Introducing the proper mass and proper the socalled 6densities) momentum densities (these are ftoir)= I i >= I m„. f in (8. (8. m. = q/c.1). (8.25). q. as well as equations (7.'V. = 1 (see the beginning of §7. With the reduced charges and masses the space and spacetime energies of two material points will be written U.13) c whose analogues electromagnetism are the MaxwellLorentz equations.) (8. m. =  Y r v. = 0. REDUCED CHARGES AND MASSES If we take a general look at the fundamental equations of electromagnetism and gravimagretism. we shall establish that it is more reasonable to work with the reduced electric charges and reduced masses.= are —ynAt).„ 8(r  r.= lSlL^c\ Co yv^:^^^ ±1±L '' ^^.16) 53 . ^..S(rr). = /u.11) We where wish to emphasize that equations (7. THE MAXWELLMARINOV EQUATIONS In the same manner as in §7. (8.^^^ (8.10) we can case establish in the these densities same manner as in §7. q. = m/c (8.12) rot B^ = in \ dG dt 4 — c 77 ^ Y "„ div G =4 tt y M„ ..15) r U. we ^A.
8)1 e„ — (1 '^ "  = hp. the NewtonLorentz equation (7. In PARTICLES AND WAVES T.. . For ex. have considered the fundamental electromagnetic equations in Marinov (1978a) and the fundamental gravimagretic equations in Marinov (1978b).2) i^Vc')' Multiplying both sides of point. Thus we shall have (see (2. In Marinov (1978b) we give a detailed analysis of the socalled « We Mercury problem ».3) = V v/c' (9. according to relation (2. this equation by the velocity v of the material we obtain (see (4.13)) '^P" =^(^cE+vXB). we introduced the quantity the period of the material point. (9. (9.2)] mv„= — The quantity t is V.v. §9. (9.17) It is electron and the mass of the electron but important to note that universal constants are not the charge of the their reduced values (see §12).5) and (5.'= \/T is (9.9) will be written as follows (see (5.E.4) called the wave number of the material point m. ample.All equations in electromagnetism and gravimagretism will obtain more symmetric forms when the reduced charges and masses are used. (9.5) where n 54 is the unit vector directed along the velocity of the material point. The quantity .1) called the frequency of the material point considered. called our third axiom. (8.3) in the Write equation form niv„ = htn. ^=q.5).
55 . in classical (nonquantum) as. = and = mc'/h (9.6) called the wave vector of the material point. and we have (9.9) are called the rest frequency rest period equal to v and T. where. e„ describe the 1c. ^r.e.8) v\ = The quantities v.10) (9.5) and (9.2) can be written (see (4. Nevertheless.7) called the wavelength of the material point. . We have the feeling that this contradiction will never be understood with such clarity As we example. i. is any material point. large. as the reader can see on reading book.The vector quantity *=Xn=— i/n=— is V (9. T.2. then v = c.. highvelocity physics will be understood after the acceptance of our absolute spacetime theory. of the material point and are Obviously the rest wave number of A. end of §5. v. If the material point considered is a photon. defined Vr by the relation \/T. equal to zero and the rest wavelength. the particleswaves » contradiction docs not originate logical difficulties.11) These formulas are called de Broglie's relations. for physics.. respectively. the dialectic unity of opposites which the ideas of particles and waves offer is still not lucidly enough resolved. c./J. according to our categorization.4)] : a) with the help of the frequency hp (9. for v is = 0. infinitely Formulas (9. The quantity A is = \lk = c'/vv (9.. The quantities points /71. « particle » character of the material « and the quantities said at the T. \ describe their wave » character.. the « phenomenon this inter ference is not considered.
8). 10 56 . photons which rests in by an observer (receiver) who is also at rest in absolute space and the wavelength X. B. The frequency p registered is given by formula (9. we call this effect also the and wavelength shifts of light. FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH SHIFTS OF LIGHT 10. Source and observer at rest. 10. observer at rest.1. The relation between them Let us suppose that there is a source (emitter) of absolute space.1) that the observer is at rest in absolute space at the point O' and the light source moves with velocity v from the Fig. A review of the theoretical part of this given in this A.§ 10. KINEMATIC SHIFT (THE DOPPLER EFFECT) The light Doppler effect is the difference between the frequency is and wavelength with which a photon those emitted from a source of radiation and to the measured by an observer. which he can measure. Let us now suppose (fig. due motion of source and observer kinematic frequency in it with respect to absolute space. subsection. and we have considered paper is Marinov (I978e). Source moving. are called emitted frequency and emitted wavelength.
1) p„K. (as a matter of fact. while the reception distance. 57 .position 5" where a photon is emitted to the position S where the source will be at the moment when the photon will be received by the observer. different quantities. reception and middle angles are subtented by the velocity of the moving object and the line connecting the object at rest with the moving object at ihe emission. the observer at rest will not register the measure the wavelength A which are to be registered the source be at rest and which we have called the emitted is we present the emitted wavelength by the segment S'Q. photon (we have enlarged the wavelength diagram for Since the photon moves in absolute space with velocity c. we have (10.. in general. Now.„ A„. We repeat that we consider the case where the is distance between source and observer the much greater than the wavelength of clarity).„ at the middle moment between the emission and reception moments. 0' is called the emission angle..8) and (10. we have to present the observed wavelength A„ by the segment S'Q. from our third axiom in which the « burst » model of the material points is postulated. 1970. thus. 1973). position will be written The upperscript « ' » will be attached to the emission and angle. whose final point is Q). 1972a. We attach the subscript « „ » to the received (observed) will frequency and wavelength and not to the emitted which without any subscript. We shall suppose that the wavelength of the interchanged photon is much less than the distance between source and observer and.2) The triangles S'Q„Q and O'S^'are \/\„ similar and thus (10. When the source frequency v and will not and measured if frequency and wavelength. p. but some other. moving. distance.3) = r'/r. 6 the reception angle and d. = c. position and angle be written without any upperscript. by that segment equal and parallel If in fig. once and for all. respectively. The source will be at the middle position S.„ the middle angle. we make the following stipulation The emission. We must note that when defining these angles a certain freedom is inevitable which leads to certain differences in the notations and in the formulas from those of our earlier papers (Marinov. proceeding {oS'Q.1) we obtain vJp = \/K. which we call the observed (or received) frequency and wavelength. reception and middle mo: ments. the emission and reception positions of the source can be considered as points. 101 then. (10. From (9.
we we we call the Doppler Doppler Doppler effect posttraverse.21) obtained in Marinov (1975a). The by the 58 posttraverse. call the effect antetraverse. 7r/2. we call the 0.3) (and then formulas from (10. (1  (10.5) 0„ = <?'. For^ = For ^„. propordonal to to the abso to the velocity of light with respect absolute space) to and the to the relative light velocity c '(i. transverse Doppler effect.e. (10. both measured on an absolute V= From V.5) and. to the velocity of light with respect clock. both formulas (10.„ = 77/2. on one hand. (10.2) and (10.31) in which we write obtain (1 1  v'/c')^'^ 1 vcosd/c + vcosd/c . 0./) ^. and S'Q are. which give the relation between the emission and reception distances and where.6) can be obtained directly from (10.„ ^\ . where a is an algebraic quantity. both formulas (10. we the last three relations. For For 0=0 0' = (or 77).4) since the segments S'Q„ lute light velocity c (i.^^^ Multiplying.v^/c'Y'^ (1 r 1 . following our present notation.vcosdjc Doppler effect longitudinal.e. n/l v/lc. antetraverse and traverse Doppler effects are called common name..v'/c')'" vcosd/c' Formulas (10. . = = = 7t/2 +  v/2c.„ — a. if we should suppose that the source is at rest and the observer moving from the emission position O' to the reception position O.6)] if we should use formulas (4.6). using formulas (3.v'/c'Y'^ . = 11/10' v/c.„ + a. = 77/2 + v/c.5) v'/c'Y _ ^" 1 + vcosO/c _ (1 . we have to write /„ = r'.i/Vc')''2 (' I . call the effect traverse.vcosO/c — . respectively. squaring them and writing cos^' = cos^.. (10. we obtain from the similar triangles r'/r S'Q„Q and S'OO' = c'/c. = 77/2. 0' = tt/I + v/lc. on the other hand. thus obtaining r = 1 r + vcosO'/c = (1 .„ 77/2 v/lc. we obtain within the necessary accuracy ^\ + vcosOJc' = 0. moving observer). cosO = cos^.On the other hand.
One can measure directly only the wavelength of standing waves. The motion of the observer with respect to absolute space leads only to a change in the velocity and frequency of the observed photons but not to a change in their wavelengths. of « to and fro » propagating photons which interfere (see §31). to the first formula (10. (10. i. We must emphasize that the wavelength is to be measured always with respect to absolute space.vcosd/c .8) can be introduced. observer moving. Thus for our case of source at rest and moving observer. we have A.. f Here again a formula analogical effects. their wavelength can change only when the source moves with respect to absolute space.e. does not correspond to physical reality.9) and ( 10.v^cy^ f —= . Since the photon proceeds with respect to the moving observer with the relative velocity c'.8). All measurements of the wavelength of unidirectionally propagating photons are indirect (see §32).1) that the source is at rest in absolute space at the point 5 and theobserver moves with velocity v^from the emission position O'to the reception position O. we obtain (10 12) = (1 . Let us now suppose (see again fig. 10) we obtain c/c. 10. ( 10.10) A.C. We have to stress also that a direct measurement of the wavelength cannot be performed..11) vjv = Making use of formulas p„ (3. (10. (10. even in the case of a moving observer. If one should accept that the motion of the observer leads to a change in the wavelength.31) in which we write V = 1 i/.9) According to our « burst » model for the photons. the relation between the observed frequency and wave length will be kK = c. then one is impelled to accept Einstein's dogma about the constancy of light velocity in any inertial frame which. Source at rest. as we have experimentally shown. as well as the definitions for longitudinal and transverse Doppler 59 . = From (9.
.. O are their reception suppose (fig. called intermediary.i^Vc^) = + vcosO'/c (1 1 V .14) If now an imaginary source is at rest at point 5" (the emission position of and emits a photon with frequency »». 102 D. will be (use the first and second formulas (10.vco^Qlc (1 .10)] the real source) 60 . (1 . Now 102) that the source positions.13) Ai„. d.. while Q' and Q are the emission and reception angles if the observer were at rest at its reception position. We introduce two pairs of emission and reception angles : the emission . The frequency and wavelength registered by him.Fig. ^ A — (1 : \ + vcosO/c — v'/c')^'^ • — A 1 . wavelengths.v'/c')''^ — V cos d/c (10. Source and observer moving. while for others the angles B\.„ so that 5". Q[.j^Vc')"^' 1 (10. and B„ are and reception angles if the source were at rest at its emission position.6)] ^^'^2 . O' are emission positions of source and observer and S*..5) and find the relation To we proceed as follows : (10. For certain problems it is convenient to use the angles B\ Q„. respect to absolute space the moves with velocity v with and the observer with velocity v. between the emitted and received frequencies and Let us suppose that the real source emits a photon and an imaginary observer is at rest at point O (the reception position of the real observer). then the frequency and wavelength registered by the real observer when he crosses point O will be (use formulas (10. and wavelength A.„.12) and (10.
17) Vo = v. thus the emitted wavelength X of such photons will become shorter [by the factor (1 .18) we have to write absolute space can an observer. also at Ao = vcosO' A—+ — i^Vc' /c = . If the at rest in absolute space (remember that same source should remain only when the source is at rest in rest.17) ^ V = A— When reduce to v.„.. 1 1 \ . thus. v'/c')^'^ rT=^5 1 vcosd/c ^ (10./c' . and formulas (10. we obtain ''^ 1 v„cofi ejc ^ "''"'' \ + vcosO/c .v'/c' ^ '^2 ~ (10. the frequency of the photons emitted by the ( source moving at velocity v^and. 61 .. ".  »^„Vr')"' 1 . then = tt . and "0^ = c ' ^'. (10. 15) and I ( 10.d\ 01 = tt  ^. (10.18) = V.K = (1 »'in.n. 14) 1 into ( 10.18) the emitted wavelength of such photons. so that instead of (10.. 16)./c' .vcosO/c + v„ 1 \ 1 cos d'/c 1 . while the In same angle registered with respect to absolute space.21) ^ cos 0/c and now »'„A„ Co' = c. (10. 18) remain the same..19).. (10.v„cose/c 7717^72^ j— ^TT = A. 1  ^— .v!.22) being the proper relative light velocity with respect to source and observer. 7j (10.ir'/c^)''^]..15) V= Putting ( .i^Vc' .16) 10. A in the corresponding formulas is 10.. 13) and ( 10.19) while formulas ( 10. v is formula (10. In is case 6 the angle between the opposite line of light propagation and the velocity of source 6' is and observer registered with respect to both of them.v!. the period of the emitted photons will become shorter (and the frequency higher) because of the absolute time dilation. measure the emitted frequency and wavelength). (1 6...20) this being the relative light velocity with respect to source and observer. (10.
8) and (10. (10. However. a Doppler effect appears only when source and observer move with respect to one another.7) r (I — v^lc^y"for this case According to the ninth axiom we have dejdt = .2 DYNAMIC SHIFT (THE EINSTEIN EFFECT) The light Einstein effect is the difference between the frequency is and wavelength with which a photon those measured by an observer the points emitted from a source of radiation and due to the different gravitational potentials at where source and observer are placed.e. namely. A review of this paper is given in this subsection. then the 10. Formula (10. we call this effect also the dynamic (or gravitational) frequency and wavelength shifts of light and we have considered it in Marinov (1976a). In contradistinction to this conclusion.24) Putting here (5.21) shows that the measurement of the wavelength can give such information.19) shows as the light source.dVJdt (10.2) and supposing that the material point after the integration is a photon (i. These conclusions are of extreme importance. according to contemporary physics which proceeds from the principle of relativity. we have shown that a Doppler effect appears also when source and observer move with the same velocity.23). formula (10. u = c). these two masses will be [see formulas (2. Let us have a mass M which is at rest in absolute space and a mass m (m <^ \f) which moves with The gravitational energy of and (5. the received wavelength is different from that which should be measured if source and observer be at rest in absolute space (see §32).25) or I ''"" = + O/c' " I +^/c^ =M1 +(^  ^o)/cn^ (10. we obtain of (10.that if an observer moves with the same velocity measurement of the received frequency can never give information about their absolute velocity.26) 62 . taking into account (9.. supposing m = 0.14)] velocity v in the gravitational field of mass M.24) "o" M v° p "= y— (——) r r„ =  — I ("„" r c' ^o p^). Let us note that.
at the point is rand at the point of ofemissionof the photon whose distance from mass reception (observation) of the photon whose distance from mass is r„ (we consider A/ as a point mass or as a homogeneous sphere). formula ( 10.29) clearly shows that the wavelength of a photon which crosses a region with a stronger gravitational potential will a smaller length. where the gravitational potential is 0„). 16) and ( 10. From ( 10.e. while the wavelength is measured by the help of rigid rods whose lengths depend neither on their velocities nor on the gravitational potentials. period) is a relatively more complicated notion than the physical quantity wavelength because the frequency is measured by the help of clocks which have different rates in dependence on their velocities in absolute space (as we have seen in §2. We must emphasize that the period Tand the frequency r of the emitted photon are measured on a clock (imagine a light clock) which is placed in the region where the photon is emitted (i.28) A„ the wavelength of the emitted photon and is the wavelength of the observed photon. Now we shall find the formula for the gravitational wavelength shift. while the period T„" and the frequency »'„" of the received photon are measured on a clock placed in the region where the photon is received (i./c' A ^ . independent of the gravitational potential in the space region considered.where <^ =  y \f — . (10. i. = I + 0. stronger..e. independent of the local concentration of matter.28) we obtain \.4 and shall further see in §1 1. then A„ < A. Hence.1) and on the gravitational potentials (as we shall see in §11.27) are the gravitational potentials caused by mass respectively.. Thus the subscript « „ » of the period and frequency signifies « observed » and the upperscript « " » signifies that time is measured on a clock placed in a region with gravitational potential 4). is have in that is region whose absolute value greater. where the gravitational potential is <I>).°\„ = c.. p. we shall have absolute space this velocity is when "A = where X is c.29) The physical quantity frequency (respectively. (10.2). This gravitational potential. (10. if ^„ > I^I^I. o. M M Formula (10. = ^ Y_ M.. Since according to our tenth axiom the photons move with velocity c in measured by the help of a nearby light clock.26) is the formula for the gravitational (dynamic) frequency shift.. Thus. 63 .e..
are. but the problem whether 64 this phenomenon can be . The result (I I. in general.4 we have shown that the period of any light clock increases when its absolute velocity increases. not complementary. §11. * Let us note that the angles^' and 6 (for the « there » and « back » trips) between v and c.18) if is forany orientation of the is d.7) and calculating the path with respect to absolute space which the light pulse has to cover during its « there » and « back » trips. moving clock. KINEMATIC (LORENTZ) TIME DILATION In §2.e. Thus it is ^' = 6'. V. its light clock's « arm the light clock absolute velocity and the arm » of angle between them 6' then Indeed.18) called the kinematic time dilation.0'.. that formula (3. the « . (3. if measured in absolute time. the arm » of the first being perpendicular and of the second parallel to the to clock's velocity.e. = C* d — + d — C = d c \ ¥ (1 V cos O'/c  r^ + d C I + {\ i^cos^' /c v'/c'Y'^  v'/c'Y'^ c{\ Id . According to the Newtonian conceptions this is effect « different for a « transverse » and « longitudinal » light clock.31).I) can be also obtained proceeding from formula (10. being given by formula (3. easily show ». clock's « this effect is the same forany orientation of the and is arm ». Proceeding from formula valid we can v. the angles subtended by the direction of clock's propagation measured with respect to the and the directions of light propagation. According our absolute spacetime theory.The problem about the photons is the relation between the frequencies (the periods) of in considered more detail in § 1 1 . As stated in §3. is ^ r.v^/cy^ (I T .. the clock's period. the experiment has shown that also the periods of other generalized for the period of any physical systems are influenced by the kinematic time dilation. the angles subtended by the direction of clock's propagation and the directions of light propagation.2. TIME DILATION III. 0' = tt . 6' ' and 6' are the angles (for the « there » and back » trips) i. i. c'..3.v^cy^ ' (111) where T = 2d/c clock. between the velocity of the and the relative light velocity. measured with respect to absolute space. is the period of the same clock when being at « rest.
for example.. we can be sure that if the period of determined by the motion of massless particles (i. this Larmor sidered it (19(X)) was the introduce time dilation and rightly con an absolute effect. semiscientific.2. we shall work in a frame which rests in absolute space. clocks attached to absolute space have been called by us absolute (with precision absolute space have been called proper (with The clocks more precision we shall call them kinematically proper). potential. Time dilation is one of the most controversial problems in physics.2 — see — that this gravitational We stronger).material system remains open. However. according to which the period of any clock increases proportionally to the square of velocity. particles with a system is m = 0). Thousands of scientific. since it tried to explain time dilation as a relative effect. 11. an aerial which emits radio waves. Einstein (1905) analysed this phenomenon five years later and wrongly considered it as a relative effect. DYNAMIC (EINSTEIN) TIME DILATION it is Now we shall show that the period of any light clock increases when placed in a region with a stronger gravitational potential (we repeat §10. dilation. then this period will be influenced by the kinematic time dilation. or the Einstein time since Einstein (1907) was the first to introduce it into physics. we think that the kinematic time dilation should be called the as Lorentz time dilation. whose absolute value is greater. These regions which in the problem considered have the weakest gravitational 65 . since this effect follows logically from the transformation to which his name is attributed. and popular books and papers have been dedicated to it. The more moving in local concentrations of matter are to be called dynamically proper. is its absolute which Archimedus came. It was only the theory of relativity which threw theore no more paradoxical than the conclusion to tical physics into confusion. is dynamic time dilation. Clocks placed far enough from local concentrations of matter are to be called dynamically absolute and clocks placed near we shall call them kinematically absolute). The period (frequency) of the radio waves will be determined by the time in which the potential of the antenna's top passes through two successive is determined by the time in which first to light crosses the antenna's maxima. and « arm ». Lorentz treated time dilation in many publications also from an absolute point of view. call this effect the As we are not interested in the kinematic aspect of the time dilation in this subsection. establishing that all bodies lose weight proportionally to their volumes when put in a liquid. At any rate. Consider. cutting its natural logical tie with the absolute motion of the material systems.e. this phenomenon.
has the same value along any direction) be called kinematically absolute space. A/. when passing the /th potential « step »..e. after the head of the « burst ».2) If from the emission to the reception point there are n « steps ».region are T=\/c.29) we obtain c" = cI 1 + + <t>Jc' ^ 4)/f' . = — c. The potential « steps » can be infinitely near to each other. will be equal to c.. in a stronger gravitational The space regions in which velocity of light has the maximum possible value can be called dynamically absolute space. = c. to C.e. by c and c" and call them dynamically absolute light velocity and Consider two points with gravitational potentials conditionally assume <l> we can = 0). = A. .potential (which conditionally is to be assumed equal to zero) can be considered as lying far enough from local concentrations of matter. but.5) ../c. will be A. respectively.. Now. being the wavelength of the photon in the /th region. 66 T„ = Xjc". we shall assume the distances between them to be larger than the photon wavelength. the absolute peof the photon emitted in the 4>region and received in the 0. the velocities of the emitted and received photons. Suppose that a photon is emitted from the first point and received at the second. (11. after crossing the /th potential « step ». we have to find the relation potential changes To conclude that the rear of the will « burst ». <l> and ^„ (if <l>„>4>. (11. If these velocities are measured on a unique clock (say. A... change its velocity from c. we have (11. Thus the wavelength of the photon..3) and (10. for clarity. dynamically proper light velocity. is to As riods) the absolute times of emission and reception (i. if measured on dynamically proper clocks. on a clock placed in the ^region). According to our tenth axiom. between c" and c suppose that the gravitational from the emission to the potential point in a stepped form.3) From ( 1 1 . (11. according to our « burst » model for photons.4) field This formula shows that the velocity of light is lower if measured on a unique clock. always with a time delay Ar. we shall designate them. Obviously the space in which velocity of light is isotropic (i..
7) and (10.29) and T. If we consider again an aerial emitting radio waves.6) {p„) we conclude that if the frequencies of the emitted (i') and photons are measured in the same time (say. then the time in which. r.8) From received (1 1. and we shall call T also the period of the emitting system. it must be "" = » "• (11. Regarding the generalization of dynamic time dilation in the case where is not determined by the motion of massless particles. (11. taking into account (10.6) The proper periods of the emitted and received photons are T= From (1 1.29) we obtain r„" = T 1 + ^o/C f— (11. we have to say the same as regarding the generalization of kinematic time dilation (see the period §11. <^. To explain in more detail the essence of dynamic time dilation.4).9) From of two potentials (1 1. let us consider a light source which emits photons with frequency v when being the placed at a point with gravitational potentional emitted photon is The period T of equal to the time in which the emitting system passes through its two specific states. (1110) if for a certain period of time the absolute (the <I>lightclock) has <I>„lightclock) time units and the proper (the has measured r time units.1).." = \Jc. clock will _ T^ Hence measured / = T 1 + O/f^ . 67 .4) we conclude with equal « 4>o.we obtain. say. the potential of the antenna's top passes through T is two successive maxima. T„ = (11. absolute./c' and this represents the phenomenon which we call the dynamic time dilation. (1 1. say.. in absolute time). that the relation between the periods T and be P light clocks and arms if measured on placed in the regions with gravitational a unique.7) \/c. the relation between them will be 1 + <^.
Transfer potential <^„.8) and (10.9)]. This is due to the fact that the frequencies of a photon emitted in the <I>region and received if in the <l>oregion are equal if on a unique clock between them This is is [see (11. the cause which leads to a shift in the spectroscopic lines observed in the spectra on the Earth of chemically identical stars' and Earth's gases. absolute clock) of two identical material systems placed. he will register a frequency v for the photons arriving from the ^source and a frequency v" for the photons arriving from the <I>„source.23).12). P ^"^^ 1 1 + + <t>Jc' <D/c^  "•' +(*^. in two regions with gravitational potentials <l> and ^„ will be 4>clock. respectively. Thus the relation between the frequencies v and v° (measured on a unique.v'/c')^'^ mass (11.10). having velocity v in the region v„ in with gravitational potential acquires the velocity the region with gravitational potential 0„ only as a result of the gravitational interaction between this mass and the masses producing the field..*^/^M (11 12) Hence if an observer is placed in a 4>region and he receives photons which are emitted by two identical sources of radiation. 68 . now the source of radiation to a region with a gravitational in the <I)„region. measured on the measured on the same <l>clock. if two clocks move /„. but the frequencies of two identical a measured <l>.19)] . Proceeding from formula (10. Let us consider a mass m{m <I>. then. and the relation given by formula (11. we find 1 (1 + ^Jc' . the relation between them being given by formula (11. is Since the velocity of light c" (see formula (1 1.v„'/c'y'^ 1 (1 + ^/c' .region. measured on unique clock. will be [see (3. at velocities v and v„ with respect absolute space. ¥= 0) which. the relation their readings t between and which correspond to the same absolute time interval. according to kinematic time dilation.12). say. the period of the system.4)].and Oosources are not equal. will become equal to T' and the relation between Tand will be given by formula (11.13) This field. the first placed in a <I>region and the second in a 0. is the energy conservation law for a point in a gravitational On to the other hand. 1 I .vj/c — vWc^ "2 .24) and taking into account (5.
