You are on page 1of 9

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

Andreja Ana Lopac

Project Manager, Project LNG-Energy INA-Industrija nafte, d.d., SD Naftaplin Barčićeva 9, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia andrejaana.lopac@ina.hr

ABSTRACT

Transportation of liquefied natural gas, cooled down to -162°C and transported by ships from liquefaction terminals to receiving terminals, where it is again turned into gaseous form, is a modern orientation in global planning of energy flows. Since the first LNG transport in 1959 when the LNG carrier Methane Pioneer transported the first 5000 m 3 of LNG from Louisiana to England, the technology of constructing the LNG carriers with implementation of new materials and developing of new LNG reservoir systems as well as carrier engines, led to contemporary LNG carriers that. Traditionally, the largest number of carriers is tied up to a certain LNG project and owned by exporting or importing companies. A number of independent companies, dedicated only to ship transport, find their interest in contracting the construction of new carriers with specific characteristics in line with new conditions of world LNG trade. The article gives the overview of the world fleet of LNG carriers, as well as development trends in this area of LNG industry.

Key words: LNG carriers, LNG shipyards, shippers, operators, conctracting

1 INTRODUCTION

The year 2009 will mark 50 years since the first transportation of LNG, when in 1959 the LNG carrier Methane Pioneer (a converted military freighter) transported the first 5 000 m 3 of LNG from Louisiana (Lake Charles) to England (Canvey Island), taking 27 days to cross the Atlantic [1]. Since then, following the growing role of natural gas as an energy source, the LNG industry developed and its participation in transportation of natural gas grew, becoming an important element in diversification of supply and in natural gas transport/transit routes. LNG shipping is an integral part of the LNG transportation chain, with natural gas liquefaction as the first link and vaporization of LNG as the last one. Due to high price of LNG carrier construction, a large part of the world LNG fleet is financed by specific LNG projects and tied to them by long-term agreements, and owned by companies/consortiums of LNG exporters or importers. Changes in LNG trade, where previous regulation of the LNG market on the basis of the long-term „take-or-pay“ agreements tied to a particular destination was supplemented and sometimes totally replaced by new, more flexible agreements, often concluded for a particular segment of the LNG chain, resulting in appearance of opportunities for development and optimization of each of them. The segment of LNG transport is also developing independently, without being tied to specific projects, with increasing number of independent companies exclusively dedicated to LNG shipping, who find their interest in contracting of new building ships with special characteristics tailored to the new conditions of the global LNG trade. The technology of constructing the LNG carriers with implementation of new materials and developing of new LNG reservoir systems, as well as carrier engines, led to contemporary

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

LNG carriers that enable quicker transport of large volumes of LNG, from even larger distances, under competitive prices

The paper will give

an

overview of the

world fleet of

LNG carriers and outline

development trends in that segment of LNG business.

  • 2 WORLD FLEET OF LNG CARRIERS

According to the data of Argus Global LNG [2], the world fleet of LNG carriers includes 247 vessels with total transportation capacity of 31 466 669 m 3 . The same source quotes the data from the LNG Vessel Orderbook about 125 new LNG carriers on order with total capacity of 21 960 300 m 3 and delivery by the end of 2011. In view of LNG transportation under cryogenic conditions, vessel structures are strictly prescribed by international standards („Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk“ and „International Gas Code-IGC, Chapter VII SOLAS Convention”). The rules of these basic documents are continuously expanding, always with a purpose to increase security, and systematically accepted in all classification societies which incorporated them into their legislation. Security measures impose technical solutions for the construction of ship tanks with materials resistant to extremely low temperatures, prescribe the use of impermeable pipelines and control of atmosphere in areas close to the cargo, primary and secondary insulation of storage space, definition of hazardous areas where special electrical equipment is installed and elimination of all flammable sources from areas where vaporized LNG and air could come into contact. By type of LNG containment system we make a distinction between two main transportation systems, i.e. two main types of LNG carriers, shown in figures 1 and 2:

  LNG carriers with membrane system, LNG carriers with self supporting system.
LNG carriers with membrane system,
LNG carriers with self supporting system.

