This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MqovQ
AXIOMATICS,
FUNDAMENTALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
VERIFICATIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE SPACETIME THEORY
C ESTOVEST^
Editrlce Internazionale
^
Stefan Marinov
MqovQ
AXIOMATICS, FUNDAMENTALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
VERIFICATIONS OF THE ABSOLUTE SPACETIME THEORY
f ESTOVEST*
<
Editrice Internazionale
™^
16131 ITALY ul..78..D.Published in Austria by International Publishers »EastWest« © International Publishers »EastWest« Marinov First published in 1977 by C.1981 Second Third edition. 1421 Sofia.S. BULGARIA — — via Puggia 47.78. (010) 31. Bruxelles edition.73. 1987 Addresses of the International Publishers »EastWest« Affiliates: Morrellenfeldgasse 16. AUSTRIA .B. Tel. AUSTRIA — Elin Pelin 22.59. (02) 66. 8010 Graz. Genova. DRUCK: RMDRUCK GRAZ. Tel.
To Colombe .
.
the changes which have to be introduced into high velocity physics are not to be so radical as some of Einstein's adversaries have claimed and persist to claim. However.FOREWORD and so many experimental efforts in the last 100 years to the problem of determining absolute space that it seems almost senseless to continue spending time and money searching for a possible refutation of the principle of relativity. performed for the time some 60 years ago. One then reads the second experimental part with the same distrust. reads the first theoretical part with the due distrust with which one reads anything that contradicts wellestablished and broadly accepted theories. strains to refute it ressembles very much the seeker of a perpetuum mobile. then the special theory of relativity will definitely have to be rejected as not adequate to physical reality. So many articles have been dedicated One Thus. one is highly shocked. which aim to disprove those one begins to realize that is I the experimental foundation of the general (Einstein) principle of relativity far from being so firm and indisputable as out the socalled « rotating is generally accepted. The different variants of the « rotating disk » and « moving platform » experiments which he has performed give further evidence for accepting his absolute spacetime conceptions as adequate to One can doubt whether Marinov's carried out well physical reality. If the experimental results reported by Marinov are confirmed by other experimenters. on reading the book to the end. as can be seen first from the part of this book. although. would like first to point disk » experiment. This principle. the link Marinov shows between the « rotating disk » experiment and his « coupledmirrors » (or « coupledshutters ») experiment is so clear and indisputable that one is impelled to logically accept his results. However. expecting easily to discover fiaws in experiments theories. The Lorentz transformation (although treated from an absolute point of view) and the 4dimensional formalism of Min kowski will remain an important mathematical apparatus in the hands of the theoreticians. . first formulated by Galilei. « coupledmirrors » experiment is and whether the effects which he claims to have registered are not due to outside causes. where firstorder in v/c effects were easily measured. in the fourthquarter on the 20th century. has obtained such a firm experimental confirmation that any researcher who. on opening the book of Stefan Marinov.
Later Acad. A. September 1981 S. at the same time.Marinov 4 . I invite the spacetime specialists all over the world to publish papers before the conference and to participate at theory (now — the conference. who. he has no time to study the theory and to analyse the experiments in detail. I think that a written statement by Sakharov (positive or negative) on my when he has more time for scientific work in Gor'ki) will be decisive for the speedy restoration of absolute space. When but in living in Bulgaria (before September 1977). how perfidious Nature is. Genoa and Venice. I MUOVE published the book with the draft preface. On the other hand. Sakharov and to send him EPPUR SI via many channels. Her oral message (July 1977) was that Sakharov is highly sympathetic wih my theory and will think about the matter of the foreword. 200 (1978)). Wigner and Prof. as he is dedicating all his time to social and moral activities. will The work of Marinov enigma will brings many hopes simple and that « be explained April 1977 in a similar one day the quantum Newtonian » manner. where absolute freedom will be given to any standpoint. I wrote the above foreword and gave it to a girlfriend of mine. He said me the following: The problems raised by my theory and the conclusions to which it leads are so crucial and important for physics that he does not dare to take a standpoint. 1 visited Sakharov in Moscow flying from Brussels (February 1978). Absolute spacetime has already obtained such a firm experimental confirmation that for its acceptance one needs one thing only: an open and wide discussion. the return to Newtonian absolute spacetime conceptions be one of the most important physics events in the secondhalf of the 20th century. have already written me about their interest to visit the conference. As the book had to appear. If ICSTA1982 will be representative. Prof. will concur for the prospect of science. For this reason I organize on the 8 II July 1982 in Genoa the International Conference on SpaceTime Absoluteness (ICSTA) which was prohibited by the Bulgarian government in 1977. D. A. D. I frequently tried vain to establish a written contact with Acad. Salam. then the GRIO Conference in Venice (July 1983) will meet on a firm and stable absolute ground. Sakharov distanced from my theory (see the whole story narrated in detail in NATURE. decided to visit Sakharov in Moscow.Nevertheless. showing how simple and. As 1 could not receive his final consent. and the two old rivals. After the apearance of EPPUR SI MUOVE. a wellknown physicist and a Jewess still living behind the curtain. Sakharov has given only verbal opinions on my theory which are highly contradictory (as reported via the press or communicated to me). 296 and 272. 271. at great personal risk. Two Nobelprizewinners. putting her scientific career at risk. Grnz. Sakharov Moscow.
3.3. and waves 54 56 56 Frequency and wavelength shifts of light 10. 3. The NewtonMarinov equation 8.1. The MaxwellMarinov equations 8. The nonrelativistic consideration 6.3. The Galilean transformation The Lorentz transformation The Marinov transformation Group properties of the Marinov transformation Velocity 26 30 35 §4.1.4. The nonrelativistic consideration 5.CONTENTS PART §1. Fundamental equations in gravimagretism 8. time and energy Axioms for the different types of energy Axiom for the conservation of energy High velocity axiom 16 22 22 25 25 §3. Reduced charges and masses Particles 53 53 §9. 37 37 38 4. 2.2.4.1. §8. The relativistic consideration Fundamental equations in electromagnetism The NewtonLorentz equation 7.2. § 10.2. Kinematic shift (the Doppler effect) 10. Acceleration Superacceleration 39 39 §5. The relativistic consideration The Lagrange equations 6.1.1.1.1. The connection between densities and potentials 7. §7. 2.3. Coordinate transformations 3. Elements of motion 4.2. §2.2. Axioms for space. 1. 3.2. Time energy 5. The MaxwellLorentz equations 7. 2. 39 40 42 42 43 45 45 47 50 51 51 §6.3.2.2. I — THEORETICAL 10 II II Introduction Axiomatics 2. 3. Dynamic shift (the Einstem effect) 62 . 4.
1.5. § 13. The deviative « coupledmirrors » experiment 19.2. §18.3.1. 11. The HafeleKeating « clocksroundtheworld ment experiment 22. §16.4. Relation between refractive index and density 84 PART II §14. The Harress. ultrasonic « coupledshutters experiment 1 12 The kinematic time dilation experiments 22.3. 130 133 135 136 136 Practical performance of the HarressFizeau experiments HarressMarinov and 136 . The The accelerated « coupledmirrors » » experiment §21. The quasiFoucault « coupledmirrors » experiment 19.1. 69 physical essence of rest energy physical essence of cosmological « red shift » light in a 69 71 Propagation of 13. §22. Time 11. Introduction §15.2. medium 74 74 81 Drag Refraction Collision between photons 13. The Harress « rotating disk » experiment 25.1.4.Pogany experiment 25. The RossiHall « meson » experiment 22. 12. The interferometric « coupledmirrors » experiment 102 104 1 1 §20.3. Cosmological aspects of light kinematics 12. The HarressMarinov experiment 25. and particles 82 13. 13.1.2. The The « « watertube » experiment » 122 drag aberration experiment 127 §25.2. — EXPERIMENTAL 88 88 91 The quasiRoemer experiment The quasiBradley experiment The quasiDoppler experiment 95 » The quasiFizeau « coupledshutters experiment 97 101 §19.1. The « antipodalclocks >» 115 1 16 » experi 116 1 18 §23.§11.2. §17. The HarressSagnac experiment 25. The HarressFizeau experiment 25. §24. dilation 64 64 65 (Einstein) time dilation Kinematic (Lorentz) time dilation Dynamic The The §12.2.
2. The Zeeman « moving platform » experiment 28. The noninertial « moving platform » experiment 143 144 145 145 146 147 148 §29.1.3. The 30.3.1. 33.3. The HarressSagnac experiment 29.1. 33. The 33. §35.§26. 30.2.2. disk » experiment 150 150 150 151 151 Connection with kinematic time dilation light Dopplereffect §30.2. synchrotron » experiment References .4.3.3. The ZeemanFizeau experiment 28. The IvesStilwell longitudinal « canal ray The transverse « canal ray » experiment The Hay « rotor » experiment The « rotorrotor » experiment The Santos experiment « experiment 154 155 156 158 160 162 163 §31. The The The The « inertial « « wired photocells » effect experiment 171 aether wind 172 effect « of relativistic distribution in the radiation » 174 174 177 wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment §34.5.4. The HarressFizeau experiment 29.4. The ZeemanPogany experiment 28. 32. The quasiWiener The 32. wired photocells » experiment 33.5. 32. The ZeemanSagnac experiment 28. The HarressMarinov experiment 29. The ZeemanMarinov experiment 28. The HarressPogany experiment 29. The disrupted The « « rotating disk » experiment » 138 coupledshutters on a rotating disk experiment 141 §28. §27. 30.1.5. « standing waves » » experiment coherent lasers experiment The inertial « coherent lasers » experiment The « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment The connection between the « coherent lasers » and light Dopplereffect experiments « 164 168 169 171 » §33.4.2. 30. The cauldron experiment The TroutonNoble experiment The « 180 182 185 §36.1. experiments » 154 30. The secondorder effects in the « rotating 29. §32.
.
PART I — THEORETICAL .
III. so that any student can read our without encountering a single difficulty of mathematical or logical character. i. Landau and Lifshitz (nonquantum and nonstatistical) expounded. the accuracy of this first performance in the socalled deviative variant was too low.e. Relativistic mechanics. INTRODUCTION work : In 1973 we completed the writing of our encyclopaedic in English). In this work theoretical classical is physics for undergraduates as in in. All other conclusions We take only three physical quantities and formulas are obtained in a mathematically logical way. as well as all important highvelocity experiments carried out in the last 100 years. Horedt (1975)]. » ( 1 500 typed pages of five parts Mathematical apparatus. vity. we assume in that light propagates with a constant velocity along any direction absolute 10 . dealing with similar subject matter (1969. energy — as undefined notions and ten axioms (presented book) as unproved assertions. consisting « Classical Physics I. and many others carried out or proposed by us. are described and analysed in part three of « Classical Physics ». performing the measurement in a laboratory. we expound classical physics proceeding from Newtoin nian absolute spacetime conceptions. We defend an aethertype model of light propagation.. IV. 1978c) out for a second time the in its « coupledmirrors » experiment on a higher technological level socalled interferometric and we measured the Earth's absolute velocity with such an accuracy that no doubts can further remain about the invalidity of the principle of relativity.§1. and including celestial mechanics as all say. In contradistinction to conventional courses of theoretical physics. §2 of this — space. 1974b) with whose help we registered the Earth's motion with respect to absolute space. Gravimagretism. and the scientific community remained highly sceptical [see. for example. Danby (1962). The « coupledmirrors » experiment. which prove the existence of absolute spacetime (considered in Part II of this book). II. V. Nonrelativistic mechanics. In the summer of 1973 we carried out the « coupledmirrors » experi ment (Marinov. and thus we gave the first experimental refutation of the principle of relatiHowever. Two years later we carried variant (Marinov. making use exclusively of the mathematical apparatus given « Classical Physics » in part one. Electromagnetism. 1959). time.
However. expressing in this for the great deeds of Einstein and way our high esteem even though we establish experimentally and logically that their basic concepts are not adequate to physical reality. If they are treated and manipulated from a « relativistic » point of view. TIME AND ENERGY The fundamental undefined notions a) space. as is done in our absolute spacetime theory (see §3). We call this mathematical approach nonrelativistic. tl . as well as on the 4dimensional mathematical formalism of Minkowski. in However. c the velocity of light in absolute space) physical and light phenomena can be rightly described by the traditional mathe matical apparatus and thus. we analyse several experiments for which the relativity theory leads to false results and we show why in many experiments the complex of absolute effects which arise cannot be observationally detected. the light « aether » is not some medium in at rest in absolute space which propagates call like sound light the air. Within effects of propagation order in vie (v the absolute velocity of the object all considered. §2. articles many We shall also call highvelocity physics relativistic (in contradistinction to lowvelocity physics which will be called nonrelativistic). but we preserve his followers. rightly describes the effects of any order in vie. The fects nonrelativistsc mathematical apparatus in vU. the Lorentz transformation and the 4dimensional mathematical approach of Minkowski must be treated from an absolute point of view. these terms only for historical reasons. so that their apparent results can be correctly described by the relativistic mathematical apparatus. the Galilean transformation is adequate to physical reality. in physics are : b) time. AXIOMATICS §2. within this accuracy. so that we our model for first propagation aetherNewtonian ».space. wrongly describes the ef of second (and higher) order called by us the The socalled relativistic mathe its compaMarinov transformation). c) energy (matter). as is done in the Einstein approach to the theory of relativity. The errors to which the matical apparatus based on the Lorentz transformation (and on is nion which theory of relativity leads are within effects of In first order in vie. rejecting the wave (liuyghensFrcsnel) model. then results inadequate in regard to physical reality are obtained. AXIOMS FOR SPACE. which are reviewed in Part II of the present book. We « firmly defend the corpuscular (Newton) model of light.1.
Isotropy of space. Depending on their relationship any pair of Cartesian frames of reference will belong to one of the following three classes (or to their combination) : 1. Here frames of reference for time of the first and can be constructed. we always obtain equivalent images. onedimensional totality of (time points). We we call two images of with their help identical systems can be if An image is is adequate to physical reality the influence of the given material system on our senseorgans. which predict as proceeding from this image. 3. threedimensional totality represent space of space points. sal. given material system is An image of a with whose help. third class only time frames with different origins and with oppositely oriented axes. 2. the same as the actual influence displayed by the system considered.. or is by means of other material systems) given material system equivalent constructed. We 1. The different Cartesian frames of reference (these are mathematicological conceptions) with which the images of space we can (i. if any totality of imprints (symbols) corresponding possibilities and if their abilities are at our dispo we can construct another system identical with the given one. material system in Space is called reflective if considering any any pair of space frames of the third class. we always obtain equivalent images. 3.. We moments imagine time as a continuous. limitless. Space is called homogeneous if considering in any pair of space frames of the first class. we always if considering obtain equivalent images. 2. Frames with different origins. Space in is called isotropic any material system any pair of space frames of the second class. if the same.e.e. Reflectivity of space. Frames whose axes are mutually rotated. The definitions of the fundamental properties of time are 12 : . i. Frames with differently oriented (or reflecting) axes (right or left orientations).Let us note that system » as we consider the notions « matter » and « material synonyms with the notions « energy » and « energy system ». We call two a material systems identical influence on our senseorgans (directly. We imagine space as a continuous. formed in our minds) may have various relations with respect to each other. A material system is called isolated if its images are independent of the existence of other material systems. introduce the definitions of the fundamental properties of space : any material system Homogeneity of space. limitless.
2.e. isotropic and reflective. unrelated to any other thing whatsoever. Time is called homogeneous first class. » that » which by own nature. (2. Thus we assume the following axioms for space and time I. if considering any material system in any pair of time frames of the we always obtain equivalent images. and we can only repeat the assertions of Newton about them (in his « Principia ») : of moments. Axiom Axiom II. space intervals along one of the three dimensions of space) has the property of length and may be chosen arbitrarily. it is useful even in classical physics sometimes to assume (speculatively) time frames of the third class in order to obtain a better understanding of some physical phenomena (for example. always remains at b) « Absolute time is rest. The unit of measurement T be established for time intervals has the property of time and is to from the following symbolic relation LT where r is • = r. after being reflected by the mirror. the perties — radiation of electromagnetic waves). Thus we imagine space as a threedimensional totality of and time as a onedimensional sequence (totality) totalities are inseparable but independent of each other. Time is homogeneous. 13 . If we assume the numerical value off to be unity. we always obtain equivalent images.1. in one unit of time. called a light pulse) will return to the light source. Reflectivity of time. unrelated to anything else..1) a universal constant which has the property of velocity and is called velocity of light. space points. These two a) « Absolute space is that which by its own its nature. Experiment and observation suggest that real space has all three prohomogeneity. A light clock represents a light source and a mirror placed at a distance c/2 length units along the « arm » of the clock. so that any photon (or a suffipropagate always with velocity c in ciently small package of photons. then the corresponding units of measurement for length and time are called natural. flows evenly. in Time is called rellective if considering any ma terial system any pair of time frames of the third class. However. Homogeneity of time. The unit of measurement L for distance (i. Space intervals can be measured by rigid rods and time intervals can be measured by light clocks. empty space. isotropy and reflectivity. (length divided by time) Material points (see axiom III) of an important class. : Space is homogeneous. called photons. while real time has only the homogeneity property.
and received. we can say only : a) Space is that b) Time is that which extends. Space and time which we can perceive with our senseorgans. is that which by its own nature. hence. Thus space and time must be always considered related to matter.. we must make the Space consists of spacepoints which can in no way exert any influence on our senseorgans. » other periodic celestial phenomena as commonly have several sensible frames representing different relative spaces and several sensible clocks reading different relative times. because of their association with some material systems. because space and time which we know are associated with the Earth. unrelated to anything extends evenly.e. which is uniform in respect of the Such is time of days. Of course. » b) « Time regarded that flux or variation of any sensible thing.. the Sun and all stars of the Universe (i. is that in which velocity of light has the same value along all b) Absolute time is read on a light clock which rests in absolute space (i.e. these « Newtonian » assumptions about space and time tell us no more than that which is apparent to the layman because it is basically impossible to define space and lime satisfactorily.However. to speak about motion (or rest) of space is inappropriate. 1974b). we propose the following definitions which. whilst endorsing Newton's approach. in However an empty space which there is no matter and in which a hypothetical time flows are purely academic notions. Therefore. which endures. and we prefer to reformulate Newton's assertion about space as follows following remark : : Absolute space else. the world of energy surrounding us). appealing to the intuitive ideas of the reader. and and 14 is placed far enough from local concentrations of matter from stars planets). are called by Newton. After the performance of our « coupledmirrors » experiment (Marinov. we can ask which of these space and time frames of reference are the best representatives of absolute space and time and have a common significance for any observer absolute space and time wherein When we epoch determines its best representatives of man and man's thoughts stride. and he proposes : a) « Relative space : is that which is regarded immobile in relation to any sensible thing such as the space of our air as relative is in relation to the Earth. will not be refined by in the Universe. months. we hope. . relative. Any historical future generations a) : Absolute space directions.
is b) Absolute time read on a light clock whose unit of time less than that of any other clock. Any clock stationary is frame or placed near local concentrations of matter (or both) called a proper clock.2) a universal constant which has the property of action is (energy multiplied by time) and called Planck's constant.. (2. = m„ c' . is to be established from the relation e. If we assume the numerical value of the numerical /i to be unity (and hence equal to value of r).. characterized by a uniform character) quantity which is called energy having the same qualitative and which can only have different numerical value for different material systems. called mass. whose dimensions and numerical value are to be established from the relation for length.„ called the proper mass. time measurement Material points are those points in e.e. (2. then the corresponding units of and energy are called natural.„ is called the absolute energy or rest energy. is the energy of the material point at rest and e. is 1972b). 1975a). (2. Every material point is characterized by a parameter m.3) where e. All individually different material systems can be (i. = m c' . the « arms » of all light clocks being equal (Marinov.4) 15 . reference frame associated with absolute space (light clock) is is called an absolute called an absolute frame and any clock reading absolute time Any in reference frame which is moves with a constant translational velocity with respect to absolute space called an inertial frame. Any clock. a proper clock reads proper time.These two definitions are identical with the following a) Absolute space is : that with respect to which the energy of the Uni verse is minimum (Marinov. The quantity m. The unit of measurement E for energy has the property of energy and is to be established from the symbolical relation ET = where A is h . an inertial Now we introduce the following axiom for energy which expresses the : philosophical principle about the unity of the world Axiom III. respect to absolute space its When is a material point moves with energy denoted by being called the proper energy or time energy. space whose energy is different from zero.
In this case the energy of the material system can be called space energy and will be denoted by U. then the energy U will depend on their space is individualities only as a parameter. (2. and the galaxies material As a rule.5) Any equal to certain « bullet » material point crosses a given surface during a time its period. 2. This depends on the character of the physical problem which to under consideration. have different values and thus be a function of time. If we measure this energy will at different moments « it will. 14. in general.2. In other contexts the stars are considered as material points systems. The word particle for the a synonym term material point. 16 . carries with itself a strictly defined periodicity. by analogy with the intuitive definitions on p. rent. Evidently. when saying material points we shall understand elementary particles. This numerical parameter called the parameter of the space energy of the given material point. the images of the material system would be diffea material system cannot if this The space energy U of vectors of the material points because. « representing not a rigid but a Finally. i. however. If U will depend on some space individuality » of we suppose that the material points preserve their space individuality in time. we can also define energy intuitively that of space and time given and uniquely by : c) Energy is which exists. whose dimensions and numerical value are to be established from the relation e„ = h/T. AXIOMS FOR THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENERGY Let us consider a given material system only in space. and that would contradict our first axiom.Furthermore.e. the energy the material points. the energy of the material system in different space reference frames of the first class would have different values. Let us note that their is when we speak about material points we do not define volumes. called the period. Thus any material point burst ». For certain problems the elementary particles are be considered as material points and the atoms material systems.. Let us note here that a photon in a radio wave (which is represents an elementary particle) can have a length in time (called the wavelength) of the order of many kilometers. every material point is also characterized by a parameter T. depend on the radius were so.
j is ij = 1. the The t/g. The gives to also it part of physics called electrical theory denotes space energy the by (/. Consider now two material points of the system.. The existence of other material points cannot exert influence either on the parameters of space energy of these points or on the distance between them. sum of the space energies of With the aid of logical considerations only. The difference between the energies V^ and V^ consists in the different parameters of space energy.6) the distance between the /th and /th material points whose total number is n. The electrical parameters of the material points are their electric charges which are denoted by q. (2. we cannot say how the space energy (/of two material points depends on the distance between them. and we can write U = U(r. The part of physics known as mechanics does not consider the matter of dependence of energy U on the distances between the material points and leaves this dependence unknown. We can systematize all unproved assertions about both types of space : energies in the following axioms for gravitational and electrical energies Axiom space is IV. Space energy is called also potential energy.2 n. part of physics called gravitational theory denotes space energy by it gives to the name gravitational energy (or the first type of space energy) and assumes that the gravitational energy of two material points is inversely proportional to the distance between them.Thus material the energy (/will depend only on the mutual distances between the the material points becaue we have no other characteristics to describe system considered now only in space.. The gravitational parameters of the material points are their proper masses (called also gravitational charges) which we have denoted by w„. The individual image of a material system in its given by the value of gravitational energy C. Hence the space energy of a system of material points must be the every pair of them. This dependence can be only postulated. name electrical energy electrical (or the second type of space energy) is and assumes that the energy of two material points inversely proportional to the distance between them. « Classical We consider (here and in Physics ») only the gravitational and electrical space energies and we ignore the energies of the socalled weak and strong interactions whose axiomatical basis and theoretical interpretation is as yet by no means clear..X where r. The 17 .
9) r constant e„ ' is called the Inverse electric con the electric constant.= The coupling stant — ^^ e. the dimensions of Y are established from (2. In the system of SI units. characterized by a second parameter of space energy called the electric charge. m„.e.10) in is Remark. the unit for electric charge introduced as a fourth fundamental unit of measurement. is q. the inverse electric constant and e„ shows what part of the energy unit represents the electrical energy of two unit charges separated by a unit distance. material points is The energy U^ of two ^. every material q. point is In addition to the mass parameter. (2. In this system of units the numerical values of c... The rest energy of an important class of material points called electrons is equal to e.7) The coupling constant y. where one avoids fractional powers the dimensions of electromagnetic quantities. universal constant called the charge of the electron..10 ^«£ 'L^T \ (2. the numerical value of the I electron charge to be unity. (2. in addition to its also given by the value of its electrical energy V^. thus the dimensions of one of them are to be chosen arbitrarily. q^ are different from unity. (2. is a universal constant called the rest energy of the electron. called the gravitational constant. then the gravitational constant has the value Y = 2. e^ .. If we work — with natural units and constant we assume i. and with the 18 . where q^ is a equal to q^. h. where e. is system in space. The dimensions of the electric charge q and of the electric constant t„ are to be established from (2. The electric charge of any material point is (or to an integer multiple).energy U^ of two material points is proportional to their proper to the distance r masses w„. q^ proportional to their electric charges r and inversely proportional to the distance between them . V. The individual image of a material gravitational energy V^.8) Axiom V. shows what part of the energy unit represents the gravitational energy of two unit masses separated by a unit distance. = 861..78.9). = f'^L "^. — q^. then the electric dimensionless and has the numerical value E. and inversely proportional between them U^=  y ^"' r ^"'^ .7).. If we work with natural units and we assume the nu merical value of e^ to be unity..
e. i.aim of avoiding factors such as In and Att appearing in formulas which do not involve circular or spherical symmetry. respectively. its images would be different. Let us now . Thus. the image of the material points in time) could depend on the on the acceleration. If we measure this energy at different moments it will. Contemporary physics. in this case the energy of the material system can be called time energy and this will be denoted by E„ the time energy of a single material point will be denoted by e„. on the velocity of the material point. have different values and thus will £"„ be a function of time. will Evidently. If until now human experience has not established such a dependence.. If e„ point. the energy depend on some £"„ « time individuality » of the material points. 19 .. This numerical parameter called the parameter of the time energy of the given material point. then cannot depend on the space and time coordinates of the material we must assume that e„ depends on the derivatives of the space to. in general..e.e.. consider the given material system only in time. so contradicting our first and second axioms. then energy ties will depend on is their time individuali only as a parameter. The time energy of our material point can (i. If we suppose that the material points preserve their time individualities in time. and that the time energy (generally speaking. one assumes the inverse electric constant showing which part of the energy unit represents the electrical energy of two unit charges separated by a distance of l/An length units. material point is A system of one also a material system. Evidently for this material system the time energy e„ will only be different from zero because for the existence of space energy this we must have its at least two material points.. From the axiomatical point of view it is higher derivatives too. its if we consider will material point simultaneously in space and in time. depend neither on » ) its radius in vector nor on a time coordinate on the « time radius vector because such a case the energy of the material point would have different values in different space and time reference frames of the first class. i.e. e„ depends only on the prst derivative of the space coordinates with respect to time. on the basis of the experience of centuries. coordinates with respect time because we have no other characteristics to describe the image of the material point. this may be due to the fact that careful observations and detailed analyses of strongly accelerated material systems have not been performed. Consider now only one material point of the system.. assumes that On the grounds of general considerations till it is admissible to suppose that our experience now is insufficient. energy be equal only to time energy e. i.
our present state of experimental technique cannot reliably establish whether or not a first type of spacetime energy exists. in addition to the second type of space energy. in general. These two forms of energy are clearly complementary. then the energy IV depend on is It these individualities only as a parameter. The logical question arises i. a complement to the gravitational energy. If we suppose that the material points preserve their spacetime individualities in time. The individual image of a material system in time its given by the value of time energy £„. have different values and thus will be a function of time. Since rience of centuries has not given us 20 . in the Let us now consider our material point presence of the other material points material points of the given system. a second type of spacetime energy which is called the magnetic energy. Thus the time energy of a system of material points must be the sum of the time energies of all material points of the system. whether there exists also a first type of spacetime energy.. the change (the diffe of the time energy is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity and the differential of the velocity. This numerical parameter the parameter of the spacetime energy of the given material point.1 1) Besides the space energies which depend on the distances between the material points and the time energy which depends on the velocities of the material points. The expe grounds to assume that such an energy does exist.admissible to assume that a dependence of time energy on the acceleration of the material points can exist. (2. The time energy its e„ of one material point depends on rential) velocity. We can systematize all unproved assertions about time energy : in the following axiom for time energy Axiom is VI. de„ = m V dv . a type of energy also exists which depends simultaneously on the distances between the material points and on their velocities. Hence there exists.e. The existence of the other cannot exert influence either on the parameters of the time energy of our point or on its velocity (at a given moment !). . called turns out that the parameters of the spacetime energy of the material points can be expressed by their electric charges. the mass of the material point being the coupling constant. we call this spacetime energy and denote it by W. systems may lead to the discovery of entirely unexpected and that experiments with strongly accelerated phenomena. Evidently. the energy W^ will ality » depend on some « spacetime individuwill of the material points. If we measure this energy at different moments it will. However.
we hvpotheiicallv assume it its existence.the internal logic of the mathematical apparatus with which we describe physical reality (first of all the logic of the 4dimensional mathematical first apparatus) does lead to the existence of a shall type of spacetime energy... The part of physics is considered called gravimagretism.. magnetic energy ments/. proportional to the scalar product of their electric current ele.1 '"„•• ^'i • ^ c^r r r is The coupling constant y.12) called the proper momentum of the in The individual image of a material system space and time given by the value is of its magretic energy ^^. The individual image of a material system in space and time. r W^ is also given by the value of its The energy W.14) called the electric current element of the material point.. equal to the gravitational constant. is where the gravitational and magretic energies are the part where the electrical and called electromagnetism. sum of We gies can systematize all unproved assertions about the second type of spacetime energy in the following axioms for magretic and magnetic ener Axiom VII. and we shall call the magretic energy.. Every material point with electric charge q moving at velocity v is characterized by the quantity j=qv. Every material point with proper energy e„ moving at velocity v is characterized by the quantity p„ = ni„ V material point. divided by c and inversely proportional to the distance r between them P„i 'P. (2. is (2. called the magretic constant. .. Axiom VIII.. by analogy with the magnetic energy. divided by c and inversely proportional to the distance between them J^ h ./?. magnetic energies are considered the The manner of dependence of the energy Pf of two material points on distance between them and on their velocities is to be postulated./..' "'. We consider the spacetime energy of a system of material points to be the the spacetime energies of every pair of them. in addition to its magretic energy W. of two material points is . The energy W^ of two material points proportional to thescalar product of their proper momenta/?.
in general. 2. The numerical value of the total energy of an isolated material system remains constant in time. (/.e.ssica! relativistic physics. However. Then. which we wish to consider the given physical At velocities of the material points comparable with we must first take into account also the tenth axiom which. The unproved in assertion about the change of the energies of a material system time is given by the following axiom for the conservation of energy. c. AXIOM FOR THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The five types of energy U^ . Let us assume that the shaft rotates with a is no friction or torsion. (2. system of units it is assumed that = l/c„ r'. in which comparison with light velocity points small in comparison with light velocity Whether we can consider the velocities of the material depends on the precision with problem. this is not true. : expressing the philosophical principle about the unity of space and time Axiom IX. vary with time. if a certain cogwheel makes contact with an indicator placed at one end of the shaft. Indeed. and it is equal to the inverse electric constant. of classical physics we assume the velocities of the material points to be too small in c. let us have a rotating rigid shaft on whose ends two identical cogwheels are fixed and let us number any two cogs which lie oposite each other on the ends of a certain generatrix of the shaft.3. together with the nine axioms..The coupling constant Remark. of a material system are functions of time and their numerical values can. we know that the corresponding cog of the other cogwheel will also make contact with an indicator placed symmetrically at the opposite end constant angular velocity and there cog of the first 22 . the theory of classical nonrelativistic physics can be built.4. W^ . W. Full energy //„ of a material system is called the sum of the time energy E„ and the space energy U. Conventional physics assumes that information can be transferred from one space point to another only if a certain quantity of energy can be sent from the first space point to the second... HIGH VELOCITY AXIOM On the grounds of the nine axioms formulated above. that is dH„ = 0.16) 2. . represents the axiomatical grounds of cla. Total energy //„ is the full energy plus the spacetime energy W.. i. In the SI n„ is called the magnetic constant ju. £„ . thus = /i„ l/c„.
A Newtonian time synchronization can be realized also by the help of signals which proceed with the same velocity in any direction. these points. It turns out. crossed by the photon. independent of the orientation of their « unit « is arms ». Marinov (1975a) we show leads to the Galilean transformation tion leads to Newtonian time synchronization and the Einsteinian time synchronizathe Lorentz transformation. 23 we mean . between both these space points no is transfer of energy takes place.. say that the velocity of the photons does not depend on their that it does not depend on the velocity of the source of radiation. on the potential fields. and assume that the velocity of light has the same numerical value in all directions with respect to any inertial frame. nor on the velocities of all material points with which the photon has collided. there an information link between We call the synchronization of spatially separated clocks by the help of a rotating rigid shaft placed between them a Newtonian time synchronization. The mathematical apparatus adequate to physical reality is for a description of highvelocity physics to : be obtained by assuming the following highvelocity (reiativistic) axiom Axiom X.of the shaft. that space that the in the coordinates are involved Lorentz transformation formulas for time. i. and nor on the material systems. 1974a). The Einsteinian time synchronization can be reduced to a Newtonian time synchronization only if the frame in which we the are working is attached to absolute space. Here are some remarks on this axiom : When we history. after taking into account the time delays which the signals need to cover the different distances to the clocks placed at different space points. then we call this an Einsteinian time synchronization. If we synchronize spatially separated clocks. Obviously. nor on which it was « hitched » (Marinov. however. arms light clocks with equal independent of the velocity of the frame and the local be defined by the period of concentration of matter.e. In any frame moving with respect to absolute space the Einsteinian time synchronization differs from Newtonian since In in moving frames the velocity of light is anisotropic. interchanging light signals between them. The material all points called photons move with velocity c along directions in absolute space and their velocity does not depend on their history. in such a case. however. At any point of any frame the time to ». Light clocks with equal « arms » have the same rate in any inertial frame. is and this implies that the constancy and isotropy of light velocity essentially only a convention.
« back » (i.. + r„.:i .17). covers the shall « if we denote by T^'„ = Tp'/. = ''par T^p. this empirical fact was first proved by the historical MichelsonMorley experiment. respectively. however.' = d' + v' T. (2.22) and the if for a certain time / the « light clock makes n^^. it tenth axiom asserts.y2 the times in which light arm » d of the « transverse » clock « there » and « back ».20) from where T„.. along the direction of propagation of the clock) and of propagation of the clock). This assertion represents a crucial boundary between nonrelativistic and relativistic mechanics which has concerned the human mind almost the whole of this century. we have for these two cases c' T.^. covers the « if we denote by T^'^r T^il the times in which light arm » d of the « longitudinal » clock « there » (i.r .e. r' r^.21) Hence it will be T^per = nar(l " transverse it >» V^/C^)^'' (2. t will be ' = Iper Tp.:7 . « ticks ». perpendicular and parallel to v. ^^.assertion of our tenth axiom affirms that any proper Ught clock does not depend on the orientation of its « arm ». (2.. then the » light nonrelativistic conceptions should lead to the result that to n^^.:\ = d vt. (2. that "par must be (224) = "per .19) "^ > ^ On the other hand. against the direction have for these two cases = d + vT.22) we obtain (2. periods of the « transverse clock "par = 'Ip.. if we try to find the rates of two identical The most important unproved the rate of light clocks their « arms proceeding with velocity v with respect to absolute space when » are.._^.:i = cP + V' T. Indeed.. « ticks » and « longitudinal » n^^.:.17) periods of the « longitudinal » light clock will correspond. = T„.23) and (2. cr. cT.^ (2. 24 . = 2d .1 8) from where T = T ^ T = /per /per + /per " ' ^^j Id _ ^y^^yn and .. we shall . « arms » of the clocks are equal.rCl " V'/c')^" (2.r • (223) From Our and (2.e. = rp. supposing (as shall we always do) that the Indeed.
1 THE GALILEAN TRANSFORMATION All transformations of the space in this section are between a frame K attached To and time coordinates which we consider to absolute space and a frame avoid trivial K' moving inertially with a velocity V.24) contradicts the transformation (as a matter of fact point of view. « relativistic » it has failed to Gahlean shown this). The Lorentz however. that at the initial zero fig. showing to how the be treated from an absolute point of view.It can be shown that the empirical fact (2.24).e. i. such just as our « coupledmirrors experiment. we is shall suppose moment the origins of both frames have coincided (see 31 where for simplicity's sake a twodimensional case presented). §3. » we have transformation leads to the result (2. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS 3. and which our tenth axiom leads to a we have called the Marinov different from those of Galilei and Lorentz. and to be considered as a companion of the Lorentz transformation. we shall consider the socalled homogeneous transformation. constants.. when treated from a explam other experiments.v of these two. latter is in a certain aspect. Fig. it represents a vv/j^/jcv/. shall In the next section we is show that transformation of the space and time coordinates transformation. 31 25 . is However.
is the frame A" measured on to the traditional this clock. 31) the radius vectors r and r' into components and r.. Adding these two equations. R = vt = where clock) / y„t„.r (3. (3.yi.1) is the time read on a clock and Vh the velocity of frame is time read on a clock which velocity of at which is at rest in frame K (an absolute A" measured on this clock. while /„ is the rest in K' (a proper clock) and V. and formulas mogeneous Galilean transformation. ho 3.. According Newtonian conceptions. If we assume same time.2) (3. = r' + y„t„.Let us have a point P whose radius vector in frame K \s r (called the absolute radius vector) and whose radius vector in frame A" relative radius vector).4) Thus in such a case we can write the transformation formulas for the space and time coordinates in the form r r = r. r. clocks attached to K and A^' read the we obtain (3.T = » T.3) r r = r. we have that the t = i„. we shall have (3.Vt.7) between the periods of « transverse required by our tenth axiom.'.„r. is is r' (called the in The radius vector of the origin of frame It is K ' frame K R (called the transient radius vector). t Formulas (3.1).. t„. r.5) represent the direct. respectively. 26 . (3. THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION Now we shall search for a transformation of the space and time coordi nates which will lead to the relation n. Let us decompose 'p. as (fig.5) (3. (3.6) the inverse + yt.„r. ''.'pr and « longitudinal » light clocks. perpendicular and parallel to the direction of propagation of K '. = r' t„ = = t. y=y„.2.6) (3.
.7) of our tenth axiom if we lake the component of the relative radius vector contracted by the factor J^/c'^)"^ when expressed by the coordinates in frame K.... + (r. while according to the aetherNewtonian conceptions must be anisotropic.. if we (I — axiomatically assume as valid instead of the Newtonian relations parallel '' We = Vr.10) we introduce a blunt mathe matical contradiction into the traditional Newtonian mathematical apparatus. as supposed by Lorentz. taken at a given Thus r. or between two nonmaterial points..r is expressed by — Vt) neither a physical effect. '•par " >^ / = T.V t) = r ..9) to (3. This imperfection exists in Nature itself. if we wish to meet the requirement A" (3. As we have shown in detail in contradiction remains for ever in the formulas and years of intensive mathematical speculations rid Marinov (1975a)...Vt = r„„r r.. ... Making a transition from (3.^ — is f^l is expressed by or « dilation » (when rj.'..vawe length (distance) between two material points which can be connected by a rigid rod or which can move with respect to each other. this mathematical we must state that after we could to this not find a way to get of it. = r. we have to write instead of the relation (3.) (3.r moment..B.(l .. We have called this peculiarity in the propagation of light the aefherIMarinov character of light propagation.7).. as obtained by Einstein. (3. We ask the reader to pay due attention statement and not to blame our theory for mathematical imperfection. h r. + C= r.10) only because the velocity of light has not an exact aetherNewtonian character..„..11) 27 . About lengths one can speak only at a given moment !) and r^^^ ~ ^t are equal and we write the second relation (3... Thus.... (N.8) the following relation for the transformation of the radius vectors in frames K and r' = C. According toour theory..10) contraction (when r.„ and r. nor a result of measurement...9) the « Lorentzian » relations Vr = This « C » r. h J^' ~Jjy„ • (3.. i. — ^'z represent the.. r.According r' to the traditional Newtonian conceptions. we have = V.e.8) can meet the requirement (3.Vt (3..Vyc')''K Tp... . We must realize once and for all that light has not an exact aetherNewtonian character of propagation since its « thereandback » velocity (in a frame moving in absolute space) it is isotropic.
This formula, written
vector r
is
.
in
such a manner that only the absolute radius
its
represented, but not
transverse and longitudinal
components
Vr
'
''par
has thc form
1
r
=
r
+
r.V
1 1
t
[\
^
^(1
 V'/cy^
'
K'
(1