Thus we can mass m its universal gravitational energy. within an accuracy of second order in 1/c. Here we must mention that we have to expend the same quantity of work in absolute value. (11. the integration call being carried out over the volume the rest energy of of the whole Universe. (12.(m 4>„  m 4>) (1115) and the gravitational energy (together with the gravitational potential) is negative./r or c = y/ V dm./r .Comparing (11. = . we come to the following very we have to change either its velocity or its gravitational potential.3) 69 .13) we obtain.yfdm/r V or ^. In both cases we have to expend the same quantity of work. (12. gravitational energy with the = mc^ of a material point is its mass of the whole Universe taken with a negative sign mc^ = where r is my j dm/r V P^ or c' = y J dm/r V .3 reduced masses.2) The second equation Its numerical value is (12. This can be established also If we wish to slow the rate of a clock « kinewe have to enhance its absolute velocity. while if we wish to achieve this « dynamically ». and thus do positive work. §12.1. important conclusion If we wish change the rate of a clock.13) : and to (11. with the Since in §8. we have to transfer the with the following reasoning matically ».11). : clock from a point with a weaker gravitational potential to a point with a stronger gravitational potential. and represents the universal gravitational potential (divided by c!) ^ = .yfdmjr V (12. since from (11. COSMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT KINEMATICS 12.1) in the following form y m. c = m^ f V dm. we mentioned that logic requests one to work we have to write (12.1) the distance between a mass dm and our mass m. determined by the matter of the whole Universe and its distribution. while the kinetic energy is positive.2) gives the physical essence of light velocity. and thus do negative work.14). THE PHYSICAL ESSENCE OF REST ENERGY We assume that the rest energy e. —m 2 i^ ' m 2 v' = .
its value..7) represents an equality between two We shall now briefly discuss the problem about the experimental con firmation of our hypothesis (12.. and correspondingly gravitational energy changes.1)...8) 1 which. according to the energy conservation its law (11.15). 0..7) we 1 obtain r = c + ^. <P. 70 . we can consider the Universe as a sphere with radius R tending to infinity and with an average constant mass density /u.5) ^p^ = m^c" — m. where c (12.7) and from (12.4). it has been established that the Universe represents a system of galaxies and clusters of galaxies which are distributed homogeneously in space. is its universal gravitational energy also changes./c° its . within the necessary accuracy. change with (12.taken with a negative sign. Since the energy. when a mass changes position. changes its position from a will a ^core gion. the velocity of light must cor respondingly change identical quantities.. and since the rest energy another form of writing the universal gravitational energy.c (12.6) and (12..6) and c" are the velocities of light in the ^^rest and O^oregions. as a reasonable approximation. By the help of observations.. while formula (12.Jc I ^ ^.4). (12.24) represents the energy con servation law. then.. Thus. and hence its reduced absolute (rest) time momentum Pr=p/c = has to change with m.. taken with a its negative sign. when a mass changes position.c. Formula (10. If a reduced mass w. (12. The potential 0^ is to be called the reduced 4> .„  m. However. can be written Let us note that its in the form (1 1. its reduced universal gravitational energy At/. it energy is the same thing as the universal gravitational must be Ai/. First we have to answer the question about the model of the Universe which our absolute spacetime theory puts forward. = A/7.4) (see §5) = m. (12.region to universal gravitational potential. kinetic energy changes by the same amount..
f r dr =  2 tt y ju. R' .. A„ the wavelength actually observed. el al.12) 12.11) since always some mass « will remain outside the sphere with radis ». blished that the wavelengths of light on the grounds of statistics of observational data. estacoming from distant galaxies are shifted according to the law (called Hubble's law) ^^^1' \ \ =//.3) and (12..13) where X in the is the wavelength of the photons which the luminescent gas observed is galaxy emits on the Earth. (12. galaxies are receding tional to the distance Conventional physics and astronomy hypothetically assume that the from each other.. (12. the recession velocity being propor between them. THE PHYSICAL ESSENCE OF COSMOLOGICAL « RED SHIFT » Hubble (1937)./?' ^ c'/lTry = 2. = 10"gcm\ /? = SlO^'cm.. /?^ (12.We shall suppose that outside this sphere there is a void. Since it is X„>K then the visible spectral lines are always shifted to the is red end and this effect called also the cosmological « red shift »..yf ^ dV = ''  4 77 y H:.i. (12.. (12. adequate to physical reality.9) we obtain the following expression for light velocity c' =27rYM.10" gem ' .10^' gem . r is the distance to the galaxy and H is the socalled Hubble constant.9) From (12. thus jii.10) Thus if our hypothesis is density and corresponding « radius tally established..1). (12.2. the average mass » of the Universe.. R which 1970) ' has been taken as a radius of the observable Universe At the present time the experimental data are (Menzel . /?^ = 9. will The universal gravitational potential for such a model of the Universe be 4) = . so that the cosmological « red shift » is 71 . which are experimen must satisfy the relation jLi.
Doppler effect*. Since we have established by means of » experiment (§19.2) that the Sun moves at a velocity of about 300 km/s with respect to absolute space, then one has to accept that our Sun is situated very near to the « centre » of the Universe, because the cosmological « red shift » for remote galaxies, if considered as a Doppler effect, corresponds to recession velocities approaching c. So, for instance, the quasar PKS 023723 has a « red shift » AA/A = 2,22, and if we should accept that this shift is due to a longitudinal Doppler effect, then on the grounds of the second formula (10.8), where we put 6^ = 0, we shall obtain v = 247.000 km/s.
due
our
to the appearing
«
coupledmirrors
Thus we consider the
probability that
«
recession hypothesis as highly artificial, since the
it is
among
millions of galaxies
is
ours which
is
exactly at the
centre » of the Universe
very low.
In our absolute spacetime theory
shift »
it
we
explain the cosmological
«
red
by
the gravitational action of the masses of the
whole Universe, calling
the cosmological gravitational frequency and wavelength shift, while the
«
red shift
» in
the spectral lines of light emitted from a star
and due
to the
gravitational action of the
tional frequency
mass only of
shift.
this star is called the stellar gravita
and wavelength
Let us consider mathematically the cosmological gravitational
If there
shift.
central
is a sphere with radius R whose mass density n = /i(r) has a symmetry, then the gravitational potential at a point distance r from the centre can be calculated from the following formula
R
^(r)
= Airy J
fir'dr'
 —yfur'^dr'.
4
'
IT
(12.14)
*
Burcev [Phvs.
Lett.,
galaxies) explaining the large red shifts as a transverse
27A. 623 (1968)) put forward the hypothesisof rotating quasars (and Doppler effect. This conclusion is due to
al.so
an incorrect treatment of the light Doppler effect formulas. Taking into account §10.1 (see
§30),
one should immediately establish that Burcev analyses only the formula for the posttraverse Doppler effect (i.e., he a.ssumes that there is no radial component when the angle between the sourceobserver line and the direction of the relative velocity is equal toir/2 at the moment of emission). If one should analy.se the formula for the antetraverse Doppler effect (i.e., if one assumes that there is no radial component when the angle between the sourceobserver line and the relative velocity is equal to ir/l at the moment of reception), then one should come to the conclusion that at a suitable valueof the tran.sverse component a blue shift would be seen for any
value of the radial component.
72
Supposing
ft
=
/lav
=
Const,
we
obtain for the difference between the
gravitational potentials at the centre of the sphere
and
at a point distance
r(<R)
the following expression
A<D(r)
^
<D(0)

4)(r)
= 

tt
y
,i,, r'.
(12.15)
We
assert that always the point of emission
is
is
to
be put
at the centre
of
the Universe because the point of emission
only one, while the points of
that there
is
reception can be an infinite quantity, and
centre as the Universe
is
we assume
no such
without limits and thus any point can be considered
as its centre. Here our conceptions are almost identical with those of Nicolaus Cusanus (14011464), one of the most brilliant minds in history, who forwarded the following cosmological model « The Universe is a sphere whose centre is everywhere and the surface nowhere ».
:
photon emitted from a space region with gravitational potential has a wavelength A, then in a space region with gravitational potential <I>„ = A4>(/) this photon will have a wavelength A„ and the relation between all these quantities will be given by formula (10.29). Thus, substiand r = r, we obtain tuting into this formula the potential (12.15) for r =
If a
4>
=
A<1)(0)
A„=
'
,
(12.16)

2
TT
T 4 /^ H 3
c^
Y
which formula for
r
<^
/?
[see (12.10))
can be written
77
\„
—
\
2
Y
^,
3
M/^
(12.17)
Denoting
„ ^M =
2
27r Y
y
^/^.v,
(12.18)
and calling form
H^
the HubbleMarinov constant,
we can
writte (12.17) in the
A„
A
A
AA
A
=
Hm''^
(12.19)
which we
call the
HubbleMarinov law.
red
shifts
Plotting
the
AA/A of
the
remote
galaxies
(observed
spectroscopically) versus their distances to the Earth (estimated from their
visual magnitudes at the assumption that the absolute magnitudes are equal), one can find the value of the HubbleMarinov constant, and then from equation (12.18) one can calculate the average mass density in the Universe.
73
have done this in Marinov (1978g), establishing //^ = 1.98.10 " Taking for /i,„ the statistically established value (12.12), we find, according to formula (12.18), //^ = 1,25.10 "cm
We
cm
'.
'.
We
(12.19)
«
show
fits
in
Marinov (1978g)
»
that
much
better to the experimental
our theoretical quadratic relation points of the dependence
red shift
— distance
(12.16)
[see
it is
then the hypothetical linear Hubble relation (12.13).
r > R,
Formula
Universe,
shows that for formula (12.10)]
where R
is
the « radius
»
of the
l5
so that A„
1 a R'^ 3c''
even
will
2
TT
c'
/x,.
/?'=!,
(12.20)
—
CX3.
For
this reason,
if
there
is
a matter outside the sphere
it
with radius R, we can receive no information about
because the photons
i.e.,
which would come from there low energy.
Hence, according
cannot
(12. 10).
«
be extremely
faint,
with an extreme
to
infinite Universe, factually the
our conceptions, even under the assumption of an Universe must be regarded as finite as we
look
»
outside the sphere with radius
if
R
established from relation
Of course,
«
a space traveller undertakes a cosmic journey, then
new
galaxies will enter into the sphere of his Universe along the line of his motion
and the most
red
»
galaxies in the opposite direction will disappear; sailors
experience similar
phenomena when
they pass islands and other ships.
»
Thus
».
we can call R
Ending
is
not « radius of the world
this section,
but
«
radius of the world's horizon
that, since
we must emphasize
cosmology operates
with conditions at infinity, one can never be sure whether one's world model
adequate
to reality.
§13.
PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
IN A
MEDIUM
13.1.
DRAG
In classical
(i.e., nonquantum) physics we consider only the gravitaand electromagnetic interactions of particles (with masses different from or equal to zero). In the axiomatics of classical physics we do not introduce any assertion about the phenomenon « collision » (respectively, « coalescence » and « disintegration ») of particles. All these problems are to be considered in quantum physics. However, under certain idealized as
tional
sumptions we can consider some aspects of these phenomena also physics. These assumptions are
:
in classical
a)
The
sizes
of the material points are small enough with respect to the
distances between them, so that
we can
ignore their sizes altogether.
74
coalescence or disintegration). of a coalescence of particles. through a space region in which « hit » particle. When a photon propagates through a medium it (i.. and thus there the axiomatics. the reemission of a photon by a particle occurs a certain time after its absorption. then we must conclude that the photon propagates (l/w)th part of the time unit as a « free » photon and (1 . coalesce or disintegrate) we take into account only the laws of conservation (see the end of §6. in a unit of time.1) The factor n is called the refractive index of the medium. particle with mass equal to zero) by a from zero represents a disintegration of a parparticle with mass different ticle.e. medium and if. 75 . Thus with respect to an observer who is also at rest in absolute space. many particles are dispersed) will collide with the first and be absorbed.l/«)th part of the time unit it rests « absorbed » (or « hitched ») by the particles. Let us have a medium which that it is rests in absolute space. it moves with the mean velocity c^ = c/n. in this « model » we do not introduce additional charactefirst case we call the ristics for the quantity « particle » other than those introduced in our third is axiom. applying them to the particles before and after the collision (respectively. This is our « model » for the propagation of light in a medium. As a rule.b) When the particles collide (respectively. reflected (dispersed) or reemitted. As a matter of fact. these papers follows. Medium and observer at rest. for the sake of we assume always being reemitted by the particles in the same direction along which it hits them. (13. In the medium « opaque » and in the last « transparent ». a photon crosses a distance c/n through the simplicity.2). A review of the theoretical parts of A.e. If. The absorption (reception) of a photon by a particle represents a The emission of a photon (i. no new assertion which merits being introduced in the The problem about the velocity of light in a transparent medium when medium or the observer or both move with respect to absolute space is considered in Marinov (1974a.. 1976b).
If we consider the path of the photon between two successive absorptions.2) AB = v(\  \/n) BC = c/n (13. 131 B. Let us observer at rest.e. where the distance CD is covered by this molecule in the time in which the photon covers distance BD. i.5) .4) the distance covered by the photon between two successive BC but + BD = BE + ED = (— 76 — sin'^' — n cos 0' .3) If now we suppose that the medium moves with velocity v during the whole time. then the next molecule will be caught not at point C but at point D. (13. then this path can be presented by the broken line A BC in is fig. now calculate the velocity of light in a velocity i/ in absolute space with respect to an observer first (fig. medium moving who is at rest.. when with Suppose 131) that the medium moves this with velocity v along the the photon is vaxis of the used rest frame K only during time absorbed by some particle (molecule) of the medium and suppose that during the time between the reemission and next absorption the medium (the molecule) is at rest.. 1 3 1 .Fig. CD = Thus now reemission and absorption will not be v/n. AB/v + BC/c = we obtain (13. i. Medium moving. chosen for a time that 1 . (13.e. Supposing that the time between two successive absorptions unit.
to angle with respect to the medium The angle (i.8) The distance covered by the photon between two successive absorptions with respect to the observer will be AD' = {AB + CD)' + Ba + 2{AB + CD)BCcose. is obtain the velocity of the t„. within an accuracy of second order 77 . as first we is enough to consider it with an accuary of order Within the same accuracy of first order in v/c we can write.9) Putting here (13.7).iiJ 1 (13.. To mean = AB — v + BD — c = I + V — cos6. we have to divide the distance /ID by the time for which the broken line A BD is covered. 1 + + —• — «^' sm' . 2 c'n rn 1^ (iJ. photon in the moving medium measured by the observer we get.where 0 = e„ y (13. n (13. mean velocity of the at rest.7) represents the difference between these two angles which shall further see. Y = arc sin —— CE BC ^ v/n sin ^' c/n ^— c v sin ^„ (13. This time... and working with an accuracy of second order in v/c. (13.e. in v/c.3) and (13. + 1 l^' n sin' 1 c 6..— — 1 v' sin' 6' = en ^ . c' we 2 obtain AD = {— + n' —cos9„ + n VC '^^ v') = C — + u cos ^.. having in mind (13.. it is small and.e. « 0.5) and (13.10) photon with respect to the observer..8). to and the velocity of the frame A^ while 6„ is the same the moving frame K' which is attached to the medium). (13.4).6) is the angle between the « free path » of the photon medium with respect to the observer (i. taken with an accuracy of second order in v/c. for the in v/c.. — cos^o en 2 c'n = where we have used Thus.6) and (13.3). cos^' = cos(9„ + — sin^^„. c (13.
c/n c (13. Of course. 11). but always tried to « gain » more distance by walking.16) I . (13. cos^„ = cos<9 find — c sin'^. where (13.13) «= is — — — = vn sm^ v'sin^ . = AD — = c — + 1/(1  — )cos^„ I   v'.15) Substituting this into (13.12) ' having suppressed the factor n right side of (13. 78 . denominator of the last term on the Let us introduce the angle between the velocity of the medium and at rest the mean velocity of the photon which is measured by the observer = O„a.c„. n' 1 The in « model is » for the propagation of described here called by us the « hitchhiker our youth.n = — n ^' c + 1/(1  — )COS^ n' 1 (13. Let us mention that hitchhiking ». 1 (13. en  (1  1 )cos'^. our pedefor the next car at the strian velocity photons in a moving medium » model.14) ' the difference between the angles B„ and Q which is small and can be considered only with an accuracy of first order in vie.v'n (I — I 2 in the c//'  — )sin'^„. we never waited could never be higher than that of the cars.13) and (13. when crossing countries by « same point where being dropped by the previous one. we C..12). Within the same accuracy of first order in y/lc we can write. having in mind (13.—(1 en — \ )cos'^  n' —v' nil  2 e — )sin'^.14). n' ^ + .
132) a medium with refractive index n that is at rest in absolute space and in which light propagates along a direction that makes an angle 6 with the vaxis of a frame K attached to absolute space. The mean proper relative light velocity in 79 . Let an observer attached to a frame K' tion of the Xaxis of move at velocity v along the positive direcof both frames are frame K. 132 C. and suppose that the . be « hitched and (l/n)th part of the time unit moves along the line/lFuntil » again on another molecule which rests at point F.32)] in I + ' vcosd'/c (13.17) since during the time in which the photon has covered the broken line A BC in frame K' the molecule that rests at point F in absolute space has covered distance FC in K' with velocity v. At such a choice of the time unit a photon propagating along the direction AF in the rest frame K is « hitched » (1 — \/n)th part of the time unit on a molecule which rests at point/!. Let there be (fig. observer moving. We choose again the time between two successive absorptions of a photon on the molecules of the medium as a time unit.Fig. : it will In the moving frame K' we have the following picture During the time which the photon is « hitched » it will cover distance AB with velocity v and during the time in which the photon propagates with velocity c in absolute space it will cover distance BC in A" (under an angle 6' to the Xaxis) with the proper relative velocity [see (3. Medium at rest.vaxes colinear.
the average light velocity measured in A" by the help of a clock which rests there) will make an angle 6„ with the x'axis and have magnitude c.^)sin'^„.18) AB = v{\).. n^i'i\ (13. within the necessary we can take sin a = CFsin^ AC V = — e nsm^. n' (13..frame K' (i. (13. « ^ c ^ ^— c . .24) where a accuracy is a small angle and.^cos^„+ en cos'^„ 12 e /I (I . Putting into (13. putting into 6^ = we + a. Thus.21) a small angle and. (n — .20) the observer in frame K' will measure between the is d„. n BC = ——^——\ + (13. I) sm .—) n .. within the necessary we can take sm y = ABsin — ^ — (n— AC 6' v ^ .„ we obtain sxn'B' = — n  1/cos^' + — en cos'^' + —— 2 c n{\ .23) the direction of propagation of light and the velocity of the observer which should be measured in frame K is 6.23) The angle between (13.19) V cos 6 /c n in v/c.22) we obtain c' = n .„ = AC = {AB' + BO  lABBC cos e)"\ (13. and working within an accuracy of second order c„. as shall further see.18) since the time between two successive absorptions of the photon is taken equal to unity. putting into 9'=e„y.e.23) 80 . where y accuracy is (13. direction of propagation of light and his own velocity Thus. (13.20) The angle which (13. as we shall further see. 1) sm „ »„ (13.
respectively.28) ^ 1 + en — cos^ V n 1 v^ e^n^ the velocity of the and 6 are the angles between the direction of light propagation and medium measured. en . so that the The photon moves with this velocity only ( /n)th part of the time mean proper velocity of light with respect to K' will be 1 — V — cos 6 c'=e'=n n where 6' 1 r 1 = c . in the moving and rest frames. (1 — l/n)th part of the time unit the photon is and does not move with respect to the moving frame K' which is attached to the medium. then the « effective » velocity of the frame with respect to the trajectory of the « free » photon will be v/n.32) V = v/n] 1 1 V — cos c„ = 1 c =c 1 en .we obtain c„ = c —  ^ i^cos^ + — v' cos'^ + n en —— 2 \ v' n{\ + c — )sin'tf «' 1 .2. + — cos^' en V (13. (13. We shall light perform the calculation by considering a bundle of photons is (a beam) which incident under an angle <p on the boundary between the 81 . Medium and Let us observer moving.27) v^ c^n^ unit. Thus. according to formula (3.26) D. the proper velocity of the « free » photon with respect to K' Since in such a case for » « hitched will be [write in (3. 13. (13. REFRACTION In this subsection we shall show that our model for the propagation of light in a medium as a process of successive « absorptions » and « reemis sions » of the photons leads immediately to Snell's law for the refraction of light. find the velocity of light in a now medium moving at velocity v with respect to absolute space measured by an observer attached to the medium.32).
the « mirrorreceiver » changes its velocity. under the hit comparable with the energy of the striking photon so of the photon. until / with the velocity c/w^in the also reaches the boundary. it medium A and cover Thus we can write a distance t = J sin c/n q> ^—. After the instance at which the first flankphoton crosses the boundary.30) From the last two formulas we obtain sin sin t// Snell's law /I A (13. several authors have pointed Compton and Doppler effects. where is the refractive angle (note that when the second flankphoton has reached the boundary the first /. In this subsection collision in we shall consider only the elastic collision (i. COLLISION BETWEEN PHOTONS As we said. out the equivalence between the As we have mentioned 82 . he on the extremities of the bundle and on a line which certain time dsirvp. However. all these authors have treated this problem by considering the Compton scattering on particles at rest.29) During this time the first photon will move with velocity c/n^'\x\ the medium B and will cover the distance ^sin»//. We shall show that the Compton effect « represents nothing but a light Dopplereffect where the energy of the rorreceiver » is mirthat. when particles collide. in Marinov ( 1978h).e.31) (p «(. 13. \// and second fiankphotons must bundle). We shall consider the more general case of collision between a photon and a moving particle where the Doppler essence of the Compton scattering becomes more obvious. the second Hankphoton has to move a refractive indices /j media A and B with ^and n „.Consider two photons which is perpendicular to the bundle. (13.. Suppose that the distance between the points at which both flankphotons cross the boundary is d. Thus we can write t lie on a line which is perpendicular to the = ^sin —^ \b (13.3. we shall describe the taking into account only the laws of conservation and applying them to the systems of particles before and after the collision. AND PARTICLES phenomenon. A . a which the masses of the particles before and after the collision remain the same) between a photon and a particle with mass different from zero (the socalled Compton effect).
.
moreover. its mass can change and the « reemission » can follow a certain time after the absorption. Lorentz (1916)] w' —  I — I = K. RELATION BETWEEN REFRACTIVE INDEX AND DENSITY The relation is and its density ^ between the refractive index n of a transparent medium given by the wellknown formula of LorentzLorenz (see.32) represent four relations for six unknown quantities Thus two of these quantities must be taken arbitrarily and they are determined by the unit vector n. an atom). for example.e. changes its velocity under the hit of the photon. when n and n' are given. or n when n and : v'. which is perpendicular to the « reflecting plane » of the moving mirror (Doppler treatment) or by the unit vector n' along the direction of propagation of the « reemitted » photon (Compton treatment).4. we can find n.33). v'. 13. must emphasize that when the particle is elementary (for example. n' . n. Hence it is obvious that the relation to which the Doppler effect formulas lead (where we are interested only in the mirror's velocity before and after the reflection of the photon) must be the same as the relation which can be obtained from the momentum and energy conservation laws.. the photon will only be « reflected » by the particle. If the particle is compound (for example. i. We The Doppler respect to effect formulas give the relation between the frequencies of the emitted and observed light when source and observer move with one another. electron) its mass cannot change and the « reemission » must follow an immediately after the « absorption ».. . Thus the Compton scattering represents a « observes reflection of light from a the action of mirror » Doppler effect where one which changes its velocity under any single incident photon. In the Compton effect source and observer are at rest. From the last two formulas we obtain the result (13. are given. (13.36) where 84 /l . Formulas (13.^ is a constant which we call the LorentzLorenz constant. between them there is a moving « mirror » (the particle) which. However. Using the law of light reflection (the incident and reflected rays lie in the same plane with the perpendicular to the reflecting plane and make equal angles with it).since 6' = (« {v\ n) is the angle between the velocity of the source and the of opposite direction of the wave vector of the reflected light at the moment emission reemission »).
. l/n the time in vacuum and on average. respectively. from /. 1  l/n seconds and has traveled \/n seconds it will now be « hitched » . the photon remains « hitched » to the molecules of the medium. For that distance for which the photon was « hitched » which. to n'. Marinov constant. (13. the photon travels with velocity c I — //. is the time during which. on average.1).37) where A^^ is a constant which we call the We come we in I to formula (13.37) jit in the following extremely simple is way : As slated (§13.Our « model » for the propagation of light in a transparent medium leads to the following relation n  1 = K^. Now suppose that the density of the medium has changed from ju toju The refractive index will change. at a density of the transparent medium.
even without looking formula (13. [see. we can show that unsound. (13. will travel l/nseconds. in the I Indeed. The Lorentz theory exists. Lorentz (1916)] cannot offer a sound explanation to this peculiarity. with the increase of the density.39) to this formula.(/!i7/[i)(l  l//i)secondsand. Thus we can write aI I  1 = r^ IX u n . this dependence for ethylene (/i is given in Amagat However..) + n n From !n here formula (13.37). no such peculiarity only for /x equal to infinity. (13.36) is at the experiment.38) '^(1 . support who have measured units).37) finds a better Marinov (I978i) we show in the experiment than the LorentzLorenz formula (13./i jT^) {. formula (13. index increases very rapidly and for a certain critical = \/ Ky it becomes equal to infinity. n= According + 2K.36) form "^ . The experimental points are taken from Michels et ai (1947). for example.37).36) and (13.36). the refractive density ft. as before. that our formula (13. According to our and n becomes equal to infinity 86 .37) can immediately be obtained. write formula (13. In fig. 133 we give the graphs of « as a function of /u according to formulas (13. since the » sum of the « « free flight » distances hitchpoints remains the same and only the number of the has changed.