Figure 1: LNG carrier with membrane system [3]

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS Figure 2: LNG carrier

Figure 2: LNG carrier with self supporting system Moss spherical type [3] Each of the systems developed its design of LNG tanks independently, and each has its advantages, shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Main types of LNG carrier tank systems [1]

   

Membrane system

 

Self supporting system

 

-

Tanks integrated into the ship's

Better utilization of space

 

-

Tanks do not constitute a part of

-

hull

ship's hull

-

Constructed at the same time as

-

Smaller top side lower fuel

Due to lower overall weight

Excellent navigability under

Structural

the vessel structure shorter

differences in ship's

-

consumption

delivery period

tanks

-

Design eliminates cargo rollover

-

channel tolls are lower

problems, which impacts the tank

difficult weather conditions due to smaller top side

walls, with resulting absence of limitation of cargo loading height

 

Technigaz tanks TGZ Mark I & Mark III

98)

 

Gaz Transport design (GT 96)

Kvaerner Moss spherical tanks

Types of ship tanks

Combined system CS-1

IHISPB prismatic tanks

(combination Mark III and GT

 

Lowering of costs though the economy of scale, which was enable by developing of technologies that enable the installation of facilities with higher LNG production capacities on the one side and higher regasification capacities on the other side of the LNG transportation chain, are followed by world LNG carrier fleet, aimed at quicker transport, larger volumes of LNG at lowest transportation costs. In line with that, the trends of vessel type percentage have also changed, both in design and type of ship tanks as well as in total capacity of cargo space, lowering transportation costs per unit of transported cargo. With former percentage of self supporting spherical carriers in the world LNG fleet at 40 percent, their share in new build ships dropped to below 15 percent, in line with required increase of capacities, more easily achieved with membrane type of vessels, whose percentage from the current share of 57 percent will increase to almost 86 percent [4]. The capacity of cargo space increased from 27 500 m 3 in the '60s of the last century to present 154 500 m 3 , i.e. to the 210 000 m 3 capacity in three Q-Flex vessels that sail the Qatar- Great Britain route or the capacity of 265 000 m 3 (named Q-Max), as in newly contracted vessels to be delivered in 2010. Large size of new generation of LNG vessels whose capacities exceed 265 000 m 3 , require new technologies and new solutions, both on vessels themselves and on receiving and exporting terminals which are not designed for vessels of such size. According to LNG Journal [5], only the receiving LNG terminals in Great Britain (South Hook, Isle of Grain)

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

and Korea (Inhencion and Pyeonf-Taek) can receive Q-Flex vessels today. In the USA two terminals will be ready to receive Q-Max carriers in 2008, one in 2009; Mexico will have two terminals in 2008; Canada one; In Europe, in addition to two terminals which are already receiving Q-Flex carriers (South Hook, Isle of Grain), a modification of Zeerbrugge, Montoir, Sagunto and Fos Cavaou terminals was also announced. Receiving LNG terminal in Croatia will be capable to accept the largest Q-Max carriers. LNG carriers hold the second place in the world by vessel price. In view of the fact that chemical and physical state of the transported substrate natural gas cooled down to -162°C and cryogenic conditions for storage of LNG in the ship's tanks, in addition to the requirement to use materials suitable for low temperatures, obligatory primary and secondary insulation, system for monitoring of special cargo, and a whole series of pumps, compressors and other specialized equipment used during cargo loading and unloading under cryogenic conditions, make the construction of LNG carriers an extremely demanding and expensive job. Only 13 shipyards in the world are licensed for construction of LNG carriers. Only two remained in Europe, in France and in Spain. In the early '90s of the last century Japan took the leading position and today has 5 shipyards for construction of LNG carriers. In the late '90s Japan was joined by Korea, whose entrance on the LNG carrier shipbuilding market lowered the prices from former 280 million $ (average for 130 -150 000 m3 capacity LNG carrier) to below 170 million $ per vessel. The current prices are again at the level of about 220 million $ for a 155 000 m 3 capacity carrier. After becoming an exporter of LNG in 2006, and following the example of Japan and Korea, China established the Guangdong LNG Transportation Group for the purpose of import of LNG from Australia, and ordered the construction of five LNG carriers in its shipyard, joining the LNG construction market. Table 2 gives an overview of shipyards and their capacities for construction of LNG carriers.