)
V
(3 12)
^
^
V'/c'V'^'
^
Let us
r' to
r.
now find the formula for Here we have two possibilities To assume To assume
is
the inverse transformation,
:
i.e.,
from
a)
that also in
frame K' the velocity of
light
is
isotropic
and
equal to c (the Einstein way).
b)
that the velocity of light
is
isotropic
and equal
to c only in
frame
K which
attached to absolute space (the Marinov way).
The
Einstein
way
leads to transformation of the time coordinates
i.e.,
where
the radius vectors should appear,
to relative
time coordinates, while the
Marinov way leads
to
transformation of the time coordinates where the
i.e.,
radius vectors should not appear,
to
absolute time coordinates.
in §3.3 the second.
Now we shall
If the velocity
follow the
first
way and
of light in frame A" is a55Mme^ to be isotropic and equal to assuming further that the velocity with which frame K moves with respect to A" (and measured on a clock attached to A") is equal with opposite sign to the velocity V with which frame A" moves with respect to A (and measured on a clock attached to A^, we can write (let us note that both these assumptions follow from the principle of relativity)
f,
then,
Adding formulas
'(1
(3.12)
I
and
(3.13),
we
obtain
t
r.V
J
'
,7\\/2  v'/c'y^
v
1/2
+
(I
 v'/c'y^
^^^^^
'(!

^'Vc')''^
y
^(1  KVc')''^
(3.12),
If in this
formula we substitue r'from
in
we
shall obtain the transl
formation formula for time
which Twill be expressed through
and
r
t
=
t
(1
 r. Vic' r,  V'/cy^
.
(3.15)
28
On
through
the other hand,
if in
formula (3.14) we substitute r from (3.13).
in
we
shall obtain the
transformation formula for time
which
t
will
be expressed
rand
r'
('
t
=
(1
+ 
r'.
Vic'
.
(3.16)
V'/c')*'^
Formulas
the inverse
(3.12), (3.15) represent the direct,
and formulas
(3.13), (3.16)
homogeneous Lorentz transformation. These formulas show
r'
t
that
not only the radius vectors r and
are two different quantities, but also the
time coordinates
and
f'
are two different quantities and are to be called
absolute time coordinate and relative time coordinate.
Thus, since the time coordinates
relative quantities, the light velocity
in
the Lorentz transformation are
in this
constancy
transformation
is
only
apparent. In
Marinov (1975a). we show how. proceeding from the Lorentz transformation, one can obtain the expressions for the light velocity in any inertial frame which are adequate to physical reality. Hence, according to
is
absolute spacetime theory, the Einstein general principle of relativity
invalid
and the Lorentz transformation is adequate to physical reality only if it is treated from our absolute point of view. Since Einstein treats the light velocity constancy as a physical fact and the general principle of relativity as
a
law of Nature, we consider the Lorentz transformation
in the
context of
special relativity as inadequate to physical reality.
Note
quate
physical
a given
that
we
consider the Galilei limited principle of relativity as ade
to physical reality.
This principle asserts that there
is
no mechanical
phenomenon by whose help one can establish the inertial motion of material system. Hence for the mechanical phenomena any inertial
is
relative space
isotropic.
relativity
For the electromagnetic phenomena the principle of
hold good. Thus for the electromagnetic
spaces are not isotropic.
does not
phenomena
the inertial relative
However, as Minkowski has shown, if we consider a 4space in which the any intertial frame are unified with the corresponding time coordinate multiplied by r (and by the imaginary unit), then this 4space turns out to be isotropic and homogeneous. As the Galilean
three space coordinates in
transformations
make
a group in the 3space. so the Lorentz transformations
is an exclusively great mathematical advantage and the 4dimensional mathematical apparatus developed by Minkowski has given an enormous help in the investigation of highvelocity
make
a group in the 4space. This
physical
In
phenomena.
our absolute spacetime theory, we work intensively with the 4dimensional mathematical formalism of Minkowski, always keeping in mind
29
that the fourth
dimension
is
not a time axis but a length axis along which the
time a)ordinates are multiplied by the velocity of light, and here the apparent
absoluteness of the light velocity
is
time coordinates. As a matter of
light velocity relative, as in the
fact,
always connected with the relativity of the the time coordinates are absolute and
shown by
the help of
Marinov transformation and as we have numerous experiments analysed in Part II of this book.
that
if
We
must note and emphasize
setting experiments
where only
electromagnetic
phenomena
are involved, then the principle of relativity
apparently holds good because of the mutual annihilation of the appearing
absolute effects. This principle breaks down only when setting experiments where combined electromagnetic and mechanical phenomena are involved,
as
is
the case with the
»
clocks
« coupledmirrors » experiment, the « antipodalexperiment and the ultrasonic « coupledshutters » experiment.
3.3.
THE MARINOV TRANSFORMATION
As
a result of our theoretical
is
and experimental work, we have come
to physical reality.
to
the conclusion that time
an absolute quantity and the Marinov transis
formation (Marinov, I978d)
this
adequate
all
By
the help of
transformation, one can explain
highvelocity experiments, including
if
those which contradict the Galilean as well as the Lorentz transformation,
the latter be treated in the
frame of special
relativity.
To
axiom
in
obtain the Marinov transformation,
we
shall
proceed from our tenth
(§2.4),
noting that
now we
shall not take into
account the influence of
the gravitating masses
on the
rates of the light clocks, a
problem considered
Marinov (1976a).
Thus, according to the tenth axiom
a) Light clocks with equal «
:
arms
»
have the same
rate,
independent of
the orientation of their «
arms
».
b) In any frame the time unit
clocks with equal
«
arms
»,
is to be defined by the period of independent of the velocity of the frame.
light
As we have shown in §2.4, the first assertion drastically contradicts the Newtonian conceptions. The second assertion represents not such a drastic contradiction because in the frame of the traditional Newtonian spacetime conceptions also one can define the time unit in any inertial frame by the period of light clocks with equal « arms ». However, in the traditional Newtonian frame, the inconvenience exists that one has further to define that the « arms » of the light clocks must always make the same angle with the velocity of the inertial frame used, e.^., their « arms » must be perpendicular to this velocity. In such a manner the absolute time dilation phenomenon will be introduced also into the traditional Newtonian theory. Thus, at first
traditional
30
Under this stipulation we shall obtain and (3.glance.17) » proper light clock with the same « arm which moves with velocity V absolute space will have a period (see (2.1) units (absolute or proper). light clock (see p.KVc')"2 T as ^^'^^ a time unit in frame K frame A" (called proper second).19) are to be written in the following form t„ r=ryt. Let us find written if first how the Galilean transformation formulas are to be one should assume that in any inertial frame the time unit is to be defined by the period of light clocks with equal « arms ». a in the traditional Newtonian theory) when they move with phenomenon which exists also but also the periods of many other greater physical processes (the periods of atomic clocks. it as the first seems that the second assertion has not such a « natural » character one and represents only a stipulation. However.V'/c'y'\ (3. the pulse of a man) becomes greater with the increase of its absolute velocity. then it is clear that when between two events.19) V = (1 y  V = (1 y/c')''^ V + K'/f')"^ we . At any rate. (3. 19)) Id " ~ c(l  VWc')''^ _ ~ (1 T . So far there is no experimental evidence permitting one to assert that the period of any system (say. t absolute seconds and /„ proper seconds have elapsed. = 1(1 . it turns out that not only the periods of light clocks become greater velocity in absolute space (we repeat. the relation between them will be If (at an appropriate choice ofd) we choose (called absolute second) and T„ as a time unit in tjl = T/T„ = in the  V'/c')''\ (3.2). A in (3.3) to which attach the relation (3. we think the statement about the time dilation is to be considered not as a stipulation but as an axiomatical assertion alien to the traditional Newtonian theory.20) Thus the transformation formulas (3. This problem needs additional theoretical and experimental investigation. 15) The period ofan absolute whose « arm » is </ will be T^ldlc. (3. the period of a spring clock. the meanlives of decaying elementary particles). supposing for definiteness that the « arms » of the light clocks must be always perpendicular to the absolute velocity of the frames.19) where T and T„ are measured same time from (3.21) 31 .
is to be done in the following manner exactly in the same way as in we come to the conclusion that if we wish to meet the requirement of our axiom about the independence of the light clock's rate on the orienta« arm ».e. represented. (3.12). However.. tenth tion of the clock's To obtain the inverse transformation.22) (3.22) the inverse Formulas (3. V is is K' with respect to absolute frame K) measured V.2. The introduction of this axiomatical (empirical) assertion into the Galilean transformation leads to the Marinov transformation. relativistic and formulas homogeneous space to Galilean transformation. = r' '^ in + (3. such a manner that only the relative radius its is . the velocity of frame in absolute In these formulas. seconds (called the absolute (called the proper transient velocity) velocity measured in proper seconds and c is the velocity of light along the « arm » of the absolute clock measured in absolute seconds. at the assumption of the time dilation dogma. V„ I ] r=^r. the experiment (the historical MichelsonMorley experiment was the first one) has shown that the rates of a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock are equal. transient velocity).^r + + rp„.+ ( ( + v„' to)yn . the same If. the traditional Newtonian conceptions lead to the conclusion that a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock have different rates (see §2. the transformation between the radius vectors r and r' is to be written in the form (3. would be given by the relativistic Galilean transformation.4).. when proceeding from the traditional Newtonian conceptions.. without trying to explain why Nature works in such a manner.20)1 = r. as well as along the « arm » of the proper clock measured in proper seconds.10).Vr')' ^ (3.1) and r (3. On the other hand. but not perpendicular and parallel components 'par will havc the form 1 r. written vector r' 'p.r = r' + y. one would come to the result that a « transverse » and a « longitudinal » light clock would have the same rate.23) This formula. We have assumed this empirical fact as an axiomatical assertion.(! .V^n^''^ Vt = V„t„ .21) represent the direct. (3. then a transformation of the space and time coordinates adequate to physical reality.24) (I + v„'/cy^ 32 . = r. we proceed from the formula (see (3.t„. t = i.A\ + K.„ + <„.r . : This §3. (i.
through (3. we can (3.24).2. we v' = V + 1 {\  V.20). the first adjective « absolute » be omitted) and v absolute relative velocity (as a » will absolute be omitted). Let us combine formula (3.20). dividing them by dl„ and introducing the notations v„ v. /. dt. 1 1 V 1 ^. On the other hand. Writing r'.„ dividing them by dt and introducing the notations v = dr/dt.25) and (3.28) the K. ) y . ^ '•"'• (3. Let us now obtain the Marinov transformation formulas for velocities.26) t/r.24) we can obtain the second formula (3. (3.28) the inverse Marinov transformation for velocities written in absolute lime.26) =^ /^(I + vj/c')"^ Formulas (3.25) ' = ''^ < ' (TttW= / " " 4^^ .28) velocities v and v' are measured in absolute time. For this reason we have written in (3.27) represents the direct. 12) we express y through y„ according to the second formula (3. dr\ dt„ instead of r.'. 33 . the adjective called the absolute absolute velocity (as a rule. r. and formula (3.25) and (3.If we express here K.21) and formula (3. 12) V according to the first formula (3. v' = dr'/di. (1  ' V'/c')''^' {„== t(\  V'/c')''^ (3. /. dt„ instead of r. then from (3.22) *" "*""*" ^ ' (I  V'/c')''' ~ ' ' 1^ . dr'. and formulas (3. absolute transient velocity y and not the proper transient velocity Formula (3.27) v= The will « V + (((1 .24) with the second formula (3. if in obtain the second formula (3.22). we can obtain the Marinov transformation for velocities written proper time. dt. ^ r'.21). (3. = in dr/dl„ for the proper absolute velocity and = dr'/dt„ for the proper relative velocity. then from and (3. Thus v must be rule.„ in the first formulas (3.12) with the second formula (3. Writing obtain in the first formulas (3.26) dr.25) represent the direct.y/c')'"  1 ] ^^^ + I } ^'.12) and (3. in a manner similar to that used in §3.26) the inverse homogeneous Marinov transformation.
that the velocities with respect to the moving frame A" are called while the clocks attached to A" are called proper. .KVf')"2 —. then first connection with the absolute absolute light velocity (as a rule. the adjective « absolute » will be omitted). This will be the Marinov transformation for velocities written in mixed time. this K decided to use a single word. having squared them. + VCOS0/C its (331) If we denote by c. the velocities with respect to the rest frame K are called absolute and the clocks attached to To have in the second case a terminological difference similar to the first case. even though terms.: = 1 c 1 — Vcos0/c = .30) ^^ = If 1. = c'.2 V .V'/c' 1 l^cos^ + V (3. because of the confusion in using too many different 34 .y^cos'9/c') + Iv'ycose' v in {\ .28) the angle between we can write formulas (3.One can write also the transformation formulas for velocities in which is the relative velocity expressed in proper time and the absolute velocity in absolute time.^ (3. Denoting the angle between v and yby 6 and (3. On the other hand.V'sm'e/c') . then these two equations to v') give (the second after a solution of a quadratic equation with respect c' = c .V'/c' + Vcosd'/c — .KVc')"^+ V\ where c' is we suppose measured = c and if we write v' i. shall write the transformation formulas for the velocities' magnitudes.32) and its connection with the proper absolute light velocity Co = (I  v^cy^ r. the relative light velocity absolute time.33) will be the same as that given by formula (3. finally we are also called absolute.^(1 .e. the absolute relative light velocity (as a rule.Vcose/c = (1 . we have considered calling the absolute clock and absolute time « universal ».' the proper relative light velocity.27) and m the following form. .31). Now we v'and ^'by after 0'. the lute » will adjective « abso be omitted) c will be c I c. might sometimes lead to misunderstandings. Note relative. However./Vr')"2 \ (I r ^^ 1 .29) (3. v'(l .. (3.
Here we must again repeat that the absolute and proper time intervals are phvsicallv different quantities. 35 . For transformation (where time time absolute).4.34) The frame A'. The distance distances are always absolute.35) ^^.^ {V. = t{\ V. we shall suppose.. t (I _ are — J/ / = (I 2/^2)1/2'  ' r. we shall ignore them. = ^ ~ —i^. From formulas (3. we designate dinates by upperscripts (primes) is and in the Marinov transformation (where we designate the proper time coordinates by subscripts (zeros). inverse transformation between the coordinates (v. ' (3.) in a proper velocity V^iV^S^ O) along the positive direction of the frame A and the coordinates (.v. and As in their vaxes are parallel to the this simple case the y. is vaxis of the rest r X = moving with X (I X./) in the absolute frame A and the coordinates {XiJ..'/c'y'\ (3. i\ — V^/c^V'^+ y.v. according to formulas (3. is reason. that the velocities of the different frames vaxis of the rest (absolute) frame./c) ^'.Vf')"^ where the velocities and ^'^ measured in absolute time.We designate the relative quantities by upperscripts (primes) and the this proper quantities by subscripts (zeros). However. it can easily be established that they form a group. ^ O) along the positive direction of the vaxis X.26) [see also formulas (3. Since the mathematical analysis in the general case is too cumbersome. The problem about is the eternal contradiction in detail in distances and distances considered « proper between proper Marinov (1975a). while the difference between proper distances and distances is only a contradictory mathematical result which appears because of the aetherMarinov character of light propagation engendered by the bidirectional light velocity isotropy in any inertial frame.and z coordinates are subjected to an indentical transformation.. the aetherMarinov cha racter of light propagation leads to the introduction of the notion ». GROUP PROPERTIES OF THE MARINOV TRANSFORMATION After a due examination of the Marinov transformations. in the Lorentz the relative time coor relative). 3.25) we obtain the following direct transformation between the coordinates (./) in A. for simplicity's sake. . t.) in a proper frame Kj moving with velocity V.20))./.
directly. Transitive property : The product of two transformations of the set.'/c'y'^{\  ' V. 7.Vc' T7T7T 1 ' )  V.Vc' "' '• ' V.. (3. .^ through the coordinates . in frame K.. A set of transformations.. replaced by 3. Thus 2. successively.^ . we obtain a transformation 2 is which has the same form as (3. identify form of the transformation (3. Ty. is set. .. Reciprocal property Every cal (or inverse) r^j. { ^— ) . . which a is also a member of the set has a unique recipromember of the set. T^.'/c')"^ t^=. forms a group if it has the following properties 1 . . = Ty. r. and .35) into formulas (3. *' I K. we can express the coordinates in frame . n... ^^ = ( n ..K. .. Now we shall : prove that these transformations form a group.t. into the corT. (3. (I  v. .36) for the transformation Ty.39) 36 . if The one takes into account the corresponding transformation for transitive property for the Marinov transformation is proved i. will have the same form in which the number I is replaced by 2 and the number 2 by r. Ty. Thus the transitive property is proved We mention here that the transitive property for the Lorentz and Galilean transformations can be proved only velocities...37) being defined as performing T. . Identity property The set includes one « identity » transformation. Thus the inverse of Ty.36) occurs : = V.34). where 7!. Substituting formulas (3. responding formulas for the transformation .36) These formulas are absolutely symmetric with respect in to the coordinates both frames. set is equivalent to a member of the the product r... a transformation T. The 3. : Tji . T. without taking into account the transformation for velocities.38) for V. r„ = r„ (3. and If formulas (3.K. = 7. is member of the 7.. T.Substituting formulas (3.36) in which the number right. whose product with any other member of the set leaves the latter unchanged..3 = T.e....36) give a transformation Ty. 3. (3.
will register the time df in will will even when he surpasses the prescribed speed limit (according to his calculation) he would not be stopped by the policemen to pay a In relativistic physics.)T.3). are synchronized by the help of a long rotating rigid shaft by the help of which the car measure the velocity v of the car. and vice versa. will measure the proper velocity v„.„ The proper y = velocity dr dt„ = dr dlO  = (1 v . with the proper elements of motion) because in such a case the problem about the synchronization of spatially separated clocks is eliminated.. a car moving along which we absolute space. thus. thus.. cover the distance and. fine.40) The associative property can easily be proved. The driver supplied with a single clock will register the proper time dl. we work with the proper velocities (in general. consider suppose at rest in dr.) = (T... (3. Thus the Marinov transformations form a group... we introduce the following two types of velo city The velocity dr v=. Obviously..AT.4. the driver will always register a higher velocity and Newtonian time synchronization). in which the car will cover the same distance and.2) i'Vc')"2 a given road For example. §4. 4. the distance between whom a is supplied with two clocks (imagine for clarity.T.T. .36) can be obtained by writing Associative property : If three succeeding transformations are performed..the The reciprocal of the transformation number 2 instead of I.e.1. v'/c')"^  (4. 4. Two policemen. 37 . ELEMENTS OF MOTION VELOCITY As already stated (§3. (3. light clocks) which (i.. then T.
thus acceleration is called f= mu f„ = m u„. 4.. foo "= f^ i*<m (4.4) momentum and proper momentum of the material point. dt„ d dr — ^dt: — ) = 1 u  + v — v.8) are. The time component of the 4acceleration can be expressed through the acceleration and velocity. respectively.7) v'^c'Y The second proper easily acceleration represents the space part of a 4vector called the 4acceleration. = (I u  + v c' v'/c')'" i\ v. 38 . — = dt.u . thus material point by velocity is called the p = mv. first proper kinetic force and second proper kinetic force of the material point. are.2. material point by its The product of the mass of a the kinetic force.vVc')"2 its (43) The product of the mass of a momentum.u r.dr. the p„ = mv„ (4. the kinetic force.4velocity. v'/c' cMi  (4.v'/c^y (4. ACCELERATION We introduce The the following three types of acceleration : acceleration u = dv d'r —— = —— dt dt' (4. The proper velocity represents the space part of a 4vector called the The time component of the 4velocity is the proper light velocity (see (3.33)] c = ^) dt„ = (1 f .6) The second proper acceleration u = dv. respectively.5) ^ The first proper acceleration dv„ M = — dt = d — — ( dt W ) ( .
4.3.
SUPERACCELERATION
We introduce the following four types of superacceleration
The superacceleration
du
dt
:
(Pv
dt'
cPr
(4.9)
do
The
first
proper superacceleration
du„
dt
d^v^
d^
do
do
(—
^
,
dr
.
)
.
dL
(4.10)
The second proper
superacceleration
du^
d'v„
d
d
.
dr
The
third proper superacceleration
du,„
d
,
dy„
.
d
d
,
dr
.
Putting (4.7) into (4. 12), we obtain the following expression for the third proper superacceleration through the velocity, acceleration and superacceleration of the material point
111
^
(1
H'
4
2)
u{v
.
u)
\
V
lO
\
v{v
.
w)
4
Av
c*
{v
(I
.
uY
(4.13)

v'/c'y^
c'{\

v'/c'Y'^

v'/c'y^
The
third proper superacceleration represents the space part of a 4
vector called the 4superacceleration.
The time component of
the 4super
acceleration can easily be expressed through the superacceleration, acceleration
and
velocity.
its
we do
For the product of the mass of a material point by not introduce a special name and symbol.
superacceleration
§5.
5.1.
TIME ENERGY
THE NONRELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION We obtain the form of the time energy of a material point with
mechanics by integrating the axiomatical relation
e„
mass
m in
(5.1)
nonrelativistic
(2.1 1)
= mv'/2 +
Const.
39
Por
rest
»/
=
t\
,
the time energy of the material point
energy
which
is
given by the relation
(2.3),
so that
must be equal to its we can assume
Const
=
e,
and thus
e„
= m c^ + m
v^ 11
=
e^
+
^^
(5.2)
The
difference between the time and rest energies
is
called the kinetic
energy. Thus, in nonrelativistic mechanics, the kinetic energy has the form
ey
= m
v'/2
.
(5.3)
5.2.
THE RELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION
To
obtain the time energy of a material point
in relativistic
1)
mechanics
we
have to put into the axiomatical assertion (2.1
v.
the proper velocity v„
instead of the velocity
There are three
de°
possibilities
= m
v„.
dv
dv„
(5.4)
de„
= mV =
.
(5.5)
de„„
m
v„. dv„
,
(5.6)
and
after the integration of these three formulas
we obtain
three different
expressions for the time energy in relativistic mechanics
go ==
 mc'O 
v'/c'y'\
(5.7)
e^
=
(1
 v'/cy~
'
(5.8)
€„„
=
I
m c'
I
T

'
(5.9)
v'/c'
where
all
constants of integration are taken equal to zero, so that for v '^z c
we obtain
e°
=  mc' + m
e„
v'/2
= =
e,
e,
+
e^,
,
e^
(5. 10)
= mc^ + m
v'/2
+
(5.
1
1)
e„„
= m cyi + m
v'/2
= ej2 +
all
e^
.
(5. 12)
Thus
relativistic
for
i^
«
r the kinetic
energy of
these three forms of the
time energy has the same value as
rest energies are different.
in nonrelativistic
mechanics,
f'„
though their
Only the
rest
energy of
has the
40
value
e,
postulated by our third axiom.
if
The
rest
energies o{ e" and
e...,
can be
obtained equal ioe,
this reason,
additional constants of integration are introduced. For
we choose e„ as trnie (or proper) energy of the material point. However, we must emphasize that e" and e„„ can adequately play the same
role.
We introduce
e" e„
e„„
the following terms
:
— — —
v„
Lagrange lime energy, Hamilton time energy, Marinov time energy.
velocity of light represents the time part of
Theproper energy divided by
a 4vector called the
/)„
4momentum whose space
is
part
is
the proper
momentum
= m
.
This quantity
denoted by
A,
=
—
e„
=
nt c„
=
— mc
—
tnc
is
(5.13)
and
is
called the proper time
(absolute) time
momentum; the quantity p = momentum. Thus p = mv can be called the
c,
called the
(absolute) space
momentum, v and
on.
respectively, (absolute) space
and time
velocities,
and so
Obviously, the Hamilton time energy
energy and the
rest
e.,
can be called the proper time
symbol
latter,
c,
when
this
is
as a rule,
it by the cannot be confused with the charge of the electron; the denoted by us by q,. (see axiom V^.
energy
e,
the (absolute) time energy, denoting
All three types of time energy e"
physics.
,
e.,
,
and
e„„
are used in theoretical
The time energy e„ plays the most important role, though many formulas obtain a more compact form when Lagrange time energy e" is used
(see, for
example,
(6.14)].
Comparing
proper mass
is
(5.8) with (2.4) [or the
(4.2)],
second relation
(4.4) with (2.12)
when
taking into account
we conclude
that the relation
between mass and
m„ =
(1
m