PART II — EXPERIMENTAL .
e. moment t". when the Earth and Jupiter are at the positions £. This problem 1 is considered in detail in Marinov ( Suppose (fig. concentrating our attention on their essence. experiment. Certain of the experiments can reveal the absolute motion of the laboratory. 5. without entering into the details which the reader can find in the original papers. Let us observe the zeroth eclipse of the satellite at the a terrestrial clock. THE QUASIR(E1VIER EXPERIMENT eclipses of a Jupiter satellite With the help of the Roemer experiment (i.„ half a year before the moment when they will be in opposition. read on 7. effects when today's experimental technique We describe all these experiments. On the other hand. i..1) that at the initial year of observation when the Earth and Jupiter are in opposition the absolute velocity of the Sun system v^ makes an angle 6 with the opposition line. the observation of the from the Earth during the course of a year) for the first time in history the velocity of light was measured. If this experiment be performed with the aim of measuring the Earth's absolute velocity.. . The analysis of the other experiments (ours and of other authors) can strengthen one's faith in spacetime absoluteness. others cannot reveal it practically because all absolute effects cancel used. § 15... for the rejection of the relativistic spacetime conceptions and for the restoration of the old Newtonian absolute conceptions dressed in the clothes of our absolute spacetime theory.§ 14.e. INTRODUCTION In this second part we shall give short accounts of the most important experiments which we consider decisive for the refutation of the principle of relativity. certain experiis ments can give reliable others cannot. we call the quasiRcemer experiment. We tein's consider the « coupledmirrors » experiment (§19) and the « rota ting disk » experiments (§25 and § 26) as decisive for the rejection of Einsconceptions. it Now we shall show that according to our absolute spacetime theory the Earth's absolute motion cannot be revealed by the help of the quasiRoemer I978j). each other in the effect to be measured. Additional references to other authors can be found in the same papers.
. 151 The first eclipse will occur at the moment (15. i.32). E^. where we write V = v^.J^ are the positions of relative velocity the Earth of light and Jupiter at the moment t\ and c'„ is the proper coming from Jupiter with respect to the Sun system.1) /' = r + r where T \s the period of revolution of the satellite.2) Cn = 1 » = i^gCos S' /c 1 — 1 i^jCos 6/c c  vi/c^ registered where 0' is the angle between v^ with respect to the and the line of light propagation moving Sun's frame and is the same angle registered with respect to absolute space. to According formula (3. Thus line (15. we in assume that the positions 7. Since Jupiter covers (l/12)th part of shall its orbit during an Earth year. 6' (^ 6 within the necessary accuracy) to be equal to angle 6 in 151.Fig. to the angle between the opposition and the Sun's absolute velocity.2) we can consider angle fig.. we have (15. J„ are very near to one another.e. 89 ..
1). Ac = where ^t" is —^ .shall we take into account the absolute kinematic time dilation come to the conclusion that. interval A/. c (15. we . Indeed.3) where R the radius of the Earth's orbit. The Ac read on the proper terrestrial clock will be [use the second formula (3. his observations.r = 2 nT  ^^^^ J E . after whose elapsing one has to observe the nth eclipse the absolute velocity of the is Sun is equal to zero. suppose that the 2/ith eclipse is observed at the moment / '" after . if Ar. (§11..5) this time interval which follows the if moment. traditional absolutist would conclude that making use of formula one could establish the component v^ of the Sun's absolute velocity in the plane of the ecliptic when performing observations of the eclipses of a Jovian satellite during 12 years in which the angle 6 between i^^ and the (15. 7 We have t'" AH: = . if we measure the time on a then no positive effect can be registered. terrestrial clock. will vary in the range  (2 Rv^/c^) =^ 6/ =^ (2 Rv^/c^).„. so that the difference 8i = Ki?.„. When Roemer made he established c.V72 with the really measured time knowing R.25)] 90 .4) in (15.— 1 c c^ ^cos^ = Ar " initial ^cos^. Finally. However. we can determine we fmd the period T of revolution of the satellite.5) Any opposition line takes different values in the range of 360". or if the velocity of light not direction dependent. time let us assume that the Earth covers the path £"„£„ during the absolute time interval (read on a clock which rests in absolute space) Ar. c^ (15.". he compared the calculated time interval At" and.3).JE '^^ = InT (15.Let the nlh eclipse be observed at the Jupiter are in opposition.4) From here Using (15. another halfyear when the Earth and Jupiter are at the positions E. moment /" when the Earth and We shall " " have " " Ar„ = rr is = nT ~ c„ = /»r c (1 +^cosg).
(10. Comparing formulas can be registered (15. we call it the quasiBradley experiment. will be compensated for by a change in the rate of the terrestrial clock..6). will be (see formula . ' )Ar + —— c' ^ cos^. which a traditional absolutist expects to be registered. If this experiment be performed with the aim of measuring the Eath's absolute velocity.<^ 2 c'  J ^'cos( —  ^ + nOc// (15. then the relation between the emission angle 6' which represents the angle between the velocity v and the sourceobserver line at the moment of emission. THE QUASIBRADLEY EXPERIMENT (i.5) eflect in the §16. (16. S2 is 2 is c' the Earth's velocity with respect to the Sun.1) Now suppose respective to that our platform (the Earth) respect to another platform (the Sun) which for absolute space. Now we shall show nov(l978j). is With the help of the Bradley experiment differences in the angles under which a given star the registration of the observed from the Earth during a year) for the second time in history the velocity of light was measured.e. we conclude that no positive quasiRoemer experiment because the time interval between the zeroth and «th eclipses actually registered on a terrestrial clock will vary exactly in such a manner that the effect 8(. Thus we have its moves with velocity u. This problem is considered in detail in Mari If we observe a star on the celestial sphere from a platform (the Earth) moving with an absolute velocity v. that the Earth's absolute motion can be revealed by the quasiBradley experiment. and thus Vy = and (15. which represents the same angle at the moment of reception. i2R. (1  z ' . and the reception angle 6.6) = where v.5)] (1 + ^cos^')(l c — cos^) c = 1  — c^ . with part moves with velocity v^ (16. its angular velocity.2) V = v^+ v^.. 91 .
distance SO is proporthe absolute light velocity c and distance SO'^ to the relative light c'. picture a) : We have the following Observation by the Sun's observer in absolute space.Fig. ^'p is the emission angle tional to For this case and d^ the reception angle.1) we have 92 . distance SO is velocity with respect to the Sun c'^ (since this is the velocity of light which travels along the given direction with respect to a frame attached to the Sun) and distance SO' to the relative light velocity with respect to the Earth c'. The emitted at S will be received by the Sun's observer moment by a star which is when he crosses point O' and by the Earth's observer when he crosses point O. We must emphasize that we suppose all velocities (absolute and relative) to be measured in absolute time. velocity with respect to the Earth c) Observation by the Earth's observer is For this case 9' the emission angle proportional to the relative light in a frame attached to the Sun. 161). and 9 the reception angle. For this case ^'jis and 9^ the reception angle.By analogy with (16. the emission angle SO ' Is proportional to relative light velocity b) Observation by the Earth's observer in absolute space. distance the absolute light velocity c and distance SO'^ to the with respect to the Sun c'^. Consider now an imaginable emission which occurs the Earth's observer is at the moment when at the point O' and a reception which occurs at the at the moment when this observer arrives point O. 1 6 Let us suppose that at the moment of emission an Sun light Earth's observer and an observer at the at the who rests with respect to the (called the Sun's observer) are this point O'^ point (fig. the velocity of light being equal toe's.
we (16. Putting (16. Sy^.4) into (16. The real positions of the stars S ^ and S^ and their positions observed from the Sun coincide.3) and working within an accuracy of third order in 1 /c (i. ^ni ) + — C ^ cos 1/2 c^=c{ 1 (16. since the angle ^sm between the Sun's velocity v^ and the propagation direction of the light coming from these stars is equal to tt or toO. find within the a=— sin^ where a were f +^^^sin^ cos^^ =a^»Aa. in the terms of second and third order in 1 /c)..e.7) is the aberration angle caused by the motion of the Earth the Sun light at rest in absolute space and the star Aa is the variation caused by the absolute velocity of the Sun. they will be seen along the directions to 5"b and S'^. four different positions of the Earth 162 its we have shown (£".3) ^s 1 where [see formula (10.12)] (9. since for these two stars the angle O^m is equal to tt/I. 5^) are in range with the Earth in the plane of the ecliptic. (16.e. along the direction to 5'ai. if the Sun be at rest in 93 . if (16.4) ^ cos^. around the Sun {S) at four different moments with intervals of three months when four different stars (5^. £4) fig.6) Designating by a necessary accuracy = ^ the aberration angle.e. i. i. in beam coming from In £3... we obtain cos ^ = cos ^ + ^' ^  sin^ ^ (1+ —^cos^^J. The positions of the stars 5"^ and S^ observed from the Sun are tilted to an angle a^ = v^/c with respect to their real positions. to the is the relative velocity of light in a frame attached Sun and ^^m «s the middle angle between ^'^and 6^. i. S^. E^. putting 6 = 6= ' 6„..e. tilted to an = v^/c.. on orbit The angle a^ star 5"^ will be observed from the Earth's positions E. if being observed from the Sun. dependence on the angle ^^m subtended by the and the velocity of the Sun. 1) and the 1 text after formula (10.(1 + ^ cos^')(l ^s f cos^) = 1  ^ ^s .
= a ..p = 2a p — Iv^v^/cK Analogically we conclude that the stars which lie near the Sun's antiapex will describe a small arc equal to 2«aniiap = 2a p + 2vf:V^/c\ FoT the difference between these two arcs we obtain ^ = It 2a_. — Aa = C + ^=«BV along the direction to 5^1.2a.Sm.e. (16. i. when the Sun moves and the velocity of light coming from to 5"^ c. 162 absolute space and the velocity of light coming from 5^ be equal However.The same star when observed from the £".e.„= 4Aa = ap aniiap 4v^v.8) a ap i.. r.„..9) ' ^ can be seen immediately that the star p 5b six be observed from the i. after six months will be tilted oppositely to the same angle a„^.e. position Ej tilted additionally to an angle a to 5b2 = v^/c. along the direction to S^y Thus in a year the stars which lie near the apex position of the Sun should describe over the celestial sphere a small arc equal to 2a. along the direction and the same star will be observed after months from the position 94 . tilted to an angle Vc w./c' E S will (16. this star will be seen from £. is c + Vs. ^6 ^B* Fig.
+ — 2 vv. where observer <jp and the velocity of the first between the sourceobservers line and the velocity vat the moment of reception.) about some centre C which for its part moves with an absolute velocity v.cosO. cos^.£< tilted oppositely to the at rest same angle a.. 8„ = 6. cos . motion cannot be revealed is by the quasiDoppler experiment.17) in which we have to write V = Vs. Obviously 6 is a constant angle.The angles 6' and 6„ can be seen in fig. absolute velocities of O. the quasiBradley expe riment can be considered only as a challenge to the experimenters.. line with the centre of v. (it is v^.^. we call it Now we shall show Marinov (1978k)... while changes with Ztt during the period of rotation of O. v^ = 300 km /s (see §19).. both and at motion of the Sun. received by the first observer and the frequency p^ received by the second observer does not depend on the velocity of the source v^. 9>5 . The O. i/. 171) and dividing the formulas obtained... = 30 km/s. we get frequency .'/c' ''2 ^'^"^^ ^ ' Thus the relation between the frequency f. Thus at the present state of technique. Writing in this formula first p„ = p. cos 2 V V. All angles are qp is the angle between the velocity v v^i Denote by 5 the angle taken positive clockwise and negative counterclockwise. §17. If the Doppler experiment should be the quasiDoppler experiment. = v... d„ = 6./ = = v^ v^ + + v^' V. = v. ^ _ ~ 1 1  »^. THE QUASIDOPPLER EXPERIMENT cies call Observing from the Earth during a year the differences in the frequenof light emitted by a given star. i/„ = V. 171) a distant light source (a star) 5 and two observers O.10 ' = 0."08. Supposing that the source moves with velocity v^ and emits light with f we obtain that an observer moving with velocity v„ will register a frequency v„ given by the first formula (10. that the Earth's absolute performed with the aim for the measurement of the Earth's absolute velocity. . This problem considered in detail in Let us have (fig. and then v^ = p../c 1  VjVc' v.e. f. along the direction to S^^^. lie on the same (p (p . Taking rad i^[. and O. one can measure the light velocity and we this the Doppler experiment. (see fig. and O^ which rotation are . i. 102./c 1 v. we obtain A = 4.. who rotate with relative velocities v. v„ = v^..
= p^ for 0. and If Pi V2 received from a given light (radio) source for which 6 0. will be = Pii^ + 2vv. we find within an accuracy of second order in \/c 2 = 1  2— cos (6 + c <p) » 2 — c ' (cos <p  cos 6 cos (6 + <p)] + 2 — c' cos' (5 + <p) (17. Let us mesure i'.3) v^ .<p) Substituting (17.2). it + <p it = tt/I. 171 From fig./c^)[oT<p = This result leads to the conclusion that we can 96 .3) into (17. cos ^. however if 6 = 7r/2. 171 we have ^. qp = tt/I. V2 cos $2 = = V cos S V cos b + — v^ cos (S cos (5 + <p) (17.1) and (17. 5 = will be »'.Fig.4) This final expression is convenient for discussion.
and let the frequencies received be sent to some middle point and there compared. Intensive 97 . § 18. Earth. c/ 181) is which set in rotation two cogwheels C. then for 6 at the = the frequencies and v. This signifies that when the line 0.. Let us have shaft with length (fig.. and C^ fixed on a common by the electromotor EM. Such an angle is large enough to be reliably registered.. Thus. 4 . If now due i'.0..„ i. because of the appearance of the aberration.5) Taking v = 300 km/s cos (5 (§ 19). sent from the rim of a rotating disk to centre.» EXPERIMENT The historical coupledshutters >» experiment represents a modification of the velocity can be Fizeau experiment for the measurement of the light velocity by a rotating cogwheel with whose help the Earth's absolute measured. will be equal precisely t Tr/2.e.. (17. effects we take into account only the of first order in v/c. In the « coupledshutters » experiment. the quasiDoppler expe riment leads practically to a null result. for different radio sources which « cross » the line 0.0.6) where a is the angle between the line 0^0^ and the sourceobservers line. obtain + qp) = sina ^ Q = 10^ = 3.measure the Earth's absolute velocity in the following manner Let us have two receivers placed at a parallel with 80" difference in the longitudes. to the daily rotation we compare f. THE QUASIFIZEAU « COUPLEDSHUTTERS « . Hence v^ and Vn when of the received at the pole will suffer equal changes. the angle a is exactly equal to the aberration angle due to the motion of the Earth with velocity v. the source will be seen along the direction 0.. We consider this experiment in Marinov (19780. so that even the traditional Newtonian kinematics leads to results adequate to physical reality. As we show if light is in §30.4) and take into account that for the case considered cos(5 + <f') s 0] cos (6 + we <p) = v/c . = moment when the radio source is on the line 0. Imagine for simplicity that this middle point is at the pole and that the Earth : 1 represents a flat disk.4 when considering the socalled its « rotorrotor » experiment.Oy concludes an angle a with the sourceobservers line. will be equal when [see (17. then the velocity. not change in the frequency depends only on the rotational on the velocity of the disk as a whole. Let us observe a radio source when it should « cross » the line OyO. However.. (17.0. for 5 qp however for 6 = tt/I the frequencies v. and f. and v.
f. and C. will observe maximum » minimum) photon when d^ = d.2) 98 . and « opposite » the same. Obviously. O. for passing of the and c ¥ v chopped n. light is emitted by the sources the cogwheels C. « opposite ». to O. and d^ of light in « direct » of the light beams between both wheels. K.e. where n is an integer.. After passing through the notches of and C. opposite » If the velocity directions (or is the same. to O.1) photon flux can be written n . « direct » and from 5". = c — n. » d. the the same time that the wheels are rotated frequency of chopping. We shall call the direction from S..). and O^. obviously. number of ») cogs placed respectively against each other « cogs against cogs and they are set in rotation. With the help of the verniers and « and we can change the paths c/... fluxes and O. (18. then the observers will establish fluxes in the case in maximum phioton where the distance d between the wheels is covered by light an integer number of notches. If any of the wheels has p notches and makes N revolutions per second. Now suppose that the velocity of light is c — in « v in the « direct » the « opposite direct » directions. We call this number. (respectively. = A V. the wheels will rotate f = pN notches in a second. then. equal to If both wheels have the same (i. and S. the condition for observing a maximum (18. C. this light is observed by the observers O. = c V + V f.. 181 5".Fig. Suppose directions is that the velocity of light in the « direct » c. and « opposite The conditions beams will be /".
if d^  d^ = 2 — c V (18. Now the two following problems arise : opposiie direct Fig. which can be put near the shutters S a. 182 a) ters. = n. near the shutters and 5b. It can easily be shown that the intend to observe. between the pairs. and. </. then a « phase difference » will appear ». d. we obtain d.Assuming that.4) we choose a lower chopping frequency a longer shaft must be used. « phase difference appearing at the motion of our apparatus in absolute space.^ = n. = d{\  v/c). = d{\ + v/c). It is easy to see that the chopping frequency which can be achieved steel shaft so by a rotating cogwheel requires a independent cogwheels not fixed long that practically it cannot be constructed. Any pair of these shutters (fig. will exactly cancel the effect that we 99 . Kerr cells). with a decrease of v towards zero. (18. we shall now speak not of two independently rotating cogwheels but of two independently operating pairs of shutters (for instance. How How to to maintain e^ywa/ chopping frequencies for both pairs of shut b) i.3) or Ad = Obviously.^ should become equal to d. and d. thus. we shall have «. However. say. or in the middle.. Thus the question may be posed about the use of two on a common shaft but rotating with the same angular velocity. The first difficulty can be overcome if we use the same resonator for both pairs of shutters.e. how to maintain a « phase difference » between them equal to zero. For the sake of generality. if we transmit the signals for opening closing the shutters by an electric line. ensure that both pairs of shutters will close and open together. two resonators R ^ and R g. 182) is driven by a common chopping mechanism.
v^/cydt. until the « direct » direction its axis becomes parallel to v. will always be reduced to zero. To prove this.4). /„ before the rotation and /\'. the Thus their time rates will » that will if new « phase difference cancel the effect to be observed be different and exactly such that appear after the rotation will exactly the « phase difference » after the rotation had remained the same as before the rotation. and with the help of the verniers V^ and K to give a difference A^ according to formula of the coupled shutters. will if we change distances ^. how far from opening is the second pair of shutters).\ > » B + (— uY + 2 t^ (/ o) /) are the velocities of the resonators during the rotation of the apparatus. However. Hence again we When we » are unable to measure the absolute velocity v.e. we have [see the second formula (3. light clocks) attached io R^ and /?„ be t\.5) = = i^' I (— w)'  i^ J to cos (w cos (w » (\%f.25)] l^= f(\ .^ would see no light. rence open.Hence the resonators producing the chopping frequency must be independent and for such. two atomic clocks can be taken. The chopping frequency f^ of the resonator /?„ can be maintained equal to the chopping frequency f.. cular to i^one will arrange the that both observers O. and only (18. parallel to V. where t^^' /b= /(> . 100 . Indeed. one can rotate the apparatus is with respect to absolute space. use independent shutters. taking into account the absolute time dilation. Because of the absolute time dilation. no light be left to pass through both pairs However.v^/c'V'dt. Let the readings of two clocks (suppose. If now the apparatus is so that the « direct » direction will coincide with the direction of light will d^ then some be seen by the observers. i^. we can easily see that this prediction of Dart will not correspond to reality. as Dart (1971) has suggested. during the rotation both resonators will move at different velocities with respect to absolute space.t^j^ = /„'  t'^ correspond to the same absolute time interval t. Let the proper times /^ = t'^ . ^B^fter the rotation. When « the axis of the apparatus » perpendiput the phase difference between both shutters so and O. say. its let us suppose that the axis of the apparatus is first perpendicular to absolute velocity. about the middle point. for simplicity.^ of the resonator /?^ if we tune f\ in such a manner that the « beating » of the light spot observed by O. we cannot know the « phase diffewe cannot know when the first pair of shutters is between them (i. Let us then rotate the apparatus with of angular velocity w. (18.
.If we work within an accuracy of second order in vie. which. placed at the middle. while the shutter 5^ will open with the same anticipation relative to the shutter Thus for the . In such a case a Newtonian time synchronization is realized.. « § 19. — which. then after rotation the shutter S\ will open with a delay A/ relative to the shutter S\. Our experiment represents a modification of this historical Foucault experiment with whose help for the first time in history we have coupledmirrors measured the Earth's absolute velocity.5) because the wheels are rigidly connected is a unique clock the motor driving the shaft. after performing the integration. same light paths. shutters more clearly the difference between the independent and the cogwheels connected by a rigid shaft. is nonsensical. putting w/ formulas (18. we do not Let us explain f^ have the right by a to use common if shaft and there formulas (18. 101 . The relations between the absolute time and the proper times elapsed on two clocks moving with and Ug ^r^ given by formulas (18. a change in the phase difference » between both cogwheels cannot occur. </. after the rotation. and subtracting the second of ^^ = ^^= dv 77 • ("8. Thus. we obtain. If such a change appeared. = ^.. but the axis which one has to use to obtain a registrable effect must be so long that it cannot be practically Thus shutters constructed. obviously. « Foucault developed » his rotating mirror experiment. minimum photon fluxes will pass through both coupled shutters. the « coupledshutters » experiment can « work » only when for two cogwheels fixed on a common shaft are used.5) only if the clocks are velocities v independent.5) from the first. THE QUASIFOUCAULT COUPLEDMIRRORS » EXPERIMENT basis in Fizeau's rotating cogwheel With the aim of shortening the experiment.7) This formula shows that if before rotation the « phase difference » between both pairs of shutters is equal to zero. If we consider both rotating cogwheels as clocks.S"'. = nil. then after the rotation the shaft would be found to be twisted. does not change its velocity during the « rotation.
The light path from the rotating mirrors to the d/2. The distance between both disks. is incident on the mirror facet of RM.) will illuminate screen from the the left) at a certain point. is is reflected by the semitranspathrough the semitransparent mirror incident on the mirror facet of /?A/.).). the light beam 5" reflected right cylindrical mirror CM^ is (CA/. Let us have two disks same phase difference (imagine the wheels of a bicycle). the rotating mirrors are at rest. s. THE DEVIATIVE In the « COUPLEDMIRRORS we » EXPERIMENT summer of » 1973 carried out the deviative variant of the its « coupledmirrors experiment. while the other and the rest of the disk's rim are not light reflecting. (N.19. is In fig. after passing reflected by the semitransparent mirrors is A^. and N^ (A^2 and ^V. 191 scheme of this experiment. 191 we give the driven always exactly with the d Intensive light from the source 5. The light beam then M. (RM^). (M^) and. called the rotating mirrors RM^ and RM.. On each disk two antipodal facets are cut and one is made a mirror. cylindrical mirrors D and from the cylindrical mirrors to the screen 102 ..<g> —y Fig.) whose by the (from is distance from the rotating mirror (/?A/.1. (or ^2) rent mirror A'.If p. The report on performance is given in Marinov (1974b).^.
However.If the rotating mirrors are set in motion.3) a = Qdv/c'. only the hght which is reflected will by /?A/. (RM. and we shall have C h V c from where (assuming 1/ <^ c) we get (19. (19. the facet !) exact parallelism will rotate not necessary to the corresponding facet of RM. to is — c + a. and for have (suppose (p O and P we shall s = tt/A) = y — +2a D. 191 = 2(a + ft) and ft = 2a (D/R) sec <p.) slit T. angles fi. the latter will rotate to an v and along the direction from RM. for the time spent by light of RM.5) The establishment of velocity intervals v is to be performed as follows In regular of time during a whole day we maintain such a rotational velocity S2 103 . because of the .^ {RM^) which is cover the distance d is + 2p. {RM when the latter is perpendicular to parallel (an the incident to beam reach RM2 (RM. this component we v. shall refer to as the Earth's absolute velocity and designate by Suppose first that the unit vector along the « direct » direction n v.4) where y in fig. we call (which we call (which angle 6 will « direct ») is c « opposite ») the light pulse reflected RM... let us adjust the cylindrical mirrors so that the chopped light beams if n becomes parallel the distance between will illuminate the both light same point O on the screen 5*. will reach RM. then. component of hours Our apparatus it will make takes part in the diurnal rotation of the Earth all and in 24 possible angles with the the Earth's absolute velocity in the plane determined by the different positions of the apparatus during the day. y. In such a case during the time in which by RM. Thus we have s= cPv[\ c^ S2 +2Dia 1 + ^)].. + v.1) where fl is the angular velocity of the rotating mirrors. to RM. beams will illuminate point P.) by a certain angle 8 = c ^ $2. (19. the latter will rotate to an angle 6 reach RM„  a. and 9 are shown and R is the radius of the cylindrical mirrors. R : secqp (19.). Now. that light velocity along the direction Suppose now from RM. while during the time in which the light pulse reflected by RM. is perpendicular to and to v.