Table 2: Shipyards technologically equipped for construction of LNG carriers, [1]

Shipyard

Delivery capacity

Experience in construction of

LNG carrier/year

different types of tanks

Europe

   

Chantiere de l'Atlantique (France)

3

GT, TGZ, CS-1

Izar (Spain)

3

GT

Japan

   

Kawasaki Heavy Industries

3

Moss

Mitshubishi Heavy Industries

5

Moss and GT

Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding

2

Moss and GT

Universal Shipbuilding

2

TGZ and CS-1

Imabari Shipbuilding

3

TGZ, GT and CS-1

South Korea

Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Eng.

15

GT

Hanjin Heavy Industries & Construction

2

GT

Hyundai Heavy Industries

17

Moss and TGZ

16

TGZ

STX Shipbuilding

  • 2 GT and TGZ

China

   

Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group

  • 5 GT

The idea that Croatian shipyards might join the LNG carrier construction market and engage their capacities by shipbuilding which generates high added value has often been presented in the Croatian public media. In view of the exceptionally demanding construction of LNG carriers and the accompanying requirement for highly developed specialized technology unavailable in our shipyards, foreign equipment and foreign services that would have to be imported, payment of patent rights and licenses in order to be able to start the

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

construction of any type of LNG carrier, as well as low productivity in our shipyards, it is difficult to imagine that it would bring the expected profit, i.e. generate the expected added value.

  • 3 DISTINCTION: OWNER OPERATOR - LNG CARRIER CHARTERER

There are three types of ownership of LNG carriers:

LNG carrier is directly owned by LNG exporter/seller, or indirectly through a

company/corporation established by the exporter and (partially or fully) owned by LNG exporter/seller, LNG carrier is directly owned by LNG importer/buyer, or indirectly through a

company/corporation established by the importer and (partially or fully) owned by LNG importer/buyer, LNG carrier is owned by a shipping company, completely independent of any side of the LNG project, and leased to LNG importer or exporter on the basis of a short-term or long-term charterparty agreement.

When negotiating LNG transport, we differentiate between owner of the vessel, transport operator and charterer, where each of them, through different types of contracts, has strictly regulated rights and obligations, as well as points where control over the vessel begins, or ends. The owner of the vessel concludes a contract with transport operator, who can be independent or owned and organized by vessel owner. Transport operator can be a provider of transportation service, or can lease the vessel on the basis of a long-term or short-term charterparty agreement. Charterparty agreements are concluded in dependence on the agreed manner of LNG trade, according to the SPA (Sale and Purchase Agreement) between the LNG seller and the buyer, which is the basic document of any LNG project. SPA regulates relations in the whole LNG project; from LNG production and quality to quantities, payment conditions, division of risk in the LNG transportation chain, delivery schedule, „Force majeure“ clauses unforeseen situations such as war, earthquake, flood or similar events which are not caused by the partner in the project. SPA defines the manner of trade, which can be agreed as FOB, CIF, DES, whose selection in addition to conditions of trade also defines the obligation to organize transport. The arrangement of LNG transport by vessels is indicated in the SPA as the obligation of optimum LNG transport, according to the agreed specification, in conformity with ACQ (Annual Contract Quantity) agreement on annual quantities, while obligation for organization of transport, responsibilities and control over transport are regulated by trade conditions specified in the SPA [1]:

Under FOB (Free On Board) conditions of trade, in addition to other obligations stipulated in the agreement, the buyer is obliged to provide transport from the point of loading. Under CIF (Cost Insurance and Freight) conditions of trade, in addition to other obligations stipulated in the agreement, the seller of LNG is obliged to provide transport to the point of unloading. Under DES (Delivered Ex-Ship) conditions of trade, in addition to other obligations stipulated in the agreement, as under CIF conditions of trade, the seller of LNG is obliged to provide transport to the point of unloading.