—
.
(5.14)
i/Vc')''^
Note
that the axiomatical relation (2.3) represents the
is
formula which
considered as an
«
ideological basis
»
for
famous Einstein modern physics in
call «
our nuclear century. As a matter of
introduction of a
fact, relation (2.3)
serves only for the
new
derivative
physical quantity which we
«
mass
»
and
which differs from the axiomatical quantity
factor.
energy
»
only by a constant
at all the
The whole of physics can be constructed without introducing
«
quantity
mass
»
because relation (2.3) represents a trivial tautology.
of relation (2.3)
How
ever, the establishment
was an enormous
scientific feat.
41
13) and (2..1) = I 9'*i Time energy depends only on thus the velocities of the material points and dE„=X ^ . acceleration. .2) into the fundamental axiomatical equation (2. e„. = 2 ^ (^) . (6. relation (6.2) i/j and the V.4) In this equation all n (as a matter of fact. (6. (6. .5). Denote by r. 6.1^.dr. = dv^ . u. we obtain i 2 TJ:(^) +r— dr. its spacetime energy is to be consispace dered only order in relativistic physics since availability leads to effects of second in vie. the radius vector.dv. . that the particleswaves is still contradiction not lucidly resolved. we have by dV and </£". = 2 ^ . §6.dv.The greatest accomplishment of a scientist is the revelation of a simple truth where others see a complexity or nothing at all. As space energy depends only on the distances between the material points. although we must add. . Thus in nonrelativistic physics we have to consider only and time energies. dU = ^ ^— i . =0.15). THE LAGRANGE EQUATIONS THE NONRELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION As can be seen from (2.3) dr. .1. . dl dv.. Let us assume that in a time dt the space energy V and the time energy £"„ of an isolated material system of m material points have changed their values v. which can be proved by dividing both sides by di. Almost the same can be said for de Broglie's relation (2. and energy of the /th material point. . Substituting (6. = I .16) and dividing by dt.2) where we have taken into account (5. velocity.1) and (6. and 42 . 3n) expressions in the brackets must be identically equal to zero because otherwise a dependence would exist between the components of the velocities of the different material points.dr.
THE RELATIVISTIC CONSIDERATION In relativistic physics. equation (6...8) Thus the potential forces with general. is The F.6.4) we obtain the following system of n vector equations 7/^="!)^' '^''^ "' ^^^^ which are called the Lagrange equations and represent the fundamental equations of motion in nonrelativistic physics..5). 8£„ (6. it =  will be at/. (6.. we can write 8fk. Obviously./dr./9r...9) dv. on the /th point and the potential force which the /th material point exerts on the /th point is F.' potential force which the/th material point exerts ()ty./ar. 6. Introducing the notation r = and calling F.' =  F... is the kinetic energy of the /th material point and E^ is the kinetic energy of the whole system. Since U. and the first relation (4.2. in equation (6.  ^ all // (6. of the /th material point. since the electric 43 . . This is obvious for the electric space energy (see formula (2. (6. where U.9)).5) represents the kinetic force/.' = — dU.8). F./dr. i..7) which form they are called the Newton equations (or Newton's second law). This result called Newton's third law.2).this would contradict our sixth axiom which asserts that the time energy of a its material point of a system depends only on own velocity.1) will preserve its form..e. we see that side of (6. where t\. (4.5) in the form A = in F. i = 1.. depends on the distance between both points. =  dU. two parts of a system) act which two material points of a system (in on each other are always equal and is oppositely directed along the line connecting them. which  I material points exert on we can write equations (6. is the space energy of these two material points..w. Taking the left into account (5.' . dE„ dv..5) de„.2. dv^ dv. Thus from (6. the potential force the /th point.
V. (6.10) where e'] is the Lagrange time energy of the /th material point. 44 .].13) into the energy conservation law (2. (6. we shall have . = 2 i [^. In relativistic physics. is the part of the spacetime energy in which the /th material point From the last two equations we obtain dW= ^ i [ dW — or. I . it is (see (2.16) §6.charges and the distances between them do not depend on the velocities of the charges.dr + d(—.„ I i= 9«'i . = 2dW.. dW 9ri dW .10) and (6. In relativistic physics.11) = I However..13) =1 Substituting (6. + —. dW= i "2 = 1 (— 9r. = d I j ^ W. (6.e.v.dr.)= 2 9if. ov. de. However. as can be seen gravitational space energy physics. instead " of equation " (6.14). takes part.= 9»'i (6. As the spacetime energy material points and on their depends on the distances between the velocities.) di—). (6. we obtain by the help of the same reasonings the fundamental equations of motion in relativistic physics as in i = 1. The peculiarities from formulas (2.v.]. in magrctism will be considered the present general analysis we shall i. we have to take into account also the spacetime energy VV.7) and (5. dr. velocity independent.) = . (6. dW dv.13) and (2. dW dW dv. assume that the gravitational charges (the proper masses) are constant.2) we shall have 9£. dW .1).+ d{) dv.14) which we call the full Lagrange equations.dv.12) = I i = ^ where W. .2 /J. i dW.v. the becomes velocity dependent in highvelocity of the fundamental equation of motion in graviin §8.1 and dividing by dt. .15)] 2 d{.
(1. respectively. are called. then the electric and magnetic energiesof the whole system of AJ+ charges in which this charge^ takes part velocity v. IV) (6. we can easily obtain. whose distances The quantities to a certain space point (called the reference point) are . the laws of energy. The full Newton's third law is Using the Lagrange equations and proceeding from the homogeneity of homogeneity of space. ^=2m„^^ and magnetic potentials at (7. §7. IV = ^ c v. 1 will be t/ = <7<I). and angular momentum conservation in nonrelativistic and relativistic physics (the first one representing time. electric point.1) 45 . electric charge q. 0=2^. The full Newton equations are where /. r. momentum.1) the reference in We f„ shall further ' work in the COS system of units which it is assumed = /i„ = I. .The quantity f.1. moving with velocities v. If at the reference point a material point with mass m. ^ = — i^(U Br. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETISM THE NEWTONLORENTZ EQUATION Let us have a system of ai electric charges </.. respectively.A . 7. and istotropy of space. and proper energy e„ is placed. is called the full kinetic force of the /th material point.15) is called the full potential force acting on the /th material point. the assertion of our ninth axiom).
4) where (H/J/OO (i^ ..6) c dt commonly it is called the Lorentz equation. dl is is the change of A for a time dt at a given space point grad) A dt the change of A dt. voiA . — dt = qv.. . (7.1) as functions of time) and divergence from the magnetic potential A. . the Lorenlz equation represents the think that Newton equation rename it in electromagnetism. scalar To this equation we always attach its supplement which can be obtained after multiplication of both sides by the velocity of the charge  = I. grad) /i (7.8) ot called. we can write the NewtonLorentz equation a c V ^ f. grad)/! + {A . full As one can see./.9) Taking partial derivative with respect to r. time from the electric potential the following relation $ [consider the distances in the expression (7. we can write the scalar supplement in the form — =qE ^ dt + — c vy.*)) under the condition v in the form dp„ = Const. respectively.7) Introducing the quantities E=  grad <^  18/4 — — c .(gradcl>l B= )./<) = (v.. (7. grad) i^ + w x rot^ + A x rotv (7. we obtain q (p^+^A)= at c d  V A .B.10) c at 46 . ^ . (v. (7. (7. V during this time and motion of charge q with velocity and taking into account the mathematical relation due to the grad(v. = ^i. q grad ( <!> ) (7. 14).2) inlo (6. and we reasonable to the its NewtonLorentz equation. Since it is dA dt dA d/ + .E ^ (7.= dt which is q (grad 4) + 1 9/4 )+ I i^x rot^..Pulling (7.. the electric NewtonLorentz equation and its and magnetic intensities. we obtain diV/4 = 1 a* .3) c This is the full Newton equation in electromagnetism and we call it the NewtonLorentz equation.
12) is valid also for r = 0. we shall obtain for the integral of the lefthand side S^{l/r)dy = fd\w[grad{\/r)]dV = fgTadi{\/r). Using the Gauss theorem. Indeed. Only for r = does the lefthand side give the uncertainty 0/0. let us integrate 12) over an arbitrary sphere with radius R which has a centre at the frame's origin.12) r = r 0 = (.2. 47 . = 8{. Since call in it our the approach it is a logical result obtained from the axioms.)\ 1=1 J {r) = V 1=1 >. (7. we equation of potential connection.v' I.JS V .12) where A = 8V9.d'/dy^ + 9V8z' is the Laplace operator and r is the distance between the frame's origin and a space point with radius vector r. The static and quasistatic cases.8(rr. putting into (7. (7. prove the validity of the following mathematical relation We shall A(l/r) =  4 77 5(r).11) where r is the radius vector of the reference point. r. 6(rr.14) V s where is 5" is the surface of the sphere of integration whose volume is l' the elementary area (taken as a vector) of the integrational surface and JS whose direction always points outside from the volume enclosed. and the righthand side give the uncertainty 5(0). (7.\) 6(i) 8(z) Now we shall establish the differential electric connection between the charge potentials.). THE CONNECTION BETWEEN DENSITIES AND POTENTIALS The charge and current densities at a given reference point arc the following quantities (these are the socalled 5densities) Qir)= i q. 7. To establish whether relation (7. and current densities and the and magnetic A. (7. and 8{r) 6function of Dirac. is are the radius vectors the threedimensional of the single charges.V' + V' + 2')*'\ (7.13) we obtain an identity.This relation is commonly called the « Lorentz condition ».
and summing taken into account (7.0. . i = 1. Let a moving frame transformation between K and K' he a r. since the integration represent spheres with arbitrary radii.". 2 n. (7. the following differential connection between potentials and densities for static and quasistatic systems with velocity equalities (7.„. or electric current them.' be attached to this /point and the special one. is the radius vector of a space point charge q.z).zT =  .11). or on the grounds of our axiom A(l/rwhere r.47r5(r r.16) and (7. in a direction opposite to the direction of the vector dS.12) taken over the same arbitrary sphere. In such a case the radius vector of the /point in A" will be If the radius vector = (0.).vaxis of a rest frame K and at the initial A^' zero moment = crosses the frame's origin. on the grounds of the fundamental propery of the 6function. then.0). ^.v. in of a reference point frame be K is r = (.15) '^ s The integral on the right of (7.V. both integrands also equal. A/< =  — c y.. A<I>=47r^. gives The integrals (7.j. and thus S ^{\lr)dV= V /^= ^JdS= s '^ 47r.1) and (7.16) are equal and.^l 0.\l) are the radius vectors of « different space points. Let us consider a point (calling it the /point) which moves i at velocity v along the . according to the Marinov transformation (3.17) where a moving Multiplying any of the a charge q. is (static case) or where at any moment can be found (quasistatic case). }Jc.The vector grad( /r) 1 = — rlr^ is directed to the frame's origin. we can prove the validity of the following relations same way. (7. In the domains of must be Thus the relation (7. we obtain. the radius vector r' of the same reference point in the moving frame A" will r=(x. by the corresponding electric charge. Ti I) = ..i9) 48 .15) 4 7r/ 8(^)f/^^= V  4 tt ..v.34). i.r. {l. Let us now assume placed v. (7.. after having element divided by c.e. for homogeneity and isotropy of space.12) is valid also for r first = 0. that r. B.18) The dynamic case.
23) To establish integrate (7.r. (7.20) frame expressed through the coordi nates in frame K will be r = \r — r. and the righthand side the uncertainty fi(0).24) For all points of the volume V the integrand equal to zero.. vector r = (v.23).21) the proper distance and we have considered Marinov (1975a).v.^^. (w.22) over fC V {\/ r„)dV = .22) the expression (7. r„ we obtain an Only for r. putting into (7.r.20) for identity.0).e. V = 0.. is due to the aetherMarinov character of light propagation and this has nothing to do with a physical length contraction (with the socalled « Lorentz contraction »).22) is valid also for r„ = an arbitrary sphere with radius R which has a centre at the point whose coordinates are given by (7.r) and moving point with a radius vector = .\ = [{X — V ty y' + z' ] "\ (7.3. and the derivatives with respect v.47r5(r— where and r„ .0. the point with coordinates given by (7. Thus we can spread 1 the integral over a small i.The distance between the /point and the reference point considered frame K' but expressed through the coordinates in frame K will be r„ in = r'r: = rr. The difference between these two distances. (7.. on the lefthand side is domain around around the frame's origin of to ... = (^ This distance considered in /_ K and + ^. i.). The proved validity of the following mathematical relation can now easily be ZA(l/0 = .Att f V 8(r .e. =  0. let us whether relation (7. As a matter of fact.)dV.22) = r d'/dx^ + is d'/dy' + d'/dz  d'/c' 3/ is the d'Alembert operator = I  r. r. 2 = 0. here we are considering the distance between two points moving with respect to one another which cannot be connected by a rigid rod and thus it is senseless to We call r the distance and r„ in detail in them speak about contraction of such a rod. But at r„ — it is /r^ — oo.23) does the lefthand side give the uncertainty 0/0. r will 49 . K '. Indeed. (7. 'l (7. I „ the proper distance between a a space point with radius r. as already said in §3. for X vt = 0.
and.30) Putting (7.AA ^ J 77 (7.29) and put here the mathematical relation AA = grad(div/l)  Tot(rotA).27) now take partial derivatives with respect to time from both sides (7.25) in the form 4  \ ci'A rr = . on the grounds of the fundamental property of the 6function. I dE 80 I d'A Write the second equation (7. much can be neglected with respect for the case (7. Thus the relation (7.2A.8) and making use of the following mathematical relations rot (grad O) = 0. divfi = 0. (7. 7. we conclude that the integrands must be equal. as in §7.23).26) we obtain the first pair of the MaxwellLorentz equations TotE Let us =  —— I f) R . /J. (7. of the first equation dividing it by I c. THE MAXWELLLORENTZ EQUATIONS Taking rotation from both sides of the first equation (7. In the same manner as in §7.29) into (7.3.24) to the integral (7.25) densities Q{t) and J{t) are functions of time. c (7. I we obtain dE "" ''''^= 50 Att 7 87 7'^ (73') . the following connection from the relation (7. gives the same result. /.10).22) we can obtain between potentials and densities for the most general dynamic case C\^ where the = 471 Q(t). div (rotA) = .A=—J{t). The integral on the righthand side of (7.8).Hence the last one So we reduce the integral on the lefthand side of (7.8) and diver gence from both sides of the second equation (7.24).15) which gives — Att.28) and taking into account (7. (7.22) is valid also increase faster than the derivative with respect to to the first ones.2A.
1 the fundamental equations of motion gravimagretism —[ 1 + (— — . v^/c'^ part of their space energy). ^ i r 9f^. Thus in relativistic gravitation instead of equation (6.10) and (6. spacetime energy of two material points moving with velocities .34) ^nQ.v. v.10).1.33) Putting (7.13).16). /9^« I J 9^. (8. 8. we obtain by the help of the in same reasonings as in §6.2 we pointed out that the gravitational energy in highvelocity physics is velocity dependent. Thus we can assume magretism is that the differential of the spacetime energy in gravi given by formula (6.13) into the energy conservation law (2. and we can consider the gravitational charges (the proper masses) in the magretic energy as constants. 1) we shall have ^ . (6.Let us now take divergence from both sides of the first equation (7. 9t/. (7.31) and MaxwellLorentz equations.1). di^i J ._.33) into (7. (7.th material point.2 n. . at (7. . (8.^ = or.1) Spacetime energy represents a v.2) where u. 51 .32) and taking into account (7. dr. is the acceleration of the . a7. FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS IN GRAVIMAGRETISM THE NEWTONMARINOV EQUATION In §6. represent the second pair of the §8. we obtain (7. Putting (8.34) 4v Q . = I dv.«i) — = — .8) div£= *A<I)Write the first — c —(di\A). is very small with respect to space energy (the v. v. I = 1.32) equation (7..25) in the form ^^=77 div£ = Equations (7. v.
4) into the full Lagrange Newton) equation (6. (8. + at ^) + c dt " c i. i= \ . moving with velocities v.7) and (5.. W. X roL4.f„= m„v.4) Putting (8.14). motions with large in tangentional accelerations cannot be realized and. the quantity dU^/dv. = = I '•i 2y ^^ cr. =0. (8. ^. and having proper masses tials m.5) and its scalar supplement  ^v. = 2y— i ...{gr2id^. v. w takes part will = m„<I). Let us consider a system of n masses m.14). are the distances to a certain reference point where a mass m moving // with velocity v and having proper mass m„ be is placed. we can write the fundamental equations of motion gravimagretism in the general form (6. (8.6) Introducing the quantities .+^). = c (full v. (8. Introduce the gravitational and magnetic poten O.14).11.A^ .3) where r. as a rule...As it has the direction of the vector can be seen from formulas (2. In gravitation. The masses in gravitational and magretic energies of the whole system of + I which mass U.m„(grad$. we obtain the NewtonMarinov equation ^^ =/o = . assuming (dU^/dVi) .
18). 8.= lSlL^c\ Co yv^:^^^ ±1±L '' ^^. = q/c. 8. = 1 (see the beginning of §7.3. c at divfi. q. REDUCED CHARGES AND MASSES If we take a general look at the fundamental equations of electromagnetism and gravimagretism. as well as equations (7. q.11) We where wish to emphasize that equations (7. are written at the assumption that l/e„ working the COS system of units.) (8.16) 53 .25). f in (8.14) instead of the electric charges.3 we can obtain the first and second pairs of the MaxwellMarinov equations rotG=^.12) rot B^ = in \ dG dt 4 — c 77 ^ Y "„ div G =4 tt y M„ .„ 8(r  r.10) we can case establish in the these densities same manner as in §7. With the reduced charges and masses the space and spacetime energies of two material points will be written U. = 0.2.= y r c^ . ^. (8.. (8.2 the following relation between and the gravimagretic potentials for the most general dynamic ^<lf^= 4 77 Y MO. we shall establish that it is more reasonable to work with the reduced electric charges and reduced masses.Introducing the proper mass and proper the socalled 6densities) momentum densities (these are ftoir)= I i >= I m„. (8. m.. THE MAXWELLMARINOV EQUATIONS In the same manner as in §7.15) r U. ^Ar) = I 2 « I p.13) c whose analogues electromagnetism are the MaxwellLorentz equations.S(rr). =  Y r v.^^^ (8. we ^A. and masses. m.1). = m/c (8. = /u.= are —ynAt).'V.
13)) '^P" =^(^cE+vXB).All equations in electromagnetism and gravimagretism will obtain more symmetric forms when the reduced charges and masses are used. we introduced the quantity the period of the material point.2)] mv„= — The quantity t is V.2) i^Vc')' Multiplying both sides of point. the NewtonLorentz equation (7. .17) It is electron and the mass of the electron but important to note that universal constants are not the charge of the their reduced values (see §12). according to relation (2.E.5) where n 54 is the unit vector directed along the velocity of the material point.3) in the Write equation form niv„ = htn. In Marinov (1978b) we give a detailed analysis of the socalled « We Mercury problem ». (9. have considered the fundamental electromagnetic equations in Marinov (1978a) and the fundamental gravimagretic equations in Marinov (1978b).5).8)1 e„ — (1 '^ "  = hp.'= \/T is (9. (9.. (8. called our third axiom. Thus we shall have (see (2. ample. The quantity . this equation by the velocity v of the material we obtain (see (4.1) called the frequency of the material point considered. (9. For ex.5) and (5. (9.3) = V v/c' (9.4) called the wave number of the material point m. ^=q. In PARTICLES AND WAVES T.v.9) will be written as follows (see (5. §9.
the particleswaves » contradiction docs not originate logical difficulties... large. end of §5. as the reader can see on reading book. = and = mc'/h (9. of the material point and are Obviously the rest wave number of A. according to our categorization. in classical (nonquantum) as. equal to zero and the rest wavelength. « particle » character of the material « and the quantities said at the T.. ^r. and we have (9./J. The quantity A is = \lk = c'/vv (9.9) are called the rest frequency rest period equal to v and T. where.6) called the wave vector of the material point.8) v\ = The quantities v.7) called the wavelength of the material point. . T.10) (9.5) and (9. infinitely Formulas (9. If the material point considered is a photon.2) can be written (see (4. respectively. highvelocity physics will be understood after the acceptance of our absolute spacetime theory. for v is = 0. then v = c. The quantities points /71..4)] : a) with the help of the frequency hp (9. Nevertheless.11) These formulas are called de Broglie's relations. 55 .The vector quantity *=Xn=— i/n=— is V (9.e. the dialectic unity of opposites which the ideas of particles and waves offer is still not lucidly enough resolved.2. We have the feeling that this contradiction will never be understood with such clarity As we example. is any material point. defined Vr by the relation \/T. e„ describe the 1c. for physics. v. the « phenomenon this inter ference is not considered. c. \ describe their wave » character. i.
due motion of source and observer kinematic frequency in it with respect to absolute space. The frequency p registered is given by formula (9. FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH SHIFTS OF LIGHT 10. Let us now suppose (fig. KINEMATIC SHIFT (THE DOPPLER EFFECT) The light Doppler effect is the difference between the frequency is and wavelength with which a photon those emitted from a source of radiation and to the measured by an observer. A review of the theoretical part of this given in this A. B. 10 56 . 10. photons which rests in by an observer (receiver) who is also at rest in absolute space and the wavelength X. are called emitted frequency and emitted wavelength.1) that the observer is at rest in absolute space at the point O' and the light source moves with velocity v from the Fig. which he can measure. and we have considered paper is Marinov (I978e). we call this effect also the and wavelength shifts of light. Source and observer at rest.8).§ 10. observer at rest. subsection. The relation between them Let us suppose that there is a source (emitter) of absolute space. Source moving.1.
3) = r'/r.1) we obtain vJp = \/K. position and angle be written without any upperscript. by that segment equal and parallel If in fig. (as a matter of fact. from our third axiom in which the « burst » model of the material points is postulated.2) The triangles S'Q„Q and O'S^'are \/\„ similar and thus (10. p. but some other. distance. = c. we make the following stipulation The emission. different quantities. We shall suppose that the wavelength of the interchanged photon is much less than the distance between source and observer and. We repeat that we consider the case where the is distance between source and observer the much greater than the wavelength of clarity). Now. while the reception distance.„ the middle angle. moving.„ A„. We must note that when defining these angles a certain freedom is inevitable which leads to certain differences in the notations and in the formulas from those of our earlier papers (Marinov. We attach the subscript « „ » to the received (observed) will frequency and wavelength and not to the emitted which without any subscript. the emission and reception positions of the source can be considered as points. When the source frequency v and will not and measured if frequency and wavelength. thus. whose final point is Q).. From (9.position 5" where a photon is emitted to the position S where the source will be at the moment when the photon will be received by the observer. we have to present the observed wavelength A„ by the segment S'Q. 0' is called the emission angle. 1972a. 1970.. we have (10. (10. 6 the reception angle and d. reception and middle mo: ments. photon (we have enlarged the wavelength diagram for Since the photon moves in absolute space with velocity c. respectively.8) and (10. in general. 101 then. 57 . proceeding {oS'Q. position will be written The upperscript « ' » will be attached to the emission and angle. 1973). The source will be at the middle position S. the observer at rest will not register the measure the wavelength A which are to be registered the source be at rest and which we have called the emitted is we present the emitted wavelength by the segment S'Q. once and for all.„ at the middle moment between the emission and reception moments.1) p„K. reception and middle angles are subtented by the velocity of the moving object and the line connecting the object at rest with the moving object at ihe emission. which we call the observed (or received) frequency and wavelength.
on the other hand. (10.5) 0„ = <?'.i/Vc')''2 (' I .vcosO/c — . For^ = For ^„.3) (and then formulas from (10. both measured on an absolute V= From V. both formulas (10. call the effect traverse. we obtain from the similar triangles r'/r S'Q„Q and S'OO' = c'/c.5) and. and S'Q are. to the velocity of light with respect clock. we have to write /„ = r'.6).v'/c')'" vcosd/c' Formulas (10. = 77/2 + v/c.„ 77/2 v/lc. = 11/10' v/c. n/l v/lc. cosO = cos^. squaring them and writing cos^' = cos^. propordonal to to the abso to the velocity of light with respect absolute space) to and the to the relative light velocity c '(i.6) can be obtained directly from (10. respectively. (10.^^^ Multiplying. (1  (10. we call the 0. antetraverse and traverse Doppler effects are called common name.e.31) in which we write obtain (1 1  v'/c')^'^ 1 vcosd/c + vcosd/c . call the effect antetraverse. using formulas (3. 0.e. following our present notation./) ^.2) and (10.. 0' = tt/I + v/lc. where a is an algebraic quantity.6)] if we should use formulas (4.v^/c'Y'^ (1 r 1 .„ — a. moving observer). we the last three relations.. 7r/2. if we should suppose that the source is at rest and the observer moving from the emission position O' to the reception position O. For For 0=0 0' = (or 77). on one hand. thus obtaining r = 1 r + vcosO'/c = (1 .4) since the segments S'Q„ lute light velocity c (i.On the other hand. both formulas (10. (10. which give the relation between the emission and reception distances and where. we we we call the Doppler Doppler Doppler effect posttraverse. transverse Doppler effect. we obtain within the necessary accuracy ^\ + vcosOJc' = 0. The by the 58 posttraverse.„ = 77/2.21) obtained in Marinov (1975a).v'/c'Y'^ .„ ^\ . = = = 7t/2 +  v/2c.vcosdjc Doppler effect longitudinal.„ + a. = 77/2.5) v'/c'Y _ ^" 1 + vcosO/c _ (1 . .
. Let us now suppose (see again fig. The motion of the observer with respect to absolute space leads only to a change in the velocity and frequency of the observed photons but not to a change in their wavelengths. does not correspond to physical reality. (10. to the first formula (10. we have A.8) can be introduced. as well as the definitions for longitudinal and transverse Doppler 59 . One can measure directly only the wavelength of standing waves. f Here again a formula analogical effects. ( 10. (10. We have to stress also that a direct measurement of the wavelength cannot be performed. = From (9.e.9) and ( 10.vcosd/c . If one should accept that the motion of the observer leads to a change in the wavelength. We must emphasize that the wavelength is to be measured always with respect to absolute space. Thus for our case of source at rest and moving observer.C.31) in which we write V = 1 i/. 10) we obtain c/c. 10. we obtain (10 12) = (1 . the relation between the observed frequency and wave length will be kK = c.8). Source at rest.1) that the source is at rest in absolute space at the point 5 and theobserver moves with velocity v^from the emission position O'to the reception position O. their wavelength can change only when the source moves with respect to absolute space.v^cy^ f —= . All measurements of the wavelength of unidirectionally propagating photons are indirect (see §32). (10. Since the photon proceeds with respect to the moving observer with the relative velocity c'.9) According to our « burst » model for the photons. then one is impelled to accept Einstein's dogma about the constancy of light velocity in any inertial frame which.10) A. even in the case of a moving observer. observer moving..11) vjv = Making use of formulas p„ (3. of « to and fro » propagating photons which interfere (see §31). i. as we have experimentally shown.
respect to absolute space the moves with velocity v with and the observer with velocity v. Source and observer moving.5) and find the relation To we proceed as follows : (10. will be (use the first and second formulas (10.v'/c')''^ — V cos d/c (10. O are their reception suppose (fig. and wavelength A.„ so that 5". For certain problems it is convenient to use the angles B\ Q„.Fig. O' are emission positions of source and observer and S*.„.j^Vc')"^' 1 (10..14) If now an imaginary source is at rest at point 5" (the emission position of and emits a photon with frequency »». d. ^ A — (1 : \ + vcosO/c — v'/c')^'^ • — A 1 . then the frequency and wavelength registered by the real observer when he crosses point O will be (use formulas (10. The frequency and wavelength registered by him.i^Vc^) = + vcosO'/c (1 1 V . 102 D.12) and (10. while Q' and Q are the emission and reception angles if the observer were at rest at its reception position..10)] the real source) 60 . and B„ are and reception angles if the source were at rest at its emission position.. called intermediary.6)] ^^'^2 .. We introduce two pairs of emission and reception angles : the emission .vco^Qlc (1 . between the emitted and received frequencies and Let us suppose that the real source emits a photon and an imaginary observer is at rest at point O (the reception position of the real observer). wavelengths.13) Ai„. (1 . Now 102) that the source positions. Q[. while for others the angles B\.
.„. 7j (10. 1  ^— ./c' . so that instead of (10.18) the emitted wavelength of such photons. (1 6. and "0^ = c ' ^'.v!.18) = V.19). (10.17) Vo = v. and formulas (10. v'/c')^'^ rT=^5 1 vcosd/c ^ (10./c' . 18) remain the same. measure the emitted frequency and wavelength). while the In same angle registered with respect to absolute space.22) being the proper relative light velocity with respect to source and observer...v!.  »^„Vr')"' 1 .i^Vc' . we obtain ''^ 1 v„cofi ejc ^ "''"'' \ + vcosO/c . A in the corresponding formulas is 10.ir'/c^)''^]. v is formula (10. also at Ao = vcosO' A—+ — i^Vc' /c = .d\ 01 = tt  ^. the frequency of the photons emitted by the ( source moving at velocity v^and.vcosO/c + v„ 1 \ 1 cos d'/c 1 .. In is case 6 the angle between the opposite line of light propagation and the velocity of source 6' is and observer registered with respect to both of them. 1 1 \ . then = tt . the period of the emitted photons will become shorter (and the frequency higher) because of the absolute time dilation.v'/c' ^ '^2 ~ (10.. (10. thus. ".16) 10. 15) and I ( 10.21) ^ cos 0/c and now »'„A„ Co' = c. 61 . (10. (10. (10. If the at rest in absolute space (remember that same source should remain only when the source is at rest in rest..17) ^ V = A— When reduce to v. 16).K = (1 »'in.18) we have to write absolute space can an observer...19) while formulas ( 10. 13) and ( 10.20) this being the relative light velocity with respect to source and observer..15) V= Putting ( . 14) 1 into ( 10.n. thus the emitted wavelength X of such photons will become shorter [by the factor (1 .v„cose/c 7717^72^ j— ^TT = A.
taking into account (9. In contradistinction to this conclusion.21) shows that the measurement of the wavelength can give such information.7) r (I — v^lc^y"for this case According to the ninth axiom we have dejdt = .8) and (10. we call this effect also the dynamic (or gravitational) frequency and wavelength shifts of light and we have considered it in Marinov (1976a).e..23).that if an observer moves with the same velocity measurement of the received frequency can never give information about their absolute velocity.24) "o" M v° p "= y— (——) r r„ =  — I ("„" r c' ^o p^).25) or I ''"" = + O/c' " I +^/c^ =M1 +(^  ^o)/cn^ (10. formula (10.14)] velocity v in the gravitational field of mass M. (10. we obtain of (10. u = c). A review of this paper is given in this subsection. the received wavelength is different from that which should be measured if source and observer be at rest in absolute space (see §32).19) shows as the light source. These conclusions are of extreme importance. a Doppler effect appears only when source and observer move with respect to one another. we have shown that a Doppler effect appears also when source and observer move with the same velocity. namely. according to contemporary physics which proceeds from the principle of relativity.dVJdt (10. However. supposing m = 0. Let us note that.26) 62 .2 DYNAMIC SHIFT (THE EINSTEIN EFFECT) The light Einstein effect is the difference between the frequency is and wavelength with which a photon those measured by an observer the points emitted from a source of radiation and due to the different gravitational potentials at where source and observer are placed. Let us have a mass M which is at rest in absolute space and a mass m (m <^ \f) which moves with The gravitational energy of and (5. then the 10.2) and supposing that the material point after the integration is a photon (i.24) Putting here (5. Formula (10. these two masses will be [see formulas (2.
stronger..e.. 63 .e.29) clearly shows that the wavelength of a photon which crosses a region with a stronger gravitational potential will a smaller length.°\„ = c.. while the period T„" and the frequency »'„" of the received photon are measured on a clock placed in the region where the photon is received (i. then A„ < A../c' A ^ . is have in that is region whose absolute value greater. (10. From ( 10. period) is a relatively more complicated notion than the physical quantity wavelength because the frequency is measured by the help of clocks which have different rates in dependence on their velocities in absolute space (as we have seen in §2.26) is the formula for the gravitational (dynamic) frequency shift.. = I + 0. = ^ Y_ M. We must emphasize that the period Tand the frequency r of the emitted photon are measured on a clock (imagine a light clock) which is placed in the region where the photon is emitted (i. we shall have absolute space this velocity is when "A = where X is c.28) A„ the wavelength of the emitted photon and is the wavelength of the observed photon. M M Formula (10. while the wavelength is measured by the help of rigid rods whose lengths depend neither on their velocities nor on the gravitational potentials.27) are the gravitational potentials caused by mass respectively. (10.. (10. i. Now we shall find the formula for the gravitational wavelength shift. Hence. where the gravitational potential is <I>).e. where the gravitational potential is 0„).1) and on the gravitational potentials (as we shall see in §11. Thus the subscript « „ » of the period and frequency signifies « observed » and the upperscript « " » signifies that time is measured on a clock placed in a region with gravitational potential 4).4 and shall further see in §1 1. This gravitational potential. p. 16) and ( 10.28) we obtain \.2). independent of the gravitational potential in the space region considered. if ^„ > I^I^I.29) The physical quantity frequency (respectively. Since according to our tenth axiom the photons move with velocity c in measured by the help of a nearby light clock. at the point is rand at the point of ofemissionof the photon whose distance from mass reception (observation) of the photon whose distance from mass is r„ (we consider A/ as a point mass or as a homogeneous sphere). independent of the local concentration of matter. formula ( 10. Thus.where <^ =  y \f — . o.
Thus it is ^' = 6'.18) called the kinematic time dilation. not complementary.I) can be also obtained proceeding from formula (10. in general. the experiment has shown that also the periods of other generalized for the period of any physical systems are influenced by the kinematic time dilation. §11.. i. KINEMATIC (LORENTZ) TIME DILATION In §2.e. its light clock's « arm the light clock absolute velocity and the arm » of angle between them 6' then Indeed. According our absolute spacetime theory. is ^ r. is the period of the same clock when being at « rest. but the problem whether 64 this phenomenon can be .18) if is forany orientation of the is d. As stated in §3.v^cy^ ' (111) where T = 2d/c clock. Proceeding from formula valid we can v. * Let us note that the angles^' and 6 (for the « there » and « back » trips) between v and c. 0' = tt .v^/cy^ (I T .2. clock's « this effect is the same forany orientation of the and is arm ». According to the Newtonian conceptions this is effect « different for a « transverse » and « longitudinal » light clock.0'.4 we have shown that the period of any light clock increases when its absolute velocity increases.. V. the clock's period. easily show ».31). that formula (3. moving clock. TIME DILATION III. (3. 6' ' and 6' are the angles (for the « there » and back » trips) i.. measured with respect to absolute space. if measured in absolute time.e. = C* d — + d — C = d c \ ¥ (1 V cos O'/c  r^ + d C I + {\ i^cos^' /c v'/c'Y'^  v'/c'Y'^ c{\ Id .3. the arm » of the first being perpendicular and of the second parallel to the to clock's velocity.The problem about the photons is the relation between the frequencies (the periods) of in considered more detail in § 1 1 .7) and calculating the path with respect to absolute space which the light pulse has to cover during its « there » and « back » trips. The result (I I. being given by formula (3. c'. the angles subtended by the direction of clock's propagation and the directions of light propagation. are. the « . between the velocity of the and the relative light velocity. the angles subtended by the direction of clock's propagation measured with respect to the and the directions of light propagation.
according to which the period of any clock increases proportionally to the square of velocity. dilation.e. this phenomenon. then this period will be influenced by the kinematic time dilation.2 — see — that this gravitational We stronger). Thousands of scientific. establishing that all bodies lose weight proportionally to their volumes when put in a liquid. Clocks placed far enough from local concentrations of matter are to be called dynamically absolute and clocks placed near we shall call them kinematically absolute). is dynamic time dilation.. DYNAMIC (EINSTEIN) TIME DILATION it is Now we shall show that the period of any light clock increases when placed in a region with a stronger gravitational potential (we repeat §10. These regions which in the problem considered have the weakest gravitational 65 . and popular books and papers have been dedicated to it. or the Einstein time since Einstein (1907) was the first to introduce it into physics. we can be sure that if the period of determined by the motion of massless particles (i. semiscientific. we think that the kinematic time dilation should be called the as Lorentz time dilation. It was only the theory of relativity which threw theore no more paradoxical than the conclusion to tical physics into confusion. call this effect the As we are not interested in the kinematic aspect of the time dilation in this subsection.2. At any rate. The period (frequency) of the radio waves will be determined by the time in which the potential of the antenna's top passes through two successive is determined by the time in which first to light crosses the antenna's maxima. since this effect follows logically from the transformation to which his name is attributed. is its absolute which Archimedus came. and « arm ».material system remains open. 11. we shall work in a frame which rests in absolute space. this Larmor sidered it (19(X)) was the introduce time dilation and rightly con an absolute effect. However. potential. particles with a system is m = 0). whose absolute value is greater. clocks attached to absolute space have been called by us absolute (with precision absolute space have been called proper (with The clocks more precision we shall call them kinematically proper). Einstein (1905) analysed this phenomenon five years later and wrongly considered it as a relative effect. Consider. cutting its natural logical tie with the absolute motion of the material systems. Lorentz treated time dilation in many publications also from an absolute point of view. Time dilation is one of the most controversial problems in physics. The more moving in local concentrations of matter are to be called dynamically proper. for example. an aerial which emits radio waves. since it tried to explain time dilation as a relative effect.
Suppose that a photon is emitted from the first point and received at the second. <l> and ^„ (if <l>„>4>. by c and c" and call them dynamically absolute light velocity and Consider two points with gravitational potentials conditionally assume <l> we can = 0). According to our tenth axiom. = c. A. (11. between c" and c suppose that the gravitational from the emission to the potential point in a stepped form.29) we obtain c" = cI 1 + + <t>Jc' ^ 4)/f' .. we have to find the relation potential changes To conclude that the rear of the will « burst »./c.. Obviously the space in which velocity of light is isotropic (i. to C.3) From ( 1 1 ..e.e.. for clarity. .region are T=\/c. A/. (11. after crossing the /th potential « step ».3) and (10. when passing the /th potential « step ». Thus the wavelength of the photon. 66 T„ = Xjc". is to As riods) the absolute times of emission and reception (i. we shall assume the distances between them to be larger than the photon wavelength. (11. = — c. if measured on dynamically proper clocks. change its velocity from c.. we shall designate them.potential (which conditionally is to be assumed equal to zero) can be considered as lying far enough from local concentrations of matter. we have (11. the absolute peof the photon emitted in the 4>region and received in the 0. respectively.4) field This formula shows that the velocity of light is lower if measured on a unique clock.. = A. being the wavelength of the photon in the /th region. will be equal to c. The potential « steps » can be infinitely near to each other. dynamically proper light velocity. has the same value along any direction) be called kinematically absolute space.. after the head of the « burst ». Now.2) If from the emission to the reception point there are n « steps ». the velocities of the emitted and received photons. on a clock placed in the ^region). but. in a stronger gravitational The space regions in which velocity of light has the maximum possible value can be called dynamically absolute space. If these velocities are measured on a unique clock (say. according to our « burst » model for photons.5) .. always with a time delay Ar. will be A.
6) The proper periods of the emitted and received photons are T= From (1 1. let us consider a light source which emits photons with frequency v when being the placed at a point with gravitational potentional emitted photon is The period T of equal to the time in which the emitting system passes through its two specific states.." = \Jc.7) \/c. the potential of the antenna's top passes through T is two successive maxima. absolute. in absolute time). clock will _ T^ Hence measured / = T 1 + O/f^ .1). it must be "" = » "• (11.6) {p„) we conclude that if the frequencies of the emitted (i') and photons are measured in the same time (say. say. (11. say. that the relation between the periods T and be P light clocks and arms if measured on placed in the regions with gravitational a unique.29) and T. we have to say the same as regarding the generalization of kinematic time dilation (see the period §11. To explain in more detail the essence of dynamic time dilation. Regarding the generalization of dynamic time dilation in the case where is not determined by the motion of massless particles. taking into account (10. the relation between them will be 1 + <^. and we shall call T also the period of the emitting system. then the time in which. r. 67 . (1 1. If we consider again an aerial emitting radio waves.we obtain./c' and this represents the phenomenon which we call the dynamic time dilation.4) we conclude with equal « 4>o..8) From received (1 1.4).9) From of two potentials (1 1.29) we obtain r„" = T 1 + ^o/C f— (11. (1110) if for a certain period of time the absolute (the <I>lightclock) has <I>„lightclock) time units and the proper (the has measured r time units. T„ = (11.7) and (10. <^.
at velocities v and v„ with respect absolute space. then.19)] . now the source of radiation to a region with a gravitational in the <I)„region. will become equal to T' and the relation between Tand will be given by formula (11. having velocity v in the region v„ in with gravitational potential acquires the velocity the region with gravitational potential 0„ only as a result of the gravitational interaction between this mass and the masses producing the field. say.13) This field. will be [see (3. ¥= 0) which.8) and (10. Thus the relation between the frequencies v and v° (measured on a unique.9)].region.24) and taking into account (5. the relation between them being given by formula (11. the first placed in a <I>region and the second in a 0. is Since the velocity of light c" (see formula (1 1. 68 . the relation their readings t between and which correspond to the same absolute time interval. if two clocks move /„. measured on the measured on the same <l>clock.Transfer potential <^„. in two regions with gravitational potentials <l> and ^„ will be 4>clock.v'/c')^'^ mass (11. respectively. we find 1 (1 + ^Jc' .10). the period of the system. measured on unique clock. P ^"^^ 1 1 + + <t>Jc' <D/c^  "•' +(*^. is the energy conservation law for a point in a gravitational On to the other hand. absolute clock) of two identical material systems placed.12). he will register a frequency v for the photons arriving from the ^source and a frequency v" for the photons arriving from the <I>„source.23). This is due to the fact that the frequencies of a photon emitted in the <I>region and received if in the <l>oregion are equal if on a unique clock between them This is is [see (11.v„'/c'y'^ 1 (1 + ^/c' . but the frequencies of two identical a measured <l>. and the relation given by formula (11.*^/^M (11 12) Hence if an observer is placed in a 4>region and he receives photons which are emitted by two identical sources of radiation..and Oosources are not equal. 1 I . Proceeding from formula (10.12). the cause which leads to a shift in the spectroscopic lines observed in the spectra on the Earth of chemically identical stars' and Earth's gases.vj/c — vWc^ "2 .4)]. according to kinematic time dilation. Let us consider a mass m{m <I>.
1. and represents the universal gravitational potential (divided by c!) ^ = . (12. since from (11. we mentioned that logic requests one to work we have to write (12. (11. This can be established also If we wish to slow the rate of a clock « kinewe have to enhance its absolute velocity. within an accuracy of second order in 1/c. COSMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT KINEMATICS 12.2) gives the physical essence of light velocity.3 reduced masses. and thus do positive work.(m 4>„  m 4>) (1115) and the gravitational energy (together with the gravitational potential) is negative. Thus we can mass m its universal gravitational energy. we have to transfer the with the following reasoning matically ». and thus do negative work.1) in the following form y m.2) The second equation Its numerical value is (12. determined by the matter of the whole Universe and its distribution. In both cases we have to expend the same quantity of work. gravitational energy with the = mc^ of a material point is its mass of the whole Universe taken with a negative sign mc^ = where r is my j dm/r V P^ or c' = y J dm/r V ./r or c = y/ V dm. the integration call being carried out over the volume the rest energy of of the whole Universe.yfdmjr V (12.13) : and to (11.13) we obtain. §12.1) the distance between a mass dm and our mass m. (12. c = m^ f V dm.11).14). important conclusion If we wish change the rate of a clock.yfdm/r V or ^.3) 69 ./r . with the Since in §8.Comparing (11. Here we must mention that we have to expend the same quantity of work in absolute value. —m 2 i^ ' m 2 v' = . = . while if we wish to achieve this « dynamically ». while the kinetic energy is positive. THE PHYSICAL ESSENCE OF REST ENERGY We assume that the rest energy e. we come to the following very we have to change either its velocity or its gravitational potential. : clock from a point with a weaker gravitational potential to a point with a stronger gravitational potential.
it energy is the same thing as the universal gravitational must be Ai/..4). If a reduced mass w. is its universal gravitational energy also changes. = A/7. kinetic energy changes by the same amount.15). its value. where c (12. taken with a its negative sign.. (12.Jc I ^ ^. according to the energy conservation its law (11.4) (see §5) = m.7) represents an equality between two We shall now briefly discuss the problem about the experimental con firmation of our hypothesis (12.. Thus. we can consider the Universe as a sphere with radius R tending to infinity and with an average constant mass density /u.7) we 1 obtain r = c + ^.c (12. the velocity of light must cor respondingly change identical quantities... it has been established that the Universe represents a system of galaxies and clusters of galaxies which are distributed homogeneously in space. and since the rest energy another form of writing the universal gravitational energy. when a mass changes position. its reduced universal gravitational energy At/. and hence its reduced absolute (rest) time momentum Pr=p/c = has to change with m. as a reasonable approximation. The potential 0^ is to be called the reduced 4> . However. within the necessary accuracy... change with (12. (12.7) and from (12.region to universal gravitational potential. (12. 70 ..6) and (12.24) represents the energy con servation law.8) 1 which.„  m.. Formula (10.. Since the energy. can be written Let us note that its in the form (1 1. <P. while formula (12. when a mass changes position.1).4).c.6) and c" are the velocities of light in the ^^rest and O^oregions. and correspondingly gravitational energy changes. By the help of observations.5) ^p^ = m^c" — m. 0. then. First we have to answer the question about the model of the Universe which our absolute spacetime theory puts forward.taken with a negative sign.. changes its position from a will a ^core gion./c° its .
the average mass » of the Universe. f r dr =  2 tt y ju... /?^ (12.. (12.. THE PHYSICAL ESSENCE OF COSMOLOGICAL « RED SHIFT » Hubble (1937)./?' ^ c'/lTry = 2.1).yf ^ dV = ''  4 77 y H:.13) where X in the is the wavelength of the photons which the luminescent gas observed is galaxy emits on the Earth. estacoming from distant galaxies are shifted according to the law (called Hubble's law) ^^^1' \ \ =//. R which 1970) ' has been taken as a radius of the observable Universe At the present time the experimental data are (Menzel . thus jii..We shall suppose that outside this sphere there is a void.. Since it is X„>K then the visible spectral lines are always shifted to the is red end and this effect called also the cosmological « red shift ». adequate to physical reality. (12.. R' . so that the cosmological « red shift » is 71 . which are experimen must satisfy the relation jLi.9) From (12.9) we obtain the following expression for light velocity c' =27rYM. /?^ = 9. will The universal gravitational potential for such a model of the Universe be 4) = . (12. A„ the wavelength actually observed. (12.12) 12..11) since always some mass « will remain outside the sphere with radis ».3) and (12. el al.i. r is the distance to the galaxy and H is the socalled Hubble constant.10) Thus if our hypothesis is density and corresponding « radius tally established.2. the recession velocity being propor between them. = 10"gcm\ /? = SlO^'cm. galaxies are receding tional to the distance Conventional physics and astronomy hypothetically assume that the from each other.10^' gem . (12.10" gem ' . blished that the wavelengths of light on the grounds of statistics of observational data.
Doppler effect*. Since we have established by means of » experiment (§19.2) that the Sun moves at a velocity of about 300 km/s with respect to absolute space, then one has to accept that our Sun is situated very near to the « centre » of the Universe, because the cosmological « red shift » for remote galaxies, if considered as a Doppler effect, corresponds to recession velocities approaching c. So, for instance, the quasar PKS 023723 has a « red shift » AA/A = 2,22, and if we should accept that this shift is due to a longitudinal Doppler effect, then on the grounds of the second formula (10.8), where we put 6^ = 0, we shall obtain v = 247.000 km/s.
due
our
to the appearing
«
coupledmirrors
Thus we consider the
probability that
«
recession hypothesis as highly artificial, since the
it is
among
millions of galaxies
is
ours which
is
exactly at the
centre » of the Universe
very low.
In our absolute spacetime theory
shift »
it
we
explain the cosmological
«
red
by
the gravitational action of the masses of the
whole Universe, calling
the cosmological gravitational frequency and wavelength shift, while the
«
red shift
» in
the spectral lines of light emitted from a star
and due
to the
gravitational action of the
tional frequency
mass only of
shift.
this star is called the stellar gravita
and wavelength
Let us consider mathematically the cosmological gravitational
If there
shift.
central
is a sphere with radius R whose mass density n = /i(r) has a symmetry, then the gravitational potential at a point distance r from the centre can be calculated from the following formula
R
^(r)
= Airy J
fir'dr'
 —yfur'^dr'.
4
'
IT
(12.14)
*
Burcev [Phvs.
Lett.,
galaxies) explaining the large red shifts as a transverse
27A. 623 (1968)) put forward the hypothesisof rotating quasars (and Doppler effect. This conclusion is due to
al.so
an incorrect treatment of the light Doppler effect formulas. Taking into account §10.1 (see
§30),
one should immediately establish that Burcev analyses only the formula for the posttraverse Doppler effect (i.e., he a.ssumes that there is no radial component when the angle between the sourceobserver line and the direction of the relative velocity is equal toir/2 at the moment of emission). If one should analy.se the formula for the antetraverse Doppler effect (i.e., if one assumes that there is no radial component when the angle between the sourceobserver line and the relative velocity is equal to ir/l at the moment of reception), then one should come to the conclusion that at a suitable valueof the tran.sverse component a blue shift would be seen for any
value of the radial component.
72
Supposing
ft
=
/lav
=
Const,
we
obtain for the difference between the
gravitational potentials at the centre of the sphere
and
at a point distance
r(<R)
the following expression
A<D(r)
^
<D(0)