1975 we carried out the interferometric « coupledmirrors » ex periment. THE INTERFEROMETRIC EXPERIMENT « COUPLEDMIRRORS » The result obtained with our deviative « coupledmirrors » experiment was very inaccurate and the scientific community remained sceptical whether we really registered the Earth's absolute motion. The azimuth of the apparatus was 84" and the observations were performed in JulyAugust in is ment the maintaining of an equal phase difference mirrors during the Earth's rotation. adjusting by hand a corresponding tension of a dc electromotor Another observer registered the diapason of trembling of the other light spot which was normally 23 mm. taken from an old torpedoboat. then the fluctuation error is ± 100 km/s. We used three cylindrical mirrors for each beam and such a combination of cylindrical mirrors which increases enormously the « arm » of a light beam is called by us the « cylindrical mirrors indicator ». obtaining a very sure and reliable value for the Earth's absolute The report on its performance is given in Marinov (1978c). both rotating disks were fixed on a « common » shaft because the most important requirement of the coupledmirrors lasers experi between both rotating were used as light sources. 19. that the Then the light In our factual setup. was fi/2 tt = 80 rev/s. For this reason. the « direct » direction being the one after midnight.62 mm for v = 100 km/s.2. 104 . The error ± 100 km/s was established in the following manner : An observer maintained for 23 minutes one of the light spots in a certain position. However the inconstancy of the cylindrical mirrors radii and the trembling of the images were too considerable. which drives the shaft. in the summer of velocity. If this diapason is As = 2. beam from the right will illuminate point O when n is perpendicular to v\ it will be displaced over a distance Is upwards when n T T v and over the same distance downwards when nM v. the radius of the cylindrical mirrors was R = S cm. and the velocity of rotation of the shaft.chopped Ught beam from the left will always illuminate point O.2 m. According to the calculation for our real adjustment it must be s = 0.48 mm. The light spots were observed over two different screens because in our factual experiment both rotating mirrors lay in two different parallel planes. and our experiment could not lead to an accurate quantitative measurement of v. The observed displacement was maximum 3 ± 2 hours after midnight and after noon and corresponded to a velocity V = 130 ± 100 km/s. The distance between both rotating mirrors was 7. Two HeNe Sofia. This displacement is large enough to be reliably registered.
the last one being reflected by the rotating mirror /?A/. We call the direction from /?A/. are perpendicular to the incident beams. (O. again by M.Fig 192 Let us have (fig. fi and let us put and Sh.. two mirrors /?M. (or S. (RM2) and refracted by 5A/.) is partially refiected and partially refracted by the semitransparent mirror ^A/. the in the position RM'^' refracted » pulse will reach the second rotating mirror in the position RM'^ velocity of light is (RMl) when the equal to c. by the rotating mirror RM. (RM. and 105 . {RM.) when mirror « is in the position RM. This synchronization is performed by making the opening of Let us now set the shaft in rotation with angular velocity in action the shutters Sh^ the shutters shutters. then. and RM. « opposite ».) registers the interference which the « refracted » beam makes with the « reflected » beam. (^ 10 '• s) to be governed by the rotating shaft slits itself.... /?A/. to disks with radius R..^ (RM. which we call the rotating mirrors. fixed On the rims of the disks. (SM.). 192) a shaft with length don whose ends there are two and RM. (SM.. and the observer O. If the « reflected » light pulse reaches RM. SM^). are Monochromatic parallel light emitted by the source 5".). (A/ J.. to RM. SMi (M. which should allow light to pass through them only when the rotating mirrors RM. in the case of rotating shaft.). The « refracted » beam is then reflected successively by the mirror A/. « direct » and from RM.^).. Instead of the second we also used simple placed along the light paths to the rotating mirrors.
7) the linear velocity of the rotating mirrors. 106 . the direct » « Ac' beams are tangent to the upper parts of the rotating disks. The changes in both interference pictures are exactly opposite. „ N ». and RM\) and by or the angle and is equal tor between the radii of RM:. and RM\'). This (together with the high resolution of the interferometric is method) « the » most important advantage interferometric coupledmirrors experiment. In our actual setup. and RM!/ (RM'. A « very important difference between the deviative and interferometric » coupledmirrors experiments is that the effect registered in the latter is independent of small variations in the rotational velocity. light is \ and we maintain such an angular number of revolutions per second) that the observer O. while the opposite » light lower parts.3).(/?A^. V (19. is d Ril 2 v^=2^^— v. the observer O. .vie + i^). Thus in our apparatus the mirrors RM. » The wind difference in the optical paths of the « refracted and « reflected » « light pulses in the cases » will of availability and nonavailability of an aether be A = 2a/? = where v. (RM. duIf the wavelength of the used velocity 12 = 2 ttN (N is the ring the rotation of the apparatus over 360" in a plane parallel to the direction of the absolute velocity v.8) A wavelengths. change in his interference picture within ' z = « 2 — /^ = dR 87r T . Thus the reflection of the « direct » beams and are tangent to their « opposite » in » beams proceeds on the same planes of the mirrors. we shall have 8 ± a = c) n.v . The « observers our actual arms » of a Wheatstone bridge. but need merely to register the difference in the illuminations over the photoresistors during the of the rotation. Denoting by 5 the RM!.') when the velocity of light angle between the radii of RM. should register a . (19. should always register the same interference picture.6) from where (assuming v <^ we get the result (19. (19. and RM2 are exactly parallel and the photoresistors are illuminated not by a pattern of interference fringes setup represent two photoresistors which are put in the « but uniformly. In the interferometric variant one need not keep the illumination over one of the photoresistors constant by changing the velocity of rotation when rotating the axis of the apparatus about the direction of its absolute motion. then.
(19.13) 107 I .. i. The sensitivity falls to zero for = 0. E.e. = 2 E. sincp (19.9) where E^„^ (a) is maximum electric intensity is the angular frequency of the radiation « reflected phases of the intensities in the which is equal for both beams. when «p the difference in the optical paths is of the « reflected » and « refracted » beams (2 n tt. If the resistance the illumination (as the energy flux was the case density a change = of the photoresistors changes linearly with the change in our setup). Hence a change in of the difference in the optical paths of the the velocity of rotation can lead only to a change in the sensitivity. then the apparatus has the highest sensitivity when the illumination over the photoresistors is average (for maximum and minimum illuminations the sensitivity falls to zero). + 1) (\/4).„. is the maximum is possible energy flux density. n being an is integer.„^. (or SM^) are. intensities We suppose that the electric of the « reflected » and « refracted » beams when they meet again on the semitransparent mirror £. + E. The resultant electric intensity after the interference will be £=£. respectively. 5" A/.. Let us consider this problem in detail. when this difference n (A/2)._^^ cos ((p/2) is the maximum electric intensity (the amplitude) of the resultant beam. and <p is the difference between the » and « refracted » beams. = the £^^^ sin (wO .11) where /„a.Since the illumination over the photoresistors changes with the change « refracted » and « reflected » beams according to the sine law. The energy I flux density which cos' will fall on the photoresistors will be = c — 8 IT E' ""P' = c — E' '"'•' w —= 2 / ""' w cos'^ = 2 2 TT I ^ 2 (1 + cos <p) (19. then to a small change dl in in dR = kdl  k ^ sintpdq) (19. = E^^^ sin (w/ + <p) (19. = 2E^^^sm{ojt + )coSy = op op £^^p.12) and is highest for <p = v/l. 3 ir/l.10) (JP where E^.sm(<of + y).e. The sensitivity ^ d(p = _ jLmi 2 i.
. 13). We put the same constant resistances in the other two arms of the bridge. so that again the intial current. We set such a that the illumination over the photoresistors to be mini mum. The absolute velocity is through the diagonal galvanometer. so that again the same initial current has to flow through all arms of the bridge and no current Now.„ has to flow through all arms of the bridge.. is : First.15). we make the axis of the apparatus to be perpendicular to the absolute velocity v of the laboratory. the illuminations over the photoresistors were average a change 10 ^ /? in any of the arms of the photoresistors (positive in the one and negative in the other) could be discerned from the fluctuation of the bridge's galvanometer and thus the resolution was ^''' 8v= 108 ATT'dRN R  = ± 17km/s. When 8R = 8.. then for <p = tt/I. and R. y.)/2. (19. R. Jobtain (19. that the illumination over the photoresistors is maximum and we connect in series with them two variable resistors. and no current will flow through the galvanometer in the bridge's diagonal. R. (it must be /?. After that we make the illumination average. we make the axis of the apparatus parallel to the absolute velocity v and we transfer resistance A/? from the arm where the illumination over the photoresistor has decreased to the arm where it has increased.. to be calculated from (19. as it follows after the integration of (19. k being a constant. = /?. sensitivity is the we shall have J Substituting this into (19. and we by diminish correspondingly the variable resistors. Since highest. as well as through the arms of the constant resistors. so again the same initial current will flow through all arms and no current through the diagonal galvanometer.in the resistance of the photoresistors tt will correspond. so that the same current J„ (called the initial current) will flow through the arms of the photoresistors. + N. Then we set such a rotational rate A'. it is A<p = ln^/X.). setting a rotational rate N = (A'.8). tion Let us denote the resistance of the photoresistors under such a condi/?.16) . For a change A<jp = the resistance will change with R = — k where the 7^.15) we ^'' ^^ An'dRN R The measuring method rotational rate A'.
is to be we can made after 12 hours.17) 109 . The magnitude and established as follows : the apex of the Earth's absolute velocity have been Fig. the components of the Earth's absolute velocity in the horizontal plane of the laboratory for these two moments are v'. = v^ sin (6 + <p) (19. moment measure the Earth's absolute velocity lies in the plane of the laboratory's meridian.0 cm. \i/ Thus turning in the horizontal plane of the laboratory.d = which can be introduced from the imprecise values of 140 cm. rotate in the a couple of The whole apparatus horizontal plane and the is mounted on a platform which can measurement can be performed in seconds. = i^ sin (5  qp) i^.. At this the axis of the apparatus northsouth. 193 During bridge is a in equilibrium whole day we search for the moment when the Wheatstone if the axis of the apparatus points eastwest. As can be seen from 193. To guarantee sufficient certainty we take 8v = ±20 km/s. but metry of the method and of its is easy to see that thermal disturbances cannot introduce errors because of the complete symrapid performance. The same fig. errors The The experiment was not performed in vacuum. and A' = 120 rev/s are substantially smaller than the resolution and can be ignored. R = 40. it The room was not temperaturecontrolled.
From these we obtain ( ^'a' + »^i.where (p is the latitude of the laboratory and 8 is the declination of the apex.18) 22 September .' — 2 i^a k'h (cos' <p qp — sin' <p) "^ ] 2 sin op ^ cos ^ ^ . „ (19.
e. If our experiment is accurate enough. such a generalization of the principle of equivalence contradicts physical reality. The right ascension is calculated from the   moment when i/. then ^i which is taken as the second must differ with 1*" 58'" from t^y which is taken as the first.23) « §20. this asserts vitational field in a small region : Any gra around a given space point can be replaced by a suitable noninertial frame of reference (and vice versa).. and made absolute this « mechanical » (or Galidone with the Galilean principle of relativity see §21). by thrust of a space ship) or a dynamic (gravitational) character (thus being generated by the action of nearby masses. THE ACCELERATED COUPLEDMIRRORS » EXPERIMENT Since the masses of the material points are a measure of their kinetic energy as well as of the gravitational energy to which they contribute.. so that the behaviour of material points in an inertial frame of reference in the presence of a gravitational field would be indistinguishable from their behaviour in a suitable noninertial frame without the gravitational field. 6 =  21" ± 4"..s. 6 = . error. (19. The accelerated coupledmirrors as follows » experiment proposed in Marinov (I978t) can imme diately reveal the invalidity of Einstein's principle of equivalence. 1 The magnitude and the equatorial coordinates of the apex of the Sun's absolute velocity will be given by the arithmetical means of : the figures obtained for the Earth's absolute velocity in July and January 1/ = 303 ± 20 km/s . because of the difference between solar and sideral days.23' ±4". supposing for simplicity = 45". a = 14M7"' ± 20'". by the Earth's attraction).. i. (19. a = 14M1'" ± 20"'. for example. the socalled principle of equivalence can be formulated. Its essence is : 111 . ) the sensitivity is better.m. registered.22) For V and 8 we have taken the <p r. is from (^si). Einstein generalized lean) principle of equivalence (as he has — According « to our absolute spacetime conceptions. for example. since for this case ( u„ > v. postulating that it is by no means possible to establish whether the acceleration which is exerted on material points in a laboratory has a kinematic (mechanic) character (thus being due to the accelerated motion of the laboratory.Thus 1/ = 327 ± = 20 km/s (r„). ..
one can electromagnetic establish the absolute velocity of a laboratory. since this is a mechanical phenomenon. 112 . spacetime theory. the absolute velocity will two be different. In our absolute By the help of our « coupledmirrors is » experiment. which asserts the following The two inertially moving frames of reference is identical. thus.Let us measure with the help of our the acceleration different « coupledmirrors » apparatus the in these absolute velocity of an accelerated laboratory at two different moments. we consider the restricted principle of relativity as abso we have come to the conclusion that only by the combination of mechanical and light (electromagnetic) phenomena can one Moreover. the absolute velocity will always remain the same. Galilei formu: lated the socalled principle of relativity. calling it the general principle of relativity. THE ULTRASONIC COUPLEDSHUTTERS » EXPERIMENT By the help of observations and logical generalizations. the general principle of relativity invalid. and in a moving frame it depends on the direction of propagation. On the other hand. performing measurements in a laboratory which moves inertially with respect to absolute space. establish the absolute velocity of a laboratory. The principle of relativity which does not include light propagation phenomena was called general. So. the propagation of light pulses represents an electromagnetic phenomenon. lutely valid. while the propagation of light is ani. we have shown that However. If is kinematic (mechanic). and. Briscoe (1958) has pointed to another combination of mechanical and phenomena which permits the registering of the absolute motion of a laboratory. for the electromagnetic the restricted (or mechanical) principle of relativity.sotropic. Einstein assumed that this principle is valid also for light propagation (in phenomena) and generalized it for all physical phenomena. one cannot establish this absolute behaviour of a material system in motion. and in a frame moving with respect to absolute space this rotation is inde pendent of the axis' orientation. Briscoe proposed the parallel transfer of light and sound signals. The propagation of sound is isotropic in any inertial frame. no experiment exists which has contradicted the mechanical principle of relativity. however if the acceleration is dynamic (gravitational). by comparing these two types of signal transfers. in our « coupledmirrors * experiment the rotation of the shaft represents a mechanical phenomenon. moments « §21.
so that the sonic emitterreceiver system can be ignored. Let us suppose for simplicity the water homegeneous and the elements of the y4part (as well as of the BpSLVt) very close to each other. 211) two electric high frequency operating shutters S/Ia. (ii) govern the The ultrasonic pulses emitted by £b propagate backwards in the water with the same velocity V and are received by the receiver R^. O. S^ (lasers) : The ultrasonic pulses same period T propagate through water at velocity V (thus their wavelength is \^ = VT) and are received by the receiver R g. they are applied to the horizontal plates shutter Sh^. Shf^. the distance light between which is d. (iii) are sources 5"^.. of the oscilloscope. Behind the shutters there are the and the observers O^.. The generator G produces electric pulses with period r(peak to peak time) which (i) govern the shutter Sh^.iiiiiiiTiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii[^ rJIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIlK Fig. applied to the horizontal plates of the oscilloscope Osc. which seems be more reliable. emitted by E^ with the they : (i) are applied to the emitter of ultrasonic waves £„. Now. In such a case that time in which the electric pulses cover the lines between shutters and ultrawe can affirm when on the screen of the oscilloscope the emitted pulses (the high ones) is coincide with the received pulses (the low ones) there a whole number of 113 .We describe Briscoe's proposal in Marinov (1978u). After being amplified by the amplifier A ^. we give the to description of a variant proposed by us in Marinov (1978s). 211 Let us have (fig. wzzzzmL 1W/////A L J\22Z2Ml VM \ \ty//yM r DCZZH ''. After being transformed into electric pulses and amplified by the amplifier A g. (ii) are applied to the emitter of ultrasonic waves E^.
we can reduce the time during which the shutters remain open to An T (see the small segments shaded in maximum light intensity blackinthefigure)obtainingthatOAwillseenolight. respectively. certain position with respect to the high peaks. where the time lost by the pulses along the electric tracts cannot be ignored. system track.2) we obtain ''A="B7:r7 =n^+2 114 ^ n = n^+ An. that the absolute velocity v becomes parallel to d. the low peaks will have a system E^^R^. where n is an integer.ultrasonic pulses along the track E^R^Ef^R^. O^ will see a maximum and O^ no light.whileOBwillseea(2A/i)th part of the d/X = n + nominal maximum light intensity. d d _ d _ light pulses between the shutters Sh^ and » directions. Thus for An = 1/2. a Newtonian time synchronization between spatially separated points can be for realized. In the real experiment. mechanical phenomenon and the Thus. pointing ». (NB. good Suppose \ first that the absolute velocity of the laboratory (the Earth) is perpendicular to the axis d The wavelengths of light in both directions will be = cT. the average light intensity plus a A/7th part of the maximum while the observer O^ will see the average light intensity minus a A/Jth part of light intensity. the observer (7„ will see light intensity. by the help of sound signals. in the « direct » and « opposite U An = the n^ — n^ is less than (or equal to) 1/2. and there will be «= light pulses ^ V= cT A d d (21. Suppose now from « left to right. U An < 1/2. Shf^. E^R^ back and forth we can change is the Moving the emitterreceiver number of pulses on that The propagation of sound principle of relativity holds a it. (21. all will be vice versa). which direction we Xfi= {c shall call « direct The v) light wavein the length in the « direct » direction will become X^ = so there will be (c — d T and opposite » direction + v) T. and the low peaks will be exactly between the high peaks.3) . In such a case a halfinteger number of sound waves is placed along the track E^R^^E^R^. if d/X = n + 1/4. From (21. Moving the emitterreceiver we choose such a position that O^ and O^ should see an average light intensity. Such will be the case if 3/4.1) between the shutters Sh^ and S'/ip.
the water can change its sound conductive properties. as a result of In an actual experiment the water will not be less.). v^. §22. homogeneous. Thus the comparison of the readings of clocks which move with different velocities with respect to absolute space can give information about these absolute velocities. proper time intervals) which correspond to the absolute time interval A/ read by an absolute clock will be (use formula (3. then the relation between their readings A/^. we = 300 km/s. However. Nevertheand « opposite » sound waves cross exactly the same way and the number of sound waves in the « direct » and « opposite » directions will be the same. for the Earth's rotation. According is time dilation Indeed. For convenience and higher accuracy the compensation of the « creep » is to be made not in the ultrasonic but in the electric tract. If one can realize a stable multiplication of the frequency /"and govern Sh^ by this enhanced frequency. = 0. density. d = 50 km. This experiment will be successful the low peaks can be main tained at their initial positions a whole day with an inaccuracy much less than one A/Jth part of the period T.and making use of (21. the experiment should be performed in winter is when the water for long covered by ice and preserves its sound conductive properties if enough. THE KINEMATIC TIME DILATION EXPERIMENTS to our absolute spacetime theory the kinematic (Lorentz) an absolute phenomenon (§11. Thus throughout the experiment. currents. this is of no importance because the « direct » different influences (temperature. If the « creep » of the low peaks is conspicuous. etc.19)] 115 . This signifies that during different moments different numbers of sound waves will be placed along the tract E^R^EgR^. for v in the hydrolocators Aai of Soviet submarines). and the low peaks will « creep » with respect to the high peaks.1) we obtain c for the absolute velocity ^n c'TAn Taking /"= \/T = 0.1. then the absolute velocity V can be measured by changing the multiplication factor and by using a method similar to that used (and explained in detail) in §27. if two clocks A and B move with the absolute velocities v^. a corresponding shift of the emitterreceiver system E^R^ is to be performed and the low peaks are to be maintained at their initial positions.3 MHz (this frequency is used obtain.1). ^^b O^. thus not waiting the shutters Sh^.
In the actual trip. they calculated the proper meanlife r„ of the mesons from the relation as a result of nuclear interactions Knowing their velocity v T„ = d/v. which is near to c. In this experiment the « clocks » were elementary particles. The corrections which are to be made when the planes fiy at different heights can be performed by taking into account the dynamic (Einstein) time dilation In our treatment of this (§1 1. A similar experiment for positive has been recently performed by Bailey and negative muons in a circular orbit et al. flew round the world and returned to the starting point. * The meanlife of /xmesons them will decay.2) Comparing Twith T„. 22. at which height a stationary clock in Washington is also placed. they have proved the relation (11.1.1). exactly along the parallel of experiment we assume that both planes fly Washington at the same height above sea level.2.1) 22.10 s. (22.1).2).(1  ^ v'^/c')^'^ « = (1  ^ v'^c')''' . It consisted of the following : Two jet planes carrying atomic clocks left Washington in eastern and western directions.. The readings A/p. and socalled « meson their « readings » were the mean lifetimes of the mesons. 116 .2. at rest. Rossi and Hall measured the distance d covered by highvelocity jnmesons produced near the top of the atmosphere caused by primary cosmic radiation. THE ROSSIHALL The first MESON » EXPERIMENT experiment which proved the Lorentz time dilation was the » experiment performed by Rossi and Hall (1941). is i. experiment the planes made many landings during the thus changing their gravitational potentials. THE HAFELEKEATING EXPERIMENT The first « CLOCKSROUNDTHEWORLD » help of macroscopic clocks was the experiment where the Lorentz time dilation was proved by the « clocksroundtheworld » experiment of Hafele and Keating (1972). and the HafeleKeating experiment proved both the Lorentz and Einstein time dilations. namely /nmesons.e. (1977) and has very reliably proved the relation (11. the time in which {\/e)ih part of T = 2. A/^v of the clocks carried by the eastern and western planes were compared with the reading A/ of a third atomic clock left in Washington. (22.
their we ignore the motion of the Earth around the Sun and in combined motion all relative to absolute space because the average fluence of these motions on our clocks account only the rotational velocity of the in the Thus we take into Earth which leads to an asymmetry is the same. Sr^ = A/vv — A/. moves with and for the = ^^f ~ Ar. while the westbound clock which i^vv velocity = ^r ~ v'with respect to absolute space will be fast. obtain within an accuracy of second order in \/c differences S^F 8t^ we _ 2vv. according to formula (22.1). + v with respect absolute space will be slow.3) where R is is the Earth's radius. + v' 5^w . <p is the latitude of Washington's parallel and T the length of the sideral day. is = — R cos(p .In our treatment. then the eastbound clock which to moves with velocity Vf:= v. If we denote by v the velocity of the planes with respect to the Earth. motion of the different clocks and which V. (22.
221. 221 Sun Let us have two atomic clocks placed at two antipodal points of the where we have shown the Earth as seen from and the linear rotational velocity of the equator be v.6) lirt i^ f i^J » 2 i^ I'r sin where v 118 = v^ + Vp. v^^ = v^ + vl — Itt t 2 vVr sin (22. the north celestial pole). . Let the Earth's absolute velocity be v . Fig.3. we shall have for the absolute velocities of these clocks.22. respectiEarth's equator (see fig. vely. Suppose for the sake of simplicity that the Earth's axis is perpendicular to the plane of the ecHptic and that we consider such a day of the year when the absolute velocity of the Sun (or at least its component in the plane of the ecliptic) i^s is parallel to the velocity of the Earth about the Sun v^. THE « ANTIPODALCLOCKS » EXPERIMENT Marinov (1972b) and it The essence of this experiment with whose help one can measure the in detail in absolute velocity of a laboratory was proposed by was considered Marinov (19781). Taking the initial zero moment when it is sunrise for the first atomic clock (clock A) and sunset for the second atomic clock (clock B). and Tis the length of the sideral day.
and only during the sunset and sunrise hours will these rates be equal. 222 Let us have a ring ab which encircles the turnabout but does not rotate with respect to absolute space.1). a realization of Newtonian time synchronization between two is problematic and later we shall show that a realization of time synchronization by the exchange of electromagnetic signals. at different we see that the rates of our clocks will be different for hours of the day. 222. Let the readings be 119 .. However. antipodal points on the Earth Fig. Suppose that points a and b lie on a diameter t\. we should establish the absolute character of the Lorentz time dilation and we could measure the Earth's absolute velocity. leads to an annihilation of the appearing absolute effects.If we use these formulas in (22. This represents the essence of the « antipodalclocks » experiment. i. For this reason the « antipodalclocks » experiment is to be performed on a turnabout. The greatest difference will be when one clock it is noon and for the other midnight.e. t\' which is parallel to the absolute velocity v. of Einsteinian time synchronization. as shown in fig. If we compare the readings of our clocks for equal absolute intervals of time between sunset and sunrise.