Under each of these conditions of trade, with consequent obligation to contract transport, the buyer or the seller contract the charter of LNG carrier on the basis of a short-

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

term or long-term charterparty agreement, with vessel owner, i.e. with transport operator or shipper. Depending on whether it is a case of long-term, short-term or single voyage charter, and depending on the obligations of seller and buyer regulated in the SPA agreement, the type of charterparty agreement that fully satisfies the obligations undertaken in the agreement is selected. The main and most frequently concluded charterparty agreements are:

Time Charterparty Charterparty agreement under which the LNG carrier is chartered for a defined period of time (from several months to several years). The party that charters the vessel for the time of the charter has control and disposal of the vessel, while the party that rents out the vessel (operator, shipper or owner) has the obligation to maintain the vessel in accordance with international rules and conventions, to provide competent and experienced crew, to maintain the vessel in accordance with the highest standards, giving guarantees that the actual carrier performances are at every moment identical to those specified in the agreement (speed, consumption of propulsion fuel, percentage of boil-off/day, capacity of loading/unloading pumps…), taking upon himself all operating costs with the exception of those specified in the charterparty agreement as chargeable to the party which charters the vessel. The charterer takes upon himself all voyage costs, from vessel propulsion fuel costs, channel tolls, port dues to boil-off losses (quantity of LNG vaporized during transport). Bareboat (or Demise) Charterparty Charterparty agreement where the vessel owner or transport operator rent out an LNG carrier without any obligation for vessel maintenance, provision of crew or other operative obligations. The obligation of the charterer is to provide vessel crew, vessel maintenance, vessel insurance, vessel registration and carry out all other operative obligations related to technical functioning of the vessel, bear voyage costs and administrative costs. The vessel is under full control of the charterer. At the end of Bareboat charterparty agreement, the charterer is obliged to return the vessel in the floating/technical condition as specified in the agreement, to the location specified in the agreement. Trip-Time Charterparty Short-term charterparty agreement, most often used for one-off transport of LNG, based on daily payment of vessel charter, where the vessel owner, transport operator or shipper who rents out the vessel assumes all voyage costs with the exception of propulsion fuel and port dues that are charged to the charterer. Voyage Charterparty Short-term agreement, for one or several voyages (Consecutive-Voyage), based on payment per ton of loaded LNG, which also covers all voyage costs from the point of loading to the point of unloading of LNG. Contract of Affreightment (COA) is a variation of Voyage Charterparty, where the LNG fleet owner or operator sign with the charterer an agreement on transport of specified quantity of LNG, at specified intervals, but without specifying the vessel. The owner or operator may nominate any vessel from their fleet of vessels available for transport at the time when necessity for transport of agreed quantity of LNG arises, but providing the charterer agrees with the vessel selected by the owner. As in Voyage Charterparty, payment is per ton of loaded LNG, and all voyage costs from the point of loading to the point of unloading of LNG are covered.

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS Figure 3: Scheme of

Figure 3: Scheme of agreements in transportation of LNG, [1]

  • 4 LNG TRANSPORT COSTS

The cost side of the middle part of the LNG chain, transportation of LNG by vessels, is formed on the basis of vessel costs, operative costs and voyage costs for LNG carriers at a certain destination. The price of LNG carriers (most frequent capacity was 125 000 155 000 m 3 ) has considerably fluctuated in the last fifteen years. At the beginning of the „90s it ranged from 260 to 280 million $. At the end of the „90s, after Korea joined the shipbuilding market by construction of Exmar LNG carrier with capacity of 138 000 m 3 for 145 mil $, the construction prices of LNG carriers dropped to 150 - 170 million $. Due to the increase of steel prices on the world market, insufficient capacities of shipyards capable of constructing LNG carriers, higher labour costs and implementation of new technologies which allow faster vessel speeds, lower consumption and lower boil off (which now ranges from 0,1 to 0,25 percent/daily), since 2005 the prices are again at the level of about 220 million $ for a 155 000 m 3 capacity LNG carrier [6]. Operative costs include vessel insurance costs, maintenance, repairs and storage of mandatory spare parts, lubricants, administrative costs and vessel crew costs. Table 3 presents operative costs for 155 000 m 3 capacity LNG carrier .