4)(r)
= 

tt
y
,i,, r'.
(12.15)
We
assert that always the point of emission
is
is
to
be put
at the centre
of
the Universe because the point of emission
only one, while the points of
that there
is
reception can be an infinite quantity, and
centre as the Universe
is
we assume
no such
without limits and thus any point can be considered
as its centre. Here our conceptions are almost identical with those of Nicolaus Cusanus (14011464), one of the most brilliant minds in history, who forwarded the following cosmological model « The Universe is a sphere whose centre is everywhere and the surface nowhere ».
:
photon emitted from a space region with gravitational potential has a wavelength A, then in a space region with gravitational potential <I>„ = A4>(/) this photon will have a wavelength A„ and the relation between all these quantities will be given by formula (10.29). Thus, substiand r = r, we obtain tuting into this formula the potential (12.15) for r =
If a
4>
=
A<1)(0)
A„=
'
,
(12.16)

2
TT
T 4 /^ H 3
c^
Y
which formula for
r
<^
/?
[see (12.10))
can be written
77
\„
—
\
2
Y
^,
3
M/^
(12.17)
Denoting
„ ^M =
2
27r Y
y
^/^.v,
(12.18)
and calling form
H^
the HubbleMarinov constant,
we can
writte (12.17) in the
A„
A
A
AA
A
=
Hm''^
(12.19)
which we
call the
HubbleMarinov law.
red
shifts
Plotting
the
AA/A of
the
remote
galaxies
(observed
spectroscopically) versus their distances to the Earth (estimated from their
visual magnitudes at the assumption that the absolute magnitudes are equal), one can find the value of the HubbleMarinov constant, and then from equation (12.18) one can calculate the average mass density in the Universe.
73
have done this in Marinov (1978g), establishing //^ = 1.98.10 " Taking for /i,„ the statistically established value (12.12), we find, according to formula (12.18), //^ = 1,25.10 "cm
We
cm
'.
'.
We
(12.19)
«
show
fits
in
Marinov (1978g)
»
that
much
better to the experimental
our theoretical quadratic relation points of the dependence
red shift
— distance
(12.16)
[see
it is
then the hypothetical linear Hubble relation (12.13).
r > R,
Formula
Universe,
shows that for formula (12.10)]
where R
is
the « radius
»
of the
l5
so that A„
1 a R'^ 3c''
even
will
2
TT
c'
/x,.
/?'=!,
(12.20)
—
CX3.
For
this reason,
if
there
is
a matter outside the sphere
it
with radius R, we can receive no information about
because the photons
i.e.,
which would come from there low energy.
Hence, according
cannot
(12. 10).
«
be extremely
faint,
with an extreme
to
infinite Universe, factually the
our conceptions, even under the assumption of an Universe must be regarded as finite as we
look
»
outside the sphere with radius
if
R
established from relation
Of course,
«
a space traveller undertakes a cosmic journey, then
new
galaxies will enter into the sphere of his Universe along the line of his motion
and the most
red
»
galaxies in the opposite direction will disappear; sailors
experience similar
phenomena when
they pass islands and other ships.
»
Thus
».
we can call R
Ending
is
not « radius of the world
this section,
but
«
radius of the world's horizon
that, since
we must emphasize
cosmology operates
with conditions at infinity, one can never be sure whether one's world model
adequate
to reality.
§13.
PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
IN A
MEDIUM
13.1.
DRAG
In classical
(i.e., nonquantum) physics we consider only the gravitaand electromagnetic interactions of particles (with masses different from or equal to zero). In the axiomatics of classical physics we do not introduce any assertion about the phenomenon « collision » (respectively, « coalescence » and « disintegration ») of particles. All these problems are to be considered in quantum physics. However, under certain idealized as
tional
sumptions we can consider some aspects of these phenomena also physics. These assumptions are
:
in classical
a)
The
sizes
of the material points are small enough with respect to the
distances between them, so that
we can
ignore their sizes altogether.
74
The absorption (reception) of a photon by a particle represents a The emission of a photon (i. In the medium « opaque » and in the last « transparent ». the reemission of a photon by a particle occurs a certain time after its absorption. As a matter of fact.b) When the particles collide (respectively. If. medium and if. coalesce or disintegrate) we take into account only the laws of conservation (see the end of §6. in a unit of time. Thus with respect to an observer who is also at rest in absolute space. it moves with the mean velocity c^ = c/n. a photon crosses a distance c/n through the simplicity. for the sake of we assume always being reemitted by the particles in the same direction along which it hits them.. 1976b). 75 .. As a rule. reflected (dispersed) or reemitted. (13. A review of the theoretical parts of A.1) The factor n is called the refractive index of the medium.e. This is our « model » for the propagation of light in a medium. particle with mass equal to zero) by a from zero represents a disintegration of a parparticle with mass different ticle. coalescence or disintegration).2). many particles are dispersed) will collide with the first and be absorbed. and thus there the axiomatics. in this « model » we do not introduce additional charactefirst case we call the ristics for the quantity « particle » other than those introduced in our third is axiom. through a space region in which « hit » particle. Let us have a medium which that it is rests in absolute space. no new assertion which merits being introduced in the The problem about the velocity of light in a transparent medium when medium or the observer or both move with respect to absolute space is considered in Marinov (1974a. When a photon propagates through a medium it (i. these papers follows.e. applying them to the particles before and after the collision (respectively. Medium and observer at rest. of a coalescence of particles.l/«)th part of the time unit it rests « absorbed » (or « hitched ») by the particles. then we must conclude that the photon propagates (l/w)th part of the time unit as a « free » photon and (1 .
Medium moving.e. now calculate the velocity of light in a velocity i/ in absolute space with respect to an observer first (fig..e. If we consider the path of the photon between two successive absorptions. CD = Thus now reemission and absorption will not be v/n. (13. then this path can be presented by the broken line A BC in is fig. when with Suppose 131) that the medium moves this with velocity v along the the photon is vaxis of the used rest frame K only during time absorbed by some particle (molecule) of the medium and suppose that during the time between the reemission and next absorption the medium (the molecule) is at rest. where the distance CD is covered by this molecule in the time in which the photon covers distance BD.Fig. then the next molecule will be caught not at point C but at point D. 1 3 1 .4) the distance covered by the photon between two successive BC but + BD = BE + ED = (— 76 — sin'^' — n cos 0' .2) AB = v(\  \/n) BC = c/n (13. i. Let us observer at rest. Supposing that the time between two successive absorptions unit.5) . 131 B. medium moving who is at rest. chosen for a time that 1 . AB/v + BC/c = we obtain (13.3) If now we suppose that the medium moves with velocity v during the whole time. (13.. i.
in v/c.. (13. photon in the moving medium measured by the observer we get. we have to divide the distance /ID by the time for which the broken line A BD is covered.8). and working with an accuracy of second order in v/c... 2 c'n rn 1^ (iJ...e. n (13.e.4). Y = arc sin —— CE BC ^ v/n sin ^' c/n ^— c v sin ^„ (13. — cos^o en 2 c'n = where we have used Thus.— — 1 v' sin' 6' = en ^ .6) is the angle between the « free path » of the photon medium with respect to the observer (i.3) and (13. To mean = AB — v + BD — c = I + V — cos6. taken with an accuracy of second order in v/c. c (13..6) and (13.7).8) The distance covered by the photon between two successive absorptions with respect to the observer will be AD' = {AB + CD)' + Ba + 2{AB + CD)BCcose. having in mind (13. is obtain the velocity of the t„. 1 + + —• — «^' sm' . (13. cos^' = cos(9„ + — sin^^„.3). + 1 l^' n sin' 1 c 6. it is small and. « 0. mean velocity of the at rest. for the in v/c. c' we 2 obtain AD = {— + n' —cos9„ + n VC '^^ v') = C — + u cos ^. to angle with respect to the medium The angle (i.7) represents the difference between these two angles which shall further see.9) Putting here (13.. to and the velocity of the frame A^ while 6„ is the same the moving frame K' which is attached to the medium). as first we is enough to consider it with an accuary of order Within the same accuracy of first order in v/c we can write.iiJ 1 (13. This time.10) photon with respect to the observer.where 0 = e„ y (13.5) and (13. within an accuracy of second order 77 ..
13) «= is — — — = vn sm^ v'sin^ . denominator of the last term on the Let us introduce the angle between the velocity of the medium and at rest the mean velocity of the photon which is measured by the observer = O„a.14) ' the difference between the angles B„ and Q which is small and can be considered only with an accuracy of first order in vie. we C.. en  (1  1 )cos'^. n' ^ + . cos^„ = cos<9 find — c sin'^. Let us mention that hitchhiking ».13) and (13. 1 (13.12) ' having suppressed the factor n right side of (13.16) I .v'n (I — I 2 in the c//'  — )sin'^„.n = — n ^' c + 1/(1  — )COS^ n' 1 (13. having in mind (13. = AD — = c — + 1/(1  — )cos^„ I   v'. Of course.14). our pedefor the next car at the strian velocity photons in a moving medium » model. 78 . but always tried to « gain » more distance by walking.15) Substituting this into (13. when crossing countries by « same point where being dropped by the previous one. n' 1 The in « model is » for the propagation of described here called by us the « hitchhiker our youth.12). c/n c (13. Within the same accuracy of first order in y/lc we can write. where (13. we never waited could never be higher than that of the cars.c„. 11). (13.—(1 en — \ )cos'^  n' —v' nil  2 e — )sin'^.
We choose again the time between two successive absorptions of a photon on the molecules of the medium as a time unit. 132) a medium with refractive index n that is at rest in absolute space and in which light propagates along a direction that makes an angle 6 with the vaxis of a frame K attached to absolute space.32)] in I + ' vcosd'/c (13. Let an observer attached to a frame K' tion of the Xaxis of move at velocity v along the positive direcof both frames are frame K. be « hitched and (l/n)th part of the time unit moves along the line/lFuntil » again on another molecule which rests at point F. observer moving. Let there be (fig. 132 C. and suppose that the . The mean proper relative light velocity in 79 . : it will In the moving frame K' we have the following picture During the time which the photon is « hitched » it will cover distance AB with velocity v and during the time in which the photon propagates with velocity c in absolute space it will cover distance BC in A" (under an angle 6' to the Xaxis) with the proper relative velocity [see (3.17) since during the time in which the photon has covered the broken line A BC in frame K' the molecule that rests at point F in absolute space has covered distance FC in K' with velocity v. At such a choice of the time unit a photon propagating along the direction AF in the rest frame K is « hitched » (1 — \/n)th part of the time unit on a molecule which rests at point/!.vaxes colinear.Fig. Medium at rest.
^cos^„+ en cos'^„ 12 e /I (I .23) 80 .23) The angle between (13..„ we obtain sxn'B' = — n  1/cos^' + — en cos'^' + —— 2 c n{\ . putting into 6^ = we + a. n' (13. Thus. and working within an accuracy of second order c„.frame K' (i. 1) sm „ »„ (13.19) V cos 6 /c n in v/c. (13. .^)sin'^„. (13.24) where a accuracy is a small angle and.21) a small angle and. as we shall further see. where y accuracy is (13.18) AB = v{\). I) sm .18) since the time between two successive absorptions of the photon is taken equal to unity. n^i'i\ (13. as shall further see.22) we obtain c' = n .20) the observer in frame K' will measure between the is d„.—) n . the average light velocity measured in A" by the help of a clock which rests there) will make an angle 6„ with the x'axis and have magnitude c. « ^ c ^ ^— c . direction of propagation of light and his own velocity Thus.20) The angle which (13. within the necessary we can take sin a = CFsin^ AC V = — e nsm^. within the necessary we can take sm y = ABsin — ^ — (n— AC 6' v ^ .23) the direction of propagation of light and the velocity of the observer which should be measured in frame K is 6. n BC = ——^——\ + (13. putting into 9'=e„y. Putting into (13. (n — ..„ = AC = {AB' + BO  lABBC cos e)"\ (13..e.
so that the The photon moves with this velocity only ( /n)th part of the time mean proper velocity of light with respect to K' will be 1 — V — cos 6 c'=e'=n n where 6' 1 r 1 = c .26) D.we obtain c„ = c —  ^ i^cos^ + — v' cos'^ + n en —— 2 \ v' n{\ + c — )sin'tf «' 1 . the proper velocity of the « free » photon with respect to K' Since in such a case for » « hitched will be [write in (3. (13. according to formula (3. en . REFRACTION In this subsection we shall show that our model for the propagation of light in a medium as a process of successive « absorptions » and « reemis sions » of the photons leads immediately to Snell's law for the refraction of light. respectively. in the moving and rest frames. (1 — l/n)th part of the time unit the photon is and does not move with respect to the moving frame K' which is attached to the medium. then the « effective » velocity of the frame with respect to the trajectory of the « free » photon will be v/n.28) ^ 1 + en — cos^ V n 1 v^ e^n^ the velocity of the and 6 are the angles between the direction of light propagation and medium measured. 13. + — cos^' en V (13.2. find the velocity of light in a now medium moving at velocity v with respect to absolute space measured by an observer attached to the medium.27) v^ c^n^ unit. Thus.32) V = v/n] 1 1 V — cos c„ = 1 c =c 1 en . (13. Medium and Let us observer moving. We shall light perform the calculation by considering a bundle of photons is (a beam) which incident under an angle <p on the boundary between the 81 .32).
AND PARTICLES phenomenon.3. until / with the velocity c/w^in the also reaches the boundary. A . out the equivalence between the As we have mentioned 82 . it medium A and cover Thus we can write a distance t = J sin c/n q> ^—. several authors have pointed Compton and Doppler effects.29) During this time the first photon will move with velocity c/n^'\x\ the medium B and will cover the distance ^sin»//. After the instance at which the first flankphoton crosses the boundary. (13. Suppose that the distance between the points at which both flankphotons cross the boundary is d.30) From the last two formulas we obtain sin sin t// Snell's law /I A (13. However. in Marinov ( 1978h). under the hit comparable with the energy of the striking photon so of the photon. COLLISION BETWEEN PHOTONS As we said..Consider two photons which is perpendicular to the bundle. Thus we can write t lie on a line which is perpendicular to the = ^sin —^ \b (13. 13. the « mirrorreceiver » changes its velocity. a which the masses of the particles before and after the collision remain the same) between a photon and a particle with mass different from zero (the socalled Compton effect). \// and second fiankphotons must bundle). we shall describe the taking into account only the laws of conservation and applying them to the systems of particles before and after the collision. where is the refractive angle (note that when the second flankphoton has reached the boundary the first /.31) (p «(. all these authors have treated this problem by considering the Compton scattering on particles at rest. In this subsection collision in we shall consider only the elastic collision (i. We shall show that the Compton effect « represents nothing but a light Dopplereffect where the energy of the rorreceiver » is mirthat. he on the extremities of the bundle and on a line which certain time dsirvp. the second Hankphoton has to move a refractive indices /j media A and B with ^and n „. when particles collide. We shall consider the more general case of collision between a photon and a moving particle where the Doppler essence of the Compton scattering becomes more obvious.e.
.
electron) its mass cannot change and the « reemission » must follow an immediately after the « absorption ». its mass can change and the « reemission » can follow a certain time after the absorption. Lorentz (1916)] w' —  I — I = K. which is perpendicular to the « reflecting plane » of the moving mirror (Doppler treatment) or by the unit vector n' along the direction of propagation of the « reemitted » photon (Compton treatment). Formulas (13. moreover. 13. We The Doppler respect to effect formulas give the relation between the frequencies of the emitted and observed light when source and observer move with one another. If the particle is compound (for example. Using the law of light reflection (the incident and reflected rays lie in the same plane with the perpendicular to the reflecting plane and make equal angles with it). an atom). i. must emphasize that when the particle is elementary (for example.32) represent four relations for six unknown quantities Thus two of these quantities must be taken arbitrarily and they are determined by the unit vector n.^ is a constant which we call the LorentzLorenz constant.4. However. n' .e. (13.33). . are given.. for example. From the last two formulas we obtain the result (13. In the Compton effect source and observer are at rest. n. the photon will only be « reflected » by the particle. when n and n' are given. or n when n and : v'. changes its velocity under the hit of the photon. we can find n.since 6' = (« {v\ n) is the angle between the velocity of the source and the of opposite direction of the wave vector of the reflected light at the moment emission reemission »). between them there is a moving « mirror » (the particle) which.36) where 84 /l . v'. RELATION BETWEEN REFRACTIVE INDEX AND DENSITY The relation is and its density ^ between the refractive index n of a transparent medium given by the wellknown formula of LorentzLorenz (see.. Thus the Compton scattering represents a « observes reflection of light from a the action of mirror » Doppler effect where one which changes its velocity under any single incident photon. Hence it is obvious that the relation to which the Doppler effect formulas lead (where we are interested only in the mirror's velocity before and after the reflection of the photon) must be the same as the relation which can be obtained from the momentum and energy conservation laws.
(13. . at a density of the transparent medium. the photon remains « hitched » to the molecules of the medium. from /. on average.37) jit in the following extremely simple is way : As slated (§13. respectively. Now suppose that the density of the medium has changed from ju toju The refractive index will change. For that distance for which the photon was « hitched » which. l/n the time in vacuum and on average. is the time during which.1). the photon travels with velocity c I — //. Marinov constant. 1  l/n seconds and has traveled \/n seconds it will now be « hitched » .37) where A^^ is a constant which we call the We come we in I to formula (13. to n'.Our « model » for the propagation of light in a transparent medium leads to the following relation n  1 = K^.
in the I Indeed.37). (13. According to our and n becomes equal to infinity 86 .36) and (13.36). The Lorentz theory exists. The experimental points are taken from Michels et ai (1947). formula (13. support who have measured units). Thus we can write aI I  1 = r^ IX u n . index increases very rapidly and for a certain critical = \/ Ky it becomes equal to infinity. even without looking formula (13.37) can immediately be obtained. since the » sum of the « « free flight » distances hitchpoints remains the same and only the number of the has changed. [see.(/!i7/[i)(l  l//i)secondsand. the refractive density ft. as before. 133 we give the graphs of « as a function of /u according to formulas (13.36) form "^ . will travel l/nseconds. no such peculiarity only for /x equal to infinity. for example. In fig. (13.39) to this formula. that our formula (13.38) '^(1 .36) is at the experiment.) + n n From !n here formula (13. we can show that unsound. this dependence for ethylene (/i is given in Amagat However. Lorentz (1916)] cannot offer a sound explanation to this peculiarity./i jT^) {.. write formula (13. n= According + 2K. with the increase of the density.37).37) finds a better Marinov (I978i) we show in the experiment than the LorentzLorenz formula (13.
PART II — EXPERIMENTAL .
others cannot reveal it practically because all absolute effects cancel used. effects when today's experimental technique We describe all these experiments. The analysis of the other experiments (ours and of other authors) can strengthen one's faith in spacetime absoluteness.. concentrating our attention on their essence. We tein's consider the « coupledmirrors » experiment (§19) and the « rota ting disk » experiments (§25 and § 26) as decisive for the rejection of Einsconceptions.. § 15. we call the quasiRcemer experiment.e. THE QUASIR(E1VIER EXPERIMENT eclipses of a Jupiter satellite With the help of the Roemer experiment (i. If this experiment be performed with the aim of measuring the Earth's absolute velocity.„ half a year before the moment when they will be in opposition. Certain of the experiments can reveal the absolute motion of the laboratory.. certain experiis ments can give reliable others cannot. it Now we shall show that according to our absolute spacetime theory the Earth's absolute motion cannot be revealed by the help of the quasiRoemer I978j). Let us observe the zeroth eclipse of the satellite at the a terrestrial clock. read on 7.e. when the Earth and Jupiter are at the positions £. . 5. the observation of the from the Earth during the course of a year) for the first time in history the velocity of light was measured.. each other in the effect to be measured. This problem 1 is considered in detail in Marinov ( Suppose (fig.§ 14. i. moment t". INTRODUCTION In this second part we shall give short accounts of the most important experiments which we consider decisive for the refutation of the principle of relativity. Additional references to other authors can be found in the same papers. experiment. without entering into the details which the reader can find in the original papers. for the rejection of the relativistic spacetime conceptions and for the restoration of the old Newtonian absolute conceptions dressed in the clothes of our absolute spacetime theory. On the other hand.1) that at the initial year of observation when the Earth and Jupiter are in opposition the absolute velocity of the Sun system v^ makes an angle 6 with the opposition line.
we have (15... 6' (^ 6 within the necessary accuracy) to be equal to angle 6 in 151.2) we can consider angle fig. Thus line (15.. to the angle between the opposition and the Sun's absolute velocity. Since Jupiter covers (l/12)th part of shall its orbit during an Earth year. we in assume that the positions 7.2) Cn = 1 » = i^gCos S' /c 1 — 1 i^jCos 6/c c  vi/c^ registered where 0' is the angle between v^ with respect to the and the line of light propagation moving Sun's frame and is the same angle registered with respect to absolute space.Fig. where we write V = v^.e. E^. i. to According formula (3. 89 .J^ are the positions of relative velocity the Earth of light and Jupiter at the moment t\ and c'„ is the proper coming from Jupiter with respect to the Sun system.1) /' = r + r where T \s the period of revolution of the satellite. J„ are very near to one another. 151 The first eclipse will occur at the moment (15.32).
When Roemer made he established c. we . will vary in the range  (2 Rv^/c^) =^ 6/ =^ (2 Rv^/c^). suppose that the 2/ith eclipse is observed at the moment / '" after .— 1 c c^ ^cos^ = Ar " initial ^cos^.JE '^^ = InT (15.shall we take into account the absolute kinematic time dilation come to the conclusion that. 7 We have t'" AH: = . we can determine we fmd the period T of revolution of the satellite.1).". or if the velocity of light not direction dependent. traditional absolutist would conclude that making use of formula one could establish the component v^ of the Sun's absolute velocity in the plane of the ecliptic when performing observations of the eclipses of a Jovian satellite during 12 years in which the angle 6 between i^^ and the (15.r = 2 nT  ^^^^ J E .4) From here Using (15. terrestrial clock. moment /" when the Earth and We shall " " have " " Ar„ = rr is = nT ~ c„ = /»r c (1 +^cosg). The Ac read on the proper terrestrial clock will be [use the second formula (3.„.3) where R the radius of the Earth's orbit. c (15.Let the nlh eclipse be observed at the Jupiter are in opposition..4) in (15. time let us assume that the Earth covers the path £"„£„ during the absolute time interval (read on a clock which rests in absolute space) Ar.5) Any opposition line takes different values in the range of 360". another halfyear when the Earth and Jupiter are at the positions E. after whose elapsing one has to observe the nth eclipse the absolute velocity of the is Sun is equal to zero.5) this time interval which follows the if moment. he compared the calculated time interval At" and. c^ (15. interval A/.25)] 90 . However. his observations.V72 with the really measured time knowing R.3). Ac = where ^t" is —^ . Finally. Indeed.„. if Ar. if we measure the time on a then no positive effect can be registered. (§11. so that the difference 8i = Ki?.
which represents the same angle at the moment of reception. This problem is considered in detail in Mari If we observe a star on the celestial sphere from a platform (the Earth) moving with an absolute velocity v.. that the Earth's absolute motion can be revealed by the quasiBradley experiment.6). will be compensated for by a change in the rate of the terrestrial clock.2) V = v^+ v^. then the relation between the emission angle 6' which represents the angle between the velocity v and the sourceobserver line at the moment of emission. will be (see formula . ' )Ar + —— c' ^ cos^. is With the help of the Bradley experiment differences in the angles under which a given star the registration of the observed from the Earth during a year) for the second time in history the velocity of light was measured. Thus we have its moves with velocity u. 91 . S2 is 2 is c' the Earth's velocity with respect to the Sun. and thus Vy = and (15. which a traditional absolutist expects to be registered. Now we shall show nov(l978j). THE QUASIBRADLEY EXPERIMENT (i. and the reception angle 6.<^ 2 c'  J ^'cos( —  ^ + nOc// (15.6) = where v. (10.1) Now suppose respective to that our platform (the Earth) respect to another platform (the Sun) which for absolute space..5) eflect in the §16. we call it the quasiBradley experiment. its angular velocity.5)] (1 + ^cos^')(l c — cos^) c = 1  — c^ . (16.e. with part moves with velocity v^ (16. (1  z ' . we conclude that no positive quasiRoemer experiment because the time interval between the zeroth and «th eclipses actually registered on a terrestrial clock will vary exactly in such a manner that the effect 8(. i2R. Comparing formulas can be registered (15. If this experiment be performed with the aim of measuring the Eath's absolute velocity.
^'p is the emission angle tional to For this case and d^ the reception angle. We must emphasize that we suppose all velocities (absolute and relative) to be measured in absolute time. Consider now an imaginable emission which occurs the Earth's observer is at the moment when at the point O' and a reception which occurs at the at the moment when this observer arrives point O. distance SO is proporthe absolute light velocity c and distance SO'^ to the relative light c'. the emission angle SO ' Is proportional to relative light velocity b) Observation by the Earth's observer in absolute space. 1 6 Let us suppose that at the moment of emission an Sun light Earth's observer and an observer at the at the who rests with respect to the (called the Sun's observer) are this point O'^ point (fig. 161).1) we have 92 .By analogy with (16. velocity with respect to the Earth c) Observation by the Earth's observer is For this case 9' the emission angle proportional to the relative light in a frame attached to the Sun. For this case ^'jis and 9^ the reception angle. and 9 the reception angle. the velocity of light being equal toe's. distance the absolute light velocity c and distance SO'^ to the with respect to the Sun c'^. The emitted at S will be received by the Sun's observer moment by a star which is when he crosses point O' and by the Earth's observer when he crosses point O.Fig. distance SO is velocity with respect to the Sun c'^ (since this is the velocity of light which travels along the given direction with respect to a frame attached to the Sun) and distance SO' to the relative light velocity with respect to the Earth c'. picture a) : We have the following Observation by the Sun's observer in absolute space.
we (16.4) ^ cos^. we obtain cos ^ = cos ^ + ^' ^  sin^ ^ (1+ —^cos^^J.e.7) is the aberration angle caused by the motion of the Earth the Sun light at rest in absolute space and the star Aa is the variation caused by the absolute velocity of the Sun. The real positions of the stars S ^ and S^ and their positions observed from the Sun coincide. S^.. four different positions of the Earth 162 its we have shown (£". 1) and the 1 text after formula (10. since for these two stars the angle O^m is equal to tt/I..(1 + ^ cos^')(l ^s f cos^) = 1  ^ ^s . tilted to an = v^/c. Sy^.. they will be seen along the directions to 5"b and S'^.6) Designating by a necessary accuracy = ^ the aberration angle. find within the a=— sin^ where a were f +^^^sin^ cos^^ =a^»Aa. along the direction to 5'ai...12)] (9. 5^) are in range with the Earth in the plane of the ecliptic. since the angle ^sm between the Sun's velocity v^ and the propagation direction of the light coming from these stars is equal to tt or toO. i.4) into (16. in the terms of second and third order in 1 /c). Putting (16. £4) fig. if (16.e. i. dependence on the angle ^^m subtended by the and the velocity of the Sun.e.3) ^s 1 where [see formula (10. putting 6 = 6= ' 6„. i. to the is the relative velocity of light in a frame attached Sun and ^^m «s the middle angle between ^'^and 6^. (16. The positions of the stars 5"^ and S^ observed from the Sun are tilted to an angle a^ = v^/c with respect to their real positions.3) and working within an accuracy of third order in 1 /c (i. around the Sun {S) at four different moments with intervals of three months when four different stars (5^. in beam coming from In £3. if the Sun be at rest in 93 . if being observed from the Sun.e. ^ni ) + — C ^ cos 1/2 c^=c{ 1 (16. E^. on orbit The angle a^ star 5"^ will be observed from the Earth's positions E.
162 absolute space and the velocity of light coming from 5^ be equal However. tilted to an angle Vc w. position Ej tilted additionally to an angle a to 5b2 = v^/c.p = 2a p — Iv^v^/cK Analogically we conclude that the stars which lie near the Sun's antiapex will describe a small arc equal to 2«aniiap = 2a p + 2vf:V^/c\ FoT the difference between these two arcs we obtain ^ = It 2a_.Sm. when the Sun moves and the velocity of light coming from to 5"^ c.e. ^6 ^B* Fig.„.e. after six months will be tilted oppositely to the same angle a„^.8) a ap i.9) ' ^ can be seen immediately that the star p 5b six be observed from the i. (16.e./c' E S will (16.. r. along the direction and the same star will be observed after months from the position 94 . = a . — Aa = C + ^=«BV along the direction to 5^1. this star will be seen from £. i. is c + Vs.The same star when observed from the £".. along the direction to S^y Thus in a year the stars which lie near the apex position of the Sun should describe over the celestial sphere a small arc equal to 2a.„= 4Aa = ap aniiap 4v^v..2a.
If the Doppler experiment should be the quasiDoppler experiment.. The O.. 9>5 .17) in which we have to write V = Vs.The angles 6' and 6„ can be seen in fig. (it is v^. f. we obtain A = 4. 171) and dividing the formulas obtained. the quasiBradley expe riment can be considered only as a challenge to the experimenters. d„ = 6. All angles are qp is the angle between the velocity v v^i Denote by 5 the angle taken positive clockwise and negative counterclockwise./c 1  VjVc' v. Thus at the present state of technique.cosO. both and at motion of the Sun. ^ _ ~ 1 1  »^.10 ' = 0. cos 2 V V../c 1 v. + — 2 vv. received by the first observer and the frequency p^ received by the second observer does not depend on the velocity of the source v^. where observer <jp and the velocity of the first between the sourceobservers line and the velocity vat the moment of reception. v^ = 300 km /s (see §19). = v. i. 171) a distant light source (a star) 5 and two observers O. along the direction to S^^^..e. 8„ = 6."08. Supposing that the source moves with velocity v^ and emits light with f we obtain that an observer moving with velocity v„ will register a frequency v„ given by the first formula (10.'/c' ''2 ^'^"^^ ^ ' Thus the relation between the frequency f. i/„ = V. one can measure the light velocity and we this the Doppler experiment..) about some centre C which for its part moves with an absolute velocity v. while changes with Ztt during the period of rotation of O. i/.£< tilted oppositely to the at rest same angle a. 102./ = = v^ v^ + + v^' V. . we get frequency . THE QUASIDOPPLER EXPERIMENT cies call Observing from the Earth during a year the differences in the frequenof light emitted by a given star. v„ = v^. = 30 km/s. absolute velocities of O. This problem considered in detail in Let us have (fig. = v. line with the centre of v. Taking rad i^[. and O^ which rotation are . Writing in this formula first p„ = p. that the Earth's absolute performed with the aim for the measurement of the Earth's absolute velocity... cos^.... who rotate with relative velocities v. Obviously 6 is a constant angle. (see fig. we call it Now we shall show Marinov (1978k). and O. cos . motion cannot be revealed is by the quasiDoppler experiment. §17. lie on the same (p (p ...^. and then v^ = p.
Fig.3) into (17.2). and If Pi V2 received from a given light (radio) source for which 6 0.<p) Substituting (17. 171 we have ^. however if 6 = 7r/2. 171 From fig.3) v^ ./c^)[oT<p = This result leads to the conclusion that we can 96 . cos ^. will be = Pii^ + 2vv. V2 cos $2 = = V cos S V cos b + — v^ cos (S cos (5 + <p) (17. qp = tt/I.1) and (17.4) This final expression is convenient for discussion. 5 = will be »'. it + <p it = tt/I. we find within an accuracy of second order in \/c 2 = 1  2— cos (6 + c <p) » 2 — c ' (cos <p  cos 6 cos (6 + <p)] + 2 — c' cos' (5 + <p) (17. = p^ for 0. Let us mesure i'.
because of the appearance of the aberration. will be equal when [see (17. Earth.measure the Earth's absolute velocity in the following manner Let us have two receivers placed at a parallel with 80" difference in the longitudes. Such an angle is large enough to be reliably registered.. Let us have shaft with length (fig.0. and v. If now due i'. obtain + qp) = sina ^ Q = 10^ = 3. then the velocity. Intensive 97 . Let us observe a radio source when it should « cross » the line OyO.4 when considering the socalled its « rotorrotor » experiment.0. the source will be seen along the direction 0.. This signifies that when the line 0.0. Thus. Hence v^ and Vn when of the received at the pole will suffer equal changes. We consider this experiment in Marinov (19780.. Imagine for simplicity that this middle point is at the pole and that the Earth : 1 represents a flat disk. will be equal precisely t Tr/2.5) Taking v = 300 km/s cos (5 (§ 19).» EXPERIMENT The historical coupledshutters >» experiment represents a modification of the velocity can be Fizeau experiment for the measurement of the light velocity by a rotating cogwheel with whose help the Earth's absolute measured. for different radio sources which « cross » the line 0..6) where a is the angle between the line 0^0^ and the sourceobservers line. § 18. then for 6 at the = the frequencies and v.e... not change in the frequency depends only on the rotational on the velocity of the disk as a whole. the quasiDoppler expe riment leads practically to a null result. to the daily rotation we compare f.„ i. THE QUASIFIZEAU « COUPLEDSHUTTERS « . and f.Oy concludes an angle a with the sourceobservers line. for 5 qp however for 6 = tt/I the frequencies v. so that even the traditional Newtonian kinematics leads to results adequate to physical reality. (17. However. and let the frequencies received be sent to some middle point and there compared. sent from the rim of a rotating disk to centre. = moment when the radio source is on the line 0. effects we take into account only the of first order in v/c. the angle a is exactly equal to the aberration angle due to the motion of the Earth with velocity v. c/ 181) is which set in rotation two cogwheels C.. (17. and C^ fixed on a common by the electromotor EM.4) and take into account that for the case considered cos(5 + <f') s 0] cos (6 + we <p) = v/c . 4 . As we show if light is in §30. In the « coupledshutters » experiment.
= c — n. equal to If both wheels have the same (i. If any of the wheels has p notches and makes N revolutions per second.. and d^ of light in « direct » of the light beams between both wheels. « direct » and from 5". and « opposite » the same. number of ») cogs placed respectively against each other « cogs against cogs and they are set in rotation. O. We shall call the direction from S. where n is an integer. and S. C. the the same time that the wheels are rotated frequency of chopping. With the help of the verniers and « and we can change the paths c/... then. Suppose directions is that the velocity of light in the « direct » c. then the observers will establish fluxes in the case in maximum phioton where the distance d between the wheels is covered by light an integer number of notches. « opposite ». 181 5". opposite » If the velocity directions (or is the same. to O. and O^. for passing of the and c ¥ v chopped n.). fluxes and O. the wheels will rotate f = pN notches in a second. = c V + V f. We call this number. obviously. to O. this light is observed by the observers O. K. » d. = A V. Obviously. After passing through the notches of and C.1) photon flux can be written n .e. light is emitted by the sources the cogwheels C.. will observe maximum » minimum) photon when d^ = d. (18. f.Fig. the condition for observing a maximum (18. and C.. and « opposite The conditions beams will be /".2) 98 . Now suppose that the velocity of light is c — in « v in the « direct » the « opposite direct » directions. (respectively.
then a « phase difference » will appear ». near the shutters and 5b. Thus the question may be posed about the use of two on a common shaft but rotating with the same angular velocity.. For the sake of generality.^ = n. 182 a) ters. if d^  d^ = 2 — c V (18. The first difficulty can be overcome if we use the same resonator for both pairs of shutters. two resonators R ^ and R g. Kerr cells).3) or Ad = Obviously. will exactly cancel the effect that we 99 .Assuming that. with a decrease of v towards zero. = d{\  v/c). we shall now speak not of two independently rotating cogwheels but of two independently operating pairs of shutters (for instance. = n. how to maintain a « phase difference » between them equal to zero. between the pairs. (18. </.e. we shall have «.4) we choose a lower chopping frequency a longer shaft must be used. Now the two following problems arise : opposiie direct Fig. = d{\ + v/c). thus. 182) is driven by a common chopping mechanism. and d. or in the middle. d. and. say. It is easy to see that the chopping frequency which can be achieved steel shaft so by a rotating cogwheel requires a independent cogwheels not fixed long that practically it cannot be constructed.^ should become equal to d. if we transmit the signals for opening closing the shutters by an electric line. It can easily be shown that the intend to observe. « phase difference appearing at the motion of our apparatus in absolute space. Any pair of these shutters (fig. we obtain d. ensure that both pairs of shutters will close and open together. How How to to maintain e^ywa/ chopping frequencies for both pairs of shut b) i. However. which can be put near the shutters S a.
Hence again we When we » are unable to measure the absolute velocity v. taking into account the absolute time dilation. how far from opening is the second pair of shutters). the Thus their time rates will » that will if new « phase difference cancel the effect to be observed be different and exactly such that appear after the rotation will exactly the « phase difference » after the rotation had remained the same as before the rotation. light clocks) attached io R^ and /?„ be t\. until the « direct » direction its axis becomes parallel to v. 100 . and only (18. during the rotation both resonators will move at different velocities with respect to absolute space. Let the readings of two clocks (suppose. cular to i^one will arrange the that both observers O. To prove this. no light be left to pass through both pairs However. say. we can easily see that this prediction of Dart will not correspond to reality. Because of the absolute time dilation. its let us suppose that the axis of the apparatus is first perpendicular to absolute velocity. /„ before the rotation and /\'. The chopping frequency f^ of the resonator /?„ can be maintained equal to the chopping frequency f. use independent shutters.^ of the resonator /?^ if we tune f\ in such a manner that the « beating » of the light spot observed by O. as Dart (1971) has suggested.v^/c'V'dt.\ > » B + (— uY + 2 t^ (/ o) /) are the velocities of the resonators during the rotation of the apparatus. for simplicity. (18.. If now the apparatus is so that the « direct » direction will coincide with the direction of light will d^ then some be seen by the observers.Hence the resonators producing the chopping frequency must be independent and for such. ^B^fter the rotation.5) = = i^' I (— w)'  i^ J to cos (w cos (w » (\%f. However. we cannot know the « phase diffewe cannot know when the first pair of shutters is between them (i.25)] l^= f(\ . Indeed. will always be reduced to zero.v^/cydt. and with the help of the verniers V^ and K to give a difference A^ according to formula of the coupled shutters.e. Let us then rotate the apparatus with of angular velocity w. will if we change distances ^. parallel to V.^ would see no light. about the middle point.t^j^ = /„'  t'^ correspond to the same absolute time interval t. one can rotate the apparatus is with respect to absolute space. When « the axis of the apparatus » perpendiput the phase difference between both shutters so and O. rence open. we have [see the second formula (3. where t^^' /b= /(> . Let the proper times /^ = t'^ . two atomic clocks can be taken. i^.4).
. shutters more clearly the difference between the independent and the cogwheels connected by a rigid shaft. is nonsensical. the « coupledshutters » experiment can « work » only when for two cogwheels fixed on a common shaft are used. « Foucault developed » his rotating mirror experiment. If such a change appeared. does not change its velocity during the « rotation. and subtracting the second of ^^ = ^^= dv 77 • ("8. a change in the phase difference » between both cogwheels cannot occur. In such a case a Newtonian time synchronization is realized.5) only if the clocks are velocities v independent. THE QUASIFOUCAULT COUPLEDMIRRORS » EXPERIMENT basis in Fizeau's rotating cogwheel With the aim of shortening the experiment. after performing the integration.5) from the first. — which.. which. after the rotation. we obtain. Thus. same light paths. we do not Let us explain f^ have the right by a to use common if shaft and there formulas (18. 101 .S"'.. putting w/ formulas (18.5) because the wheels are rigidly connected is a unique clock the motor driving the shaft. obviously. </. then after the rotation the shaft would be found to be twisted. If we consider both rotating cogwheels as clocks. = nil. The relations between the absolute time and the proper times elapsed on two clocks moving with and Ug ^r^ given by formulas (18. Our experiment represents a modification of this historical Foucault experiment with whose help for the first time in history we have coupledmirrors measured the Earth's absolute velocity.If we work within an accuracy of second order in vie. « § 19. placed at the middle. = ^. while the shutter 5^ will open with the same anticipation relative to the shutter Thus for the . minimum photon fluxes will pass through both coupled shutters. but the axis which one has to use to obtain a registrable effect must be so long that it cannot be practically Thus shutters constructed.7) This formula shows that if before rotation the « phase difference » between both pairs of shutters is equal to zero. then after rotation the shutter S\ will open with a delay A/ relative to the shutter S\.
Let us have two disks same phase difference (imagine the wheels of a bicycle). s.) whose by the (from is distance from the rotating mirror (/?A/. the light beam 5" reflected right cylindrical mirror CM^ is (CA/. The light path from the rotating mirrors to the d/2.. 191 scheme of this experiment.).19.) will illuminate screen from the the left) at a certain point.If p. called the rotating mirrors RM^ and RM. is is reflected by the semitranspathrough the semitransparent mirror incident on the mirror facet of /?A/. The report on performance is given in Marinov (1974b). while the other and the rest of the disk's rim are not light reflecting. and N^ (A^2 and ^V. (RM^).).^. On each disk two antipodal facets are cut and one is made a mirror.<g> —y Fig. (N. THE DEVIATIVE In the « COUPLEDMIRRORS we » EXPERIMENT summer of » 1973 carried out the deviative variant of the its « coupledmirrors experiment. (M^) and. The light beam then M. (or ^2) rent mirror A'. 191 we give the driven always exactly with the d Intensive light from the source 5.1. cylindrical mirrors D and from the cylindrical mirrors to the screen 102 . the rotating mirrors are at rest. is incident on the mirror facet of RM. The distance between both disks. after passing reflected by the semitransparent mirrors is A^. is In fig..