J ^ ^i = V R (22. . (i.a..10 while the portable cesium beam clocks show time with a relative inaccuracy ± 10 ".. Since move with the Earth and ' being at point B'. /'(.t'^ obviously correspond same absolute time interval which we shall denote by A/.6) and working within an accuracy of second order ^ I /c. we obtain from (22.registered on clock A when r'. points the The times A/^y = /'/ . we obtain vl ^.e. 10 " s. and let the readings h. respectively. v^ from (22.^A/ = where Tis the period of rotation. 221). be registered on clock B when it touches. Supposing 0. (22. h. that the revolutions per second of the turnabout are 5 '°. where A/^ is the time read on a clock 1 D which ) does not write On A/ the grounds of formula (22. It is ^t to = Ar„(j  v'/c')^'^ . (22. We shall consider the « antipodalclocks » (fig.10) Denoting 8t = A/^ . points a..7) rotate.8) Substituting here i^^. r/2. Here we do not take into account the 120 I . v' + 1 vv.11) 6/ 4 Taking v shall = 300 km/s and /? = 3 m.^^b and taking into account (22.. (22. moment be i\. experiment on the rotating Earth Let clock A send the initial electromagnetic signal being at point sunrise) when for this clock it is and let its reading at this the light signal travels a certain time. it touches. we can = H^(I j in I v\/c^)^'^du M = A/„ /"(I  ^yc^)''^c//. respectively. \ v^ ir v\ 2 vv.t\ and A/^ = /'„' .1 s). Now we result shall show that the realization of an Einsteinian time synchroin nization in the « antipodalclocks » experiment leads to a negative (null) because of the mutual annihilation of the absolute effects and thus such a manner the absolute velocity of the laboratory (the Earth) cannot be measured.10) only in the terms of second order in 1/c. we find = 4. (22. clock will receive the signal B will A (i.e.9) having taking into account that approximately it is Ar^^A/. Ar = we the have 5//A/ = 4.9) St = 4 vv.
and (22. when and let its reading at this moment be t'^ Clock B will move with the Earth and will receive the signal being at point B".10). taking into account the velocity v. obviously. as is we [formula (22. (22. l5) into (22. T'. With respect distance to absolute space the initial signal will cover the following d' = d(l  v/c).rotation of the Earth because in the case considered the linear rotational velocity v.14) we denote by final signals. the effects calculated. 13).. then. (22. then the effects calculated additionally will be cancelled in the final result.„ = r.. cancelled in the final result. With respect to absolute space the final signal will cover the following distance d" = Let us denote by initial signal t'^ c/(l + v/c). be signal propagates along the Earth's diameter.^A= (^'b  ^b)(1 + 4 . ) = 'b .r. a higher accuracy not necessary. .'b+ ^ d 2 V 1 . Putting (22.13) the reading of clock and by /'b the reading when Making use of formulas 'a If (22.16) A when the and final signals are sent and the readings of clock B when these signals have been received we cannot establish the absolute velocity v.. from this relation between the readings of clock initial (22. and T'^ the readings of clock B when the initial and respectively. as it can be will shown.^(i^).. 2) and (22. (22. is perpendicular to the transiational velocity if v. . we obtain '„=r... (22. 14). have been received. A sends the final signal at point A" (i.12) which we calculate within an accuracy of shall see further first order in v/c because.=r. we can write B when clock .V^ V.'^(i + ^).e. and. for this clock it is Clock sunset). and.9) clock A has sent the A has sent the final signal..15) we find .15)]. 121 . using (22. (22. It can be that if the signal covers a trajectory along the Earth's surface (a shown radiorelay tract).8). For the sake of simplicity we suppose also that the electromagnetic whose length is d.
1 1 experiment be performed throughout a year. where v^ and i/„ are given by formulas (22. correspond to the same absolute time interval A/. then in formula (22.Now we shall propose a variant of the « antipodalclocks » experiment with whose help the equatorial component of the Earth's absolute velocity can be measured. we have shown that the formula proposed by Lorentz and Einstein for the drag of light in a moving medium is not true and we have given the true formula. ). R = 6370 km. we obtain 8t = 2 s.6). Let us have two passage instruments at a point on the Earth's equator whose fixed axes lie in a vertical plane parallel to the eastwest direction. It is very instructive to compare the analysis of this experiment with the analysis of the quasiRoemer experiment (§15). crosses the sight line of the first telescope at the moment i\. « The essence of the watertube » experiment is as follows : Let us have a tube with length L along which water propagates with velocity v.5. In that paper. § 23. We generate two light pulses at the same moment and let them go through this tube.8). Taking v = 300 km/s and R = 150. Taking v = 300 km/s. read on an exact clock.10' km. which lies about 90" from the projection on the celestial equator of the apex of the Earth's absolute velocity. Let us further suppose that a star B which is antipodal to the first one crosses the sight line of the first telescope at the moment /„ and the sight line of the second telescope at the moment /„'• Since the Earth rotates uniformly. using as a of the Earth about its axis but the yearly revolution around the Sun. and performing an analysis as above. so that one pulse (called « direct ») travels with the How of 122 . verifying it by a very careful repetition of the « watertube » experiment (see also §28). assuming for simplicity 9 = tt. the angle between them being 6. we get 5/ = 8. THE « WATERTUBE » EXPERIMENT In Marinov (1978i).1 1) we have to take for V the component of the Sun's absolute velocity in the plane of the ecliptic If a similar « rotating disk » not the diurnal rotation and for R the radius of the Earth's orbit. Suppose that an equatorial star A. the times A/^ = ([^  t\ and ^^B — 'b ~ ^B' obviously. and the sight line of the second telescope at the moment (\'. we reconsider the historical « watertube » experiment of Fizeau (1851) which was repeated by Zeeman (1914) with the aim of establishing the Dopplereffect influence on the drag of light. which will now be reviewed. and we can use formulas (22. we shall obtain the ^ s. 10 result (22. introducing the notation 5/ = A/a — A/r. Thus.
n n^ (23.2) « + » is for the « opposite photons and the sign — » is for the « direct » photons. . c/n (23.2) but These authors come to formula (23. j/ yields n{v) ± dn — dp dv = n ±— c V dn V — .. r d\ where A is (23. tt. taking into account the dispersion (and within an accuracy of first oder in v/c). the pulse travelling against the flow will be late for the rendezvous. we obtain for the velocity of fiowing water. if the water is motion. if the same moment. Obviously. However.3) dp Thus putting (23.6) proceeding not from the relation from the following relation p„ = pil ± ^). in Lorentz (1916) and Einstein (1914) give for the time delay « the watertube » experiment the following formula ^'= 2 "^ Lv ^"'""^^ dn ~ ')• (236) (23.4) dp tv For the time delay instead of (23. However. Suppose that both and meet again.„+^*L.12) for accuracy of first order in v/c. 77. since the molecules of the liquid move with respect to the light source.^=^. the time delay being A/= L c L c 2Lv =(„. A Taylor expansion of the n {v„) =^ refractive index as a function of ._!).3)into(I3.. they will arrive at the it. c B„ (23. working within an Here n is the refractive index of water for the frequency p of the used monochromatic light. = 0. » (23.7) 123 . (23.5) the wavelength of the emitted light.1) where we have used formula (13.the water and the other (called « opposite ») against pulses cover paths with the same lengths water in is at rest.16)for^ = photons in 0.1) we have Ar= '4^"'^^"'). a Doppler effect occurs and the water molecules will receive photons with a frequency K = yO ± where the sign « v/c).
1978i) the » watertube experiment. ^ SM /^ Y as follows (fig. moving bulk materials. meet water molecules at rest According to our « hitchhiker velocity c. However. using our very sensitive bridge method for shifts (see §19.5) is Formula but only for the drag of light in obtained also by Lorentz (1916) and Einstein (1914) moving solids. F'623l Our experimental arrangement was by the source S is Light emitted by the semitransparent mirror SM into two beams. into two daughter beams the beam refracted by SM. vacuum and photons (free or hitched). responds « With the aim of establishing which « dragoflight » formula corto physical reality we have repeated (Marinov. while the beam split : 124 . the photons move only in vacuum and always with c/n is One measures velocity c/n in a medium only because for a certain time the photons are hitched to the molecules and their average velocity.Their argument they first is the following : When the photons enter the water tube and the frequency received by these shield molecules will be equal to the emitted frequency p. » model (§13). (23. after reflecting on mirror A/.. the velocity of light in a medium is c/n and not c. and a Doppler effect always appears when the « emitting » and « receiving » molecules move with different velocities.. 231) . The beam refiected by SM is split additionally by the semitransparent mirror SM. measurement of interference A 7^ SM.. Thus they make a substantial difference between the propagation of light in a liquid flowing in tubes and in For our theory there are only molecules.2). proceeds through the tube T. 7^^ SM. according to these authors. Thus in the « watertube » experiment there is a Doppler effect for light « emitted » by water molecules at rest and then « received » by the moving water molecules.
The water is circulated from a reservoir where it is thermo stabilized at a temperature 20" ± 0. resistor Pi which is in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge. illuminate also uniformly the photoresistor in the other arm of the Wheatstone bridge. when the water is at rest. These two beams interfere and illuminate uniformly the photoreflected A/.by 5" A/. passes through a maximum disequilibrium. The temperature of Tcan be thermostabilized within 8T = ± 0\04 C. so that we can maintain the light path through T and T.^. (23. interfering there. It splits two daughter beams SM. will begin to change oppositely.6). then the sensitivity of the bridge is the highest. = of its refractive in the index about C. is The method of measurement as follows : over /*.. rate its temperature Its length is is cm and the temperature dn/dT = 5."3 C. and. sum is is exactly equal to n\ (here n will sum of the differences in and T. after reflecting on mirror meets again the beam which has crossed T. If equal to (2 /j + I) (A/2). then no disequilibra tion this of the bridge sum be achieved when increasing the velocity of water. We of the / search for a « 1 tuner » maximum sensitivity by changing the T which represents a small piece of glass. become equal to \ the bridge comes again into Thus we can verify formulas (23. writing A = c A/ = A.A.10 *degree Changing '. by 300 nm.^ from minimum (when the current in the arms of : Maximum 125 . an integer). and when the path difference A = A. the illuminations over P^ and P. so that it flows in tube r. from right to left. The If this sensitivity of the method depends on the the light paths of the beams going through is T.. between the daughter beams in any pair are exactly the same. constant in the limits of 5A = ± 2 nm. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. which meet together at /*. and P. SM^ put and. If we now set the water in motion.5) and (23. With the increase in the water's velocity. The also into situation is similar in the case of the at beam refracted by SM . from left to right and in tube T. temperature range of 6" we change the light paths of the beams proceeding through Tand T. at the semitransparent mirror SM.1). (where A. must be equal. is the change in the difference between the light paths of the daughter beams propagating from left to right and A. is the change in the difference between the light paths of the daughter beams propagating the water is When at rest the illuminations since the phase differences from there right to left) will equilibrium. wing way sensitivity can be established and maintained in the folloChanging the temperature of the tuner Twe change the level of illumination over /*. I.^. and P. proceeds through the tube T.
 y„ The lengths of the tubes T.. The manometer was calibrated with a precision 8v/v = ± 4.5 cm..„„. put in a^jjof the arms of P.0 ± 0. corresponding to the different wavelengths.. arms of y.10 '.10 *A. (and vice versa) when changing the velocity of the water.„. 5. The inaccuracies estimated by us are.„„. will reduce toy^m. then we put resistances R/2 in any of the and by changing the level of illumination over them (by the help of the tunner T) we adjust the current to be J^. P. transferring resistance from the arm of T'. At this condition the sensitivity is highest and the temperature of T must be maintained so that current y. The light source in the a tuned dye laser with is neodymium glass oscillator.„. and P. and P2 is J„. If additional resistances R. respectively...). are L = 262. are taken from a graph which we have plotted on the basis of the data given in LandoltBornstein (1962). The inaccuracy chosen wavelengths 5A/A = ± 10 TABLE 231 A nm .„ always has to flow through the armsof /*.^.^ is y. and P.5. into the arm of P. 5/1//7 = ± is 2. The maximum sensitivity of the bridge is 5A = ± 2.10 ' an(i8idn/d\)/(dn/d\) = ± '.„) to maximum (when the current in the arms of P.. since the fluctuations of the zero galvanometer are about 4000 times smaller than the current the current in the last case /*..P. if measured as shown in the figure. 10 \ The values for n and cin/Jk. and T. /*. It is expedient to always maintain the current in the diagonal galvanometer (the zero galvanometer) equal to zero.
It must be/C = 0, A Marinov formulas (23.1).
I
=
/?,
Acm
=
1,
according to the Fresnel, Lorentz and
0,10,
(23.6)
and
(23.5).
sources of errors,
we obtain
6A//:
= ±
Taking into account forA = 300 nm.
all
possible
§24.
In
THE «DRAG ABERRATION
to
»
EXPERIMENT
call
Marinov (1978m) we have pointed
an effect we
the drag
aberration, which will
now be
analysed.
\v
*>
where d
is
the thickness of the
medium, we obtain
be dragged
for the resultant distance
QR
along which the photons
will
QR =
Thus
v{\

)t=
n^
1
dv
(n
c cos
i//
 ).
n
1
(24.2)
the drag angle will be
8=
Formula
QR cosxp PQ
"^
"^
V ={nc
1
)cos^.
n
(24.3)
^^^^^
(24.3) can be easily verified experimentally
by silvering the
parallel planes of the
has to undergo a
medium, making them light reflecting, so that the beam high number of reflections before leaving the medium. By
the help of our « cylindrical mirrors indicator » (§19.1), the appearing drag
aberration can be reliably registered. aberration » experiment. Recently
it
We
call
such an experiment the
«
drag
was carried out by Jones (1975) and considered theoretically by Player (1975) and Rogers (1975); however, the experiment and the theoretical considerations have been made only for the
special case
tp
=
i//
=
0.
Player and Rogers
gation in a
made
their analysis
by proceeding from the Lorentz
transformation and without referring to the physical model of light propa
medium,
as
one does
in
conventional physics
when
solving
all
problems about
light kinematics in a
moving medium.
We shall
(jp
show
the results deriving from such an automatic implication
of the Lorentz transformation to the drag aberration for the general case of
Tt 0.
frame
1^
Let us attach (fig. 241) a moving frame K to the medium and a rest K to the observer, so that their xaxes should be parallel to the velocity
of the
medium and
their vaxes
should point downwards.
for velocities (also called Einstein
The Lorentz transformation formulas
and
(3.15) for the direct transformation,
transformation formulas for velocities) can be obtained from formulas (3.12)
for the inverse transformation.
and from formulas (3. 13) and (3.16) For a special transformation, V must be
for the direct transformation the following
parallel to the x
and
x'axes,
and
formulas can easily be obtained
V,
=
I

,
V,
Vic'
i^v '
=
\

•,
(24.4)
V.
Vic'
where
v\
,
i^^
are the
respect to
frame
K\ and
components of the velocity of a material point with i^, Vy are its components with respect to frame K.
,
128
For our case (fig. 241) the components of the velocity of the photons which propagate in vacuum (i.e., before their entrance in the medium) are
c,
=
c
sm
<p
,
Cy
=
c cos
<p
,
(24.5)
,
_
1
csxntp
— V
,
ccos(p(l
1
 V/c^y^
—
^
W"
sin <p/c'
— V sin vp/c
Thus
the angle of incidence of the photons in frame K' will be
sin
(p
=
—
c,'
=
1
sin
<p
c

— —
in
V/c
l/sm <p/c
— ^
sin
(p

V — cos>
c
,
(24.6)
and the angle of refraction
(13.31), putting there « A
sin<p'
= \,n^=
1
.
frame A", according n ] will be
to Snell's
law [see formula
sm
yl/'
=
=
—
n
(sm
op
—
n
V — cos'(») = c
sm
.
>//
+
V — {n
en
sm'i//
—
—
1
)
(24.7)
The components of
the velocity of the photons in the
medium
with
respect to frame K' will be
Cmx
=
— sm
<^
.
.,
i//
c
=
c _ cos
i//',
n
n
velocity with respect to
(24.8)
and the components of this
frame K, according
to the
inverse Lorentz transformation formulas for velocities, will be
'1
+
'
c:. v/c'
' is
"l 1
+
cL. c;, v/c'
^24.9)
Thus, when the medium frame K will be
sin(»//
moving, the refraction angle with respect
to
+
6)
= ^ =
Cm
c
sin.//
+
V —
en—
(/I

1
).
(24.10)
and
for the drag aberration angle
.
we
obtain
^ 5^sm5=— (« c
.
11 .
)
n
cos
(24.11)
\p
This result
obviously,
it
is unsound, because for \p  tt/I it gives 8 — oo, while must be 6  0, as this is to be obtained from our formula (24.3).
129
and this phenomenon cannot be explained without referring to its physical essence. this experiment we have given also the account of in detail in Marinov (19780 where two important modifications to it which were performed by Fig.. A/^2. The HarressSagnac experiment. with refractive index n can rotate (in a clockwise direction) with the semitransparent mirrors A/. performed by Dufour and Prunier (1942) and repeated by Marinov (19780 in a slightly different ar 130 . We have considered us. performed first by Harress (1912) and repeated very carefully by Pogany (1928). a (air).„ SM. SM ^. hundreds of pens have tried to reconcile its decisive positive « aether wind » effect with the unidirectional Einstein's light velocity constancy and thus to convince the scientific community that black is white. sixty years after its first performance. i. THE HARRESS « « ROTATING DISK » EXPERIMENT The rotating disk » experiment of HarressSagnacPoganyDufour. until the performance of our light kinematic experiments. Thus the Lorentz transformation is not deus ex machina and is to be applied with attento the tion.. Nevertheless.. in 2. but a mathematical apparatus attached to to recognize that physics physical reality. The HarressPogany experiment. or only the at rest. 25 1 presents our setup for the performance of the « rotating disk » experiment. was the and. in which the mirrors rotate together with the 3. mirrors can rotate and the with refractive index n medium remain = \. vacuum medium can also be taken. So four : different combinations are possible which we name 1.. §25. having shown that when the experiments speak the gods keep their silence but the theoreticians do not. or without them. after a once more a due physical analysis of the problem considered.. A medium A/^. first repeated on the rotating Earth by MichelsonGale.It is clear thai the automatic apphcation of the Lorentz transformation drag aberration leads to an unsound result. first The HarressMarinov experiment. The history of this experiment and of its mistreatment by official physics is very instructive. medium. A/. A/p. the unique experiment which revealed the direction dependence of light velocity and the adequacy of the aether conception to physical reality.. '^A/^ and the mirrors M„ M^. which the mirrors rotate and as a medium a vacuum is taken. performed first by Sagnac ( 1913). A/„.. Here we have is not a mathematical apparatus to which physical reality is attached. A/.e. In the last case.
are two photoresistors put in both the shutter P ^ and Pr arms of a Wheatstone bridge. Always when uniformly 131 Sh allows light to pass. performed arrangement (called the « first substantially different see §23). 251. The areas of the facets are small and the mirrors are placed near medium. A/. The HarressFizeau experiment.Fig. in 4. 19780 can be first considered as the In fig. For the ZeemanMarinov experiment in §28.. to the M3. 5 is Sh is a shutter which facets governed by the rotating disk and allows short strictly light pulses to pass only at a defined position of the disk when the diametrically opposite of the transperant medium are exactly parallel to the mirrors M. a light source emitting coherent light.. in watertube by Fizeau ( 85 ) in a » experiment 1 1 — which the medium rotates and the mirrors are at rest. rangement. the phtoresistors are illuminated . Thus we can assume that the photons travel between the single mirrors along the corresponding chords of a circle with radius R. 251 sake of unification (see the which the mirrors rotate and the medium is at rest.2) we call the common type of the « rotating disk » experiment where the medium is at rest and the mirrors rotate the HarressMarinov experiment. is one. Our performance of the HarressFizeau experiment (Marinov.
M. let light. At rest the illuminations over both photoresistors are the same and the bridge is in equilibrium. within such an accuracy. M.by interfered rence.— M.SM^My SM. Fig. SM.— M. If the time spent by the second (or fourth) photon for covering its path at the angular velocity fi differs by At ^(At ^) from the time spent at rest. and of the third and fourth photons. on one hand. /Vf.M. on the other hand. As a matter of fact. will change oppositely when changing the rotational velocity. With the aim of explaining the character of the interfe us consider four photons which are emitted by the following paths : S at the same moment and cover First photon SM Pa SM.— M^— SM^— Since the effects in the « rotating disk » experiment are of first order in they can be considered in the frame of the traditional aetherNewtonian theory which. P. SM^ Fourth photon SM ^SM^.M^. Ph Second photon Third photon : SM SM Ph: M. and we introduce the notation A/ = At ^ + A/g. and third photons cover the same paths at rest and motion of the mirrors. 252 "J lii . When increasing the rotational velocity.yM^.— A/. passes through a state of maximum disequilibrium and at a certain angular velocity fi comes again into equilibrium. SM ^— M„— A/p. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. then A = c A/ of the first will be equal to the wavelength A of the used light. M. The first The second photon (which we direction of rotation shall call « direct ») travels along the and the fourth photon (which we shall call « opposite ») travels against the direction of rotation. Af. The differences in the optical paths and second photons. there are differences which are of second order in \//c\ and we consider them in §29. spacetime theory. is identical with our absolute \^/c.— M.
. A/. Sh a shutter governed by the rotating turnabout. and thus in the case of M rotation its path will be longer by ^d=^R c/n cos —. 252 and fig. 253 (see also fig. taking into account also the dispersion of the medium.. 252b. to the semitransparent mirror M a point M corresponds which can be considered as an effective point of separation. 251).. (25. we proceed from the simple in fig.= 4 c n . According to fig. 253 25. In fig. In the case of rotation the path of an « opposite the case of rest. where it photon at the semitransparent mirror reflects when the mirrors are at rest.1) where d = R/cos (7r/4) is its path when the mirrors are at rest and R is the distance of the mirrors from the centre of rotation. respectively. but at a point A/. A/. will be with Ad less than in 133 .. » photon between M and A/. riments. whose schemes are given. We suppose that the mirrors rotate a direct (clockwise) direction and the medium is at rest in absolute space.For the calculation of Ar through the parameters of the device. scheme of the experiment given where the Here 5 is is a light source.1. A/ light pulses separate into « direct » a semitransparent mirror « and opposite ». Fig. are mirrors and O is an observer who registers the diferent interference pictures. 251. 252. THE HARRESSMARINOV EXPERIMENT First we shall consider the HarressMarinov and HarressDufour expefig. A/. in in 252a and fig. a « direct » photon which separates from an « opposite » will reflect not at point A/.
4 A/hm=4 —j^ 4 c/n* d + ^d d  QR' —j— = —^ c/n t^d S 8 („^ in' .2) 4 opposite photons received by the molecules of the medium if will remain the same. because of the Doppler effect.31) which for our case gives refraction.(or mirrors Since mirror ^ and SM^ in fig.. (25.. c d\ (fig.^iT A_).. Let us note that in our realization of the HarressMarinov experiment we have to take into account the difference in the light paths which 1 ). 251) moves.6) where a is the difference between the angles of incidence and we have used Snell's law (13. then. c ^^R' „ c' ^. (25. dn^ . d\ dn (25.7) Thus. .n'Y''' In . 25 appears along the contour SM — SM^— M — SM^— SM when the mirrors we obtain for the rotate. and sm(l o) = ^ n. the frequencies of the « direct » photons received by the molecules of the medium will be M SM K = i'{\+2—cos c while the frequencies of the « V — TT ) = »  fl /? p(\ + x/2 c ). (25. when the mirrors rotate with an angular velocity fl. a « direct » photon will return to mirror » M an « opposite photon with the following time delay : a) for the HarressMarinov experiment . Denoting by b the distances between SA/^and SM ^. we take into account the dispersion. Hence.3) Thus after if the mirrors rotate. area enclosed by this contour „ S= co\{^a) 2 b' m 4 = {1 b^ . the second with photon will come for a rendezvous with the first photon on mirror SM . . the following additional time anticipation 134 .^. (25.4) c^ b) for the HarressDufour experiment d c/n* + M _)_4( b^d ^ d c/n ^d^ __. the refractive index of the medium for the « direct » photons becomes n* = n (fo) = n + y/2 c ^ — dv . .
the we take into account the dispersion. which was carried out by us.2. (25.11) 2 c dv rotates.somewhat shown in fig. — — =8 n^' — c„.5)] the medium » M before an « opposite ^t. the periments. p= "~^ Ad .16) and compare with formula (23.12) c. because of « M u(\ . different arrangements respectively. then. if n Y^ p (25.„ = ^.. Now. THE HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENT The HarressFizeau experiment can also be performed in two .Ad . respectively. and from fig.10) ^_^ Hence. 252b which we shall call. — . (n'  . respectively. V c p„ = if u(\ :^ cosd) = T ~ \/2 2 ^R ). the molecular velocity that makes an angle 6 with the direction of propagation of the « direct » photons will have a magnitude that the rotates in direct (clockwise) direction We suppose medium the mirrors are at rest in absolute space. 252a and fig. (25.= — .dn \— d\  I).8) while the fourth photon will mirror 5'A/b with the come for a rendezvous with same time delay. as can be seen ^= ^^ 2 Since the the cos^ with respect to the mirrors. n±=n(^^) = ^ Thus. the frequencies of the direct » and « opposite » photons received by the molecules will be. c (25. 253. (25. the HarressFizeau experiment.A/„.9) medium moves Doppler effect. a « direct » photon will return to mirror photon with the time anticipation (use formula (13. calling it We shall HarressFizeauMarinov and HarressFizeauDufour exconsider only the first one. the refractive indices for « « direct » and opposite » photons become. c' 135 . the third photon on 25.