Table 3: Operative costs (average) for 138 000 m 3 capacity LNG carrier [2]

 

Vessel

insurance

Maintenance

and repair

Spare

Administrative

costs

Vessel

 

parts and

crew

TOTAL

 

lubricants

 

costs

$/day

5 200

760

1782

800

9 222

17 764

Voyage costs depend on vessel transportation route. They mostly depend on the distance between the exporting and receiving terminal, which generates the consumption of propulsion fuel (variable, depending on fuel price) and boil-off costs (from 0,1 to 0,25 percent of the total cargo/daily). Voyage costs include port dues and channel toll. Prices of LNG transport, on the basis of long-term charterparty agreements by carriers of 150 000 m 3 capacity, range from 55 000 to 60 000 $ per day, while transport on the basis of short-term charterparty agreements ranges from 70 000 $/day upwards [1]. Transportation

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

expenses are added to the cost of long-term charterparty agreement, and the total transport cost is obtained. Table 4 shows total LNG transport costs [2] depending on the route and voyage duration, according to the model which performs calculation on an annual basis, for vessel of 138 000m 3. capacity, travel speed 19 knots, consumption 160 t/day at travel speed and 3 t/day during loading and unloading operations, with one day anticipated for LNG loading and two days for unloading, and 15 days annually for maintenance purposes, boil-off 0,15 percent during loading and 0,1 percent/day during navigation and 5 percent LNG reserved for maintenance of bulks at cryogenic temperatures, with return rate on capital of 5,5 percent.

Table 4: Transportation costs for 138 0 00 m 3 capacity LNG carrier (average, October 2007)

Transport route

Trip time

-one way

 

Fuel consumption / $

Crew / $

Vessel insurance / $

Maintenance and repairs / $

Spare parts and lubricants / $

Return on capital / $

Total voyage costs / $

Boil off m 3

Qatar -

14,0

2

277 533

  • 129 115

  • 72 261

10 602

  • 24 955

  • 726 003

3

240 469

  • 12 679

Japan

Qatar

11,2

1

823 471

  • 105 791

  • 59 207

8

687

  • 20 447

  • 580 803

2

598 407

  • 12 094

Spain

Algeria -

3,4

 

536

983

  • 40 817

  • 22 844

3

352

  • 7 889

  • 176 317

788

202

10461

Belgium

Algeria -

1,1

   

178

585

  • 21 658

  • 12 121

1

778

  • 4 186

  • 57 046

275

374

  • 9 980

France

Algeria

0,8

   

131

837

  • 19 159

  • 10 723

1

573

  • 3 703

  • 41 489

208

483

  • 9 917

Spain

Libya

2,3

   

365

575

  • 31 654

  • 17 716

2

599

  • 6 118

  • 119 274

542

937

  • 10 231

Spain

Nigeria

8,8

1

378 442

  • 85 799

  • 48 019

7

045

  • 16 583

  • 456 346

1

992 233

  • 11 591

France

Nigeria

8,4

1

316 111

  • 82 467

  • 46 154

6

772

  • 15 939

  • 435 603

1

903 046

  • 11 508

Spain

Algeria

G. Britain

4,0

 