shall refer to as the Earth's absolute velocity and designate by Suppose first that the unit vector along the « direct » direction n v. we call (which we call (which angle 6 will « direct ») is c « opposite ») the light pulse reflected RM. (19. the facet !) exact parallelism will rotate not necessary to the corresponding facet of RM.4) where y in fig. Thus we have s= cPv[\ c^ S2 +2Dia 1 + ^)].5) The establishment of velocity intervals v is to be performed as follows In regular of time during a whole day we maintain such a rotational velocity S2 103 . {RM when the latter is perpendicular to parallel (an the incident to beam reach RM2 (RM. the latter will rotate to an v and along the direction from RM. component of hours Our apparatus it will make takes part in the diurnal rotation of the Earth all and in 24 possible angles with the the Earth's absolute velocity in the plane determined by the different positions of the apparatus during the day. R : secqp (19. + v. the latter will rotate to an angle 6 reach RM„  a. In such a case during the time in which by RM.) by a certain angle 8 = c ^ $2.).If the rotating mirrors are set in motion. y.^ {RM^) which is cover the distance d is + 2p. and we shall have C h V c from where (assuming 1/ <^ c) we get (19. (RM. and 9 are shown and R is the radius of the cylindrical mirrors. However.. (19. is perpendicular to and to v. for the time spent by light of RM. beams will illuminate point P. will reach RM. let us adjust the cylindrical mirrors so that the chopped light beams if n becomes parallel the distance between will illuminate the both light same point O on the screen 5*. this component we v.) slit T. while during the time in which the light pulse reflected by RM.. and for have (suppose (p O and P we shall s = tt/A) = y — +2a D. Now. that light velocity along the direction Suppose now from RM. to RM. then. angles fi. 191 = 2(a + ft) and ft = 2a (D/R) sec <p.. to is — c + a.1) where fl is the angular velocity of the rotating mirrors.3) a = Qdv/c'. because of the . only the hght which is reflected will by /?A/.
obtaining a very sure and reliable value for the Earth's absolute The report on its performance is given in Marinov (1978c). taken from an old torpedoboat. According to the calculation for our real adjustment it must be s = 0. 104 . If this diapason is As = 2.2 m. The observed displacement was maximum 3 ± 2 hours after midnight and after noon and corresponded to a velocity V = 130 ± 100 km/s. THE INTERFEROMETRIC EXPERIMENT « COUPLEDMIRRORS » The result obtained with our deviative « coupledmirrors » experiment was very inaccurate and the scientific community remained sceptical whether we really registered the Earth's absolute motion. 1975 we carried out the interferometric « coupledmirrors » ex periment. Two HeNe Sofia. the radius of the cylindrical mirrors was R = S cm. and our experiment could not lead to an accurate quantitative measurement of v. For this reason. that the Then the light In our factual setup. which drives the shaft. The azimuth of the apparatus was 84" and the observations were performed in JulyAugust in is ment the maintaining of an equal phase difference mirrors during the Earth's rotation. This displacement is large enough to be reliably registered. The distance between both rotating mirrors was 7. was fi/2 tt = 80 rev/s. However the inconstancy of the cylindrical mirrors radii and the trembling of the images were too considerable.2. beam from the right will illuminate point O when n is perpendicular to v\ it will be displaced over a distance Is upwards when n T T v and over the same distance downwards when nM v. 19.chopped Ught beam from the left will always illuminate point O.62 mm for v = 100 km/s. both rotating disks were fixed on a « common » shaft because the most important requirement of the coupledmirrors lasers experi between both rotating were used as light sources. The error ± 100 km/s was established in the following manner : An observer maintained for 23 minutes one of the light spots in a certain position.48 mm. adjusting by hand a corresponding tension of a dc electromotor Another observer registered the diapason of trembling of the other light spot which was normally 23 mm. in the summer of velocity. the « direct » direction being the one after midnight. then the fluctuation error is ± 100 km/s. We used three cylindrical mirrors for each beam and such a combination of cylindrical mirrors which increases enormously the « arm » of a light beam is called by us the « cylindrical mirrors indicator ». The light spots were observed over two different screens because in our factual experiment both rotating mirrors lay in two different parallel planes. and the velocity of rotation of the shaft.
(RM. the in the position RM'^' refracted » pulse will reach the second rotating mirror in the position RM'^ velocity of light is (RMl) when the equal to c...). to RM. SM^). and 105 . are perpendicular to the incident beams. We call the direction from /?A/.) registers the interference which the « refracted » beam makes with the « reflected » beam. (SM.^ (RM. « opposite ». (or S.. two mirrors /?M. {RM.. The « refracted » beam is then reflected successively by the mirror A/. « direct » and from RM. (SM. (O. This synchronization is performed by making the opening of Let us now set the shaft in rotation with angular velocity in action the shutters Sh^ the shutters shutters.. SMi (M. which we call the rotating mirrors. in the case of rotating shaft. the last one being reflected by the rotating mirror /?A/. and the observer O. fi and let us put and Sh. Instead of the second we also used simple placed along the light paths to the rotating mirrors.. (^ 10 '• s) to be governed by the rotating shaft slits itself. to disks with radius R.. and RM.Fig 192 Let us have (fig.^). (A/ J. (RM2) and refracted by 5A/.) when mirror « is in the position RM.). 192) a shaft with length don whose ends there are two and RM. If the « reflected » light pulse reaches RM.. then. which should allow light to pass through them only when the rotating mirrors RM. by the rotating mirror RM. /?A/. again by M. fixed On the rims of the disks.) is partially refiected and partially refracted by the semitransparent mirror ^A/. are Monochromatic parallel light emitted by the source 5".).
This (together with the high resolution of the interferometric is method) « the » most important advantage interferometric coupledmirrors experiment. then. A « very important difference between the deviative and interferometric » coupledmirrors experiments is that the effect registered in the latter is independent of small variations in the rotational velocity. we shall have 8 ± a = c) n. (19.6) from where (assuming v <^ we get the result (19. Denoting by 5 the RM!. The « observers our actual arms » of a Wheatstone bridge. but need merely to register the difference in the illuminations over the photoresistors during the of the rotation. » The wind difference in the optical paths of the « refracted and « reflected » « light pulses in the cases » will of availability and nonavailability of an aether be A = 2a/? = where v. (RM. the observer O. should register a .v . change in his interference picture within ' z = « 2 — /^ = dR 87r T . Thus the reflection of the « direct » beams and are tangent to their « opposite » in » beams proceeds on the same planes of the mirrors. and RM!/ (RM'.7) the linear velocity of the rotating mirrors. The changes in both interference pictures are exactly opposite. .vie + i^). duIf the wavelength of the used velocity 12 = 2 ttN (N is the ring the rotation of the apparatus over 360" in a plane parallel to the direction of the absolute velocity v. is d Ril 2 v^=2^^— v.3). light is \ and we maintain such an angular number of revolutions per second) that the observer O. and RM\'). and RM2 are exactly parallel and the photoresistors are illuminated not by a pattern of interference fringes setup represent two photoresistors which are put in the « but uniformly. In our actual setup.8) A wavelengths.(/?A^.') when the velocity of light angle between the radii of RM. 106 . In the interferometric variant one need not keep the illumination over one of the photoresistors constant by changing the velocity of rotation when rotating the axis of the apparatus about the direction of its absolute motion. while the opposite » light lower parts. and RM\) and by or the angle and is equal tor between the radii of RM:. „ N ». V (19. the direct » « Ac' beams are tangent to the upper parts of the rotating disks. should always register the same interference picture. Thus in our apparatus the mirrors RM. (19.
The energy I flux density which cos' will fall on the photoresistors will be = c — 8 IT E' ""P' = c — E' '"'•' w —= 2 / ""' w cos'^ = 2 2 TT I ^ 2 (1 + cos <p) (19.e.11) where /„a. The sensitivity falls to zero for = 0. + 1) (\/4). 5" A/. = E^^^ sin (w/ + <p) (19. Let us consider this problem in detail. is the maximum is possible energy flux density.e. when «p the difference in the optical paths is of the « reflected » and « refracted » beams (2 n tt. (or SM^) are.12) and is highest for <p = v/l. intensities We suppose that the electric of the « reflected » and « refracted » beams when they meet again on the semitransparent mirror £.9) where E^„^ (a) is maximum electric intensity is the angular frequency of the radiation « reflected phases of the intensities in the which is equal for both beams. = 2E^^^sm{ojt + )coSy = op op £^^p. sincp (19.„^. n being an is integer. The resultant electric intensity after the interference will be £=£.. and <p is the difference between the » and « refracted » beams.sm(<of + y). (19. when this difference n (A/2). E.„. = the £^^^ sin (wO . respectively. + E. If the resistance the illumination (as the energy flux was the case density a change = of the photoresistors changes linearly with the change in our setup). 3 ir/l.. then to a small change dl in in dR = kdl  k ^ sintpdq) (19. then the apparatus has the highest sensitivity when the illumination over the photoresistors is average (for maximum and minimum illuminations the sensitivity falls to zero).10) (JP where E^.13) 107 I . Hence a change in of the difference in the optical paths of the the velocity of rotation can lead only to a change in the sensitivity. The sensitivity ^ d(p = _ jLmi 2 i._^^ cos ((p/2) is the maximum electric intensity (the amplitude) of the resultant beam. i.Since the illumination over the photoresistors changes with the change « refracted » and « reflected » beams according to the sine law. = 2 E.
(19. The absolute velocity is through the diagonal galvanometer. we make the axis of the apparatus to be perpendicular to the absolute velocity v of the laboratory.8). = /?. setting a rotational rate N = (A'. Then we set such a rotational rate A'. We put the same constant resistances in the other two arms of the bridge. When 8R = 8. so that again the intial current. and no current will flow through the galvanometer in the bridge's diagonal. k being a constant. and we by diminish correspondingly the variable resistors. sensitivity is the we shall have J Substituting this into (19.in the resistance of the photoresistors tt will correspond. Jobtain (19.. tion Let us denote the resistance of the photoresistors under such a condi/?. we make the axis of the apparatus parallel to the absolute velocity v and we transfer resistance A/? from the arm where the illumination over the photoresistor has decreased to the arm where it has increased. the illuminations over the photoresistors were average a change 10 ^ /? in any of the arms of the photoresistors (positive in the one and negative in the other) could be discerned from the fluctuation of the bridge's galvanometer and thus the resolution was ^''' 8v= 108 ATT'dRN R  = ± 17km/s.. R.16) . Since highest.). then for <p = tt/I. and R. so again the same initial current will flow through all arms and no current through the diagonal galvanometer. R.. to be calculated from (19. After that we make the illumination average. that the illumination over the photoresistors is maximum and we connect in series with them two variable resistors. it is A<p = ln^/X. 13).)/2. is : First. as it follows after the integration of (19. so that the same current J„ (called the initial current) will flow through the arms of the photoresistors. as well as through the arms of the constant resistors. We set such a that the illumination over the photoresistors to be mini mum.„ has to flow through all arms of the bridge. y. For a change A<jp = the resistance will change with R = — k where the 7^.15). (it must be /?. + N. so that again the same initial current has to flow through all arms of the bridge and no current Now.15) we ^'' ^^ An'dRN R The measuring method rotational rate A'..
rotate in the a couple of The whole apparatus horizontal plane and the is mounted on a platform which can measurement can be performed in seconds. \i/ Thus turning in the horizontal plane of the laboratory. moment measure the Earth's absolute velocity lies in the plane of the laboratory's meridian.0 cm. The same fig. the components of the Earth's absolute velocity in the horizontal plane of the laboratory for these two moments are v'.. but metry of the method and of its is easy to see that thermal disturbances cannot introduce errors because of the complete symrapid performance. = v^ sin (6 + <p) (19.17) 109 . errors The The experiment was not performed in vacuum. is to be we can made after 12 hours. 193 During bridge is a in equilibrium whole day we search for the moment when the Wheatstone if the axis of the apparatus points eastwest.d = which can be introduced from the imprecise values of 140 cm. = i^ sin (5  qp) i^. As can be seen from 193. and A' = 120 rev/s are substantially smaller than the resolution and can be ignored. it The room was not temperaturecontrolled. To guarantee sufficient certainty we take 8v = ±20 km/s. R = 40. At this the axis of the apparatus northsouth. The magnitude and established as follows : the apex of the Earth's absolute velocity have been Fig.
' — 2 i^a k'h (cos' <p qp — sin' <p) "^ ] 2 sin op ^ cos ^ ^ .18) 22 September .where (p is the latitude of the laboratory and 8 is the declination of the apex. From these we obtain ( ^'a' + »^i. „ (19.
error.23) « §20. then ^i which is taken as the second must differ with 1*" 58'" from t^y which is taken as the first. is from (^si). supposing for simplicity = 45". .Thus 1/ = 327 ± = 20 km/s (r„). this asserts vitational field in a small region : Any gra around a given space point can be replaced by a suitable noninertial frame of reference (and vice versa). a = 14M7"' ± 20'". for example. for example. 1 The magnitude and the equatorial coordinates of the apex of the Sun's absolute velocity will be given by the arithmetical means of : the figures obtained for the Earth's absolute velocity in July and January 1/ = 303 ± 20 km/s . Einstein generalized lean) principle of equivalence (as he has — According « to our absolute spacetime conceptions.s. the socalled principle of equivalence can be formulated. by the Earth's attraction). so that the behaviour of material points in an inertial frame of reference in the presence of a gravitational field would be indistinguishable from their behaviour in a suitable noninertial frame without the gravitational field. Its essence is : 111 .. by thrust of a space ship) or a dynamic (gravitational) character (thus being generated by the action of nearby masses..22) For V and 8 we have taken the <p r. (19. (19.e.m. 6 = . registered. If our experiment is accurate enough. such a generalization of the principle of equivalence contradicts physical reality. since for this case ( u„ > v. THE ACCELERATED COUPLEDMIRRORS » EXPERIMENT Since the masses of the material points are a measure of their kinetic energy as well as of the gravitational energy to which they contribute... and made absolute this « mechanical » (or Galidone with the Galilean principle of relativity see §21). because of the difference between solar and sideral days. The right ascension is calculated from the   moment when i/. a = 14M1'" ± 20"'. ) the sensitivity is better. i. postulating that it is by no means possible to establish whether the acceleration which is exerted on material points in a laboratory has a kinematic (mechanic) character (thus being due to the accelerated motion of the laboratory.. The accelerated coupledmirrors as follows » experiment proposed in Marinov (I978t) can imme diately reveal the invalidity of Einstein's principle of equivalence. 6 =  21" ± 4".23' ±4".
the absolute velocity will two be different. moments « §21. THE ULTRASONIC COUPLEDSHUTTERS » EXPERIMENT By the help of observations and logical generalizations. calling it the general principle of relativity. for the electromagnetic the restricted (or mechanical) principle of relativity. and in a frame moving with respect to absolute space this rotation is inde pendent of the axis' orientation. one cannot establish this absolute behaviour of a material system in motion. the propagation of light pulses represents an electromagnetic phenomenon. we consider the restricted principle of relativity as abso we have come to the conclusion that only by the combination of mechanical and light (electromagnetic) phenomena can one Moreover. the general principle of relativity invalid. If is kinematic (mechanic). The propagation of sound is isotropic in any inertial frame. On the other hand. thus. one can electromagnetic establish the absolute velocity of a laboratory. In our absolute By the help of our « coupledmirrors is » experiment. establish the absolute velocity of a laboratory. lutely valid. since this is a mechanical phenomenon. Briscoe proposed the parallel transfer of light and sound signals.sotropic. Einstein assumed that this principle is valid also for light propagation (in phenomena) and generalized it for all physical phenomena. Galilei formu: lated the socalled principle of relativity. in our « coupledmirrors * experiment the rotation of the shaft represents a mechanical phenomenon. we have shown that However. the absolute velocity will always remain the same. So. spacetime theory. which asserts the following The two inertially moving frames of reference is identical. no experiment exists which has contradicted the mechanical principle of relativity.Let us measure with the help of our the acceleration different « coupledmirrors » apparatus the in these absolute velocity of an accelerated laboratory at two different moments. The principle of relativity which does not include light propagation phenomena was called general. Briscoe (1958) has pointed to another combination of mechanical and phenomena which permits the registering of the absolute motion of a laboratory. however if the acceleration is dynamic (gravitational). performing measurements in a laboratory which moves inertially with respect to absolute space. and in a moving frame it depends on the direction of propagation. by comparing these two types of signal transfers. 112 . and. while the propagation of light is ani.
211) two electric high frequency operating shutters S/Ia. which seems be more reliable.. wzzzzmL 1W/////A L J\22Z2Ml VM \ \ty//yM r DCZZH ''. S^ (lasers) : The ultrasonic pulses same period T propagate through water at velocity V (thus their wavelength is \^ = VT) and are received by the receiver R g. they are applied to the horizontal plates shutter Sh^. of the oscilloscope. Let us suppose for simplicity the water homegeneous and the elements of the y4part (as well as of the BpSLVt) very close to each other.We describe Briscoe's proposal in Marinov (1978u).. In such a case that time in which the electric pulses cover the lines between shutters and ultrawe can affirm when on the screen of the oscilloscope the emitted pulses (the high ones) is coincide with the received pulses (the low ones) there a whole number of 113 . O. (ii) are applied to the emitter of ultrasonic waves E^. the distance light between which is d. so that the sonic emitterreceiver system can be ignored. After being transformed into electric pulses and amplified by the amplifier A g. Shf^. (ii) govern the The ultrasonic pulses emitted by £b propagate backwards in the water with the same velocity V and are received by the receiver R^. Behind the shutters there are the and the observers O^. After being amplified by the amplifier A ^. we give the to description of a variant proposed by us in Marinov (1978s). applied to the horizontal plates of the oscilloscope Osc. The generator G produces electric pulses with period r(peak to peak time) which (i) govern the shutter Sh^. (iii) are sources 5"^. emitted by E^ with the they : (i) are applied to the emitter of ultrasonic waves £„. Now. 211 Let us have (fig.iiiiiiiTiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii[^ rJIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIlK Fig.
whileOBwillseea(2A/i)th part of the d/X = n + nominal maximum light intensity. Such will be the case if 3/4. Thus for An = 1/2. (NB. we can reduce the time during which the shutters remain open to An T (see the small segments shaded in maximum light intensity blackinthefigure)obtainingthatOAwillseenolight. d d _ d _ light pulses between the shutters Sh^ and » directions.3) . good Suppose \ first that the absolute velocity of the laboratory (the Earth) is perpendicular to the axis d The wavelengths of light in both directions will be = cT. From (21. the low peaks will have a system E^^R^.1) between the shutters Sh^ and S'/ip. that the absolute velocity v becomes parallel to d.2) we obtain ''A="B7:r7 =n^+2 114 ^ n = n^+ An. the average light intensity plus a A/7th part of the maximum while the observer O^ will see the average light intensity minus a A/Jth part of light intensity. Moving the emitterreceiver we choose such a position that O^ and O^ should see an average light intensity. certain position with respect to the high peaks. if d/X = n + 1/4. system track. the observer (7„ will see light intensity. Suppose now from « left to right. all will be vice versa). and there will be «= light pulses ^ V= cT A d d (21. In such a case a halfinteger number of sound waves is placed along the track E^R^^E^R^. by the help of sound signals. (21. Shf^. U An < 1/2. In the real experiment. in the « direct » and « opposite U An = the n^ — n^ is less than (or equal to) 1/2. which direction we Xfi= {c shall call « direct The v) light wavein the length in the « direct » direction will become X^ = so there will be (c — d T and opposite » direction + v) T. E^R^ back and forth we can change is the Moving the emitterreceiver number of pulses on that The propagation of sound principle of relativity holds a it. O^ will see a maximum and O^ no light. where n is an integer. pointing ». a Newtonian time synchronization between spatially separated points can be for realized. respectively. and the low peaks will be exactly between the high peaks.ultrasonic pulses along the track E^R^Ef^R^. where the time lost by the pulses along the electric tracts cannot be ignored. mechanical phenomenon and the Thus.
for v in the hydrolocators Aai of Soviet submarines).1). the experiment should be performed in winter is when the water for long covered by ice and preserves its sound conductive properties if enough.19)] 115 . For convenience and higher accuracy the compensation of the « creep » is to be made not in the ultrasonic but in the electric tract. as a result of In an actual experiment the water will not be less. this is of no importance because the « direct » different influences (temperature. Thus throughout the experiment. we = 300 km/s. d = 50 km. proper time intervals) which correspond to the absolute time interval A/ read by an absolute clock will be (use formula (3. a corresponding shift of the emitterreceiver system E^R^ is to be performed and the low peaks are to be maintained at their initial positions. currents. If the « creep » of the low peaks is conspicuous. §22. then the relation between their readings A/^. Nevertheand « opposite » sound waves cross exactly the same way and the number of sound waves in the « direct » and « opposite » directions will be the same. for the Earth's rotation. THE KINEMATIC TIME DILATION EXPERIMENTS to our absolute spacetime theory the kinematic (Lorentz) an absolute phenomenon (§11.1) we obtain c for the absolute velocity ^n c'TAn Taking /"= \/T = 0. However. homogeneous. if two clocks A and B move with the absolute velocities v^. Thus the comparison of the readings of clocks which move with different velocities with respect to absolute space can give information about these absolute velocities.).3 MHz (this frequency is used obtain. ^^b O^. thus not waiting the shutters Sh^. and the low peaks will « creep » with respect to the high peaks. density. the water can change its sound conductive properties. then the absolute velocity V can be measured by changing the multiplication factor and by using a method similar to that used (and explained in detail) in §27. = 0. This signifies that during different moments different numbers of sound waves will be placed along the tract E^R^EgR^. etc. This experiment will be successful the low peaks can be main tained at their initial positions a whole day with an inaccuracy much less than one A/Jth part of the period T.1. If one can realize a stable multiplication of the frequency /"and govern Sh^ by this enhanced frequency. v^.and making use of (21. According is time dilation Indeed.
1). Rossi and Hall measured the distance d covered by highvelocity jnmesons produced near the top of the atmosphere caused by primary cosmic radiation. (22. at which height a stationary clock in Washington is also placed.2) Comparing Twith T„. at rest. THE ROSSIHALL The first MESON » EXPERIMENT experiment which proved the Lorentz time dilation was the » experiment performed by Rossi and Hall (1941). (1977) and has very reliably proved the relation (11. A/^v of the clocks carried by the eastern and western planes were compared with the reading A/ of a third atomic clock left in Washington. In the actual trip. which is near to c.2.10 s. and socalled « meson their « readings » were the mean lifetimes of the mesons. * The meanlife of /xmesons them will decay. (22.. experiment the planes made many landings during the thus changing their gravitational potentials. The readings A/p. they calculated the proper meanlife r„ of the mesons from the relation as a result of nuclear interactions Knowing their velocity v T„ = d/v.2). they have proved the relation (11.e.(1  ^ v'^/c')^'^ « = (1  ^ v'^c')''' . THE HAFELEKEATING EXPERIMENT The first « CLOCKSROUNDTHEWORLD » help of macroscopic clocks was the experiment where the Lorentz time dilation was proved by the « clocksroundtheworld » experiment of Hafele and Keating (1972). exactly along the parallel of experiment we assume that both planes fly Washington at the same height above sea level. The corrections which are to be made when the planes fiy at different heights can be performed by taking into account the dynamic (Einstein) time dilation In our treatment of this (§1 1.1) 22.1.2. It consisted of the following : Two jet planes carrying atomic clocks left Washington in eastern and western directions. flew round the world and returned to the starting point. is i. namely /nmesons. and the HafeleKeating experiment proved both the Lorentz and Einstein time dilations. the time in which {\/e)ih part of T = 2. 116 . In this experiment the « clocks » were elementary particles.1). 22. A similar experiment for positive has been recently performed by Bailey and negative muons in a circular orbit et al.
(22. is = — R cos(p . moves with and for the = ^^f ~ Ar. motion of the different clocks and which V.In our treatment. their we ignore the motion of the Earth around the Sun and in combined motion all relative to absolute space because the average fluence of these motions on our clocks account only the rotational velocity of the in the Thus we take into Earth which leads to an asymmetry is the same. If we denote by v the velocity of the planes with respect to the Earth. according to formula (22.3) where R is is the Earth's radius. + v' 5^w . while the westbound clock which i^vv velocity = ^r ~ v'with respect to absolute space will be fast. + v with respect absolute space will be slow.1). obtain within an accuracy of second order in \/c differences S^F 8t^ we _ 2vv. <p is the latitude of Washington's parallel and T the length of the sideral day. then the eastbound clock which to moves with velocity Vf:= v. Sr^ = A/vv — A/.
respectiEarth's equator (see fig. Let the Earth's absolute velocity be v . we shall have for the absolute velocities of these clocks. vely. and Tis the length of the sideral day. . the north celestial pole).3. THE « ANTIPODALCLOCKS » EXPERIMENT Marinov (1972b) and it The essence of this experiment with whose help one can measure the in detail in absolute velocity of a laboratory was proposed by was considered Marinov (19781).22. Fig. Suppose for the sake of simplicity that the Earth's axis is perpendicular to the plane of the ecHptic and that we consider such a day of the year when the absolute velocity of the Sun (or at least its component in the plane of the ecliptic) i^s is parallel to the velocity of the Earth about the Sun v^. v^^ = v^ + vl — Itt t 2 vVr sin (22. 221 Sun Let us have two atomic clocks placed at two antipodal points of the where we have shown the Earth as seen from and the linear rotational velocity of the equator be v.6) lirt i^ f i^J » 2 i^ I'r sin where v 118 = v^ + Vp. 221. Taking the initial zero moment when it is sunrise for the first atomic clock (clock A) and sunset for the second atomic clock (clock B).
1). i. 222. For this reason the « antipodalclocks » experiment is to be performed on a turnabout. Let the readings be 119 . This represents the essence of the « antipodalclocks » experiment. The greatest difference will be when one clock it is noon and for the other midnight. antipodal points on the Earth Fig. If we compare the readings of our clocks for equal absolute intervals of time between sunset and sunrise.If we use these formulas in (22. t\' which is parallel to the absolute velocity v.. leads to an annihilation of the appearing absolute effects. Suppose that points a and b lie on a diameter t\. 222 Let us have a ring ab which encircles the turnabout but does not rotate with respect to absolute space. and only during the sunset and sunrise hours will these rates be equal. of Einsteinian time synchronization.e. at different we see that the rates of our clocks will be different for hours of the day. a realization of Newtonian time synchronization between two is problematic and later we shall show that a realization of time synchronization by the exchange of electromagnetic signals. we should establish the absolute character of the Lorentz time dilation and we could measure the Earth's absolute velocity. as shown in fig. However.
. experiment on the rotating Earth Let clock A send the initial electromagnetic signal being at point sunrise) when for this clock it is and let its reading at this the light signal travels a certain time.7) rotate. Now we result shall show that the realization of an Einsteinian time synchroin nization in the « antipodalclocks » experiment leads to a negative (null) because of the mutual annihilation of the absolute effects and thus such a manner the absolute velocity of the laboratory (the Earth) cannot be measured. (i.registered on clock A when r'. v' + 1 vv. Ar = we the have 5//A/ = 4. /'(.t'^ obviously correspond same absolute time interval which we shall denote by A/. h. points the The times A/^y = /'/ . (22. clock will receive the signal B will A (i.^A/ = where Tis the period of rotation. that the revolutions per second of the turnabout are 5 '°. \ v^ ir v\ 2 vv.^^b and taking into account (22.. (22.9) having taking into account that approximately it is Ar^^A/. moment be i\. we can = H^(I j in I v\/c^)^'^du M = A/„ /"(I  ^yc^)''^c//.10) Denoting 8t = A/^ . be registered on clock B when it touches. v^ from (22. We shall consider the « antipodalclocks » (fig. we obtain vl ^.a. r/2. and let the readings h. respectively. 10 " s.8) Substituting here i^^..6) and working within an accuracy of second order ^ I /c.9) St = 4 vv. we find = 4. (22.11) 6/ 4 Taking v shall = 300 km/s and /? = 3 m.10 while the portable cesium beam clocks show time with a relative inaccuracy ± 10 ". It is ^t to = Ar„(j  v'/c')^'^ . J ^ ^i = V R (22. Supposing 0.t\ and A/^ = /'„' . we obtain from (22. . Since move with the Earth and ' being at point B'.e.1 s). it touches. (22.. points a.e. respectively. Here we do not take into account the 120 I . where A/^ is the time read on a clock 1 D which ) does not write On A/ the grounds of formula (22.10) only in the terms of second order in 1/c. 221).
the effects calculated. Putting (22.V^ V. then. obviously. and T'^ the readings of clock B when the initial and respectively.15) we find . (22.9) clock A has sent the A has sent the final signal. is perpendicular to the transiational velocity if v.13) the reading of clock and by /'b the reading when Making use of formulas 'a If (22. for this clock it is Clock sunset). . (22.„ = r.12) which we calculate within an accuracy of shall see further first order in v/c because.^A= (^'b  ^b)(1 + 4 . when and let its reading at this moment be t'^ Clock B will move with the Earth and will receive the signal being at point B". and.e.14) we denote by final signals.^(i^).'^(i + ^)... we can write B when clock . A sends the final signal at point A" (i. 2) and (22.10). have been received.r. ) = 'b . we obtain '„=r. and (22. cancelled in the final result. taking into account the velocity v.. (22.16) A when the and final signals are sent and the readings of clock B when these signals have been received we cannot establish the absolute velocity v. (22. as is we [formula (22. as it can be will shown. . 121 . l5) into (22.8)..rotation of the Earth because in the case considered the linear rotational velocity v. a higher accuracy not necessary. For the sake of simplicity we suppose also that the electromagnetic whose length is d. It can be that if the signal covers a trajectory along the Earth's surface (a shown radiorelay tract).=r.'b+ ^ d 2 V 1 . be signal propagates along the Earth's diameter. 14). and. using (22. (22.. 13)..15)]. With respect distance to absolute space the initial signal will cover the following d' = d(l  v/c).. With respect to absolute space the final signal will cover the following distance d" = Let us denote by initial signal t'^ c/(l + v/c). from this relation between the readings of clock initial (22. then the effects calculated additionally will be cancelled in the final result. T'.
using as a of the Earth about its axis but the yearly revolution around the Sun. and we can use formulas (22. which will now be reviewed. introducing the notation 5/ = A/a — A/r. It is very instructive to compare the analysis of this experiment with the analysis of the quasiRoemer experiment (§15). and the sight line of the second telescope at the moment (\'.5. where v^ and i/„ are given by formulas (22. crosses the sight line of the first telescope at the moment i\. the times A/^ = ([^  t\ and ^^B — 'b ~ ^B' obviously. correspond to the same absolute time interval A/. Thus. Let us have two passage instruments at a point on the Earth's equator whose fixed axes lie in a vertical plane parallel to the eastwest direction. R = 6370 km. which lies about 90" from the projection on the celestial equator of the apex of the Earth's absolute velocity. read on an exact clock.1 1) we have to take for V the component of the Sun's absolute velocity in the plane of the ecliptic If a similar « rotating disk » not the diurnal rotation and for R the radius of the Earth's orbit. verifying it by a very careful repetition of the « watertube » experiment (see also §28). then in formula (22.10' km. 10 result (22. Let us further suppose that a star B which is antipodal to the first one crosses the sight line of the first telescope at the moment /„ and the sight line of the second telescope at the moment /„'• Since the Earth rotates uniformly. the angle between them being 6. we have shown that the formula proposed by Lorentz and Einstein for the drag of light in a moving medium is not true and we have given the true formula.8). assuming for simplicity 9 = tt. In that paper. we shall obtain the ^ s. Taking v = 300 km/s and R = 150. Taking v = 300 km/s. ). THE « WATERTUBE » EXPERIMENT In Marinov (1978i). « The essence of the watertube » experiment is as follows : Let us have a tube with length L along which water propagates with velocity v. 1 1 experiment be performed throughout a year. we reconsider the historical « watertube » experiment of Fizeau (1851) which was repeated by Zeeman (1914) with the aim of establishing the Dopplereffect influence on the drag of light. we obtain 8t = 2 s. we get 5/ = 8. Suppose that an equatorial star A.6). We generate two light pulses at the same moment and let them go through this tube. so that one pulse (called « direct ») travels with the How of 122 .Now we shall propose a variant of the « antipodalclocks » experiment with whose help the equatorial component of the Earth's absolute velocity can be measured. and performing an analysis as above. § 23.
77.12) for accuracy of first order in v/c. Suppose that both and meet again.. n n^ (23.6) proceeding not from the relation from the following relation p„ = pil ± ^).5) the wavelength of the emitted light. they will arrive at the it._!).2) but These authors come to formula (23. j/ yields n{v) ± dn — dp dv = n ±— c V dn V — . we obtain for the velocity of fiowing water.4) dp tv For the time delay instead of (23. in Lorentz (1916) and Einstein (1914) give for the time delay « the watertube » experiment the following formula ^'= 2 "^ Lv ^"'""^^ dn ~ ')• (236) (23. r d\ where A is (23.7) 123 . taking into account the dispersion (and within an accuracy of first oder in v/c).1) where we have used formula (13. since the molecules of the liquid move with respect to the light source. the pulse travelling against the flow will be late for the rendezvous. if the water is motion. » (23. a Doppler effect occurs and the water molecules will receive photons with a frequency K = yO ± where the sign « v/c).„+^*L.3)into(I3. c/n (23. . if the same moment. However.. Obviously.^=^. (23.2) « + » is for the « opposite photons and the sign — » is for the « direct » photons. = 0.3) dp Thus putting (23. working within an Here n is the refractive index of water for the frequency p of the used monochromatic light. tt. However.16)for^ = photons in 0. the time delay being A/= L c L c 2Lv =(„. c B„ (23.1) we have Ar= '4^"'^^"').the water and the other (called « opposite ») against pulses cover paths with the same lengths water in is at rest. A Taylor expansion of the n {v„) =^ refractive index as a function of .
5) is Formula but only for the drag of light in obtained also by Lorentz (1916) and Einstein (1914) moving solids..Their argument they first is the following : When the photons enter the water tube and the frequency received by these shield molecules will be equal to the emitted frequency p. moving bulk materials. measurement of interference A 7^ SM. ^ SM /^ Y as follows (fig.. F'623l Our experimental arrangement was by the source S is Light emitted by the semitransparent mirror SM into two beams. the velocity of light in a medium is c/n and not c. responds « With the aim of establishing which « dragoflight » formula corto physical reality we have repeated (Marinov. vacuum and photons (free or hitched). the photons move only in vacuum and always with c/n is One measures velocity c/n in a medium only because for a certain time the photons are hitched to the molecules and their average velocity. » model (§13). Thus in the « watertube » experiment there is a Doppler effect for light « emitted » by water molecules at rest and then « received » by the moving water molecules. into two daughter beams the beam refracted by SM. However. 1978i) the » watertube experiment. 231) . according to these authors. (23. using our very sensitive bridge method for shifts (see §19. Thus they make a substantial difference between the propagation of light in a liquid flowing in tubes and in For our theory there are only molecules. after reflecting on mirror A/.2). meet water molecules at rest According to our « hitchhiker velocity c. proceeds through the tube T. 7^^ SM. and a Doppler effect always appears when the « emitting » and « receiving » molecules move with different velocities. The beam refiected by SM is split additionally by the semitransparent mirror SM. while the beam split : 124 ..
With the increase in the water's velocity. so that it flows in tube r. when the water is at rest.^ from minimum (when the current in the arms of : Maximum 125 . become equal to \ the bridge comes again into Thus we can verify formulas (23. is the change in the difference between the light paths of the daughter beams propagating from left to right and A. illuminate also uniformly the photoresistor in the other arm of the Wheatstone bridge. writing A = c A/ = A. must be equal. sum is is exactly equal to n\ (here n will sum of the differences in and T. at the semitransparent mirror SM. is The method of measurement as follows : over /*.A. between the daughter beams in any pair are exactly the same. (23.by 5" A/. the illuminations over P^ and P. The If this sensitivity of the method depends on the the light paths of the beams going through is T.10 *degree Changing '.5) and (23. and when the path difference A = A. The water is circulated from a reservoir where it is thermo stabilized at a temperature 20" ± 0."3 C.. The temperature of Tcan be thermostabilized within 8T = ± 0\04 C. wing way sensitivity can be established and maintained in the folloChanging the temperature of the tuner Twe change the level of illumination over /*. SM^ put and. interfering there. temperature range of 6" we change the light paths of the beams proceeding through Tand T. by 300 nm. which meet together at /*. = of its refractive in the index about C. and P. passes through a maximum disequilibrium. It splits two daughter beams SM.1). These two beams interfere and illuminate uniformly the photoreflected A/.^. We of the / search for a « 1 tuner » maximum sensitivity by changing the T which represents a small piece of glass.. is the change in the difference between the light paths of the daughter beams propagating the water is When at rest the illuminations since the phase differences from there right to left) will equilibrium. from right to left. after reflecting on mirror meets again the beam which has crossed T. The also into situation is similar in the case of the at beam refracted by SM . and. constant in the limits of 5A = ± 2 nm. If we now set the water in motion. (where A. so that we can maintain the light path through T and T.6). the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. from left to right and in tube T. resistor Pi which is in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge. If equal to (2 /j + I) (A/2). then no disequilibra tion this of the bridge sum be achieved when increasing the velocity of water. rate its temperature Its length is is cm and the temperature dn/dT = 5. I. will begin to change oppositely. then the sensitivity of the bridge is the highest. and P. an integer). proceeds through the tube T.^.
10 ' an(i8idn/d\)/(dn/d\) = ± '. then we put resistances R/2 in any of the and by changing the level of illumination over them (by the help of the tunner T) we adjust the current to be J^..„) to maximum (when the current in the arms of P.10 *A. and T.  y„ The lengths of the tubes T. /*. If additional resistances R. will reduce toy^m. into the arm of P. and P2 is J„. The manometer was calibrated with a precision 8v/v = ± 4. transferring resistance from the arm of T'. respectively. The maximum sensitivity of the bridge is 5A = ± 2. P. 5.. At this condition the sensitivity is highest and the temperature of T must be maintained so that current y.P. since the fluctuations of the zero galvanometer are about 4000 times smaller than the current the current in the last case /*. (and vice versa) when changing the velocity of the water.„„.^. put in a^jjof the arms of P. are taken from a graph which we have plotted on the basis of the data given in LandoltBornstein (1962).^ is y. if measured as shown in the figure.„ always has to flow through the armsof /*.5 cm. are L = 262. The inaccuracy chosen wavelengths 5A/A = ± 10 TABLE 231 A nm . 10 \ The values for n and cin/Jk.0 ± 0. 5/1//7 = ± is 2. arms of y.„.5. It is expedient to always maintain the current in the diagonal galvanometer (the zero galvanometer) equal to zero.. and P..„. and P.10 '..„„. The light source in the a tuned dye laser with is neodymium glass oscillator. corresponding to the different wavelengths.. The inaccuracies estimated by us are..).
It must be/C = 0, A Marinov formulas (23.1).
I
=
/?,
Acm
=
1,
according to the Fresnel, Lorentz and
0,10,
(23.6)
and
(23.5).
sources of errors,
we obtain
6A//:
= ±
Taking into account forA = 300 nm.
all
possible
§24.
In
THE «DRAG ABERRATION
to
»
EXPERIMENT
call
Marinov (1978m) we have pointed
an effect we
the drag
aberration, which will
now be
analysed.
\v
*>
where d
is
the thickness of the
medium, we obtain
be dragged
for the resultant distance
QR
along which the photons
will
QR =
Thus
v{\