The theory of relativity meets severe difficulties experiments there We when trying to explain this difference. the separation of 136 M .14) must emphasize that in the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau is the same relative motion between mirrors and medium..5). THE HARRESSPOGANY EXPERIMENT In the HarressPogany experiment the time delay with which a « direct » after an « opposite » photon is equal to the photon returns to mirror difference in the time delays in the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau M experiments.12) we obtain A/„_p=Ar. oppositely. A second difference consists wing the : 252. (25. the mirrors A/. THE HARRESSSAGNAC EXPERIMENT The formula for the effect in the HarressSagnac experiment is to be obtained from (25. light pulses interfere with light pulses that always cover the same photoresistors P ^ and y^ change in §23. The difference between our « rotating scheme » (fig.2.4) and (25. In our realization. However the effects in these two experiments are substantially different because in the HarressMarinov experiment the medium rests with respect to absolute space.25. (25. ^'ms=87 .13) 25. 252) the following : In our realization the « direct » and « opposite path. PRACTICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE HARRESSMARINOV AND HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENTS Our performance of the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau experiments by the help of the setup shown in fig.= 8?^. A/j. Thus from formulas (25. 25. Thus the illuminations over the and we can use our convenient in the follo bridge method described In fig.4) and (25.4. 251 is reported in Marinov (19780. putting there n = I. 251) and the traditional is scheme of the disk » experiment (fig._^A/„_. A^i are tangent to the circumference of medium.5. while in the HarressFizeau experiment the mirrors rest with respect to absolute space. however semitransparent mirror is not tangent and cannot be placed close enough to the medium.
Proceeding from formulas M ^H It M=8 ('''^J{^ ^^ — is (25.6 and 8(dn/c/\) = used. Af„ A/. Glass windows are placed which has where light beams must cross the walls of the vessel.8 nm ' '.^ — if is exactly equal to the light path that in water.7. where // is an integer.2 possible errors introduced in the measurement of the thickness of the glass plates and errors that could appear from the replacement of the actual light 30. 251. which also has to compensate for large enough error. we obtain the following formula for the calculation of the effect in the HaressMarinov experiment performed with our setup SM^. there enough to (25. we have metallic interfaces put the mirrors A/. Let us repeat be obtained when the sum of the differences and second photons and in the light paths of the to third and fourth photons 2. so that instead of an effective point of separation which can lie close the circumference of the medium. for light = nm 632. would be covered mirrors A/.2 cm.15) can easily be seen that the formula for the calculation of the effect in the HarressFizeau experiment directly performed with our setup to be obtained from (25. 6A = ± When sum is equal to n\ the sensitivity 137 . 0.3317 and dn/d\ = — 2.0 cm. Taking into account the thickness of the glass plates and their refractive index. assuming 8h = cm. coherence is used.5.8). at rest this is (2 aj + 1) A/2. assuming 8n = laser of the HeNe ± 0.. being falls to zero.. since laser light with good of the third and fourth photons) equal.12) and runs As a a as medium we have shown taken distilled water in a metallic vessel at points form in fig. Also R = 0.the photons that will later interfere proceeds first at semitransparent mirror SM and then at semitransparent mirrors S\f ^ and is mirror M. A/2. Glass windows also are placed in the which divide the ring into compartments. A/. second photons (as well as However. h =«= 8R = ± path by an idealized light path only in water.4) and (25. iit such positions that the actual light path (distance multiplied by refractive index) along the contour A/t — A/ We M — M^ — M.10" A. this is by no means necessary and the light paths of the first^ We have made the light paths of the first and and third photons can be substantially reduced. sensitivity The that a of our bridge method is maximum sensitivity first in the light paths of the is analysed in §23. had been immersed have // = 1.10 of wavelength X and taking a 10.
^. . is stroboscopic cyclometer maintained automatically with 0.15) obtain. supposing that the velocity of light is and (25. A' = U/ln. we an unknown quantity. S2.r4^^ o C.= where for 8c 0. error.0\ ± c„_f.32) and with </ we designate the whole path. (25.10«m/s. and A/„. In the case where the apparatus is thermostabilized. We rotated the disk first counterclockwise S2_„ with angular velocity S2 and then clockwise with angular velocity taking = (1/2) + n. <"> ' I) r4^ c„ "PP = c' „ CvzosOdr. The « tuner described in §23 can be used also for calibration during the velocity until run..04 rev/s for the HarressMarinov experi 50. The number of measured by a precision light revolutions per second of the disk.02 rev/s.17) (2. J (26.07).3) can form A/„=. however in our method where we change the rotational A = r Ar becomes equal to A no calibration need be made.60 ± 0.16). c„_^=(3.).We have not searched described in for the highest sensitivity by the help of a sensitivity (SA « tuner ».04 rev/s for the HarressFizeau experiment. a maximum sensitivity can be achieved by a micrometrical move of both mirrors A/^. as §23. in such a case at rest the shutter has to operate with the same chopping frequency with which it operates at the rotational velocity S2.97 ± 0. we have taken the maximum measuring § 26. and we have taken an average » = ± 10 '\. then at the angular velocity (counterclockwise or clockwise) the bridge will be disequilibrated with the same « negative » current. Substituting the numerical values into formulas (25. SN = ± (J2.07). is When to the disk at rest the equilibrium by a micrometrical move of mirror is Wheatstone bridge can be set into A/ ^.68 ± 0. ment and We obtained N = A^ = 22.10'm/s. However. or A/rv If we do not care disequilibrated with a certain fi do this and if at the beginning the bridge « positive » current. THE DISRUPTED in the « ROTATING DISK » EXPERIMENT The proper time delay be written in the HarressSagnac experiment (see §25.1) where we have used formula 138 (3.
a difference between proper and absolute time intervals cannot be made [i. so that the light path of the « direct ». In the « rotating disk » experiments (§25) the point of separation of the « direct » and « opposite » photons « is the same.e. and formula (26. the light paths of the « direct » and « opposite » which are different at rest and motion of the disk can be made straight and photons lines. performance disk.If working within an accuracy of first order in i//f. as well as of the opposite ». If we should disrupt these closed paths and make the points of separation meeting different. Its We call such an experiment the disrupted is « rotating it disk » experiment. we have to assume A/o = A/(l — I'Vc')"^^ At]. reported in Marinov (1978n) and is patently shows that the velocity of light direction dependent even along a straight line on a rotating Fig..1) can be written in the form 2 r (26. photons must be a closed curve.2) where dr is the element of the light path of the « direct » photons velocity of the corresponding point and v is the on the rotating disk with respect to absolute space. 261 139 .
the bridge will come again into Thus we shall have 12 /?' A = where we have 140 to put (2 tan — 2 + sin 6) .— SM). P„ are illuminated.3) shorter than the time in which the (the second) will reach The photoresistors P^. 261. photon (26. Let four photons be emitted by they cover the following paths First : 5 at the same moment and suppose that photon : Second photon Third photon : : Fourth photon : S— S— S— S— SM — SM^ — SM^ — SM). b P ^. S^^^ a corrective semitransparent mirror to photons along the path path to SM ^^ to a mirror. SM — SA/f — SM ^ — ^^ — ^^b — ^nSM — M — SM — SM ^^ SM\. light.e. Using formula (26. Sh is a shutter which is governed by the rotating disk and lets light pass only at a strictly defined position of the disk when both photoresistors P^. In the case where S. is i. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium.— SM — M — SM ~ SM. both photoresistors are illuminated by equal light intensities. (26. we move micro SM\ first third photons until the bridge comes into equilibrium. (^'b= first ^— sm^). changing in such a way the path difference » equal to the wavelength A of the used equilibrium. Then we set the disk in rotation. With the increase of rotational velocity.~ P„.. P ^ and P^ would also be mounted on the rotating disk. — P^. the shutter Sh is unnecessary.4) c A = X.. /*„ are put in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge. .2) and will fig. passes through a state of maximum disequilibrium. we find that in the case of rotation (with respect to the case at rest) the time in which the third (fourth) photon reach /'a(^b) will be with Ar = tan—. They are illuminated uniformly by interfered light. Let us suppose that when the disk is at rest the bridge is in equilibrium. The scheme of the disrupted 261) The light source 5" is : « rotating disk » experiment is as follows a HeNe laser. and at a certain angular velocity fl. when the sum of the differences in the optical paths A = (Ar^ A/r) c will become between the and and S'M'b. and which reduces the number of equal the number of photons along the M SM B . If this metrically not the case.— SM\. SM is a semitransparent mirror.(fig.
2 method see §23 and cm... taking = 632.98 ± 0. represents a variant of the disrupted « rotating disk » experiment for the case where the rotation of the disk cannot be changed at will.We 5A = ± §25). is obtain. 271) : Along the rim of a disk the mirrors A/. §27. 10 'A (concerning the sensitivity of our bridge 1978n).. (26.10 V We we = 92.8 nm.07).A/k are placed close enough to each other. Light emitted by the source Fig. is R = 40.5. Putting the figures into formula (26.. proposed in Marinov (1975b). = (2.5) where for 8c we take the maximum absolute measuring error.0 ± 0.0 ± a'. 271 141 . A experimentally checked this formula (Marinov. The number of revolutions per second A^ = S2/27r measured by a light stroboscopic cyclo meter and maintained automatically with a precision 5 A^/ A' registered A' = ±2.4). as it is on our Earth. = 60".02 rev/s. 10' m/s . supposing that the velocity of light c an unknown quantity.. THE « COUPLEDSHUTTERS ON A ROTATING DISK» EXPERIMENT The « coupledshutters on a rotating disk » experiment.90 ± 0. Its scheme is as follows (fig.
As a matter of fact. Indeed. changing the commanding frequency in this range.. we have ^ n^=n„^ Thus observers If the if Aaj ^ is /!„+ 2 — /J = /!„+ A/t . As shutters two Kerr cells can be separated by a short distance d (about 100 km) along on the peaks of two mountains). At the condition that n = (d/c) /"is an integer (or an integer plus 1/2).The shutters operate with the same chopping frequency f. . then we can consider the motion of the coupled shutters as inertial.. As light sources lasers can be used.1) = 2d v f/c^ register « equal » pictures and an integer. the O^ and O^ should is register « opposite » pictures. For v = 0.. and so on.9put at the centre of the disk. being driven by the common resonator/?e. Thus. The commanding signals can be sent from the pole to the shutters by the help of several retranslation stations. e.. one takes our Earth and the equator common resonator at the pole. d and v are given « should register see equal » or and /"changes. the shutters will always be opened and closed together. being reflected by the semitransparent mirror A^„ (M ^). say. « O^ and O^ together maximum light ».). Itt angle 6 almost equal to and the radius of the disk R as a rotating disk is very large. since the distances between the common resonator and the shutters which the electromagnetic signals have to cover are equal (with respect to the disk but also with respect to absolute space !). If now we set the disk in rotation in a clockwise direction. Thus the shutters operate synchronously at rest and when the disk is in motion. then both observers consequently « opposite » pictures.^ Let us suppose first that the disk is at rest and let us denote by d the light path between both shutters..g. An = 1/2 for/ = 5.45 km/s (that is approximately the linear rotational velocity of the Earth's equator) and for /^ low..A/^. one should change the pictures registered by both (placed. the observers O ^ and O^ should if An is equal to an integer plus 1/2.. then O^ will register maximum photonian flux at the condition that = (d/c) f{\ + v/c) is an integer. The chopped on the mirrors A/. or « O^ sees maximum light when O^ sees minimum light ». passes through the shutter 5/j„ iSh^) and.10' Hz. d= 100 km.S^ (or 5n) passes through the semitransparent mirror M ^ (A^b) ^nd through light reflects the high frequency operating shutter Sh^ (SVj. both observers will register maximum (minimum) photon n ^ flux. (27. if This can be practically realized puts the iLsed. while the observer Op will register maximum photonian flux at the condition that «b ~ (^^^')fO ~ w/c) is an the observer If integer. is observed by the observer O (^h). ^0 I 142 . one should have An An = [or f = 10' Hz.
281 143 . it can be carried out by anyone who would take the care to observe whether the interference picture in a Zeemantype implement. again. It Zeeman (1914. 2.„ it and the coupled shutters along a parallel with latitude will be (27. This experiment was performed by Marinov (1978m). four combinations can be realized which we call : the 1.2) An = 2 fi/? df{cos(p„  cos<p) § 28. move together. This experiment was performed first by Marinov (1978m). The ZeemanSagnac experiment. 1915. in which mirrors and medium was performed by Marinov (1978m) and. can easily be seen that the resonator is put on a parallel with latitude <p. the mirrors 3. the linear rotational velocity of the Earth's equator can be the direction It (p and so on. The ZeemanPogany experiment.observers from « equal » to « opposite ». in which the medium is at rest and move. This experiment 4. again to « equal ». 'mmmmf?^ 7777 V////M. as a matter of fact. This experiment was performed first by Fizeau (1851) ( 1 with water and by Michelson and Morley very carefully repeated by solid 886) with a solid medium. in which mirrors and medium are at rest. THE ZEEMAN « MOVING PLATFORM » EXPERIMENT The « moving platform » experiment is considered by us in detail in Marinov (1978m) where we give also an account of three important modifications performed by us. in which the mirrors are at rest and medium moves. moving platform » experiment is an analogue of the « rotating where the motion of the medium or/and the mirrors (the is interferometer) not rotational but inertial. The ZeemanMarinov experiment. Now. in which the mirrors move and a vacuum (air) is taken as a medium. The ZeemanFizeau experiment.^n:w////A Fig. 1922) with liquid was and media. 1920. should change d»iring a day when the absolute velocity of the implement changes as a result of the Earth's rotation. The « disk » experiment. and measured using dependence of light velocity along a if straight line.
16) and (23. 281) The box S contains cing two parallel monochromatic source together with a device producoherent beams — B^ which propagates in vacuum and B„. or both. Then one realizes the four different combinations mentioned above. 281 are at rest. . After travelling a which they are united and their interference observed. We suppose that the motion of the medium.1.= (« 1). to the following ideal arrangement (fig. THE ZEEMANFIZEAU EXPERIMENT In §23 « watertube shall we the formula for the ZeemanFizeau (i.Let us reduce the « moving platform * experiment. (28. the effect to be observed the interference picture will correspond to a time difference in ^ti_f= 144 t  t = —^ c (n' + v^. When mirrors and medium in fig. a photon proceeding the following time along the path B^ (a 5.e. distance L.1) n rv dv the frequency of the light used and ^ the angle between v and the direction of light propagation.. n^ is 1 (28.. a in a which propagates medium with refractive index n. ») we have obtained The velocity of light in a rest. for the experiment [see formula (23.2) c will When 281 itis^ the medium is set in motion the time delay become (for fig. stripped of all fun: damentally irrelevant details.)cos<?. (a fivphoton). First the boxes (also called mirrors) and the medium are at rest and a specific interference picture is observed.4) . For methodological reasons again deduce this formula.. or of the boxes.4)] c^= where v is c  +vi\ ^ . they enter a second box in O 28. proceeds from left to right.3) c Hence. /=—. = ——=— c^ c [ n  1  — c {n'  p — dp  I) cos ^ ] (28.5)].photon) will arrive at box O with delay after a photon proceeding along the parth B. c/n c (28. = 0) /. if measured by an observer at formulas (13. Both boxes are halfway immersed in the medium. is [see medium moving with dn V velocity v. and from the difference in the observed interference pictures conclusions can be drawn about the character of light propagation. for the ZeemanFizeau experiment.\)cose dp .
= ["c^ . c to V (28. (28. = c p dn i^(— n n^ — + I)cos».7) c c Hence.e. THE ZEEMANPOGANY EXPERIMENT The velocity of light in a medium moving with velocity v. 145 . \. 28. (28. . According to the principle of relativity. With the aim of showing that these two experiments are physically different. where the identical effects can be explained only if the formulas used for their calculation are different. and the formulas with which we obtain identical results are different. is [see formula (13. and special The effects in the exactly the same.2 THE ZEEMANMARINOV EXPERIMENT The velocity of light with respect to a and take into measured by an observer who moves with velocity v that rests in absolute space is (use formula (13.3.5) where v is the frequency of the light used light propagation.photon arrives at box O after a 5. 1 + («' + »'. and d and the direction of For n = for vacuum...8) ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiment are however these two experiments physically are not equivalent.9) where is the angle between v and the direction of light propagation.6) a is When ^ the mirrors are set in motion the time delay with which fln.M =  L —v (n' 77 ("' c' + dn p " ^ ~ ZT dp  1) cos ^ . (28. relativity considers the latter only as trivial tautology of the former.28. an observer = — ^ cos ^ . we have performed them in the noninertial variant considered in §28.26) account formula (25.5. 281 it = 0) 'zM= L L L . photon becomes dn dp (for fig. if measured by who moves with the same velocity.28)] c.3)] medium c„. the effect in the interference picture will be observed correspond to a time difference ^^z  M = ^  ^z .l)cos^]. for the ZeemanMarinov experiment. as we do in absolute spacetime theory. i. we obtain c' = c — vcos^ . no physical difference can be made between the ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiments. the angle between v dv is (28.
4.11) 28. the effect be observed in the interference picture will correspond to a time difference ^^zP=^'zp=0. 282 146 . putting n = 1.8). and thus no change can be registered. the time delay will with which a ^.1 1).photon arrives at box O L c after a ^.10) to Hence. = 0) z ._.e.. i.^B3 Fig. for the ZeemanPogany experiment. (28. (28..When 281 itis^ the mirrors are set in motion with the medium. A/. THE ZEEMANSAGNAC EXPERIMENT effect for the The diately ZeemanSagnac experiment can be obtained imme from formula (28.. or from formula (28.S»te..= (28.P L c^  = {nc L \).12) pB.photon be (for fig.S^e2.
VA/ ^i which is placed above SM ^^ and their planes make a right angle.. reflects on mirror A/g. A/.. which was the same as that used in the « rotating disk » experiment (§25). 282.. and A/„ and also A/. reflects successively on mirrors A/. is 2R. illuminates the photoresistor P^. 282. S mirrors the is a light source. The /< "daughterbeam refracted on SM ^2 goes further upwards.A/. A/.and A "daughterbeams (25.... leaving the medium. and ^4.. lets light Sh a shutter which pulses (of a duration is governed by the rotating 10 ' turnabout and ^ s) pass only when the A/.A/. A/. plane of the figure. The A daughterbeam reflected on SM ^2 then reflects on mirror A/ ^2. The between mirror A/. and. the Aon semitransparent mirror ^A/^. THE NONINERTIAL EXPERIMENT « MOVING PLATFORM » The scheme of our setup for the performance of the Zeeman experiments is shown in fig.. Then it reflects on mirror A/g. M. reflects successively on mirrors A/„ A/. and goes upwards. proceeding above the medium.5. Then it reflects on semitransparent mirror SM^2 ^nd' going downwards through the semitransparent mirror 5'A/b.. and point distance between mirrors A/.. in such positions that the real light path (distance multiplied by refractive index) along the contour A/. A/. A/. Taking into account the thickness of the glass plates and their refractive index. Then it splits into two daughter beams at semitransparent mirror . going downwards through the semitransparent mirror 5A/b2 (where it interferes with the /I daughterbeam) and through semi M beam refiects M transparent mirror SM^i.28. 281 can be called the inertial « moving platform » experiment. while the variant shown in fig. M. A/.^. A/.. enters into the medium.7). and. illuminates the photoresistor /*b The angle a between in the the projections of the A '. We call this variant of the Zeeman experiment the noninertial « moving platform » experiment. medium and can be determined from Snell's law 147 .. reflects on mirror A/^a. After reflection on mirrors reason we shall ^ and A/^. A/. we have metallic vessel of the put the mirrors A/. The light beam emitted by S splits at semitransparent mirror this SM into y4beam and fibeam which follow identical paths and for follow only the /Ibeam. Glass windows are placed at points where the light beams must cross the walls.... were immersed in water.. and. Glass windows are placed also in the metallic interfaces which divide the ring into compartments. before the entrance of the A' beam into the after its exit. As a transparent medium we have taken distilled water put in a form shown in fig.A/ should be exactly equal to the light path which is to be covered if mirrors A/. are parallel to the diametrically opposite small sides of medium.
= (3.6 dn/dK =  nm '. velocity of light with respect to a rotating disk is On direction dependent. The error corresponds the to a change in the refractive index with the temperature which was maintained at it T = R = 20" ± 3" C since is dn/dT = 2.I0'm/s. (28.04 rev/s for the ZeemanMarinov experiment. We performed the « moving platform » experiment in its noninertial variant.01 ± ± 0. 1962) n = 1. the other hand.3317 0. since we already know that the experiment.94 ± 0. is The measurement of HarressFizeau and ZeemanMarinov. assuming 8(dn/d\) = ± 0. We with A take (LandoltBornstein.7. ZeemanFizeau experiments 148 a dif . We have not searched for the highest sensitivity by the help of a « tuner ». supposing that the velocity of light an unknown quantity.10 ' 10 * degree '. « rotating disk » aiming to use the setup constructed for our we think that the results of the noninertial variant are more important than the same results which could be obtained with the inertial variant. having N = fi/27r.10'm/s. ^ . which is described in more detail in §23 and §25.2 ^ 2 is cos 6 we obtain. = 50. We had cm. absolute measuring error.0003 for the light 6aj = 632. the identical effects in the §29.p = 50.8 nm of the HeNe laser used.02 maximum In the ZeemanPogany and ZeemanSagnac experiments we registered no perceptible disequilibration of the bridge when rotating the disk. as described in §23. c^_^= where for 8c we have taken the (3. then ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiments can be explained only by our theory which obtains these effects by proceeding from substantially different formulas.14) c.07). From same source 0.4) and (28. Indeed. Let us mention that the measuring procedure in the « rotating disk » experiment (§25) is very similar to that in the noninertial « moving platform » experiment.The photoresistors interfering B and /f P ^ and /*„ which are illuminated uniformly by the daughterbeams are put in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge.80 ± 0. Putting these figures into formulas (28. and we have assumed an average sensitivity 6A= ± ± 10 'A. 0. THE SECONDORDER EFFECTS IN THE « ROTATING DISK» EXPERIMENT the secondorder effects in the HarressMarinov.07). We measured A^^.04 rev/s for the ZeemanFizeau experiment and A^^i^.8) and taking into account that it is we have taken 30.
291 The scheme « rotating disk » rigidly measurement of the second order effects in the experiment is shown in fig. discredit the experiment.e. Mk Thus we can assume that the photons fly along the circumference of a circle put in arm there is a variable resistor. 291. 5 is a light source which is connected with the mirrors. and in our laboratory there are no this performance. secondorder effects are motion between mirrors and meand ZeemanSagnac experiments the and thus only the HarressSagnac and convenient for HarressPogany secondorder experiments are the measurement of in vie effects.. we shall not take into account the dispersion of the medium. is a photoresistor illuminated by one arm of a Wheatstone bridge and in the other We assume that the mirrors A/. we shall suppose dnIdK = 0. is Nevertheless. and cover a path d = lirR.. interfered light. For reason we shall consider the expein the « rotating riment for the measurement of the secondorder effects disk » experiment. M^ . When calculating the effects. A/. 149 .. It is P governed by the rotating disk would. without entering into the details of an eventual practical performance. Fig. such an experiment possibilities for its very delicate. i. as in Marinov (1976b). because the effect to be measured is too for the is small and the use of a shutter which probably. the ZeemanPogany null. are placed near to the rim of the medium's disk and close to each other. since these effects are very faint.ficult problem because there In is a relative dium.