630

479

  • 45 815

641

  • 25 855

3

762

8

432

  • 207 983

921

  • 10 587

5 CONCLUSION

Activities in LNG industry have been recording growth in all segments of the LNG chain, adjusting the required infrastructure to such growth from average 7,7 percent to 11,7 percent annual growth. In the last five years the LNG trade increased by 29 percent, liquefaction capacities by 27 percent, and 12 newly contracted liquefaction terminals. The LNG carrier fleet increased from the beginning of 2002 until the end of 2007 by 113 vessels. The world fleet of LNG carriers today includes 247 vessels with total transportation capacity of 31 466 669 m 3 , with 125 already contracted LNG vessels in the Orderbook, with total capacity of 21 960 300 m 3 , and delivery by the end of 2011 [2]. The world LNG fleet follows the expected increase of LNG demand by placing new orders, increasing the capacity of cargo space, and by more advanced technologies for maintenance of LNG at cryogenic temperature, as well as other performances that enable quicker transport of large volumes of LNG, from even larger distances under competitive prices. The trends of vessel type percentage are also changing. While previously, percentage of spherical LNG carriers accounted for 40 percent, their share in new build ships dropped to below 15 %, in line with necessary increase of capacities which is easier with membrane type

Andreja Ana Lopac RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSPORTING OF LNG, LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

of vessels, whose percentage from the current share of 57 percent will increase to almost 86 percent [7]. Although the economy of scale with increase of transportation capacities lowers the costs per unit of transported LNG, the problem of compatibility of new, large LNG carriers with numerous existing receiving and exporting terminals which were not designed to accept such carriers, are also reviewed. Large size of the planned new generation of LNG vessels, whose capacities exceed 265 000 m 3 , requires new technologies and new solutions, both on receiving and exporting terminals and on vessels themselves, by implementing new materials, optimizing storage space, introducing new types of propulsion engines. While traditional LNG trade was regulated by firm, long-term agreements that were tied to strictly defined producer and strictly defined consumer, firmly fixed quantities, routes and delivery schedules, modern, current and future LNG trade offers not only geographical diversification of suppliers, importers and LNG transport routes, but is accompanied by flexible contracting on the basis of medium-term and short-term agreements that follow the seasonal changes in consumption in certain regions, and possible urgent quantities of imports. Changes in the LNG trade patterns are also accompanied by changes in LNG vessel contracting patterns. Long-term agreements are on decline, „trip-time“ and „spot/single voyage“ transportation agreements are rare but have a tendency to grow, while short-term (up to two years) and medium-term agreements (two to five years) are the most frequent in the newly concluded LNG transport deals. The cost side of LNG transport by vessels is formed on the basis of vessel price, operative costs and voyage costs of LNG carriers in a certain destination, depending on vessel capacity, route length, agreement type, etc. Contracting of LNG transport has developed into a commercial discipline that relies upon knowledge of Anglo-Saxon law, knowledge of LNG transport chain cost structure, and the world market for LNG and its specific features. The paper gives a survey of the world LNG vessel fleet and outlines development trends of that segment of the LNG chain, with the aim to shed more light on some facts that will help us understand the economics of the whole chain, from loading and transport to delivery of liquefied natural gas.

REFERENCES

  • 1. M. D. Tusiani, G. Shearer, LNG a Nontechnical Guide, PennWell Corporation, USA, 2007, pp.

  • 2. Argus Global LNG, Volume III, Issue 12, December 2007, Table: LNG vessel fleet development, pp.29

  • 3. http://www.hansa-online.de

  • 4. A. Flower, D. Ledesma, CWC School for Energy, Advanced LNG Course-Rome 2007, training course papers

  • 5. LNG Journal, January 2008, Table: World LNG Carrier Fleet, pp.25-30

  • 6. A. El-Manakhly, The Suez Canal and LNG, 6th Doha Conference on Natural Gas, Doha, Qatar, October 29 November 1, Qatar Petroleum, 2007

  • 7. A. A.Lopac, I. Grozdanić, J. Križan, “Svjetski trendovi u LNG industriji, Međunarodni znanstveno-stručni skup o naftnom gospodarstvu, Zadar, Croatia, October 2-5, Hrvatska udruga naftnih inženjera i geologa HUNIG, 2007

  • 8. S. Kolundžić, A. A. Lopac, Adria LNG aktualni trenutak, Međunarodni kongres: Energija i okoliš 2006, Opatija, Croatia, October 25-27, Tehnički fakultet Sveučilišta u Rijeci, 2006, Vol 1, pp.9-16