)t=
n^
1
dv
(n
c cos
i//
 ).
n
1
(24.2)
the drag angle will be
8=
Formula
QR cosxp PQ
"^
"^
V ={nc
1
)cos^.
n
(24.3)
^^^^^
(24.3) can be easily verified experimentally
by silvering the
parallel planes of the
has to undergo a
medium, making them light reflecting, so that the beam high number of reflections before leaving the medium. By
the help of our « cylindrical mirrors indicator » (§19.1), the appearing drag
aberration can be reliably registered. aberration » experiment. Recently
it
We
call
such an experiment the
«
drag
was carried out by Jones (1975) and considered theoretically by Player (1975) and Rogers (1975); however, the experiment and the theoretical considerations have been made only for the
special case
tp
=
i//
=
0.
Player and Rogers
gation in a
made
their analysis
by proceeding from the Lorentz
transformation and without referring to the physical model of light propa
medium,
as
one does
in
conventional physics
when
solving
all
problems about
light kinematics in a
moving medium.
We shall
(jp
show
the results deriving from such an automatic implication
of the Lorentz transformation to the drag aberration for the general case of
Tt 0.
frame
1^
Let us attach (fig. 241) a moving frame K to the medium and a rest K to the observer, so that their xaxes should be parallel to the velocity
of the
medium and
their vaxes
should point downwards.
for velocities (also called Einstein
The Lorentz transformation formulas
and
(3.15) for the direct transformation,
transformation formulas for velocities) can be obtained from formulas (3.12)
for the inverse transformation.
and from formulas (3. 13) and (3.16) For a special transformation, V must be
for the direct transformation the following
parallel to the x
and
x'axes,
and
formulas can easily be obtained
V,
=
I

,
V,
Vic'
i^v '
=
\

•,
(24.4)
V.
Vic'
where
v\
,
i^^
are the
respect to
frame
K\ and
components of the velocity of a material point with i^, Vy are its components with respect to frame K.
,
128
For our case (fig. 241) the components of the velocity of the photons which propagate in vacuum (i.e., before their entrance in the medium) are
c,
=
c
sm
<p
,
Cy
=
c cos
<p
,
(24.5)
,
_
1
csxntp
— V
,
ccos(p(l
1
 V/c^y^
—
^
W"
sin <p/c'
— V sin vp/c
Thus
the angle of incidence of the photons in frame K' will be
sin
(p
=
—
c,'
=
1
sin
<p
c

— —
in
V/c
l/sm <p/c
— ^
sin
(p

V — cos>
c
,
(24.6)
and the angle of refraction
(13.31), putting there « A
sin<p'
= \,n^=
1
.
frame A", according n ] will be
to Snell's
law [see formula
sm
yl/'
=
=
—
n
(sm
op
—
n
V — cos'(») = c
sm
.
>//
+
V — {n
en
sm'i//
—
—
1
)
(24.7)
The components of
the velocity of the photons in the
medium
with
respect to frame K' will be
Cmx
=
— sm
<^
.
.,
i//
c
=
c _ cos
i//',
n
n
velocity with respect to
(24.8)
and the components of this
frame K, according
to the
inverse Lorentz transformation formulas for velocities, will be
'1
+
'
c:. v/c'
' is
"l 1
+
cL. c;, v/c'
^24.9)
Thus, when the medium frame K will be
sin(»//
moving, the refraction angle with respect
to
+
6)
= ^ =
Cm
c
sin.//
+
V —
en—
(/I