2) c„ 29..12) at the condition e„ = 0.2) riment.S = — ^3 . while the refracted beam (which has the same « radial motion » if the distances from SM to and M.2.A/k clockwise. after refraction on SM. counterclockwise and. on A/h.. after reflection on SM. H ^. The and.A/. Now we shall calculate this time difference for the four different types of the « rotating disk » experiment. THE HARRESSSAGNAC EXPERIMENT For AJ = 1. THE HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENT Using formula (13.2)] c.3) 29.Suppose first that the disk is at rest. illuminates reflected beam reflects on mirror P.23) at the condition ^n = and taking into account that it is [see (4.. (29.1) we to find that the difference in the absolute times its which the refracted beam has will spend covering path in the cases of rest and rotation of the mirrors be A/.e. we obtain from formula A/ H "' . illuminates P.^VO''2^ (29.. i. The refracted beam reflects successively on M. are equal) changes its M time with Ar. by the semitransparent mirror SM into reflected M If we now set the disk in rotation.1. = cL(\ ..V d Id Idv' 150 .. M = c„* I = c„ —— niln' r 1) (29. difference in the absolute times which the refracted covering its path in the cases of rest and rotation of the we find that the beam has to spend medium will be nfiA\ d H ..3. THE HARRESSMARINOV EXPERIMENT Using formula (13.. for the secondorder effect in the HarressSagnac expe(29.. then the reflected beam will not change the time in which it covers its path because it moves only along the radius of the rotating disk. 29... Light emitted by the source S is split and refracted beams.
e. where S2 is in the mirrors are set in motion with a the angular velocity. = 2d = i. we which the refracted beam has to the cases of rest and rotation of mirrors and ^' medium will be A/„ = = ^ 1 + ^ =^n. a light clock represents a light source and a mirror placed in front of it.29.. 29. between which a light pulse goes to and fro. sent a light clock.4.. motion measured absolute time. (29.6) the rest period of our clock..31) at the condition = d = J" 0] _ d d J.... will be [use formula (3.28) at the condition find that the difference in the absolute times spend covering its path in = 6 = and formula (29.4). by the help of a clock which e rests in absolute space. rotational velocity v light clock in When = QR. M . M. also repre Let the time which a light pulse spends covering path d to and fro be T when the mirrors are at rest. the period of our light clock rotating with velocity v in absolute space.32) at the condition = 6=0] Too = ^ d Co + d ^ = 2d c„ =T.. A/^. Thus our mirrors A/..5) This formula for n gives again the secondorder effect (29. Instead of one mirror we can have an arbitrary number.. CONNECTION WITH KINEMATIC TIME DILATION As we have said (§2... by the help of a clock which is attached to the rim of the moving disk.e.8) c Thus. (29. Thus T= c is (29.3) in the HarressSagnac experiment.. THE HARRESSPOGANY EXPERIMENT Using formula (1 3. will be [use formula (3. the period of the i. It is of importance only that a light pulse which leaves a given point returns to it and repeats this cycle uninterruptedly..1 and §2. A/.. as well as the period of any light clock proceeding as a whole with 151 .1). T (29 7) while the same period measured in proper time.5.
to A/k and from A/^ to A/. can be measured. the time unit for any observer is delight clock which has the same « arm » for all When the « arm is » is </ = 150.1. and A/^. ( Landau and ( Lifshitz. by which the rhythm of any periodical process decreases. then. According to Einstein's theory of general relativity (see. If the observer at rest in absolute space. 152 . if the corresponding system is set in motion with velocity v. is Any proper second larger than the absolute second and the relation are given in the light 7" and T„ same time. If we should compare the period of the light clock considered with the periodical process of a system which constantly moves with the same velocity as the light clock. We from A/. then no change can be registered. where the durations of periodical process of a system which at rest in absolute space (in general. The secondorder effects in the HarressSagnac experiment have been also an experiment for their . where the period of the moving light clock is given in proper time and the period of the same clock at rest in absolute time. his is second is called proper. this radar pulse can be again received after having covered a closed path round the Earth and the time of delay can be measured with a high precision. as follows from formula (29.7).000 km. Burcev's proposal consists of the following Let us have a number round (^3) of artificial satellites moving along v. 1959). then the trajectory of the all radar wave can be assumed as circular and the gravitational potentials at points crossed by the can treat Burcev's proposal by the help of our figure 29. assuming that clock C (an atomic clock) is attached to the mirrors M. If the observer moves with a certain velocity in absolute space. to termined by the period of a our tenth axiom.8). the same circular trajectory the Earth with a certain velocity satellites. kinematic time dilation (§11. respectively. If we suppose that the satellites are placed close enough to each other. so that the time in which a light pulse covers the path wave as equal.7). Thus the change in the duration of the period of a clock when in motion can be established by comparing its period with a is given by formula (29. this time. We have called this According observers. according to formula (29.7). If a radar pulse is emitted from one of the by means of reflections in the other satellites.velocity v^ becomes longer according efTect the absolute to formula (29. one that does not change its velocity when the light clock under investigation changes its velocity). his second called absolute. for the « direct » is + ) and « opposite » —) pulses. this time unit is called a is second. All these assertions of our absolute spacetime theory can be verified experimentally if one measures the secondorder effects in the HarressSagnac experiment. This is due to the absolute time dilation. for example. treated by Burcev (1974) who proposed measu rement.1).
292 OJ 0.32)] to our absolute spacetime theory time is [use formula t.8 v/c 153 . ^o = d = / ( I ± v/c) (29. it will be (use formula (3..= t. t = d/c = ImRIc th? time registered on the same clock if the disk is According to the traditional Newtonian aether theory this time is '^ ° TV^ this <29.12) Fig.1 tr = is ± v/c ' t (1  7l^l\\/l v'/c') (29.9) where at rest.11) If this time is measured on a clock resting in absolute space.I0) According (3.31)] (29.
9). obvious our formula will correspond to physical §30. which secondorder in v/c effects have been observed. the problem arises about the time is solved by us and experimentally) with the help of a rotating rigid shaft. is no need it is to perform this costly experiment. when it passes near to the clock C which is at rest. However.When we try to measure the absolute time intervals /. Positive ions are experiment in a simplified version is shown in fig. E E' Fig.by the help of a clock which rests in absolute space. ).5) was performed first by Ives and Stilwell (1938) who used light emitted by the moving ions in a canal ray tube. since. 30. emitted by Af. synchronization of spatially separated clocks. 10) and (29. 154 . 301 301. and we have called this the « canal ray » experiment. 292 we give the graphs of the relation 1 1 ('*'/( versus v/c drawn according to formulas (29. THE LIGHT DOPPLEREFFECT EXPERIMENTS shall discuss certain light Dopplereffect experiments. that there light reality. produced in a hydrogen arc between the heater H and the perforated electrodes E and E' Between E and E' the ions are accelerated The scheme of their . will arrive at M^ when M^ passes (after one or more revolutions) near to C. This problem (theoretically i'. in the « rotating disk » experiment the problem about the time synchronization of spatially separated clocks can be eliminated if we choose an appropriate rotational velocity so that the light pulse. consiin Now we dered in Marinov (1978e). however.1. Thus an experiment as that proposed by Burcev can choose between these three rival theories. (29. In fig. in the of the present book. We think. THE IVESSTILWELL LONGITUDINAL EXPERIMENT The experimental « CANAL RAY » verification of the secondorder terms in formula (10.
the frequencies) of the photons. The photons emitted by the excited ions. a spectroscope the refractive prism used of which the screen D. with velocity Thus three groups of photons will flow to the screen v : a) Photons with frequency emitted by the ions at rest. 30..5).2) 2 which was experimentally verified by Ives and Stilwell. first From 302 and from the fall formula (10.field.5) we obtain that on the indicator photons will with frequency 155 . To analyse the energies is (i. = 6 = 0. P and The mirror from it M will reflect. According to formula (10.we obtain (30. they will illuminate the zero point Z. passing through the large slit Q. c) Photons with frequency p shifted to the « red end » which are emitthey will illumi ted by the moving ions and then reflected by the mirror M. r 1 l^ (30. they will illuminate point B. the light emitted by the ions which move away v.. slit Q. L^. we show the focusing lenses L.2. fig. thus forming the beam S that represents the moving These ions proceed with a constant velocity v which depends on the voltage applied between E and £". duction and acceleration of the ions as in 301. scheme shown is in fig. illuminate the narrow slit O an indicator that gives indication only when photons are incident with frequency p equal to the frequency emitted by the ions used the excited ions. 1978e). rest. passing through the large behind which there is when they are at fig. THE TRANSVERSE The transverse « Its « CANAL RAY » is » EXPERIMENT The system for proThe photons emitted by canal ray experiment was proposed by Marinov (1970.1) p =p(l± + ). 302. before being accelarated by the electrodes. illuminate the narrow slit O which represents by an electric source. under the condition V c 6'. 1972a. b) Photons with frequency i>' shifted to the « blue end » which are emitted by the moving ions. nate point R. the observer at rest.e. 1 v^ 2 c^ Thus frequency the middle of these p two frequencies will be shifted from the over a frequency interval ^P= P*^ —^ i P 2 p= P.
The scheme of the socalled « rotor » experiment performed first by Hay where the Mossbauer effect is used.4) : Hence the experiment is to be performed as follows For any voltage applied to the electrodes.3) 2c' Fig.(I . THE HAY 30. (1960). position of slit at i. the locus must be a strainght line dividing the quadrant.3. If we choose a *€: 0. (30. is as follows (fig. then on the indicator photons with frequency v will fall only at the condition e = \//2c . 303) : 156 I .. « ROTOR » EXPERIMENT et al. for any velocity v of the ions. we search for a Q which the indicator will show availability of photons with frequence v. 302 where d line is the angle between the perpendicular ON to the ions' beam and the is OC connecting slit O with the centre of slit Q: a the angle under which slit Q is seen from point O.v'/cy^ 2 2 = 1 + cos(.e. Then the theory is to be proved by plotting 2dc versus v.+ ^±) c p[\+ie±) c 2 V a (30.
A thin "Fe absorber. Since the line shape of the absorber at rest was known experimentally. This transmission was found to increase as the angular velocity the observer. and it was found to agree with the frequency shift calculated according to formula (10. representing the source. we obtain the relation /?„ cos d„ = — R cos d' . «^„ = fi /?n (30. /?.6) 157 . 303 A radioactive "Co. From the triangles OPC and S'PC in fig.. was put on a rotating disk at a distance R from the centre of rotation C. (30.5) Now substituting V = ^R. A detector D at rest was used to measure the rate of the yphotons emitted by the source passing through the absorber. magnitude of the frequency could be estimated.17). The transmission of the absorber was measured for various angular velocities. representing distance was put around the circumference of the rotating disk at a from the centre of rotation. the Let us 303 make the calculation.v//y/////A D Fig. indicating a shift in the characteristic frequency of the absorber. increased.
4. to a certain extent.7) is valid for any position of source and observer on the circumferences with radii R and R„. Fig.7) v'/c' which was verified experimentally. 30. 304) when the centre of the rotor considered above (which we shall call the small rotor) rotates at angular velocity S2 and linear velocity v„ with respect to some centre. carried Champeney e( al. thus making another rotor 158 . shall consider the « rotorrotor » Marinov (1978e) and. into the first formula (10. we V„ obtain the relation = 1 V ( 1  i/Vc' ) (30. THE « ROTORROTOR » EXPERIMENT experiment proposed by us out by in Now we (1963).17) and keeping in mind (30. We emphasize that formula (30.5). 304 It can be realized (fig.where S2 is the angular velocity of rotation.
and v is denoted by ^.13) V V and from here we get v'' = vl + v\ + 2 v„ V. c ft (30. we obtain "0= "(1. fig. cos (jp (30. the figure we further obtain .which we call the big rotor. » v^.cos<p .a4^COS^)2c^ c^ R (30»5> 159 . We have from ^' fig. The linear velocity of rotation of the source is denoted by v. . cosi// = u.14) Using the last four formulas in the first formula (10.9) and taking into account that a and quantities. The radii of the small and big rotors are denoted by r and R. + v„ (30.8) The angle between v. 1 1) cos 6„ = — sin <jp cos (a /8) + cos <jp sin (a + ^) = (30..^.12) = — From smopJ ^ — — c R ^o ( r + cos qp) cos (p .9) where ''"' c R cos q>. The small angle between the observer's radii at the emission and reception moments is denoted by a and the small angle under which the is denoted by emission and reception positions of the observer are seen from the emission position of the source is denoted by ^. ^=^+^_«_^. The angular velocity of rotation of the small rotor about its own centre is denoted by to. sini// = ^sinip .17) and working the following relation within an accuracy of second order in 1/c.10) Putting (30. 304 (see also 102) = ZL_^. 10) into (30. Thus it will be V = V. are small we can \// write )S cos B' = sin cos  cos »/' sin ^ = » sin x//  — c v„ cos (p cos \// (30. The angle between /? and r (p.. (30. 13= (30. and its absolute velocity by v. We shall suppose that the source is placed at the tip of the small rotor and the observer is at its centre.
if we suppose shows that with the help of the « rotor » v.8 m/s. velocity). that formula (30. It is clear that this conclusion is untenable. S2 COSqp).10 rad/s (the Earth's diurnal angular velocity).10' rad/s (the rotor'^ angular = 310 m/s. then celestial (fi/a5) v„ = 3. or about the galactic centre). since. using the « rotor ». and this result was treated as a new and better verification of the Einstein principle of however. or (//) (/) about two about the same : 160 .. Now we shall show tally to a certain extent.15. When we if fi analyse Champe^ ney 's experiment with our formula.17) is already checked experimen Indeed.„ Newton theory.17) This formula can be ptoved by the experiment.16) we can write (30. This effect in is lower than the accuracy of Champeney's experiment by six orders. THE SANTOS EXPERIMENT In the « rotor » experiment there is no relative motion between source and observer. then we see that to = 1.15) in the form . without the factor relativity (with respect to the accuracy of the historical MichelsonMorley experiment). Since all Nature !) motions of the establish bodies are rotational.If we take into account that it is (30. then formula (30. the « rotorrotor » experiment.10 * m/s. if a rotor moves with then the effect is to be described by formula (30.1. about the primary.5. so that the disks lie in the same plane.. (1963) tried to register experiment.17) which must be written. The aim of Champeney el al. Santos (1976) proposed the following experiment : Let us have two disks rotating in opposite directions parallel axes.„ = ^(1   vl  — V. v„ = 1. fi/to. 30. (30. according to the traditional the absolute translational velocity i^.. 17) experiment one cannot measure the fl absolute translational velocity absolute effects in the « rotor » Champeney et al.e. then (at least theoretically we can any such motion. i. v.6 ± 2. was tp measure the Earth's rotational velocity (which is 3 10 m/s on the 45" parallel). With the aim of realizing a transverse Dopplereffect experiment where source and observer have to move with respect to one another. <^ co. The experiment has shown that v„ must be less than 1.15. where the big rotor represents the rotation of the celestial body (about its rotational axis.
A yray emitter is placed at the their velocities are rim of one disk and a yray absorber at the rim of the other. As we showed Indeed. when performing experiment we have to put between the rota d and aperture b. and we have Co = c (1 + Iv^lc^). in Santos' experiment the shielding plays a very shielding is important tory. putting mil. (30. we obtain (30.axis. (30. we obtain b < 10^ cm. Thus the requirement bid < vie is to be satisfied. Obviously. Santos' experiment cannot be practically realized. if this at rest in the labora being perpendicular to the trajectories of emitter and absorber. Assume. such an experiment cannot be practically realized. in Marinov (1977a). there will be an shall antetraverse Doppler effect. J = 10 cm. As already analysed.19) Putting this into formula (10. there will be a posttraverse Doppler effect. for simplicity's sake. Supposing v — 300 m/s. that. The there Q' result ofthis = 7r/2. Within an accuracy of second order in vie we obtain v^ = = v\\ v. Co and we shall have = '' ( 1 — 2vVc'). the linear rotational velocity of each being v. If the shielding is attached to the emitter.17) and assuming = v. 18) and for v It is = v„ we get p„ instructive to note that in the Santos experiment the result is the same for antiparallel and parallel directions of the velocities. their relative velocity will At the moment when be Iv.17). 102) $' = ttII ± bid. so that the disks lie in two parallel planes. then for the different emitting and receiving atoms we shall have (see ting disks a shielding with length fig. antiparallel. e„ = TTll ± v„ bid. because of the inevitable appearance this of firstorder in vie effects. Q„ = experiment can be found from formula (10. when proceeding from the Einstein theory of rela  experiment has to give a positive effect Av = Ivv^lc^. his = i>„  p = ± vvblcd. the trajectories of emitter and absorber are rectilinear and the shielding exactly perpendicular to thenvSince the emitter and absorber are not point objects. It is worth noting that role. If the shielding is attached to the absorber.  {y^  vl)l2 c' ] . 161 .20) Av Santos predicts tivity. the experiment gives a null (traverse) effect.
For the produced standing wave we obtain electric E = Suppose now E+ E we set =2 £^3.or secondorder differences in the pattern will be registered. (31. Instead of w and k in formula (3 have to write the quantities [see formulas (10. THE QUASIWIENER « « STANDING WAVES » EXPERIMENT The standing waves » experiment. the subscript « „ ». (31.. i. represents a modification of the historical which Wiener measured the length of Its waves in the Wiener experiment with most direct manner. the electric intensities of the incident and by the mirror light waves will be E* = £^„. x is the distance from the frame's origin where at the initial zero moment the electric intensities of the incident ( + ) and reflected ( — ) waves are equal to zero.§31.19) and (10. (31.3) and for the electric intensity of the produced standing wave we obtain E= E* + E = 2E„^. essence is as follows : Let a light source and an ideal mirror be placed on the jcaxis of a given frame K. sin (w/ £„„. t is the time registered on a clock attached to the frame. where E„^^ is the amplitude of the electric intensity. in moving frame K so that v becomes parallel to the xaxis).1) E = sm (o)/  kx) . for brevity's sake. and no first. reflected If this frame is at rest in absolute space (or its absolute velocity is perpendicular to the xaxis). omitting in the last case.e. The unique difference 162 is : When the laboratory is at rest in absolute space (or its velocity is . The incident intensity of the and reflected light waves will interfere.4) Hence the distances between the nodes of the standing waves in the cases where the Wiener experiment is performed at rest and in motion with respect to absolute space will be exactly the same. k„ = — = k {\ ± v/c).sin[u(i + ^— )]cos(kx).21)] parallel to the xaxis (or that we rotate the velocity 1 1 ) we now co„ = <o. + kx) . considered in detail in Marinov light (I978o). on an absolute clock if frame K is at rest or on a proper clock if it moves with velocity v.2) that K in motion with velocity v directed its . sin (w/) cos (kx) frame (3 1 . to ( = lnv) is the circular frequency and k(= IttIc) is the circular wave number.
The unique interferometric experiment in which firstorder in v/c effects have been observed 163 optical experiments with whose help an . We must point out that the historical MichelsonMorley experiment shows immediately that the quasiWiener experiment cannot reveal any secondorder in v/c effect. this should signify that different numbers of wavelengths are to be placed in the MichelsonMorley experiment between the semitransparent mirror and the two mirrors placed at equal distance from it in parallel and perpendicular directions to the absolute motion. a single light aether was always used in all » was searched for. § 32. Indeed. THE « COHERENT LASERS » EXPERIMENT by lasers is As is well known. parallel to the direction of light E obtains moments.perpendicular to the direction of light propagation).4) obtains maximum at the antinodes with coordinates near to x while for this = 2m { + to I 0. for . V 77 c' (31. where n is is an integer) same moment. For this reason. those performed with inertially moving implements). light beams had to cover the paths « thereandback » and the firstorder in v/c effects always vanished in the final result (as we have shown several times in this book.. the coherence of light emitted much higher than the coherence of light emitted by other sources. while that of other light sources is only centimeters. after having covered slightly source « different light paths. (31.6) is the unique effect which sceptical offered by the quasiWiener experi ment and we are about its experimental verification. at all £ obtains at the its maximum antinodes (i.. The inevitable result was that in all « inertial » wind experiments (i.t)V is . and when the velocity of the laboratory propagation.x: = nir/k. The coherent length of a laser beam can be hundreds of kilometers. if the standing waves have different lengths (within terms of second order in v/c) in cases where the pattern is parallel and perpendicular to the absolute velocity.e.e. no secondorder effects can appear either). light emitted by two different lasers can interfere in the same manner as light emitted by a single source and split into two beams interferes if the two beams meet. Before the invention of the laser. For a given maximum moment the its / at the different antinodes at different its electric intensity in (31.5) 2 moment / it is zero at the antinodes with coordinates near to X This = {to .
proceeding from L^(Lg) interferes with the reflected The refracted beam beam proceeding from opposite » (« direct ») Lr (La)' ^^^^^ the latter has covered distance d in « direction and after being reflected {SM ^). The photodetector D^ by the semitransparent mirror SM\ (Dp) indicates the result of the interference. 164 . 321 Light emitted from laser L^ (or Lg) is f^ partly refiected and partly refracted by the semitransparent mirror SM {SM'^).(excluding our experimental activity !) represents the « rotating disk » expeinertially « riment where the implement cover closed paths between « « moving splitting » and is not and the ». Fig. THE INERTIAL The scheme of the « « COHERENT LASERS » » EXPERIMENT if coherent lasers inertial) is experiment (which. we shall assume that the semitransparent SM ^ and SM\ (SM ^ and SM'^ lie at the same point (see fig. /^ direct SM. mirrors Let us suppose point first that the implement is at rest in absolute space.1. analysed in detail in Carnahan (1962) who propoMarinov ( 1978p). sed the « coherent lasers » experiment. For the sake of simplicity. 321) opposite SM. light beams meeting propagating only there ». However. performed in a laboratory. Let at the instantaneous electric intensities of the light beams produced by L^ A and by L ^ at point B be. SM. SM. will be called as follows (fig. 32. This was and also described below. 322) which we shall call point A (B). respectively. light. if we have two different light sources which produce coherent then firstorder in vie experiments can be set up also on inertially the intention of moving implements.
and we have assumed that the amplitudes £^«. 322 If mixing. writing by / the A (point B) after the mixing in this case. in both beams are equal. (A^„) is the observed wavelength of the « opposite » (« direct ») beam. If we wish to find the electric to add £a and ^B' taking for the latter an additional phase shift lnd/X ^^(taking for the former an additional phase shift lird/X^J.^A = where ^na" sin (w^/ + a^) £b = ^m sin (tOg/ + a^) (32.2) are the angular frequencies (0 < Aw <^ to). Thus. a a.. taking for the latter an additional phase former an additional phase in shift lnd/X^ (taking for the shift lird/X/^).1) Wa = w + AcO ^ 2 TT f 2 77 C 2 77 C 2 T 77 C \ 2 + aT — 2 (32. Aa' '^b ^r^ ^he wavelengths. Fig. we wish to find the electric intensities at point A (or point B) after the we have to add E^Sind E^. where Ag. Let us now set the implement motion with velocity v which makes an its angle 9 with the intensity at point « direct » direction of axis. ag are the initial phases. we have 165 .
i / £^a..ttg  Aui y ) (1  V — cos ^) ^ ^ ] ) = = 2 £„a. (1 cosfpg).«. (/„ are proportional to the £i.a^^ y(t^ + {^ d Aw 2 ) (1 + v^ cos ^) ] } .subscript proper time of a clock attached to the implement (for brevity we omit the « . sm(a)^/ + « + a^+ iTTd ^ ) A Ao — + £...5) ^—COsMy 1. (32.^cos'i.„. (see ( 10. . sin((o^/ + a^) + 1 £„„. sinCw^/ lird = + a^+ ) "a — = 2£„.)b. 19) and ( 10. c Aw . 166 . Designate by t/^.4) Let the photodetectors transform the incident light intensity into electric tension which we lead to a point (call it point Q in the A and B. respectively..2 1 )] = £„„.<Pa)y <]pj= 2 (. (1 + + cos<p^).cos( y ( y ) (1 + V — cos ^) ) } = = 2 £„„ cos y <)p b) sin (w/ + )8 g) (32. we shall obtain for the electric intensities at points A and B.sin{ 2 1 1 [2wr + a^+ a3+ (w + A B ^ [Aw/ + a^.»).sin{ y (2(or » a^+ a.„«. variable amplitudes of (£^ + E^)^aind{E^ + we can U^= t/B= U^. Since U ^. Up^ the electric tensions middle between points on the outputs of the squares of the write detectors D^.cos ( — 1 [ Aw/ + a^.+ (" d — (w d Aco  )(\  V  cos9)]} .1 y <Pb) = t/„. cos ( — <p ^) sin (w/ + (32. sm (Wg/ + a^) = = 2£„.. Dp.3) fi^) and = r^.
.
we obtain argument of the resultant electric tension a' . with the real : along the « direct » direction.10). Df^. let us measure some phase a ofthe electric tension (t/^ + (/b)c. Let us then set the implement in motion with a certain velocity v Thus.a = mil. the initial phases of the lasers are unknown.8) are fulfilled. condition (32. 322) Let us measure the Let the first implement from fig. as lasers can be seen immediately from source 5" 322 if both A/g.8) be fulfilled.4). while there a unique light source in the former. THE « COHERENT LASERS ON A ROTATING DISK EXPERIMENT » to « To show more clearly why the inertial « coherent lasers » experiment is be explained in the manner presented in §32.<Pb) = —<^^ 2d (32.10) Taking oi/lrr = a phase shift in the 5. (/g mount in rotation in a V. v = 45 m/s = 162 km/h. 322 almost equal to the « Itt and the source » 5" is very near to the rim of the disk.3).Ifweknowa^. « and U^ will obtain additional phase shifts [see (32. 10'^ Hz. Thus if we should make angle d in fig.1. 321 on a rotating disk and on the outputs of the detectors D ^.d= m. If the disk is first at rest and then set the electric tensions (/^.a = d — oi\/.<Pa) + (<p'b.aB. This » U^ coherent lasers on a rotating disk experiment light is analogical to the « rotafig.« coherent lasers » experiment.9) in the to the following change sum of the phase shifts of the electric tensions U^ and U^ (<P'a. 1978p) whose is essence as follows (fig.5)) whose sum is given by formula (32. we can calculate v cos^. we can measure only a change in the velocity of the implement. However. clockwise direction with a linear rotational velocity of its rim then the arguments of formulas (32. 1 ^11. ting disk » experiment. it will be a which corresponds . we shall consider the coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment (Marinov. » The substantial difference between the « rotating disk experiment and in the fact that is the « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment consists there are (n'o sources emitting coherent light in the latter. If the new phase which we should measure is a . The experiment is to be performed as follows Assuming that the conditions (32. (32. should be replaced by a unique and the mirrors A/^. c' (32. then rotating disk time lags which should appear along path 168 experiment cannot give any positive effect because the d will be compensated by the .
to perform it under this condition one must have two lasers whose frequencies can differ from one another and vary with [see (32. the velocity any time interval / will be v = ut.IO rad/s for any of the lasers. i.e. as we shall show.9)] ^ 8i^< ^^^^ . a^ ttgl — A<o = 27r«. 1 1 ' « coherent lasers » experiment from a slightly which will show that it is not necessary to spend time and effort in its performance because. while (assuming co = tt. However.. At the condition (32. Choosing a' — a = irll rad. we obtain Sco < (7r/2)IO rad/s.11) where / is the time of measurement in which the velocity of the implement changes from to v. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE « COHERENT LASERS AND LIGHT DOPPLEREFFECT EXPERIMENTS » As technology cannot yet produce a laser with a high enough frequency stability [Letohov and Chebotaev (1974) have achieved stability 6w/(o = 10 '* for 100 seconds]. it has already been carried out in a very similar arrangement and has given the result predicted by us. (32. d^nX. Let us now analyse the different point of view If after we move the implement with a constant acceleration w.3. Putting this into (32. that to obtain a positive effect in the « rotating disk » expe6. M Remember §26). 322) give the result (32. riment at any angle the source must be placed at the centre of rotation (see 32. the difference in the initial phases of both lasers cannot change because both lasers move all the time opposite time lags which will appear along the paths from with the same absolute velocity. when setting the disk in rotation. Indeed.10) because both coherent light sources are here spatially separated and. the « coherent lasers » experiment cannot be performed under the condition Ato 0.6) and assuming ^ = 0.cos'[y (Aco » tt)/]. when « switching on the aether wind ». (32. / = 100s.13) 169 ..S to ^ and A/g. the measuring error could be at most as large as the effect to be measured. (32.IO'^ rad/s) the frequency instablility mentioned above leads to 5co = tt. ).12) we obtain (^A+ ^b)c = 2(/„. the « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment will always (at any angle 6 in fig.