1
).
(24.10)
and
for the drag aberration angle
.
we
obtain
^ 5^sm5=— (« c
.
11 .
)
n
cos
(24.11)
\p
This result
obviously,
it
is unsound, because for \p  tt/I it gives 8 — oo, while must be 6  0, as this is to be obtained from our formula (24.3).
129
the unique experiment which revealed the direction dependence of light velocity and the adequacy of the aether conception to physical reality. The HarressSagnac experiment. A/. mirrors can rotate and the with refractive index n medium remain = \.„ SM. Nevertheless.. i. sixty years after its first performance. a (air). first The HarressMarinov experiment. but a mathematical apparatus attached to to recognize that physics physical reality. The history of this experiment and of its mistreatment by official physics is very instructive. A/^2.It is clear thai the automatic apphcation of the Lorentz transformation drag aberration leads to an unsound result. which the mirrors rotate and as a medium a vacuum is taken. '^A/^ and the mirrors M„ M^. A/p. vacuum medium can also be taken.. in which the mirrors rotate together with the 3. was the and. We have considered us. So four : different combinations are possible which we name 1. Thus the Lorentz transformation is not deus ex machina and is to be applied with attento the tion. performed first by Sagnac ( 1913). A/„. A/. medium. until the performance of our light kinematic experiments. this experiment we have given also the account of in detail in Marinov (19780 where two important modifications to it which were performed by Fig... The HarressPogany experiment. 25 1 presents our setup for the performance of the « rotating disk » experiment. or without them. §25. first repeated on the rotating Earth by MichelsonGale. in 2. performed by Dufour and Prunier (1942) and repeated by Marinov (19780 in a slightly different ar 130 . hundreds of pens have tried to reconcile its decisive positive « aether wind » effect with the unidirectional Einstein's light velocity constancy and thus to convince the scientific community that black is white. having shown that when the experiments speak the gods keep their silence but the theoreticians do not.. THE HARRESS « « ROTATING DISK » EXPERIMENT The rotating disk » experiment of HarressSagnacPoganyDufour. SM ^. In the last case. and this phenomenon cannot be explained without referring to its physical essence. performed first by Harress (1912) and repeated very carefully by Pogany (1928).. or only the at rest. Here we have is not a mathematical apparatus to which physical reality is attached. after a once more a due physical analysis of the problem considered. A medium A/^.e.. with refractive index n can rotate (in a clockwise direction) with the semitransparent mirrors A/.
Thus we can assume that the photons travel between the single mirrors along the corresponding chords of a circle with radius R. 19780 can be first considered as the In fig. a light source emitting coherent light. the phtoresistors are illuminated . 251. The areas of the facets are small and the mirrors are placed near medium. The HarressFizeau experiment. performed arrangement (called the « first substantially different see §23). 251 sake of unification (see the which the mirrors rotate and the medium is at rest. Our performance of the HarressFizeau experiment (Marinov.. A/. to the M3. 5 is Sh is a shutter which facets governed by the rotating disk and allows short strictly light pulses to pass only at a defined position of the disk when the diametrically opposite of the transperant medium are exactly parallel to the mirrors M. Always when uniformly 131 Sh allows light to pass. are two photoresistors put in both the shutter P ^ and Pr arms of a Wheatstone bridge. rangement.Fig.2) we call the common type of the « rotating disk » experiment where the medium is at rest and the mirrors rotate the HarressMarinov experiment. For the ZeemanMarinov experiment in §28. in 4. in watertube by Fizeau ( 85 ) in a » experiment 1 1 — which the medium rotates and the mirrors are at rest. is one..
within such an accuracy.— M^— SM^— Since the effects in the « rotating disk » experiment are of first order in they can be considered in the frame of the traditional aetherNewtonian theory which. The first The second photon (which we direction of rotation shall call « direct ») travels along the and the fourth photon (which we shall call « opposite ») travels against the direction of rotation. on one hand. SM. Ph Second photon Third photon : SM SM Ph: M.— A/. M.— M. then A = c A/ of the first will be equal to the wavelength A of the used light. Af. If the time spent by the second (or fourth) photon for covering its path at the angular velocity fi differs by At ^(At ^) from the time spent at rest.— M. P. SM ^— M„— A/p. M. SM^ Fourth photon SM ^SM^.by interfered rence. and we introduce the notation A/ = At ^ + A/g. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. 252 "J lii .M^.M. /Vf.SM^My SM. and third photons cover the same paths at rest and motion of the mirrors. As a matter of fact. passes through a state of maximum disequilibrium and at a certain angular velocity fi comes again into equilibrium. let light. When increasing the rotational velocity. will change oppositely when changing the rotational velocity. Fig. With the aim of explaining the character of the interfe us consider four photons which are emitted by the following paths : S at the same moment and cover First photon SM Pa SM. is identical with our absolute \^/c. on the other hand.— M. The differences in the optical paths and second photons. M. spacetime theory. and of the third and fourth photons. there are differences which are of second order in \//c\ and we consider them in §29. At rest the illuminations over both photoresistors are the same and the bridge is in equilibrium.yM^.
Sh a shutter governed by the rotating turnabout. In the case of rotation the path of an « opposite the case of rest. whose schemes are given. A/. and thus in the case of M rotation its path will be longer by ^d=^R c/n cos —. where it photon at the semitransparent mirror reflects when the mirrors are at rest. In fig. A/. A/ light pulses separate into « direct » a semitransparent mirror « and opposite ».= 4 c n .1) where d = R/cos (7r/4) is its path when the mirrors are at rest and R is the distance of the mirrors from the centre of rotation. we proceed from the simple in fig. are mirrors and O is an observer who registers the diferent interference pictures. taking into account also the dispersion of the medium. 251). 252 and fig.For the calculation of Ar through the parameters of the device.. in in 252a and fig. 253 (see also fig. 252. A/. but at a point A/.. According to fig.. to the semitransparent mirror M a point M corresponds which can be considered as an effective point of separation. riments. respectively. » photon between M and A/.. 252b. (25.1. Fig. THE HARRESSMARINOV EXPERIMENT First we shall consider the HarressMarinov and HarressDufour expefig. a « direct » photon which separates from an « opposite » will reflect not at point A/. scheme of the experiment given where the Here 5 is is a light source. We suppose that the mirrors rotate a direct (clockwise) direction and the medium is at rest in absolute space. will be with Ad less than in 133 . 253 25. 251.
4 A/hm=4 —j^ 4 c/n* d + ^d d  QR' —j— = —^ c/n t^d S 8 („^ in' .n'Y''' In . 25 appears along the contour SM — SM^— M — SM^— SM when the mirrors we obtain for the rotate.7) Thus. 251) moves. c d\ (fig.^. Let us note that in our realization of the HarressMarinov experiment we have to take into account the difference in the light paths which 1 ).6) where a is the difference between the angles of incidence and we have used Snell's law (13.31) which for our case gives refraction.3) Thus after if the mirrors rotate. (25. then.. (25. the frequencies of the « direct » photons received by the molecules of the medium will be M SM K = i'{\+2—cos c while the frequencies of the « V — TT ) = »  fl /? p(\ + x/2 c ). Denoting by b the distances between SA/^and SM ^. . a « direct » photon will return to mirror » M an « opposite photon with the following time delay : a) for the HarressMarinov experiment .(or mirrors Since mirror ^ and SM^ in fig. Hence. the following additional time anticipation 134 . because of the Doppler effect. the refractive index of the medium for the « direct » photons becomes n* = n (fo) = n + y/2 c ^ — dv . .2) 4 opposite photons received by the molecules of the medium if will remain the same. (25..^iT A_). and sm(l o) = ^ n. dn^ . (25. the second with photon will come for a rendezvous with the first photon on mirror SM ..4) c^ b) for the HarressDufour experiment d c/n* + M _)_4( b^d ^ d c/n ^d^ __. . we take into account the dispersion. d\ dn (25. when the mirrors rotate with an angular velocity fl. c ^^R' „ c' ^. area enclosed by this contour „ S= co\{^a) 2 b' m 4 = {1 b^ .
2. then. (n'  .10) ^_^ Hence. (25. the frequencies of the direct » and « opposite » photons received by the molecules will be. a « direct » photon will return to mirror photon with the time anticipation (use formula (13. which was carried out by us. (25.somewhat shown in fig. (25. the third photon on 25. calling it We shall HarressFizeauMarinov and HarressFizeauDufour exconsider only the first one. n±=n(^^) = ^ Thus.. the molecular velocity that makes an angle 6 with the direction of propagation of the « direct » photons will have a magnitude that the rotates in direct (clockwise) direction We suppose medium the mirrors are at rest in absolute space. V c p„ = if u(\ :^ cosd) = T ~ \/2 2 ^R ). as can be seen ^= ^^ 2 Since the the cos^ with respect to the mirrors.12) c. — — =8 n^' — c„. 253.„ = ^.dn \— d\  I). c (25.= — .5)] the medium » M before an « opposite ^t. p= "~^ Ad . Now.A/„.Ad . respectively. the HarressFizeau experiment.9) medium moves Doppler effect.16) and compare with formula (23. 252a and fig. respectively. different arrangements respectively. because of « M u(\ . c' 135 . and from fig.11) 2 c dv rotates. the periments. the refractive indices for « « direct » and opposite » photons become.8) while the fourth photon will mirror 5'A/b with the come for a rendezvous with same time delay. THE HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENT The HarressFizeau experiment can also be performed in two . — . 252b which we shall call. the we take into account the dispersion. if n Y^ p (25.
4) and (25. light pulses interfere with light pulses that always cover the same photoresistors P ^ and y^ change in §23.25. The difference between our « rotating scheme » (fig. Thus the illuminations over the and we can use our convenient in the follo bridge method described In fig. A second difference consists wing the : 252. the separation of 136 M . 25. however semitransparent mirror is not tangent and cannot be placed close enough to the medium. However the effects in these two experiments are substantially different because in the HarressMarinov experiment the medium rests with respect to absolute space.= 8?^._^A/„_. The theory of relativity meets severe difficulties experiments there We when trying to explain this difference.14) must emphasize that in the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau is the same relative motion between mirrors and medium. A/j.2. ^'ms=87 . A^i are tangent to the circumference of medium.13) 25.. putting there n = I. (25.5.12) we obtain A/„_p=Ar. 252) the following : In our realization the « direct » and « opposite path. Thus from formulas (25. In our realization.4. oppositely. the mirrors A/. THE HARRESSPOGANY EXPERIMENT In the HarressPogany experiment the time delay with which a « direct » after an « opposite » photon is equal to the photon returns to mirror difference in the time delays in the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau M experiments. THE HARRESSSAGNAC EXPERIMENT The formula for the effect in the HarressSagnac experiment is to be obtained from (25.5). while in the HarressFizeau experiment the mirrors rest with respect to absolute space. 251) and the traditional is scheme of the disk » experiment (fig.4) and (25. 251 is reported in Marinov (19780. (25. PRACTICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE HARRESSMARINOV AND HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENTS Our performance of the HarressMarinov and HarressFizeau experiments by the help of the setup shown in fig.
4) and (25.5. 0. Glass windows also are placed in the which divide the ring into compartments. Af„ A/. being falls to zero. for light = nm 632. A/. Also R = 0.7. this is by no means necessary and the light paths of the first^ We have made the light paths of the first and and third photons can be substantially reduced. coherence is used. sensitivity The that a of our bridge method is maximum sensitivity first in the light paths of the is analysed in §23. Taking into account the thickness of the glass plates and their refractive index. Let us repeat be obtained when the sum of the differences and second photons and in the light paths of the to third and fourth photons 2..8).^ — if is exactly equal to the light path that in water.15) can easily be seen that the formula for the calculation of the effect in the HarressFizeau experiment directly performed with our setup to be obtained from (25.6 and 8(dn/c/\) = used. 6A = ± When sum is equal to n\ the sensitivity 137 . we obtain the following formula for the calculation of the effect in the HaressMarinov experiment performed with our setup SM^. h =«= 8R = ± path by an idealized light path only in water.3317 and dn/d\ = — 2. iit such positions that the actual light path (distance multiplied by refractive index) along the contour A/t — A/ We M — M^ — M. which also has to compensate for large enough error. at rest this is (2 aj + 1) A/2. Proceeding from formulas M ^H It M=8 ('''^J{^ ^^ — is (25.10" A.2 cm. assuming 8n = laser of the HeNe ± 0.8 nm ' '. 251. assuming 8h = cm. so that instead of an effective point of separation which can lie close the circumference of the medium.0 cm. would be covered mirrors A/. there enough to (25.. had been immersed have // = 1.2 possible errors introduced in the measurement of the thickness of the glass plates and errors that could appear from the replacement of the actual light 30.the photons that will later interfere proceeds first at semitransparent mirror SM and then at semitransparent mirrors S\f ^ and is mirror M. A/2. since laser light with good of the third and fourth photons) equal.12) and runs As a a as medium we have shown taken distilled water in a metallic vessel at points form in fig. Glass windows are placed which has where light beams must cross the walls of the vessel. where // is an integer. we have metallic interfaces put the mirrors A/. second photons (as well as However.10 of wavelength X and taking a 10.
a maximum sensitivity can be achieved by a micrometrical move of both mirrors A/^.32) and with </ we designate the whole path. we an unknown quantity.97 ± 0.68 ± 0. THE DISRUPTED in the « ROTATING DISK » EXPERIMENT The proper time delay be written in the HarressSagnac experiment (see §25. supposing that the velocity of light is and (25. Substituting the numerical values into formulas (25. then at the angular velocity (counterclockwise or clockwise) the bridge will be disequilibrated with the same « negative » current.). In the case where the apparatus is thermostabilized.17) (2. The « tuner described in §23 can be used also for calibration during the velocity until run.We have not searched described in for the highest sensitivity by the help of a sensitivity (SA « tuner ». S2. . in such a case at rest the shutter has to operate with the same chopping frequency with which it operates at the rotational velocity S2. and we have taken an average » = ± 10 '\.= where for 8c 0.10«m/s.16).02 rev/s. ment and We obtained N = A^ = 22. The number of measured by a precision light revolutions per second of the disk. A' = U/ln. error.04 rev/s for the HarressFizeau experiment. <"> ' I) r4^ c„ "PP = c' „ CvzosOdr. and A/„. J (26.60 ± 0.15) obtain. is stroboscopic cyclometer maintained automatically with 0. We rotated the disk first counterclockwise S2_„ with angular velocity S2 and then clockwise with angular velocity taking = (1/2) + n. is When to the disk at rest the equilibrium by a micrometrical move of mirror is Wheatstone bridge can be set into A/ ^.r4^^ o C.07). (25.3) can form A/„=.10'm/s.. however in our method where we change the rotational A = r Ar becomes equal to A no calibration need be made. However. or A/rv If we do not care disequilibrated with a certain fi do this and if at the beginning the bridge « positive » current. SN = ± (J2.04 rev/s for the HarressMarinov experi 50.^.0\ ± c„_f. as §23. c„_^=(3.1) where we have used formula 138 (3.07). we have taken the maximum measuring § 26.
as well as of the opposite ». Its We call such an experiment the disrupted is « rotating it disk » experiment. we have to assume A/o = A/(l — I'Vc')"^^ At]..1) can be written in the form 2 r (26. a difference between proper and absolute time intervals cannot be made [i.e. and formula (26. performance disk. reported in Marinov (1978n) and is patently shows that the velocity of light direction dependent even along a straight line on a rotating Fig. photons must be a closed curve. the light paths of the « direct » and « opposite » which are different at rest and motion of the disk can be made straight and photons lines. 261 139 .If working within an accuracy of first order in i//f.2) where dr is the element of the light path of the « direct » photons velocity of the corresponding point and v is the on the rotating disk with respect to absolute space. so that the light path of the « direct ». In the « rotating disk » experiments (§25) the point of separation of the « direct » and « opposite » photons « is the same. If we should disrupt these closed paths and make the points of separation meeting different.
we move micro SM\ first third photons until the bridge comes into equilibrium. They are illuminated uniformly by interfered light. Let us suppose that when the disk is at rest the bridge is in equilibrium. the bridge comes into greater and greater disequilibrium. photon (26. S^^^ a corrective semitransparent mirror to photons along the path path to SM ^^ to a mirror.. If this metrically not the case.— SM — M — SM ~ SM. and at a certain angular velocity fl. passes through a state of maximum disequilibrium. The scheme of the disrupted 261) The light source 5" is : « rotating disk » experiment is as follows a HeNe laser.. the shutter Sh is unnecessary. P ^ and P^ would also be mounted on the rotating disk. changing in such a way the path difference » equal to the wavelength A of the used equilibrium.e. Sh is a shutter which is governed by the rotating disk and lets light pass only at a strictly defined position of the disk when both photoresistors P^. is i. SM — SA/f — SM ^ — ^^ — ^^b — ^nSM — M — SM — SM ^^ SM\. (^'b= first ^— sm^).(fig.~ P„. /*„ are put in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge. . Using formula (26. With the increase of rotational velocity.— SM). and which reduces the number of equal the number of photons along the M SM B . SM is a semitransparent mirror. when the sum of the differences in the optical paths A = (Ar^ A/r) c will become between the and and S'M'b. Let four photons be emitted by they cover the following paths First : 5 at the same moment and suppose that photon : Second photon Third photon : : Fourth photon : S— S— S— S— SM — SM^ — SM^ — SM). In the case where S. Then we set the disk in rotation. both photoresistors are illuminated by equal light intensities. b P ^. the bridge will come again into Thus we shall have 12 /?' A = where we have 140 to put (2 tan — 2 + sin 6) .4) c A = X. light.2) and will fig.— SM\. P„ are illuminated.3) shorter than the time in which the (the second) will reach The photoresistors P^. we find that in the case of rotation (with respect to the case at rest) the time in which the third (fourth) photon reach /'a(^b) will be with Ar = tan—. (26. 261. — P^.
We 5A = ± §25). Its scheme is as follows (fig. THE « COUPLEDSHUTTERS ON A ROTATING DISK» EXPERIMENT The « coupledshutters on a rotating disk » experiment.4).0 ± a'. 10' m/s .8 nm..0 ± 0. = (2. Putting the figures into formula (26. Light emitted by the source Fig. taking = 632.02 rev/s. = 60". is R = 40.. as it is on our Earth.5. (26.90 ± 0. 271) : Along the rim of a disk the mirrors A/. represents a variant of the disrupted « rotating disk » experiment for the case where the rotation of the disk cannot be changed at will..A/k are placed close enough to each other. is obtain.07). A experimentally checked this formula (Marinov. The number of revolutions per second A^ = S2/27r measured by a light stroboscopic cyclo meter and maintained automatically with a precision 5 A^/ A' registered A' = ±2..98 ± 0. supposing that the velocity of light c an unknown quantity.5) where for 8c we take the maximum absolute measuring error. proposed in Marinov (1975b).10 V We we = 92..2 method see §23 and cm. 271 141 . 10 'A (concerning the sensitivity of our bridge 1978n). §27.
Thus the shutters operate synchronously at rest and when the disk is in motion. the O^ and O^ should is register « opposite » pictures. if This can be practically realized puts the iLsed. while the observer Op will register maximum photonian flux at the condition that «b ~ (^^^')fO ~ w/c) is an the observer If integer.1) = 2d v f/c^ register « equal » pictures and an integer. d= 100 km. For v = 0. then both observers consequently « opposite » pictures. d and v are given « should register see equal » or and /"changes. we have ^ n^=n„^ Thus observers If the if Aaj ^ is /!„+ 2 — /J = /!„+ A/t .10' Hz. since the distances between the common resonator and the shutters which the electromagnetic signals have to cover are equal (with respect to the disk but also with respect to absolute space !).). . say. « O^ and O^ together maximum light ».S^ (or 5n) passes through the semitransparent mirror M ^ (A^b) ^nd through light reflects the high frequency operating shutter Sh^ (SVj. and so on.45 km/s (that is approximately the linear rotational velocity of the Earth's equator) and for /^ low. e. An = 1/2 for/ = 5. As light sources lasers can be used.A/^. one should change the pictures registered by both (placed.. or « O^ sees maximum light when O^ sees minimum light ». The commanding signals can be sent from the pole to the shutters by the help of several retranslation stations. being driven by the common resonator/?e.g. Itt angle 6 almost equal to and the radius of the disk R as a rotating disk is very large.. As a matter of fact. passes through the shutter 5/j„ iSh^) and. one takes our Earth and the equator common resonator at the pole. The chopped on the mirrors A/..^ Let us suppose first that the disk is at rest and let us denote by d the light path between both shutters. ^0 I 142 .. Indeed. one should have An An = [or f = 10' Hz. being reflected by the semitransparent mirror A^„ (M ^).9put at the centre of the disk.The shutters operate with the same chopping frequency f. Thus. At the condition that n = (d/c) /"is an integer (or an integer plus 1/2). As shutters two Kerr cells can be separated by a short distance d (about 100 km) along on the peaks of two mountains). the observers O ^ and O^ should if An is equal to an integer plus 1/2. (27. changing the commanding frequency in this range. is observed by the observer O (^h). then we can consider the motion of the coupled shutters as inertial. the shutters will always be opened and closed together. then O^ will register maximum photonian flux at the condition that = (d/c) f{\ + v/c) is an integer.. both observers will register maximum (minimum) photon n ^ flux.. If now we set the disk in rotation in a clockwise direction..
The ZeemanPogany experiment. again to « equal ». The ZeemanMarinov experiment. This experiment was performed by Marinov (1978m). moving platform » experiment is an analogue of the « rotating where the motion of the medium or/and the mirrors (the is interferometer) not rotational but inertial.observers from « equal » to « opposite ». can easily be seen that the resonator is put on a parallel with latitude <p. It Zeeman (1914.2) An = 2 fi/? df{cos(p„  cos<p) § 28. 1915. in which the mirrors are at rest and medium moves. in which the medium is at rest and move. four combinations can be realized which we call : the 1. The ZeemanSagnac experiment. 2. The « disk » experiment. This experiment was performed first by Fizeau (1851) ( 1 with water and by Michelson and Morley very carefully repeated by solid 886) with a solid medium. Now. again. 1922) with liquid was and media. it can be carried out by anyone who would take the care to observe whether the interference picture in a Zeemantype implement.^n:w////A Fig. 1920. 281 143 . 'mmmmf?^ 7777 V////M. in which mirrors and medium was performed by Marinov (1978m) and. should change d»iring a day when the absolute velocity of the implement changes as a result of the Earth's rotation. This experiment 4. The ZeemanFizeau experiment. in which mirrors and medium are at rest. as a matter of fact. the mirrors 3. move together. This experiment was performed first by Marinov (1978m).„ it and the coupled shutters along a parallel with latitude will be (27. in which the mirrors move and a vacuum (air) is taken as a medium. the linear rotational velocity of the Earth's equator can be the direction It (p and so on. THE ZEEMAN « MOVING PLATFORM » EXPERIMENT The « moving platform » experiment is considered by us in detail in Marinov (1978m) where we give also an account of three important modifications performed by us. and measured using dependence of light velocity along a if straight line.
281) The box S contains cing two parallel monochromatic source together with a device producoherent beams — B^ which propagates in vacuum and B„. 281 are at rest. distance L. When mirrors and medium in fig. they enter a second box in O 28. For methodological reasons again deduce this formula. ») we have obtained The velocity of light in a rest. or of the boxes.1. for the experiment [see formula (23. a photon proceeding the following time along the path B^ (a 5. and from the difference in the observed interference pictures conclusions can be drawn about the character of light propagation. is [see medium moving with dn V velocity v.1) n rv dv the frequency of the light used and ^ the angle between v and the direction of light propagation. for the ZeemanFizeau experiment. We suppose that the motion of the medium.4)] c^= where v is c  +vi\ ^ . Then one realizes the four different combinations mentioned above. = ——=— c^ c [ n  1  — c {n'  p — dp  I) cos ^ ] (28. if measured by an observer at formulas (13..3) c Hence.16) and (23. THE ZEEMANFIZEAU EXPERIMENT In §23 « watertube shall we the formula for the ZeemanFizeau (i. stripped of all fun: damentally irrelevant details.photon) will arrive at box O with delay after a photon proceeding along the parth B.Let us reduce the « moving platform * experiment. After travelling a which they are united and their interference observed.. proceeds from left to right..e. (28. . = 0) /. Both boxes are halfway immersed in the medium. c/n c (28. (a fivphoton). n^ is 1 (28.5)].= (« 1). /=—.\)cose dp . First the boxes (also called mirrors) and the medium are at rest and a specific interference picture is observed.4) .2) c will When 281 itis^ the medium is set in motion the time delay become (for fig. the effect to be observed the interference picture will correspond to a time difference in ^ti_f= 144 t  t = —^ c (n' + v^. to the following ideal arrangement (fig.)cos<?. a in a which propagates medium with refractive index n. or both.
as we do in absolute spacetime theory. . is [see formula (13. c to V (28.2 THE ZEEMANMARINOV EXPERIMENT The velocity of light with respect to a and take into measured by an observer who moves with velocity v that rests in absolute space is (use formula (13. = c p dn i^(— n n^ — + I)cos». 1 + («' + »'. relativity considers the latter only as trivial tautology of the former. \. (28.28.5.28)] c.6) a is When ^ the mirrors are set in motion the time delay with which fln. where the identical effects can be explained only if the formulas used for their calculation are different. if measured by who moves with the same velocity. and the formulas with which we obtain identical results are different. 28. for the ZeemanMarinov experiment. and d and the direction of For n = for vacuum. 145 .= ["c^ . we have performed them in the noninertial variant considered in §28.e. an observer = — ^ cos ^ .M =  L —v (n' 77 ("' c' + dn p " ^ ~ ZT dp  1) cos ^ .26) account formula (25..photon arrives at box O after a 5. the effect in the interference picture will be observed correspond to a time difference ^^z  M = ^  ^z .l)cos^]. photon becomes dn dp (for fig. (28. 281 it = 0) 'zM= L L L .7) c c Hence.5) where v is the frequency of the light used light propagation..3. and special The effects in the exactly the same. we obtain c' = c — vcos^ .8) ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiment are however these two experiments physically are not equivalent. (28. i.9) where is the angle between v and the direction of light propagation. THE ZEEMANPOGANY EXPERIMENT The velocity of light in a medium moving with velocity v.3)] medium c„. no physical difference can be made between the ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiments. According to the principle of relativity. With the aim of showing that these two experiments are physically different. the angle between v dv is (28.
4. = 0) z . for the ZeemanPogany experiment.S»te.P L c^  = {nc L \)..10) to Hence.^B3 Fig.S^e2. 282 146 .= (28.8). the effect be observed in the interference picture will correspond to a time difference ^^zP=^'zp=0.photon be (for fig. the time delay will with which a ^.11) 28. i. (28.12) pB.photon arrives at box O L c after a ^..e.. (28.1 1).. A/. or from formula (28. putting n = 1._. THE ZEEMANSAGNAC EXPERIMENT effect for the The diately ZeemanSagnac experiment can be obtained imme from formula (28.When 281 itis^ the mirrors are set in motion with the medium. and thus no change can be registered.
.A/. A/. illuminates the photoresistor P^. A/.. and ^4. We call this variant of the Zeeman experiment the noninertial « moving platform » experiment. before the entrance of the A' beam into the after its exit. The /< "daughterbeam refracted on SM ^2 goes further upwards. medium and can be determined from Snell's law 147 . and goes upwards. reflects successively on mirrors A/„ A/. The light beam emitted by S splits at semitransparent mirror this SM into y4beam and fibeam which follow identical paths and for follow only the /Ibeam. 281 can be called the inertial « moving platform » experiment. leaving the medium. reflects on mirror A/g... enters into the medium.VA/ ^i which is placed above SM ^^ and their planes make a right angle..5.. A/. going downwards through the semitransparent mirror 5A/b2 (where it interferes with the /I daughterbeam) and through semi M beam refiects M transparent mirror SM^i.. and point distance between mirrors A/. A/. 282. S mirrors the is a light source.and A "daughterbeams (25. Glass windows are placed at points where the light beams must cross the walls. Then it reflects on mirror A/g..28. A/. M. A/.. and A/„ and also A/. Glass windows are placed also in the metallic interfaces which divide the ring into compartments. illuminates the photoresistor /*b The angle a between in the the projections of the A '. we have metallic vessel of the put the mirrors A/.7). reflects on mirror A/^a. plane of the figure. which was the same as that used in the « rotating disk » experiment (§25). the Aon semitransparent mirror ^A/^. is 2R. Taking into account the thickness of the glass plates and their refractive index. Then it reflects on semitransparent mirror SM^2 ^nd' going downwards through the semitransparent mirror 5'A/b.... After reflection on mirrors reason we shall ^ and A/^. A/. M. and. A/.A/. in such positions that the real light path (distance multiplied by refractive index) along the contour A/. proceeding above the medium. while the variant shown in fig. The A daughterbeam reflected on SM ^2 then reflects on mirror A/ ^2. reflects successively on mirrors A/. 282. lets light Sh a shutter which pulses (of a duration is governed by the rotating 10 ' turnabout and ^ s) pass only when the A/. THE NONINERTIAL EXPERIMENT « MOVING PLATFORM » The scheme of our setup for the performance of the Zeeman experiments is shown in fig. Then it splits into two daughter beams at semitransparent mirror ..^.. and. The between mirror A/. and.. were immersed in water.A/ should be exactly equal to the light path which is to be covered if mirrors A/.. As a transparent medium we have taken distilled water put in a form shown in fig. are parallel to the diametrically opposite small sides of medium.
THE SECONDORDER EFFECTS IN THE « ROTATING DISK» EXPERIMENT the secondorder effects in the HarressMarinov. The error corresponds the to a change in the refractive index with the temperature which was maintained at it T = R = 20" ± 3" C since is dn/dT = 2.The photoresistors interfering B and /f P ^ and /*„ which are illuminated uniformly by the daughterbeams are put in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge.4) and (28.8) and taking into account that it is we have taken 30. 0. since we already know that the experiment.p = 50. Indeed. as described in §23. c^_^= where for 8c we have taken the (3. ZeemanFizeau experiments 148 a dif .6 dn/dK =  nm '.07). velocity of light with respect to a rotating disk is On direction dependent.10 ' 10 * degree '.04 rev/s for the ZeemanMarinov experiment. supposing that the velocity of light an unknown quantity.2 ^ 2 is cos 6 we obtain. We measured A^^. From same source 0. absolute measuring error. We had cm. We performed the « moving platform » experiment in its noninertial variant. Putting these figures into formulas (28.04 rev/s for the ZeemanFizeau experiment and A^^i^. ^ . which is described in more detail in §23 and §25. 1962) n = 1. is The measurement of HarressFizeau and ZeemanMarinov. We have not searched for the highest sensitivity by the help of a « tuner ». assuming 8(dn/d\) = ± 0.14) c.01 ± ± 0.0003 for the light 6aj = 632.I0'm/s.80 ± 0.07).94 ± 0. Let us mention that the measuring procedure in the « rotating disk » experiment (§25) is very similar to that in the noninertial « moving platform » experiment. the other hand.3317 0. having N = fi/27r.8 nm of the HeNe laser used. the identical effects in the §29.02 maximum In the ZeemanPogany and ZeemanSagnac experiments we registered no perceptible disequilibration of the bridge when rotating the disk. « rotating disk » aiming to use the setup constructed for our we think that the results of the noninertial variant are more important than the same results which could be obtained with the inertial variant. (28. = 50. then ZeemanFizeau and ZeemanMarinov experiments can be explained only by our theory which obtains these effects by proceeding from substantially different formulas.10'm/s.7. and we have assumed an average sensitivity 6A= ± ± 10 'A. We with A take (LandoltBornstein.= (3.
.ficult problem because there In is a relative dium.e. since these effects are very faint. because the effect to be measured is too for the is small and the use of a shutter which probably.. is Nevertheless. M^ . Fig. interfered light. For reason we shall consider the expein the « rotating riment for the measurement of the secondorder effects disk » experiment. secondorder effects are motion between mirrors and meand ZeemanSagnac experiments the and thus only the HarressSagnac and convenient for HarressPogany secondorder experiments are the measurement of in vie effects. It is P governed by the rotating disk would. i. the ZeemanPogany null. such an experiment possibilities for its very delicate. are placed near to the rim of the medium's disk and close to each other. 149 . 291. we shall not take into account the dispersion of the medium. Mk Thus we can assume that the photons fly along the circumference of a circle put in arm there is a variable resistor. we shall suppose dnIdK = 0. A/. is a photoresistor illuminated by one arm of a Wheatstone bridge and in the other We assume that the mirrors A/. discredit the experiment. without entering into the details of an eventual practical performance. and cover a path d = lirR. 291 The scheme « rotating disk » rigidly measurement of the second order effects in the experiment is shown in fig. When calculating the effects.. as in Marinov (1976b). 5 is a light source which is connected with the mirrors. and in our laboratory there are no this performance.
then the reflected beam will not change the time in which it covers its path because it moves only along the radius of the rotating disk. The and..A/k clockwise.. THE HARRESSFIZEAU EXPERIMENT Using formula (13.. THE HARRESSSAGNAC EXPERIMENT For AJ = 1. by the semitransparent mirror SM into reflected M If we now set the disk in rotation.^VO''2^ (29.1) we to find that the difference in the absolute times its which the refracted beam has will spend covering path in the cases of rest and rotation of the mirrors be A/.A/. after refraction on SM. = cL(\ . while the refracted beam (which has the same « radial motion » if the distances from SM to and M.. for the secondorder effect in the HarressSagnac expe(29.12) at the condition e„ = 0. counterclockwise and. are equal) changes its M time with Ar.S = — ^3 .23) at the condition ^n = and taking into account that it is [see (4.3) 29.2) c„ 29.2) riment. after reflection on SM..e.2. Now we shall calculate this time difference for the four different types of the « rotating disk » experiment. Light emitted by the source S is split and refracted beams.3. The refracted beam reflects successively on M.1.Suppose first that the disk is at rest..... illuminates reflected beam reflects on mirror P.V d Id Idv' 150 . i. difference in the absolute times which the refracted covering its path in the cases of rest and rotation of the we find that the beam has to spend medium will be nfiA\ d H .2)] c. illuminates P. 29. we obtain from formula A/ H "' .. on A/h. M = c„* I = c„ —— niln' r 1) (29.. THE HARRESSMARINOV EXPERIMENT Using formula (13. H ^. (29.
= 2d = i. motion measured absolute time. Instead of one mirror we can have an arbitrary number.. by the help of a clock which e rests in absolute space. will be [use formula (3.32) at the condition = 6=0] Too = ^ d Co + d ^ = 2d c„ =T. A/^. by the help of a clock which is attached to the rim of the moving disk. A/. CONNECTION WITH KINEMATIC TIME DILATION As we have said (§2..29.31) at the condition = d = J" 0] _ d d J. M. (29.. the period of the i. rotational velocity v light clock in When = QR.28) at the condition find that the difference in the absolute times spend covering its path in = 6 = and formula (29.. also repre Let the time which a light pulse spends covering path d to and fro be T when the mirrors are at rest.. will be [use formula (3.8) c Thus..e... Thus T= c is (29.6) the rest period of our clock.4. where S2 is in the mirrors are set in motion with a the angular velocity.1).. between which a light pulse goes to and fro.. Thus our mirrors A/.1 and §2. the period of our light clock rotating with velocity v in absolute space..e. sent a light clock. a light clock represents a light source and a mirror placed in front of it. (29. 29.5) This formula for n gives again the secondorder effect (29. we which the refracted beam has to the cases of rest and rotation of mirrors and ^' medium will be A/„ = = ^ 1 + ^ =^n.. THE HARRESSPOGANY EXPERIMENT Using formula (1 3..4). M . T (29 7) while the same period measured in proper time..5.3) in the HarressSagnac experiment. as well as the period of any light clock proceeding as a whole with 151 . It is of importance only that a light pulse which leaves a given point returns to it and repeats this cycle uninterruptedly.
1). 1959). All these assertions of our absolute spacetime theory can be verified experimentally if one measures the secondorder effects in the HarressSagnac experiment. kinematic time dilation (§11. this time. to termined by the period of a our tenth axiom. respectively. assuming that clock C (an atomic clock) is attached to the mirrors M. as follows from formula (29. If the observer moves with a certain velocity in absolute space.velocity v^ becomes longer according efTect the absolute to formula (29. If a radar pulse is emitted from one of the by means of reflections in the other satellites.1. then no change can be registered. this radar pulse can be again received after having covered a closed path round the Earth and the time of delay can be measured with a high precision. can be measured. for example. to A/k and from A/^ to A/. is Any proper second larger than the absolute second and the relation are given in the light 7" and T„ same time.7). The secondorder effects in the HarressSagnac experiment have been also an experiment for their . the same circular trajectory the Earth with a certain velocity satellites.8). This is due to the absolute time dilation. Burcev's proposal consists of the following Let us have a number round (^3) of artificial satellites moving along v. treated by Burcev (1974) who proposed measu rement. then the trajectory of the all radar wave can be assumed as circular and the gravitational potentials at points crossed by the can treat Burcev's proposal by the help of our figure 29. and A/^. According to Einstein's theory of general relativity (see. the time unit for any observer is delight clock which has the same « arm » for all When the « arm is » is </ = 150.000 km.7). where the durations of periodical process of a system which at rest in absolute space (in general. according to formula (29. If we suppose that the satellites are placed close enough to each other. his second called absolute. so that the time in which a light pulse covers the path wave as equal. for the « direct » is + ) and « opposite » —) pulses. If the observer at rest in absolute space. 152 . ( Landau and ( Lifshitz. if the corresponding system is set in motion with velocity v. then. If we should compare the period of the light clock considered with the periodical process of a system which constantly moves with the same velocity as the light clock. where the period of the moving light clock is given in proper time and the period of the same clock at rest in absolute time. We from A/. by which the rhythm of any periodical process decreases.7). his is second is called proper. Thus the change in the duration of the period of a clock when in motion can be established by comparing its period with a is given by formula (29. one that does not change its velocity when the light clock under investigation changes its velocity). We have called this According observers. this time unit is called a is second.
it will be (use formula (3.I0) According (3.31)] (29.. ^o = d = / ( I ± v/c) (29. t = d/c = ImRIc th? time registered on the same clock if the disk is According to the traditional Newtonian aether theory this time is '^ ° TV^ this <29.= t.32)] to our absolute spacetime theory time is [use formula t.1 tr = is ± v/c ' t (1  7l^l\\/l v'/c') (29.11) If this time is measured on a clock resting in absolute space.8 v/c 153 .9) where at rest. 292 OJ 0.12) Fig.
10) and (29. will arrive at M^ when M^ passes (after one or more revolutions) near to C. that there light reality. synchronization of spatially separated clocks. is no need it is to perform this costly experiment. This problem (theoretically i'.5) was performed first by Ives and Stilwell (1938) who used light emitted by the moving ions in a canal ray tube. and we have called this the « canal ray » experiment.9). consiin Now we dered in Marinov (1978e). produced in a hydrogen arc between the heater H and the perforated electrodes E and E' Between E and E' the ions are accelerated The scheme of their . however. emitted by Af. Thus an experiment as that proposed by Burcev can choose between these three rival theories. since. 30. in the of the present book.by the help of a clock which rests in absolute space. 292 we give the graphs of the relation 1 1 ('*'/( versus v/c drawn according to formulas (29. when it passes near to the clock C which is at rest. However. in the « rotating disk » experiment the problem about the time synchronization of spatially separated clocks can be eliminated if we choose an appropriate rotational velocity so that the light pulse. E E' Fig. ). Positive ions are experiment in a simplified version is shown in fig. obvious our formula will correspond to physical §30. (29. 154 .1. THE LIGHT DOPPLEREFFECT EXPERIMENTS shall discuss certain light Dopplereffect experiments. We think.When we try to measure the absolute time intervals /. the problem arises about the time is solved by us and experimentally) with the help of a rotating rigid shaft. 301 301. THE IVESSTILWELL LONGITUDINAL EXPERIMENT The experimental « CANAL RAY » verification of the secondorder terms in formula (10. In fig. which secondorder in v/c effects have been observed.
To analyse the energies is (i. 1978e).. b) Photons with frequency i>' shifted to the « blue end » which are emitted by the moving ions. illuminate the narrow slit O which represents by an electric source. 30. with velocity Thus three groups of photons will flow to the screen v : a) Photons with frequency emitted by the ions at rest. 302. scheme shown is in fig. THE TRANSVERSE The transverse « Its « CANAL RAY » is » EXPERIMENT The system for proThe photons emitted by canal ray experiment was proposed by Marinov (1970. According to formula (10. slit Q. 1 v^ 2 c^ Thus frequency the middle of these p two frequencies will be shifted from the over a frequency interval ^P= P*^ —^ i P 2 p= P. a spectroscope the refractive prism used of which the screen D. passing through the large behind which there is when they are at fig. illuminate the narrow slit O an indicator that gives indication only when photons are incident with frequency p equal to the frequency emitted by the ions used the excited ions. P and The mirror from it M will reflect. the observer at rest. we show the focusing lenses L.field. nate point R. duction and acceleration of the ions as in 301. The photons emitted by the excited ions. rest.. first From 302 and from the fall formula (10. before being accelarated by the electrodes. passing through the large slit Q.2) 2 which was experimentally verified by Ives and Stilwell. under the condition V c 6'. = 6 = 0. they will illuminate the zero point Z. L^.e. the frequencies) of the photons.5). the light emitted by the ions which move away v.we obtain (30. thus forming the beam S that represents the moving These ions proceed with a constant velocity v which depends on the voltage applied between E and £". c) Photons with frequency p shifted to the « red end » which are emitthey will illumi ted by the moving ions and then reflected by the mirror M. fig. r 1 l^ (30.2. 1972a. they will illuminate point B.5) we obtain that on the indicator photons will with frequency 155 .1) p =p(l± + ).
we search for a Q which the indicator will show availability of photons with frequence v..4) : Hence the experiment is to be performed as follows For any voltage applied to the electrodes. for any velocity v of the ions. 302 where d line is the angle between the perpendicular ON to the ions' beam and the is OC connecting slit O with the centre of slit Q: a the angle under which slit Q is seen from point O.(I . the locus must be a strainght line dividing the quadrant.+ ^±) c p[\+ie±) c 2 V a (30.3) 2c' Fig. « ROTOR » EXPERIMENT et al. (1960). THE HAY 30. Then the theory is to be proved by plotting 2dc versus v. is as follows (fig. The scheme of the socalled « rotor » experiment performed first by Hay where the Mossbauer effect is used. then on the indicator photons with frequency v will fall only at the condition e = \//2c .v'/cy^ 2 2 = 1 + cos(.3. position of slit at i. 303) : 156 I . If we choose a *€: 0. (30.e.
magnitude of the frequency could be estimated. From the triangles OPC and S'PC in fig. was put on a rotating disk at a distance R from the centre of rotation C. A thin "Fe absorber. the Let us 303 make the calculation. representing distance was put around the circumference of the rotating disk at a from the centre of rotation. 303 A radioactive "Co. This transmission was found to increase as the angular velocity the observer. and it was found to agree with the frequency shift calculated according to formula (10. we obtain the relation /?„ cos d„ = — R cos d' . (30.17). A detector D at rest was used to measure the rate of the yphotons emitted by the source passing through the absorber. «^„ = fi /?n (30. indicating a shift in the characteristic frequency of the absorber.. increased. Since the line shape of the absorber at rest was known experimentally. representing the source.5) Now substituting V = ^R. /?.v//y/////A D Fig.6) 157 . The transmission of the absorber was measured for various angular velocities.
into the first formula (10.17) and keeping in mind (30. shall consider the « rotorrotor » Marinov (1978e) and. 30.5).7) is valid for any position of source and observer on the circumferences with radii R and R„. carried Champeney e( al.4. to a certain extent. 304 It can be realized (fig.7) v'/c' which was verified experimentally. 304) when the centre of the rotor considered above (which we shall call the small rotor) rotates at angular velocity S2 and linear velocity v„ with respect to some centre.where S2 is the angular velocity of rotation. we V„ obtain the relation = 1 V ( 1  i/Vc' ) (30. Fig. We emphasize that formula (30. THE « ROTORROTOR » EXPERIMENT experiment proposed by us out by in Now we (1963). thus making another rotor 158 .