. Since the emitter (say. Taking the data given after formula (32. the acceleration is along the axis of the implemenet). // = to 45 cm/s'. since it must be 5to < S2. mirror SM'q and the receiver (mirror SM\) move with acceleration. repetition of The « essence » of Bommel's is experiment and of our accelerated coherent lasers in fig. we il = (7r/2)IO ' to. have conclude that also accelerated « coherent lasers » experiment cannot be performed at the present state of technique.14) represents some additional frequency increase. however.e.. is frequency Aco be registered. i. a' — a which is equal to the product of the frequency shift accelerated motion. when accelerating the implement. 321) experiment the same. this rad/s. Hence. there is no need to perform it because this would be only a Bommel's (1962) experiment where the frequency change was established by using the Mossbauer effect and by accelerating a (32. Doppler effect. However. electric tension Thus. the frequency received will differ from the emitted one. such large accelerations cannot be realized with lasers. as there is a certain time during which light has to then. then light velocity will be different for different velocities of the implement (with respect to the implement) because the frequency received remains unchanged. we obtain can now have to different frequencies to^. Indeed.. as a result of the d. phenomenon many years before experimental The to analysis of the « coherent lasers » experiment given here allows one understand that when the emitter and receiver move with acceleration. Thus the number of light 170 . the frequency of the resultant should increase (we repeat. Einstein (191 pointed to simple and clear physical confirmation. cover distance the velocity of the receiver at the reception moment 1) its different (higher for u pointing along the emitterreceiver line) velocity of the emitter at the emission will be from the this moment.14) gamma emitter and absorber with u = 10* m/s'.where „ il = d — uiu (32.10) and t = l(X)s. The accuracy of the Mossbauer effect {8u}/u) = 10'^) is not higher than that of lasers. as the velocity of light is the product of frequency and wavelength. Hence the lasers and a change in the « beat » Nevertheless. then the shift in the received frequency leads to an additional phase shift fi and the time /of waves (wavelengths) placed along the distance between emitter and receiver changes (the number increases for c T T u and decreases for c T 1 u).
THE « WIRED PHOTOCELLS*. 33. this paper here. 331) p? . : if performed in a laboratory.1. EXPERIMENT » wired photocells is experiment (which. performed first considered by us in detail in Marinov (1978q).. EXPERIMENT » The is « wired photocells experiment. We review by Godart (1974). is called inertial) as folows (fig.§33. THE INERTIAL The essence of the « « WIRED PHOTOCELLS.
P] whose axis is equal to V. a. 33. in fig. where J the current will produced by them in the case through the galvanometer. (33. Indeed. (i.3) However. = r(I  v/c). 33. from the aether conception for photocells will be 7. I = P 47rrf = P Anr'il + v/cy / = 4 P tt r] = Att r' {\ P  . THE* AETHER WIND* EFFECT Fig. propagation.4) v/c 172 . = \ _^ = + v/c ^ Airr'iX \ v/cf . b) For the case in fig. Let us rotate the axis of the implement so that the absolute velocity of the laboratory will be pointing from P.2. J. (for simplicity 33.= ' '>\ '  ' 4nr'{\v/cy (33... (33. r.33. we also have to take into account that cell P. and the difference in current Ay flow now the « effective » distances of the photocells the distances between the emission position of the source from the source and the reception positions of the cells) will be r. light to P^ (fig. Thus the currents produced by the = J — Ay/2.^ = J + Ay/2. when the light source will at the middle position between the photocells P^ and P^ no current through the galvanometer. 33.2) where P is the energy flux radiated by the whole light source we suppose the source as a point and the radiation isotropic).lb . Thus the actual energy flux densities will be unit of time . Now. will collect in a all photons in a cylinder (suppose the photocells circular) whose axis is equal to c minus the photons in the cylinder P.lb). proceeding we conclude that in a unit is of time more photons will strike P^.la and P^ will be : For the case / = r^ .1) where r is the actual distance.la demonstrates the case where the absolute velocity «/ of the flow laboratory is is perpendicular to the axis of the apparatus.e. = r(I + v/c). v/c)' (33. . Hence a) the energy flux density over P. while the cell P^ will collect in a unit of time all photons in a cylinder whose axis is equal to c plus the photons in the cylinder P^P'^ whose axis is equal to v.
for the case b. and P. we have thus established that the fluctuation shift was lower than 10 component of the Earth's absolute velocity in the plane of rotation of the implement must be less than km/s (we performed the experiment during different hours of the day)./c.10) our realization of the wired photocells ' » i/ experiment.1 1) 173 .^ have velocity [see formula = c (33.4).=kl. order in v/c ^= In y. if these velocities are shall measured on a proper Thus we have /.9) = kL = we kP 4 7rr'(l  v/cf (1 .. the effect Ay = y.Indeed. = . we shall have : a) For the case in fig. taking into account the result of our interferometric « coupledmirrors » experiment (§ 19. we have to conclude A I that the « wired photocells » experiment gives a negative (null) result. (33.. (33.3).2).= 4 J. the photons which strike (3. Since the electric currents produced by the photocells are proportional energy flux densities.v/cy first For their difference obtain within an accuracy of y.: /*.'„ = /.10" = km/s. However. 33.e.lb J.5) for the case a and.. = 47 — c ..r'(l J v/cy (1 + + v/cy J ' (33.. >. (33.— — 1 ^ . = /.6) v/c clock. I it was J = 5. Since the and thus it had to be Ay = 10 A for A./f . « =67— c ' . Let us note that if we take into account only the effect described by formula (33. velocities c'n= . kP 77. 77' r^ b) For the case in 33. respectively. /.la J = kl = where /c is k P . fig.7) and from the to the last three formulas we obtain (33.—^ + v/c 1 .8) 4 a constant.7c.„/c..  y. (33. i.: (33.32)] c.
of the light source to the photocell P. We assume that the same effect must exist also when the radiant is a macroscopic light source and we have confirmed this assumption with the help of the « wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment (see §33.2 « have proved our theoretical prediction about the mutual annihilaand §33.5 mm. and P2 are given « : aether wind » a) For the case shown For the case shown a by the formula (33. Since in the treatment is phenomenon a heavier mathematical apparatus needed.9) and (33. taking into account the relativistic distribution in the radiation flux moving light source. We following 332) : 174 . THE EFFECT OF RELATIVISTIC DISTRIBUTION IN THE RADIATION We explain the negative (null) result in the « wired photocells » experi ment. in the i. 33 lb by the following formulas /. 7Tr'(lv/cy Anr'il + (33. 331 and opposite to the /*. = 4 P .11) is to be the same as the effect provoked by a shift of the light source over a distance Ar = {v/c)r = 0. Such a shift of the electric bulb has provoked an electric current AJ of about 2.3 by the help of the wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment whose scheme is the (fig.12)].2). b) J in fig.4). we obtain that for such a wind » effect described by formula (33.12) v/cy Thus.3. as a result of these two effects (compare formulas (33. THE « WIRED PHOTOCELLS ON A ROTATING DISK EXPERIMENT • tion of the absolute effects described in §33.then it will be the same as the effect obtained by a into account that shift r.4. Our theoretical analysis (Marinov.. radiation is exactly equal the energy flux densities over in fig.e. 33. no positive absolute effect can be observed in the « wired photocells » experiment. over a (i^/c)th part of the distance Assuming v = 300 km/s we had r = 500 mm. Such an effect has already been observed in betatrons and synchrotrons where the radiants are elementary particles. 10 'A. density of a rapidly The theory of macroscopic of this the is relativistic distribution in the radiation of a shall light source given in Marinov (I978q). we merely direct the interested reader to our original publication. and taking velocity the « aether 33. = P . I978q) shows that the effect of the relativistic distribution effect.
All other details are as in the « wired photocells » experiment. taking into account that now AJ = J.13) b) Cells moving. can be slits bout which rotates clockwise. one J. v the component of the velocity of the source or the cells or both along the line of light propagation.12). and T. . P..1 c) — does not cells exist. we can assume that this is the velocity of a point on the rotating disk whose radius R is equal to the distance from the centre of rotation to the centre of the light source.. In such a case one registers only the in the radiation described by formulas and for the relative change of the difference in current we obtain [cf.14) see since now the « aether 1) wind » effect described by formulas (33.3) formula (33.9) and (33. supposing that the slits are narrow enough. /*.Fig. > 0) Ay — y = 2 V — c (33. with (33. cells at rest. 332 The source S and/or the photocells T.4) and (33. 175 . moving. source at « rest. are two mounted on a turnawhich are always at rest.J^ > 0] effect of relativistic distribution (33. In such a case the effects described by formulas (33. Thus. Ay 1 =^7 In such a case V (33..10). and for the relative in change of the difference current Ay we obtain (Ay = — y. registers only the aether wind » effect described by formulas (33.12) appear together and one registers no change in the difference in current when changing the velocity of rotation. We have performed a) this experiment in three variants : Source moving. Source and In all formulas relevant to the is « wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment.7).
rest. At low rotational velocities the current 7 was periodically (with the period of rotation) increasing (when the cells were illuminated) and decreasing. which can be considered as a galvanometer) whose fluctuation corresponded to 57 = ± 3.5. The distance of the lamp from the centre of rotation (measuring from the centre of the lamp's windows) was R = 79.6 ± 0. (case b). a slight « singlesinusoidal » difference in current Ay was also observed. equal to 6.00 rev/s — by a corresponding shift of the cells (case a) or of the lamp c.. For case AJ was made equal to zero when lamp and cells were at 36 Nrey/s Fig. so we did not register a substantional In our realization. 10 the rate of rotation. sed in mercury at the centre of the disk. and at rotation of the The difference in current AJ was fed to a directcurrent electronic amplifier with a low resistance input (i. ' — A^ = 6. difference in the fluctuation of the galvanometer at rest disk. 333 176 .we used a stabilized gas discharge lamp as a light The conductors from the lamp and from the photocells were immersource. At a rate of rotation higher than 5 rev/s the ^ A and did not change with the increase of For low rotational velocities.e.2 cm and the distance of the cells about 98 cm.3. The rate of rotation A^ was measured by a light stroboscopic cyclometer and maintained automatically with a precision 6A^/A^ = ± 2.10 '' A (at maximum rotational velocities).10 V We made the difference in this corresponded to a rotational rate current to be zero for v/c = 10 current was stable.
25 %.2 account the errors introduced by the inaccuracy SR 0. error cm. The errors introduced we do not take into 0. Thus electromagnetic experiments can be set up to help register the absolute velocity of the laboratory. For which could be discerned from obvious that our working formulas were not (33.14) but Ay = 6( V 10 c '). 10 ' in case a) minimum relative is ± \J%. by the inaccuracy relative error is 8N are ± too small to be discussed. It is b.15) we give only the fluctuation errors.In fig. while the fluctuation (for v/c = ± = 6.13) and (33. THE « CAULDRON » EXPERIMENT We have proposed the « cauldron » experiment in Marinov ( 1978r) with aim of showing not only that light propagation phenomena are absolute but also all electromagnetic phenomena. Also. 333 we give the results of our measurements for cases a and was registered case c no difference in current the fluctuation. the The essence of the « cauldron » experiment is as follows (fig. because its due to the §34. 7 = 2(c 10 (33. 341) : . Ay y In the graphs.
(34. From (34.  » for the electromagnetic force acting their centres." Y ^j^ ) = Y ^.3) and take into account that for the case considered /. we suppose that the absolute velocity of the laboratory is parallel to the vzplane. Suppose now magnetic forces that the velocity of the cauldron has It is changed with Ai^ > because of the yearly motion of the Earth.3) M [write the NewtonMarinov equation (8. we obtain A^= 178 — cot^.3) where 6 is the angle between the horizontal plane and the radius pointing from the centre of the cauldron to any of our masses. then the following two on any of these masses : The full gravimagretic force caused by the gravimagretic interaction is with the Earth whose mass a form analogical to (7. and d is the distance between will The masses be in equilibrium at the condition /. A^ > and distance d will change with (we ignore the change AD as it is very small with 2MRsin6 < respect to D). for the sake of simphcity. The masses lie in the vrplane and.4) .3) and the equation which we can write within the necessary accuracy for the new state of equilibrium. the proper mass of the Earth. (34.5) in into account that for the case considered and take dAJdt = 0] f. Dis the distance between their centres and vis the velocity of the Earth (we ignore the rotational velocity about b) its The interaction full electromagnetic force caused by the mutual electromagnetic between the charges of our masses [see formula (7. on the left mass.= ^p^yo^ (342) where the sign the sign « + » is for the electromagnetic force acting on the right mass. If we do not take into account the mutual gravitational attraction between our masses the attraction caused by the other celestial forces will act a) and bodies. ciA Idt = (1 0] = ^grad(^^ )= « is ± ^ _ _)y.1) where /w„ is the proper mass of any of the small masses. A/„ axis). z^ = F^z% is (34.the right and the raxis (with unit vector ::") downwards to the Earth's centre. = m„grad(Y.smO . cos = F. will easy to see that the electro so that angle 9 will change with M=  change and a new state of equilibrium will be installed.
(34.5) angles until 10 " rad By the light lever of Jones (1975). then a yearly variation as variation will be ob. i. bodies. light » The experiment can throw abundant If gravitation is on the law of analogue of gravitational attraction. Indeed. this experiment sics as is extremely fruitful for theoretical phy a thought experiment It 1) shows that magnetism is not a relative but an absolute phenome non. Nevertheless. Indeed.Assuming e the Earth's absolute velocity to be i/ = 300 km/s. then the principle cauldron » then with the same velocity towards the prow.. « It is clear that the experiment cart is ave a unique result by an observerabsolutist who cauldron » at rest in absolute space. according to the principle of relativity. contradicts the everyday fact that when field changing the velocity of the electrons also changes. This experiment is difficult to realize. » experiment as predicted 3) — §22. if gravitation is a analogue of electromagnetism. However.e. and we move our cauldron with velocity v (relatively to the ship) first towards the stern and force). However. however. if there is a gravitational the magnetic energy and the proper masses are responsible for the gravimagretic interaction of the bodies.e.. (hen an observerrelativist on of from the rest state of equibrium equilibrium must be the same and different where the cauldron is at rest with respect to the ship. if experiment only as a thought experiment. This.served described above will be observed. we obtain a yearly variation about the state of equilibrium (for Av = ±30 km/s and = tt/A) Oy.2).. another observerrelativist on the bank will conclude that all three states of the ship will conclude that the states sternbound and prowbound equilibrium must be different (remember the « clocksroundtheworld . then « if there is a gravitational analogue to the magnetic energy and the masses are responsible for the gravimagretic interaction of the no yearly variation Marinov » analogue to will be observed. a « Newtonian electromagnetism.r = —7.= ± 10 ' . producing spheres (very likely one has to use electrets) which have to maintain a constant charge for a whole year. i. However. no variations about the state of equilibrium are to be observed when the absolute velocity of the apparatus changes. The same yearly i79 . in a vacuum tube their magnetic 2) If the « relativists » consent that the electromagnetic force two charges changes when they are magnetic considering the « set in between motion (because of the appearing of relativity will automatically fail. if we are on a ship sailing with velocity v in a canal. there are difficulties in can be measured.
as we have shown in §6..r)  r 180 . is based on wrong theoretical calculations. of charges made move with a constant velo city V. in toto : Consider two opposite point charges .is no gravitational analogue to the magnetic energy masses are responsible for the gravitational interaction of the bodies and the (as was assumed by Newton). the radius vector pointing from — e to + e be denoted by r. A/„ If the pair = is r X f„ = to 0. We present here the theoretical analysis and description of the TrontonNoble experiment given by Janossy (1971). Thus the positive effect. which conventional physics predicts in the TroutonNoble experiment. taking §82 and §83 of his book 82. V X {v X r) = v(v.e. also in the case if there §35.e and . prove the principle of One ting that expects a positive effect in the TroutonNoble experiment. then the positive charge will be under the action of the attraction of fild Coulomb magnetic — e and also under the influence of the B = Thus — c {V X r)lr\ the total force acting upon F„ e is given by f (^) ^ e{E + Since c V X B) = + ^ c r \^^ V X {V X r). accep Newton's third law breaks down in the domain of ejectromagnetism. THE TROUTONNOBLE EXPERIMENT TroutonNoble (1903) experiment to is The as historical generally considered relativity one of the most important experiments for electromagnetic phenomena. If the charges are at rest the force acting upon f e can be written F„ = eE= e'r . As the force acts in the direction of r the produced by the pair of charges vanishes.e. However. r moment of force i. Newton's third law has an universal validity and holds good also in the domain of electromagnetism.
r)(r X v)/r' . (26) above derivation we have neglected the effects of retarda A more detailed calculation shows that the latter effects give 83. value of the Denoting the angle between v and moment of force by 0. In the actual only a negligible correction to (26). arrangement the condenser was was watched whether or not it would change its orientation while the Earth was turning round and therefore the orientation of the condenser relative to the direction of motion of the Earth would change. In the tion. we find for the absolute ^=^sin(2^). actual experiment showed no such changes in orienta The negative outcome of the TroutonNoble experiment can be interpreted by supposing that the motion of the system relative to the aether produces not only an electromagnetic moment of force but also elastic stresses which compensate exactly the electromagnetic moment offeree. so that the line perpendicular to the surface of the condenser plates subtended an angle of 45" with the supposed direction of the orbital velocity of the Earth. the direction of v.2 and 181 .e.1) as follows (see §6. If the moment is (26) exists then the elastic fibre is upon which the condenser suspended twisted to such an extent that the elastic stress arising in the fibre compensates the moment changes its M its exerted by the condenser.we is find that the moment offeree produced by the pair of charges equal to M{y) = r X F{v) = — r iv. Turning the condenser together with support by 90" the equilibrium is moment M sign and so the expected to be disturbed.. Our explanation of the ment is negative outcome of the TroutonNoble experi§7. pended on an elastic string. In the actual experimental it suspended and The tion. i. experiment a charged condenser was susThe condenser was placed so that — 45".
and he calculates the effect in the TroutonNoble expe riment by the help of inappropriate formulas. the « synchrotron » is The essence of experiment. Thus the full electromagnetic forces acting on them are equal to the corresponding kinetic forces. 361) : outline given by Karastoyanov (1972).e. after being refiected by the semitransparent mirror M. on its screen we should see the picture shown in the figure. turn back and. then. These light pulses. the time for We — which the photons will will cover the distance from the accelerator to mirror M Hence if we obtain electric pulses from the emitted and received light pulses and if we lead them to the electrodes of an electronic oscillograph Osc. If ging the velocity of the the velocity of light depends on the velocity of the source of radiation. are registered by the receiver R. i. we change the velocity of this light source. can consider the revolving electrons (representing. Let the high peaks described by the electronic beam correspond to the 182 . On the other hand. which arose from an as follows (fig. §36.. reflected The photons. a fast moving mirror electrons.2) is the right one to be used in this case. Our formula (34. the full electromagnetic forces acting on two isolated charges are equal and oppositely directed along the line connecting them. Let us have a circular accelerator of electrons A. that the velocity of light is always equal to c (with respect to absolute space !) but not to the geometrical sum of c and the velocity i^ We of the emitter. THE « SYNCHROTRON » EXPERIMENT have proposed the « synchrotron » experiment in Marinov (1977b) with the aim of showing that the ballistic (Ritz) model of light propagation is not adequate to physical reality. Short light pulses (packages of photons) are emitted by the emitter E in regular short intervals of time AT. the reference point where the other charge is placed also moves. passing through the semitransparent mirror M. and no rotational moment of force can be produced by these two charges. Chanfact. become shorter. according to the Newton's third law. after being by the electrons. pass through the narrow slit S and reach the electrons revolving in the accelerator along the tangent to their trajectory.3) as a new source of radiation. the total time derivatives of the magnetic potentials caused by both electric charges considered above are equal to zero (the distance between these two charges as well as their velocity do not change full !).During the rotation of the Earth. Janossy (as well as conventional physics) does not take into account that when one of the charges moves. with the increase of the velocity v of the revolving electrons. as a matter of see §13.
distance d will light depends on the velocity of the source of change when the velocity of the electrons changes. 361 emitted light pulses and the low peaks to the received light pulses. distance between them over the screen. the distance d between the high and low peaks will remain the same when the velocity of the electrons along the circular trajectory of the accelerator increases.^^z? Fig. If the velocity of radiation. If the velocity of light does not depend on the velocity of the source of radiation. it will be D = and D kAT. Let us show this. where k is is the the 183 . When the light pulses are emitted at intervals of AT.
Thus for such an increase of the electrons' velocity in the accelerator.  L _= c. come earlier to the receiver in the second case will be (suppose t^v <^ c) A/ = L _ c.1) Ai^) c' where L is the distance between the accelerator t/. first The difference between the distances and m the and second cases will be If A^ = kbit. accelerator to mirror Af in the second case. 184 . the low peaks will be shifted with respect to the high peaks over a distance Ac/ equal to the distance D between the high peaks. (36. I' » Hence the time Ar with which the light pulses will w. L = 9 m and Aj^ = c/300 = 10' m/s. beam covers over the screen for a unit of first v and then must be added geometrically to the velocity of light. If the velocity of the source M . we AT. then it must be Ac/ = increase of the electrons' velocity. obtain A/ If the velocity = of light our absolute spacetime theory does not depend on the velocity of the source.socalled constant of scanning of the oscillograph and is equal to the hori zontal distance which the electronic time. c = c  Let the velocity of the electrons in the accelerator be V I Aw. then the velocity of the photons on the track from the = c + v in the first case and will be c. and mirror d^ A/. as for any asserts. we choose AT = 10 '° s. LA»/ (c + v) (c I __ = «^ f LAi/ .
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P. Mathemati Aviomatics. where he published his collection of poems FIST OTBRUFKN (Meter Peter. Highvelocity mechafirst (iravimagretism. 1979). In I94K he finished a Soviet College in Prague and began to study physics at the Universities of Prague and Sofia. J. 5. Washington. studies in to ph> From 1974 he worked in as Assistent Professor in the the Ph>sical Facult> of the Sofia llniversity and as scientific researcher Physical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Wesle> edited the PR(K FFI)IN(. Fowvelocily mechanics. from where he was expelled and pensioned as a paranoic in 1974. In the Sofia psychiatries because of his September 1977 he received a passport and transferred to Brussels.enoa. Since 1981 his his in (ira/. nics. In 1982 he published the I and in 1984 the second part of the collection of documents HF I ll()R^^ WAV OF IRl ( I H (Fast West. From 1974 to 1977 Marinov mana ged his own Laboratory for Fundamental Physical Problems. (Fast West. encyclopaedic CFASSIC Al PIHSK 1. Flectromagnetism.ra/). In .Stefan Marinov was horn in Sofia on Ihe in a I February 1931 family of inlelleclual com munisls. (. and 1977 he got compulsory treatment political dissent. In 197X he lived in Washingt<m. S 25 . in In 1966/67. in registering dra/.S OF K SIA 1973. 4. in he SI essence of his theor> and description of his experiments are gi\en FPIM'R Price: MFONF.luly 1982 he organized in (. 1982). In and West(ierman 1958 he came hack his I96(J to Sofia to complete sics. In 1951 he went to the a Varna High Nav> School as volunteer and after graduating sailed as a deck officer on Bul garian. (ienova. in Marinov succeeded the absolute motion of Ihe Farth in u laboralor> with the help of the de>iati\e »coupled mirrors« evpcrinunt. 1981) c<msisting of the following fi\e \<»lumes: cal apparatus. (Fast West. 3.lime Absoluteness (K SIA) and together with Prof. where he published the treaty FCONOMIA POI I IK A I FOS RICA home — is IFOKIA DFI PRF//I where he edited (Kst Ovest. (ira/. In 1979—1981 he lived in (. ( /echoslo\akC hinese carg<»es. 1978). 1974.en<»a the lnternali<mul onlcrcncc on Space. His absolute spacetime (heor> elaborated last in the I 20 >ears explains Ihoroughh all experiiiunts in high\eloci(> phxsics. As a first man in histor>. 2.
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