The radii of the small and big rotors are denoted by r and R. The angle between /? and r (p. We have from ^' fig.12) = — From smopJ ^ — — c R ^o ( r + cos qp) cos (p . c ft (30. + v„ (30. The linear velocity of rotation of the source is denoted by v. and its absolute velocity by v. sini// = ^sinip .^.which we call the big rotor. fig. 13= (30. cos (jp (30. we obtain "0= "(1.17) and working the following relation within an accuracy of second order in 1/c.9) and taking into account that a and quantities. 304 (see also 102) = ZL_^. cosi// = u.8) The angle between v.cos<p .9) where ''"' c R cos q>. ^=^+^_«_^. 10) into (30. We shall suppose that the source is placed at the tip of the small rotor and the observer is at its centre. The small angle between the observer's radii at the emission and reception moments is denoted by a and the small angle under which the is denoted by emission and reception positions of the observer are seen from the emission position of the source is denoted by ^. the figure we further obtain .14) Using the last four formulas in the first formula (10. (30.10) Putting (30. are small we can \// write )S cos B' = sin cos  cos »/' sin ^ = » sin x//  — c v„ cos (p cos \// (30.a4^COS^)2c^ c^ R (30»5> 159 .. . The angular velocity of rotation of the small rotor about its own centre is denoted by to. and v is denoted by ^. » v^. Thus it will be V = V..13) V V and from here we get v'' = vl + v\ + 2 v„ V. 1 1) cos 6„ = — sin <jp cos (a /8) + cos <jp sin (a + ^) = (30.
was tp measure the Earth's rotational velocity (which is 3 10 m/s on the 45" parallel). since. then formula (30. (1963) tried to register experiment.„ Newton theory. Now we shall show tally to a certain extent.10 * m/s.17) This formula can be ptoved by the experiment. This effect in is lower than the accuracy of Champeney's experiment by six orders.If we take into account that it is (30. then celestial (fi/a5) v„ = 3.8 m/s..17) which must be written. <^ co. 17) experiment one cannot measure the fl absolute translational velocity absolute effects in the « rotor » Champeney et al. if a rotor moves with then the effect is to be described by formula (30. so that the disks lie in the same plane. using the « rotor ».1. The experiment has shown that v„ must be less than 1.15.10' rad/s (the rotor'^ angular = 310 m/s.15. velocity). The aim of Champeney el al. THE SANTOS EXPERIMENT In the « rotor » experiment there is no relative motion between source and observer. S2 COSqp). where the big rotor represents the rotation of the celestial body (about its rotational axis. When we if fi analyse Champe^ ney 's experiment with our formula.17) is already checked experimen Indeed. that formula (30. With the aim of realizing a transverse Dopplereffect experiment where source and observer have to move with respect to one another. v. the « rotorrotor » experiment. It is clear that this conclusion is untenable. i.. without the factor relativity (with respect to the accuracy of the historical MichelsonMorley experiment).16) we can write (30. then (at least theoretically we can any such motion. v„ = 1. then we see that to = 1.. or about the galactic centre). 30. about the primary.10 rad/s (the Earth's diurnal angular velocity). or (//) (/) about two about the same : 160 . and this result was treated as a new and better verification of the Einstein principle of however. according to the traditional the absolute translational velocity i^. Since all Nature !) motions of the establish bodies are rotational.„ = ^(1   vl  — V.15) in the form .6 ± 2. Santos (1976) proposed the following experiment : Let us have two disks rotating in opposite directions parallel axes. fi/to.5.e. if we suppose shows that with the help of the « rotor » v. (30.
Co and we shall have = '' ( 1 — 2vVc'). the linear rotational velocity of each being v. (30. when proceeding from the Einstein theory of rela  experiment has to give a positive effect Av = Ivv^lc^. the trajectories of emitter and absorber are rectilinear and the shielding exactly perpendicular to thenvSince the emitter and absorber are not point objects. when performing experiment we have to put between the rota d and aperture b. for simplicity's sake. The there Q' result ofthis = 7r/2. we obtain (30. (30. in Santos' experiment the shielding plays a very shielding is important tory. It is worth noting that role.20) Av Santos predicts tivity. putting mil. so that the disks lie in two parallel planes. Thus the requirement bid < vie is to be satisfied. Santos' experiment cannot be practically realized. e„ = TTll ± v„ bid. 18) and for v It is = v„ we get p„ instructive to note that in the Santos experiment the result is the same for antiparallel and parallel directions of the velocities. A yray emitter is placed at the their velocities are rim of one disk and a yray absorber at the rim of the other. that.17). 161 . because of the inevitable appearance this of firstorder in vie effects. If the shielding is attached to the absorber. there will be an shall antetraverse Doppler effect.axis. the experiment gives a null (traverse) effect. Supposing v — 300 m/s. Obviously. Q„ = experiment can be found from formula (10. As already analysed. his = i>„  p = ± vvblcd. As we showed Indeed. there will be a posttraverse Doppler effect. antiparallel.  {y^  vl)l2 c' ] . 102) $' = ttII ± bid. and we have Co = c (1 + Iv^lc^). then for the different emitting and receiving atoms we shall have (see ting disks a shielding with length fig. in Marinov (1977a). we obtain b < 10^ cm. if this at rest in the labora being perpendicular to the trajectories of emitter and absorber. J = 10 cm. If the shielding is attached to the emitter.19) Putting this into formula (10.17) and assuming = v. their relative velocity will At the moment when be Iv. Assume. Within an accuracy of second order in vie we obtain v^ = = v\\ v. such an experiment cannot be practically realized.
21)] parallel to the xaxis (or that we rotate the velocity 1 1 ) we now co„ = <o.e. t is the time registered on a clock attached to the frame.2) that K in motion with velocity v directed its . reflected If this frame is at rest in absolute space (or its absolute velocity is perpendicular to the xaxis). i.sin[u(i + ^— )]cos(kx). in moving frame K so that v becomes parallel to the xaxis). and no first.or secondorder differences in the pattern will be registered.1) E = sm (o)/  kx) . sin (w/ £„„. (31..§31. the electric intensities of the incident and by the mirror light waves will be E* = £^„.4) Hence the distances between the nodes of the standing waves in the cases where the Wiener experiment is performed at rest and in motion with respect to absolute space will be exactly the same.3) and for the electric intensity of the produced standing wave we obtain E= E* + E = 2E„^. for brevity's sake. where E„^^ is the amplitude of the electric intensity. Instead of w and k in formula (3 have to write the quantities [see formulas (10. THE QUASIWIENER « « STANDING WAVES » EXPERIMENT The standing waves » experiment. + kx) . considered in detail in Marinov light (I978o). sin (w/) cos (kx) frame (3 1 . represents a modification of the historical which Wiener measured the length of Its waves in the Wiener experiment with most direct manner. on an absolute clock if frame K is at rest or on a proper clock if it moves with velocity v. (31. the subscript « „ ». (31. to ( = lnv) is the circular frequency and k(= IttIc) is the circular wave number. x is the distance from the frame's origin where at the initial zero moment the electric intensities of the incident ( + ) and reflected ( — ) waves are equal to zero. omitting in the last case. essence is as follows : Let a light source and an ideal mirror be placed on the jcaxis of a given frame K. The incident intensity of the and reflected light waves will interfere.19) and (10. k„ = — = k {\ ± v/c). For the produced standing wave we obtain electric E = Suppose now E+ E we set =2 £^3. The unique difference 162 is : When the laboratory is at rest in absolute space (or its velocity is .
. the coherence of light emitted much higher than the coherence of light emitted by other sources.t)V is .4) obtains maximum at the antinodes with coordinates near to x while for this = 2m { + to I 0. (31. Before the invention of the laser. no secondorder effects can appear either). THE « COHERENT LASERS » EXPERIMENT by lasers is As is well known. after having covered slightly source « different light paths.perpendicular to the direction of light propagation). § 32.6) is the unique effect which sceptical offered by the quasiWiener experi ment and we are about its experimental verification. light emitted by two different lasers can interfere in the same manner as light emitted by a single source and split into two beams interferes if the two beams meet. light beams had to cover the paths « thereandback » and the firstorder in v/c effects always vanished in the final result (as we have shown several times in this book. For a given maximum moment the its / at the different antinodes at different its electric intensity in (31. and when the velocity of the laboratory propagation. For this reason.x: = nir/k. We must point out that the historical MichelsonMorley experiment shows immediately that the quasiWiener experiment cannot reveal any secondorder in v/c effect. Indeed.e. at all £ obtains at the its maximum antinodes (i. V 77 c' (31. a single light aether was always used in all » was searched for. The unique interferometric experiment in which firstorder in v/c effects have been observed 163 optical experiments with whose help an . The coherent length of a laser beam can be hundreds of kilometers. this should signify that different numbers of wavelengths are to be placed in the MichelsonMorley experiment between the semitransparent mirror and the two mirrors placed at equal distance from it in parallel and perpendicular directions to the absolute motion. The inevitable result was that in all « inertial » wind experiments (i. where n is is an integer) same moment. those performed with inertially moving implements).5) 2 moment / it is zero at the antinodes with coordinates near to X This = {to . parallel to the direction of light E obtains moments..e. for . if the standing waves have different lengths (within terms of second order in v/c) in cases where the pattern is parallel and perpendicular to the absolute velocity. while that of other light sources is only centimeters.
THE INERTIAL The scheme of the « « COHERENT LASERS » » EXPERIMENT if coherent lasers inertial) is experiment (which. light beams meeting propagating only there ».(excluding our experimental activity !) represents the « rotating disk » expeinertially « riment where the implement cover closed paths between « « moving splitting » and is not and the ». The photodetector D^ by the semitransparent mirror SM\ (Dp) indicates the result of the interference. 321) opposite SM. Let at the instantaneous electric intensities of the light beams produced by L^ A and by L ^ at point B be. proceeding from L^(Lg) interferes with the reflected The refracted beam beam proceeding from opposite » (« direct ») Lr (La)' ^^^^^ the latter has covered distance d in « direction and after being reflected {SM ^). if we have two different light sources which produce coherent then firstorder in vie experiments can be set up also on inertially the intention of moving implements. Fig. 322) which we shall call point A (B). we shall assume that the semitransparent SM ^ and SM\ (SM ^ and SM'^ lie at the same point (see fig. light. 321 Light emitted from laser L^ (or Lg) is f^ partly refiected and partly refracted by the semitransparent mirror SM {SM'^). 32. However. SM. respectively. This was and also described below.1. sed the « coherent lasers » experiment. SM. performed in a laboratory. 164 . /^ direct SM. analysed in detail in Carnahan (1962) who propoMarinov ( 1978p). will be called as follows (fig. For the sake of simplicity. mirrors Let us suppose point first that the implement is at rest in absolute space.
we wish to find the electric intensities at point A (or point B) after the we have to add E^Sind E^. a a. Fig.. (A^„) is the observed wavelength of the « opposite » (« direct ») beam. we have 165 . If we wish to find the electric to add £a and ^B' taking for the latter an additional phase shift lnd/X ^^(taking for the former an additional phase shift lird/X^J. writing by / the A (point B) after the mixing in this case.2) are the angular frequencies (0 < Aw <^ to). 322 If mixing.^A = where ^na" sin (w^/ + a^) £b = ^m sin (tOg/ + a^) (32. Let us now set the implement motion with velocity v which makes an its angle 9 with the intensity at point « direct » direction of axis. ag are the initial phases. Thus. and we have assumed that the amplitudes £^«. where Ag. Aa' '^b ^r^ ^he wavelengths. taking for the latter an additional phase former an additional phase in shift lnd/X^ (taking for the shift lird/X/^). in both beams are equal.1) Wa = w + AcO ^ 2 TT f 2 77 C 2 77 C 2 T 77 C \ 2 + aT — 2 (32.
)b. . c Aw . Since U ^. respectively.sin{ 2 1 1 [2wr + a^+ a3+ (w + A B ^ [Aw/ + a^. variable amplitudes of (£^ + E^)^aind{E^ + we can U^= t/B= U^.i / £^a. sm(a)^/ + « + a^+ iTTd ^ ) A Ao — + £.cos ( — 1 [ Aw/ + a^. cos ( — <p ^) sin (w/ + (32.+ (" d — (w d Aco  )(\  V  cos9)]} .. (32. Dp...a^^ y(t^ + {^ d Aw 2 ) (1 + v^ cos ^) ] } . (/„ are proportional to the £i. sin((o^/ + a^) + 1 £„„. 166 . we shall obtain for the electric intensities at points A and B.^cos'i.3) fi^) and = r^. Up^ the electric tensions middle between points on the outputs of the squares of the write detectors D^.4) Let the photodetectors transform the incident light intensity into electric tension which we lead to a point (call it point Q in the A and B.„«.subscript proper time of a clock attached to the implement (for brevity we omit the « .. (1 cosfpg). sinCw^/ lird = + a^+ ) "a — = 2£„. sm (Wg/ + a^) = = 2£„.1 y <Pb) = t/„.<Pa)y <]pj= 2 (. (see ( 10.. (1 + + cos<p^).»).ttg  Aui y ) (1  V — cos ^) ^ ^ ] ) = = 2 £„a. Designate by t/^.cos( y ( y ) (1 + V — cos ^) ) } = = 2 £„„ cos y <)p b) sin (w/ + )8 g) (32.«.sin{ y (2(or » a^+ a.„.2 1 )] = £„„. 19) and ( 10.5) ^—COsMy 1.
.
Ifweknowa^.1.5)) whose sum is given by formula (32. 322 almost equal to the « Itt and the source » 5" is very near to the rim of the disk. the initial phases of the lasers are unknown.<Pa) + (<p'b. v = 45 m/s = 162 km/h. let us measure some phase a ofthe electric tension (t/^ + (/b)c. (32.9) in the to the following change sum of the phase shifts of the electric tensions U^ and U^ (<P'a.10). THE « COHERENT LASERS ON A ROTATING DISK EXPERIMENT » to « To show more clearly why the inertial « coherent lasers » experiment is be explained in the manner presented in §32.3). should be replaced by a unique and the mirrors A/^. ting disk » experiment.« coherent lasers » experiment. while there a unique light source in the former. clockwise direction with a linear rotational velocity of its rim then the arguments of formulas (32.8) are fulfilled. 322) Let us measure the Let the first implement from fig. we can calculate v cos^. » The substantial difference between the « rotating disk experiment and in the fact that is the « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment consists there are (n'o sources emitting coherent light in the latter. 1978p) whose is essence as follows (fig.8) be fulfilled. c' (32. 321 on a rotating disk and on the outputs of the detectors D ^. 1 ^11. If the new phase which we should measure is a .10) Taking oi/lrr = a phase shift in the 5. we shall consider the coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment (Marinov. 10'^ Hz. then rotating disk time lags which should appear along path 168 experiment cannot give any positive effect because the d will be compensated by the . « and U^ will obtain additional phase shifts [see (32. However. Let us then set the implement in motion with a certain velocity v Thus. we can measure only a change in the velocity of the implement. it will be a which corresponds . as lasers can be seen immediately from source 5" 322 if both A/g. condition (32.4).aB. Df^.d= m. with the real : along the « direct » direction. (/g mount in rotation in a V. If the disk is first at rest and then set the electric tensions (/^. This » U^ coherent lasers on a rotating disk experiment light is analogical to the « rotafig. The experiment is to be performed as follows Assuming that the conditions (32.a = d — oi\/. Thus if we should make angle d in fig.a = mil. we obtain argument of the resultant electric tension a' .<Pb) = —<^^ 2d (32.
e.IO'^ rad/s) the frequency instablility mentioned above leads to 5co = tt. d^nX. (32. Choosing a' — a = irll rad.S to ^ and A/g. riment at any angle the source must be placed at the centre of rotation (see 32. At the condition (32. when setting the disk in rotation.11) where / is the time of measurement in which the velocity of the implement changes from to v. (32. Indeed. i. the « coherent lasers » experiment cannot be performed under the condition Ato 0. M Remember §26).. the measuring error could be at most as large as the effect to be measured.9)] ^ 8i^< ^^^^ . the difference in the initial phases of both lasers cannot change because both lasers move all the time opposite time lags which will appear along the paths from with the same absolute velocity.3. that to obtain a positive effect in the « rotating disk » expe6. as we shall show.13) 169 . the velocity any time interval / will be v = ut. / = 100s. when « switching on the aether wind ».. ). However. Putting this into (32. (32. to perform it under this condition one must have two lasers whose frequencies can differ from one another and vary with [see (32. the « coherent lasers on a rotating disk » experiment will always (at any angle 6 in fig.10) because both coherent light sources are here spatially separated and. we obtain Sco < (7r/2)IO rad/s. it has already been carried out in a very similar arrangement and has given the result predicted by us.12) we obtain (^A+ ^b)c = 2(/„. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE « COHERENT LASERS AND LIGHT DOPPLEREFFECT EXPERIMENTS » As technology cannot yet produce a laser with a high enough frequency stability [Letohov and Chebotaev (1974) have achieved stability 6w/(o = 10 '* for 100 seconds].IO rad/s for any of the lasers.cos'[y (Aco » tt)/]. Let us now analyse the different point of view If after we move the implement with a constant acceleration w. 1 1 ' « coherent lasers » experiment from a slightly which will show that it is not necessary to spend time and effort in its performance because. a^ ttgl — A<o = 27r«. while (assuming co = tt. 322) give the result (32.6) and assuming ^ = 0.
as a result of the d.where „ il = d — uiu (32. then light velocity will be different for different velocities of the implement (with respect to the implement) because the frequency received remains unchanged. as there is a certain time during which light has to then.e. there is no need to perform it because this would be only a Bommel's (1962) experiment where the frequency change was established by using the Mossbauer effect and by accelerating a (32.14) represents some additional frequency increase. Since the emitter (say.14) gamma emitter and absorber with u = 10* m/s'. 321) experiment the same. when accelerating the implement.. this rad/s. Hence. Doppler effect. the acceleration is along the axis of the implemenet). phenomenon many years before experimental The to analysis of the « coherent lasers » experiment given here allows one understand that when the emitter and receiver move with acceleration. since it must be 5to < S2. mirror SM'q and the receiver (mirror SM\) move with acceleration.. However. is frequency Aco be registered. then the shift in the received frequency leads to an additional phase shift fi and the time /of waves (wavelengths) placed along the distance between emitter and receiver changes (the number increases for c T T u and decreases for c T 1 u).. Hence the lasers and a change in the « beat » Nevertheless. repetition of The « essence » of Bommel's is experiment and of our accelerated coherent lasers in fig. The accuracy of the Mossbauer effect {8u}/u) = 10'^) is not higher than that of lasers. electric tension Thus. a' — a which is equal to the product of the frequency shift accelerated motion. i. as the velocity of light is the product of frequency and wavelength. we il = (7r/2)IO ' to. cover distance the velocity of the receiver at the reception moment 1) its different (higher for u pointing along the emitterreceiver line) velocity of the emitter at the emission will be from the this moment. Einstein (191 pointed to simple and clear physical confirmation. we obtain can now have to different frequencies to^. // = to 45 cm/s'. Thus the number of light 170 . have conclude that also accelerated « coherent lasers » experiment cannot be performed at the present state of technique. Indeed. such large accelerations cannot be realized with lasers. the frequency of the resultant should increase (we repeat. however. the frequency received will differ from the emitted one.10) and t = l(X)s. Taking the data given after formula (32.
performed first considered by us in detail in Marinov (1978q). THE INERTIAL The essence of the « « WIRED PHOTOCELLS. EXPERIMENT » wired photocells is experiment (which..§33. We review by Godart (1974).1. 331) p? . THE « WIRED PHOTOCELLS*. : if performed in a laboratory. is called inertial) as folows (fig. 33. this paper here. EXPERIMENT » The is « wired photocells experiment.
P] whose axis is equal to V.la demonstrates the case where the absolute velocity «/ of the flow laboratory is is perpendicular to the axis of the apparatus.2) where P is the energy flux radiated by the whole light source we suppose the source as a point and the radiation isotropic).1) where r is the actual distance. Thus the currents produced by the = J — Ay/2.4) v/c 172 . will collect in a all photons in a cylinder (suppose the photocells circular) whose axis is equal to c minus the photons in the cylinder P. I = P 47rrf = P Anr'il + v/cy / = 4 P tt r] = Att r' {\ P  . b) For the case in fig. Let us rotate the axis of the implement so that the absolute velocity of the laboratory will be pointing from P. v/c)' (33. propagation.^ = J + Ay/2. (33. . Hence a) the energy flux density over P. Thus the actual energy flux densities will be unit of time .33.e.la and P^ will be : For the case / = r^ . (for simplicity 33.lb .= ' '>\ '  ' 4nr'{\v/cy (33. from the aether conception for photocells will be 7.3) However. while the cell P^ will collect in a unit of time all photons in a cylinder whose axis is equal to c plus the photons in the cylinder P^P'^ whose axis is equal to v. we also have to take into account that cell P.. (33. THE* AETHER WIND* EFFECT Fig. (i. when the light source will at the middle position between the photocells P^ and P^ no current through the galvanometer. = r(I  v/c). light to P^ (fig. Indeed. = r(I + v/c). in fig. and the difference in current Ay flow now the « effective » distances of the photocells the distances between the emission position of the source from the source and the reception positions of the cells) will be r. 33. proceeding we conclude that in a unit is of time more photons will strike P^. = \ _^ = + v/c ^ Airr'iX \ v/cf .2. 33. a. where J the current will produced by them in the case through the galvanometer.lb).. 33. Now. J. r.
—^ + v/c 1 .=kl. taking into account the result of our interferometric « coupledmirrors » experiment (§ 19. « =67— c ' . velocities c'n= .'„ = /.9) = kL = we kP 4 7rr'(l  v/cf (1 . Since the electric currents produced by the photocells are proportional energy flux densities. 33../c.10) our realization of the wired photocells ' » i/ experiment. = /. (33.6) v/c clock.10" = km/s.7) and from the to the last three formulas we obtain (33.. However. (33..Indeed.: (33.  y.— — 1 ^ . Let us note that if we take into account only the effect described by formula (33. i.7c.lb J. order in v/c ^= In y.1 1) 173 .= 4 J. the effect Ay = y.e.la J = kl = where /c is k P .v/cy first For their difference obtain within an accuracy of y. the photons which strike (3.. fig. if these velocities are shall measured on a proper Thus we have /./f .3). /.5) for the case a and. I it was J = 5.^ have velocity [see formula = c (33..32)] c.8) 4 a constant. we have to conclude A I that the « wired photocells » experiment gives a negative (null) result.. (33. we shall have : a) For the case in fig. for the case b. Since the and thus it had to be Ay = 10 A for A. (33.2).r'(l J v/cy (1 + + v/cy J ' (33. we have thus established that the fluctuation shift was lower than 10 component of the Earth's absolute velocity in the plane of rotation of the implement must be less than km/s (we performed the experiment during different hours of the day). 77' r^ b) For the case in 33. = .: /*.4). = 47 — c .„/c. respectively. and P. kP 77. >.
9) and (33.11) is to be the same as the effect provoked by a shift of the light source over a distance Ar = {v/c)r = 0. I978q) shows that the effect of the relativistic distribution effect. and P2 are given « : aether wind » a) For the case shown For the case shown a by the formula (33. = 4 P .then it will be the same as the effect obtained by a into account that shift r. 33. density of a rapidly The theory of macroscopic of this the is relativistic distribution in the radiation of a shall light source given in Marinov (I978q).. in the i.3 by the help of the wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment whose scheme is the (fig.4). THE EFFECT OF RELATIVISTIC DISTRIBUTION IN THE RADIATION We explain the negative (null) result in the « wired photocells » experi ment. radiation is exactly equal the energy flux densities over in fig. taking into account the relativistic distribution in the radiation flux moving light source. 331 and opposite to the /*.2). no positive absolute effect can be observed in the « wired photocells » experiment. b) J in fig. of the light source to the photocell P. THE « WIRED PHOTOCELLS ON A ROTATING DISK EXPERIMENT • tion of the absolute effects described in §33. 33 lb by the following formulas /.4. as a result of these two effects (compare formulas (33. We following 332) : 174 .5 mm. Since in the treatment is phenomenon a heavier mathematical apparatus needed.12)]. = P . 7Tr'(lv/cy Anr'il + (33. 10 'A.e.3. Our theoretical analysis (Marinov. We assume that the same effect must exist also when the radiant is a macroscopic light source and we have confirmed this assumption with the help of the « wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment (see §33. and taking velocity the « aether 33. Such an effect has already been observed in betatrons and synchrotrons where the radiants are elementary particles.2 « have proved our theoretical prediction about the mutual annihilaand §33. over a (i^/c)th part of the distance Assuming v = 300 km/s we had r = 500 mm.12) v/cy Thus. Such a shift of the electric bulb has provoked an electric current AJ of about 2. we merely direct the interested reader to our original publication. we obtain that for such a wind » effect described by formula (33.
9) and (33. > 0) Ay — y = 2 V — c (33. and T. we can assume that this is the velocity of a point on the rotating disk whose radius R is equal to the distance from the centre of rotation to the centre of the light source.13) b) Cells moving. moving. one J.Fig. 175 . taking into account that now AJ = J. We have performed a) this experiment in three variants : Source moving. can be slits bout which rotates clockwise. .12) appear together and one registers no change in the difference in current when changing the velocity of rotation.4) and (33. supposing that the slits are narrow enough.. are two mounted on a turnawhich are always at rest. registers only the aether wind » effect described by formulas (33.. In such a case one registers only the in the radiation described by formulas and for the relative change of the difference in current we obtain [cf.. Source and In all formulas relevant to the is « wired photocells on a rotating disk » experiment.14) see since now the « aether 1) wind » effect described by formulas (33. source at « rest.12). 332 The source S and/or the photocells T. All other details are as in the « wired photocells » experiment.3) formula (33.10). v the component of the velocity of the source or the cells or both along the line of light propagation.7). /*. Ay 1 =^7 In such a case V (33. P.J^ > 0] effect of relativistic distribution (33.1 c) — does not cells exist. In such a case the effects described by formulas (33. Thus. with (33. and for the relative in change of the difference current Ay we obtain (Ay = — y. cells at rest.
At low rotational velocities the current 7 was periodically (with the period of rotation) increasing (when the cells were illuminated) and decreasing. 333 176 .e.6 ± 0. rest. ' — A^ = 6.10 V We made the difference in this corresponded to a rotational rate current to be zero for v/c = 10 current was stable. (case b). and at rotation of the The difference in current AJ was fed to a directcurrent electronic amplifier with a low resistance input (i. 10 the rate of rotation. sed in mercury at the centre of the disk. which can be considered as a galvanometer) whose fluctuation corresponded to 57 = ± 3.10 '' A (at maximum rotational velocities). a slight « singlesinusoidal » difference in current Ay was also observed. For case AJ was made equal to zero when lamp and cells were at 36 Nrey/s Fig.2 cm and the distance of the cells about 98 cm.5.00 rev/s — by a corresponding shift of the cells (case a) or of the lamp c.3. so we did not register a substantional In our realization.. equal to 6. difference in the fluctuation of the galvanometer at rest disk.we used a stabilized gas discharge lamp as a light The conductors from the lamp and from the photocells were immersource. The distance of the lamp from the centre of rotation (measuring from the centre of the lamp's windows) was R = 79. The rate of rotation A^ was measured by a light stroboscopic cyclometer and maintained automatically with a precision 6A^/A^ = ± 2. At a rate of rotation higher than 5 rev/s the ^ A and did not change with the increase of For low rotational velocities.
Ay y In the graphs. 10 ' in case a) minimum relative is ± \J%. 341) : . by the inaccuracy relative error is 8N are ± too small to be discussed. error cm.2 account the errors introduced by the inaccuracy SR 0.15) we give only the fluctuation errors. Thus electromagnetic experiments can be set up to help register the absolute velocity of the laboratory.25 %. 333 we give the results of our measurements for cases a and was registered case c no difference in current the fluctuation. the The essence of the « cauldron » experiment is as follows (fig. 7 = 2(c 10 (33.14) but Ay = 6( V 10 c '). Also.13) and (33.In fig. It is b. For which could be discerned from obvious that our working formulas were not (33. because its due to the §34. THE « CAULDRON » EXPERIMENT We have proposed the « cauldron » experiment in Marinov ( 1978r) with aim of showing not only that light propagation phenomena are absolute but also all electromagnetic phenomena. while the fluctuation (for v/c = ± = 6. The errors introduced we do not take into 0.
(34. will easy to see that the electro so that angle 9 will change with M=  change and a new state of equilibrium will be installed.the right and the raxis (with unit vector ::") downwards to the Earth's centre.1) where /w„ is the proper mass of any of the small masses. = m„grad(Y. Suppose now magnetic forces that the velocity of the cauldron has It is changed with Ai^ > because of the yearly motion of the Earth.5) in into account that for the case considered and take dAJdt = 0] f. cos = F. we suppose that the absolute velocity of the laboratory is parallel to the vzplane. the proper mass of the Earth. z^ = F^z% is (34. A^ > and distance d will change with (we ignore the change AD as it is very small with 2MRsin6 < respect to D). we obtain A^= 178 — cot^.3) and take into account that for the case considered /." Y ^j^ ) = Y ^. then the following two on any of these masses : The full gravimagretic force caused by the gravimagretic interaction is with the Earth whose mass a form analogical to (7. and d is the distance between will The masses be in equilibrium at the condition /. ciA Idt = (1 0] = ^grad(^^ )= « is ± ^ _ _)y.= ^p^yo^ (342) where the sign the sign « + » is for the electromagnetic force acting on the right mass.4) . for the sake of simphcity. (34. on the left mass. If we do not take into account the mutual gravitational attraction between our masses the attraction caused by the other celestial forces will act a) and bodies.  » for the electromagnetic force acting their centres. A/„ axis).3) and the equation which we can write within the necessary accuracy for the new state of equilibrium.3) where 6 is the angle between the horizontal plane and the radius pointing from the centre of the cauldron to any of our masses.smO . Dis the distance between their centres and vis the velocity of the Earth (we ignore the rotational velocity about b) its The interaction full electromagnetic force caused by the mutual electromagnetic between the charges of our masses [see formula (7.3) M [write the NewtonMarinov equation (8. From (34. The masses lie in the vrplane and.
i. Nevertheless.e.served described above will be observed. another observerrelativist on the bank will conclude that all three states of the ship will conclude that the states sternbound and prowbound equilibrium must be different (remember the « clocksroundtheworld . Indeed. This. producing spheres (very likely one has to use electrets) which have to maintain a constant charge for a whole year.r = —7. (hen an observerrelativist on of from the rest state of equibrium equilibrium must be the same and different where the cauldron is at rest with respect to the ship.Assuming e the Earth's absolute velocity to be i/ = 300 km/s. This experiment is difficult to realize. However. The same yearly i79 . however. and we move our cauldron with velocity v (relatively to the ship) first towards the stern and force). this experiment sics as is extremely fruitful for theoretical phy a thought experiment It 1) shows that magnetism is not a relative but an absolute phenome non. a « Newtonian electromagnetism. if we are on a ship sailing with velocity v in a canal. in a vacuum tube their magnetic 2) If the « relativists » consent that the electromagnetic force two charges changes when they are magnetic considering the « set in between motion (because of the appearing of relativity will automatically fail. bodies. light » The experiment can throw abundant If gravitation is on the law of analogue of gravitational attraction.. we obtain a yearly variation about the state of equilibrium (for Av = ±30 km/s and = tt/A) Oy.= ± 10 ' . i.5) angles until 10 " rad By the light lever of Jones (1975). there are difficulties in can be measured. if gravitation is a analogue of electromagnetism. « It is clear that the experiment cart is ave a unique result by an observerabsolutist who cauldron » at rest in absolute space. contradicts the everyday fact that when field changing the velocity of the electrons also changes. if experiment only as a thought experiment.2). » experiment as predicted 3) — §22. Indeed.. no variations about the state of equilibrium are to be observed when the absolute velocity of the apparatus changes. then a yearly variation as variation will be ob. However.. However. (34.e. then the principle cauldron » then with the same velocity towards the prow. then « if there is a gravitational analogue to the magnetic energy and the masses are responsible for the gravimagretic interaction of the no yearly variation Marinov » analogue to will be observed. according to the principle of relativity. if there is a gravitational the magnetic energy and the proper masses are responsible for the gravimagretic interaction of the bodies.
.e and . However.r)  r 180 . in toto : Consider two opposite point charges . THE TROUTONNOBLE EXPERIMENT TroutonNoble (1903) experiment to is The as historical generally considered relativity one of the most important experiments for electromagnetic phenomena.is no gravitational analogue to the magnetic energy masses are responsible for the gravitational interaction of the bodies and the (as was assumed by Newton). As the force acts in the direction of r the produced by the pair of charges vanishes. r moment of force i. as we have shown in §6.e. If the charges are at rest the force acting upon f e can be written F„ = eE= e'r . We present here the theoretical analysis and description of the TrontonNoble experiment given by Janossy (1971). prove the principle of One ting that expects a positive effect in the TroutonNoble experiment. also in the case if there §35. A/„ If the pair = is r X f„ = to 0. Thus the positive effect. the radius vector pointing from — e to + e be denoted by r. V X {v X r) = v(v. taking §82 and §83 of his book 82. of charges made move with a constant velo city V. which conventional physics predicts in the TroutonNoble experiment. then the positive charge will be under the action of the attraction of fild Coulomb magnetic — e and also under the influence of the B = Thus — c {V X r)lr\ the total force acting upon F„ e is given by f (^) ^ e{E + Since c V X B) = + ^ c r \^^ V X {V X r). Newton's third law has an universal validity and holds good also in the domain of electromagnetism. accep Newton's third law breaks down in the domain of ejectromagnetism.e. is based on wrong theoretical calculations.
In the actual only a negligible correction to (26). In the tion.r)(r X v)/r' .2 and 181 . If the moment is (26) exists then the elastic fibre is upon which the condenser suspended twisted to such an extent that the elastic stress arising in the fibre compensates the moment changes its M its exerted by the condenser. experiment a charged condenser was susThe condenser was placed so that — 45". arrangement the condenser was was watched whether or not it would change its orientation while the Earth was turning round and therefore the orientation of the condenser relative to the direction of motion of the Earth would change. Our explanation of the ment is negative outcome of the TroutonNoble experi§7..e. (26) above derivation we have neglected the effects of retarda A more detailed calculation shows that the latter effects give 83.1) as follows (see §6. we find for the absolute ^=^sin(2^). the direction of v. so that the line perpendicular to the surface of the condenser plates subtended an angle of 45" with the supposed direction of the orbital velocity of the Earth. pended on an elastic string. In the actual experimental it suspended and The tion. actual experiment showed no such changes in orienta The negative outcome of the TroutonNoble experiment can be interpreted by supposing that the motion of the system relative to the aether produces not only an electromagnetic moment of force but also elastic stresses which compensate exactly the electromagnetic moment offeree. value of the Denoting the angle between v and moment of force by 0. Turning the condenser together with support by 90" the equilibrium is moment M sign and so the expected to be disturbed.we is find that the moment offeree produced by the pair of charges equal to M{y) = r X F{v) = — r iv. i.
Let us have a circular accelerator of electrons A. become shorter. Short light pulses (packages of photons) are emitted by the emitter E in regular short intervals of time AT. 361) : outline given by Karastoyanov (1972). Our formula (34. turn back and. the « synchrotron » is The essence of experiment. §36. then. which arose from an as follows (fig. with the increase of the velocity v of the revolving electrons. Thus the full electromagnetic forces acting on them are equal to the corresponding kinetic forces. the time for We — which the photons will will cover the distance from the accelerator to mirror M Hence if we obtain electric pulses from the emitted and received light pulses and if we lead them to the electrodes of an electronic oscillograph Osc.. the total time derivatives of the magnetic potentials caused by both electric charges considered above are equal to zero (the distance between these two charges as well as their velocity do not change full !). as a matter of see §13. a fast moving mirror electrons. reflected The photons.3) as a new source of radiation.2) is the right one to be used in this case. after being refiected by the semitransparent mirror M. the reference point where the other charge is placed also moves. on its screen we should see the picture shown in the figure. On the other hand. passing through the semitransparent mirror M. the full electromagnetic forces acting on two isolated charges are equal and oppositely directed along the line connecting them. are registered by the receiver R. If ging the velocity of the the velocity of light depends on the velocity of the source of radiation. that the velocity of light is always equal to c (with respect to absolute space !) but not to the geometrical sum of c and the velocity i^ We of the emitter. Let the high peaks described by the electronic beam correspond to the 182 .e. Chanfact. i. and he calculates the effect in the TroutonNoble expe riment by the help of inappropriate formulas. These light pulses. and no rotational moment of force can be produced by these two charges. we change the velocity of this light source. according to the Newton's third law. can consider the revolving electrons (representing.During the rotation of the Earth. Janossy (as well as conventional physics) does not take into account that when one of the charges moves. THE « SYNCHROTRON » EXPERIMENT have proposed the « synchrotron » experiment in Marinov (1977b) with the aim of showing that the ballistic (Ritz) model of light propagation is not adequate to physical reality. pass through the narrow slit S and reach the electrons revolving in the accelerator along the tangent to their trajectory. after being by the electrons.
^^z? Fig. When the light pulses are emitted at intervals of AT. distance between them over the screen. the distance d between the high and low peaks will remain the same when the velocity of the electrons along the circular trajectory of the accelerator increases. If the velocity of radiation. distance d will light depends on the velocity of the source of change when the velocity of the electrons changes. it will be D = and D kAT. where k is is the the 183 . 361 emitted light pulses and the low peaks to the received light pulses. If the velocity of light does not depend on the velocity of the source of radiation. Let us show this.
obtain A/ If the velocity = of light our absolute spacetime theory does not depend on the velocity of the source. LA»/ (c + v) (c I __ = «^ f LAi/ .1) Ai^) c' where L is the distance between the accelerator t/. we choose AT = 10 '° s. come earlier to the receiver in the second case will be (suppose t^v <^ c) A/ = L _ c. first The difference between the distances and m the and second cases will be If A^ = kbit. Thus for such an increase of the electrons' velocity in the accelerator. accelerator to mirror Af in the second case. If the velocity of the source M . 184 .  L _= c. we AT. then it must be Ac/ = increase of the electrons' velocity.socalled constant of scanning of the oscillograph and is equal to the hori zontal distance which the electronic time. then the velocity of the photons on the track from the = c + v in the first case and will be c. I' » Hence the time Ar with which the light pulses will w. beam covers over the screen for a unit of first v and then must be added geometrically to the velocity of light. and mirror d^ A/. the low peaks will be shifted with respect to the high peaks over a distance Ac/ equal to the distance D between the high peaks. L = 9 m and Aj^ = c/300 = 10' m/s. (36. c = c  Let the velocity of the electrons in the accelerator be V I Aw. as for any asserts.
\9U. Fizeau H. 1974. 268. 1962. Briatore L... Jones R.. Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitdt Einstein A. 1963. Phys. Rev. Techniques Nouvelles. Phys. IRE.. F. No... 4. Lett. Larmor J. 12. 23.. Champeney D. Phys. 17. et Radium. Fundamentals of Celestial Mechanics. The Observational Approach to Cosmology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Mossbauer Effect. Sept..... Akademiai Kiado. 8 Teil — Optische Konstanten. 289. 1976. D. Lett. 29. J. D. 2. Science. E. Nuovo Cimento. F. 41 1. 30.REFERENCES 1. E. B25. 1975. Einstein A.. 6. der Phvs. 38A. 4. Am. Burcev P. Karastoyanov A.. Lifshitz E. Proc. C. J.. 5. 898. and Lifshitz E. M. Budapest... 1971.. Jena. British Patent. Cambridge. New 9. 185 . 1962. 117. Hubble E. 241. 1971. 1974. 1900. 3. London. H. Pergamon Press. V. C.. et al. 1937. 349. Ann. and Braunschweig. 26. S. 8. and Keating R. A. 21. Mechanik. W.. Soc. Phys. Opt. Godart Hafele Harress R. Lett. 1961. 1972. P. 10. 16. \9\\. Janossy L. 199. 1938. M.. 7. 15. Ives H.. 13. 17. Dart H. Nachr.. Czechosl. 153. 165. Lorentz H. et al. Lett. 14. York. 351.. und Elektronic. and Stilwell G. 24. Bommel 3. Leipzig. 166. 365. 25. 47A.. 1907. LandoltBornstein.. 15. 35. 203.. Danby J. 1912. 22. Spectr. 215. Horedt G.. 33. Landau L. 1972. Theory of Relativity Based on Physical Reality. 1962.. 301. Dissertation. 4. Soc. 1851. 1969. The Theory of Electrons.. 4. Carnahan C. Lett. Oxford. 15089/58 — 884830. Bailey J. Springer 28. Comptes Rendus. Aether and Matter. Dufour A.A.. 22. Landau L. et al. Lett.. Vieweg.Ann.. 328. 1905. 7. Einstein A. 1942. and Prunier Phys. Saclay. 18.. 28.. 1976.. J.. Nature. Briscoe J. Phys. 1916. 20. 1958. 17. 27. Verlag. 345. 1959. The Classical Theory of Fields. 141. 1977. 50. 1974. P. 1960. Einstein A. 8.. Proc. 891. J. 1962. 19.. 11. 111. University Press..Astr. E. 1975. Roy. Hay H. J. Macmillan Co. R. der Phys. and Leschiutta S..
Phys. 68. 1978c. Lett.. (1983). 965. 40. Techn. Found Int.. \9nk. 47. et ai. 45. Phys.. Phys.. 1886. Phys. 34. 343. 1972b.. Theor. 1974b.. 329 (1980). 1976b. S. 1978f. Phys. Theor. Ind. 1410. . Michelson A. 53. 1976a. 19781. S. Lett. H. Player M. J. . 50. 55. S. 46.. 1. 1978i.. 343. 1976. S. 235. Phys. 28. B24..Found. PrenticeHall. J.. 6. S. 1947.32\. 1972a.. Science. 139. Roy. S. L. J. Phys. 49. 7. 1977a. Phys. 1 S. 44. 41A. 61. dos. 1978q. S. A. 345. Ann. S. 63. der Phys.. .. \91Sd... 829. 345. Int.. 189. 52... // Nuovo Cimento. 1974a.. 1928. S. 54.. \91 5b. Phys. 293. J. 9.. et ai. 44A. Ind. Theor. 157. 1885 (1983). Rel.. 1975a.. Sagnac G.. Phys. 571. Sc. 48.. 8. 73. Found 1977b. 60. 1. Theor. S. Spec. S. 32. \91%\\. 40A. 70. Roy.. Physica. 1913. Sc. 1978a. 54A... 35.. 637. 1970. S... Am.. 1975. Santos A. Grav. Phys. 445 (1979). Phys. S. . Found Phys. . 31. 13.. 1978u. 64. Chechosl. 403 (1981). . J. Phys. 19. 85. 43. . J. . Found. S. 32B. S. Lett. Phys. Le((.Found. Techn. 16..31. . 21. Phys.. Jnd. 345. 36. Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Jersey. .80.. J. 231.Spec. Michels A. Survey of the Universe. A. Spec. 41. 947. Techn. 66. \91Sp. S.. 1975.. 69. 239.. J. Gen. Comptes Rendus. 244.. 57 (1980). Proc. 1978n. 137. 93 (1983). 38. 39. 31. Int. 708. 9. S. 1978g. 1978t. J. Phys. 11. 67. J.. 33. Pogany B. 197. 62. 1970.. Theor.. 58.. Phys. Proc. S. E. 433. 183. 1. Menzel D. S. Lett.. 115 (1981).. 37. Phys. Soc.. Sc. Phys. Theor. 1978b. 1978j.. \91Sm. . S.. 57. Marinov inov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov Marinov S. 59. 62A. 1973. Soc. 55B. and Morley W. Phys.Ind. Lett. 15.. 51.. 12. 56. \91U. N. 1978r. 42. .. New 65. Rogers G. 13. 519. 71. 31. 8.. 1978s.
Trouton F. Roy.. et Row Acad. 72. Amsterdam. Proc. Rov. 73. 398. P. 76. Zeeman Zeeman Zeeman Zeeman 1914.. 74. R. P. 1402. Roy. 1915.. ai. Proc. 17. 1922. 187 . P. Acad. Proc.. Proc. T. 22. Soc..72. Row Acad. 132. 23. Amsterdam. 1903. 512. Acad Amsterdam. Amsterdam. Proc. 18. P. 445. 1920. 75. and Noble H.
.
.
.
.
Highvelocity mechafirst (iravimagretism. In the Sofia psychiatries because of his September 1977 he received a passport and transferred to Brussels. in In 1966/67. (ienova. From 1974 to 1977 Marinov mana ged his own Laboratory for Fundamental Physical Problems. In 1951 he went to the a Varna High Nav> School as volunteer and after graduating sailed as a deck officer on Bul garian. Fowvelocily mechanics. J. nics. ( /echoslo\akC hinese carg<»es. His absolute spacetime (heor> elaborated last in the I 20 >ears explains Ihoroughh all experiiiunts in high\eloci(> phxsics. from where he was expelled and pensioned as a paranoic in 1974. In 1979—1981 he lived in (. in he SI essence of his theor> and description of his experiments are gi\en FPIM'R Price: MFONF. (ira/. 1978). Washington. 1974. In 197X he lived in Washingt<m. (Fast West. encyclopaedic CFASSIC Al PIHSK 1. S 25 . In and West(ierman 1958 he came hack his I96(J to Sofia to complete sics.lime Absoluteness (K SIA) and together with Prof.ra/). studies in to ph> From 1974 he worked in as Assistent Professor in the the Ph>sical Facult> of the Sofia llniversity and as scientific researcher Physical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. P. In . In 1982 he published the I and in 1984 the second part of the collection of documents HF I ll()R^^ WAV OF IRl ( I H (Fast West. where he published the treaty FCONOMIA POI I IK A I FOS RICA home — is IFOKIA DFI PRF//I where he edited (Kst Ovest. 1979). in registering dra/. As a first man in histor>.en<»a the lnternali<mul onlcrcncc on Space. 1981) c<msisting of the following fi\e \<»lumes: cal apparatus. and 1977 he got compulsory treatment political dissent. where he published his collection of poems FIST OTBRUFKN (Meter Peter. (Fast West. 4. Wesle> edited the PR(K FFI)IN(. in Marinov succeeded the absolute motion of Ihe Farth in u laboralor> with the help of the de>iati\e »coupled mirrors« evpcrinunt. Mathemati Aviomatics.luly 1982 he organized in (. In I94K he finished a Soviet College in Prague and began to study physics at the Universities of Prague and Sofia. 1982).enoa. 3. Since 1981 his his in (ira/. (. 2. Flectromagnetism.Stefan Marinov was horn in Sofia on Ihe in a I February 1931 family of inlelleclual com munisls. 5.S OF K SIA 1973.