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Int. J. Sustainable Manufacturing, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, 2008
Approaches to sustainable manufacturing G. Seliger
Department of Assembly Technology and Factory Management, Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany E-mail: Guenther.Seliger@mf.tu-berlin.de
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA E-mail: email@example.com *Corresponding author
S. Kernbaum and M. Zettl
Department of Assembly Technology and Factory Management, Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: Marco.Zettl@mf.tu-berlin.de
Abstract: Topics on sustainable manufacturing, use, environmentally friendly treatment and resource recovery are currently very important issues for governments and industries worldwide. Environmental regulations for technical products currently focus on recycling ratios and prohibition of toxic materials. The concept of creating more use-productivity with less resource consumption has considerable potential to a sustainable society. Hence, the objective of this paper is to identify a research and development plan for sustainable manufacturing focusing on enhancing use-productivity. Core research fields are identified, and finally their technology road maps are developed. Keywords: sustainable manufacturing; use-productivity. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Seliger, G., Kim, H-J., Kernbaum, S. and Zettl, M. (2008) ‘Approaches to sustainable manufacturing’, Int. J. Sustainable Manufacturing, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, pp.58–77. Biographical notes: Günther Seliger studied Industrial Engineering at the TU Berlin. He was Research Assistant and Chief Engineer at the Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management at the TU Berlin and earned a doctorate at the Department of Professor Günter Spur. He has been Professor at TU Berlin since 1988 and represents the Department for Assembly Technology and Factory Management at the Faculty 5 Transport and Machine Systems. Furthermore, he is the speaker of DFG – Collaborative Research Center 281 ‘Disassembly Factories’.
Copyright © 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Approaches to sustainable manufacturing
Hyung-Ju Kim studied at Precision Mechanical Engineering (Bachelor) and Industrial Engineering (Master) in Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea. Then he earned a doctorate at the Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management (IWF) at the Technical University Berlin. After the two years job as senior researcher at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST Europe), Saarbrücken, Germany, he works currently as postdoctoral research fellow at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. His research areas are disassembly, disassembly control and remanufacturing. Sebastian Kernbaum studied Mechanical Engineering at Technical University Berlin from 1998 to 2003. After being a visiting researcher in the University of New South Wales, Sydney and the University of Southern California he became a Research Engineer at the Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management at Technical University Berlin in 2004. His research areas are in the area of life cycle engineering especially in the development of planning and evaluation methods. The research is based on the Collaborative Research Center 281 ‘Disassembly Factories for the Recovery of Resources in Product and Material Cycles’ which was completed at the end of 2006. Marco Zettl studied from 1996 to 2003 Mechanical Engineering at the Berlin Technical University (TUB). After graduation in February 2003, he worked for six months at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Since November 2003, he is Research Engineer at the Department Assembly Technology and Factory Management at TUB in the field product development with focus on modularity. His work is based on the Collaborative Research Center 281 ‘Disassembly Factories for the Recovery of Resources in Product and Material Cycles’, which was completed at the end of 2006.
Humankind is confronted with global challenges related to economy, ecology and socio-policy, e.g., movement of labour, global warming, and population increase. Since emerging countries, e.g., China and India, counting for about two-fifths of present global population, are demanding the life-style of industrialised countries, the resources and the ecosystem of the globe come under increased pressure. Engineering is confronted with the challenge of paradigm change to provide increasing standard of living without exceeding ecological limits. Present products and processes express the life-style of the developed Western World counting for less than one-fifth of the global population. Six billion people of the globe cannot live on existing western standards without exceeding ecological limits. Technology has to be adapted according to criteria of sustainability. It is estimated that because of human resources consumption, by the end of the 21st century, the global average temperature will have increased between 2°C and 7°C when compared with the actual values. It becomes apparent that industrialised as well as emerging countries have to face these challenges together to conserve the resources and the ecosystem of the planet for future generations. On international political level, first steps in this direction of sustainability are global treaties as well as regional regulations and incentive systems. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiated in 1997 is an example for such a global treaty. Since September 2005,
In this context. for example. a total of 156 countries agreed on the reduction of their carbon dioxide emissions and five other greenhouse gases. The different coloured columns between the human needs and the available resources describe the dissimilarity of conditions of the global society. the European Union directives on Waste of Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). ecological. 1999). 2004). Global challenges can only be met by simultaneously considering social. and technological criteria. economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Often these activities are addressing only ecological aspects without taking economics into account. application and evaluation of science. judgement and take initiative to apply science. Figure 1 Approach to increase the global standard of living without bursting the limits of the globe Source: Seliger (2004) Challenges of sustainability in engineering are illustrated in Figure 2. economical. Seliger et al. A reasonable definition of sustainability has been introduced by the World Commission on Environment and Development in the so-called Brundtland-Report ‘Our Common Future’ in 1987. However. Engineering challenges are design of products and processes with improved usefulness and less environmental harm. processes. sustainable development is defined as a holistic approach harmonising ecological. The availability of natural resources and the task of conserving the ecosystems have to be considered so that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs.60 G. as well as the dissemination of knowledge. scientists and engineers cooperate in international and multidisciplinary groups and organisations. whereby human needs are represented as the MASLOW pyramid spanning all societies in the world (Maslow. technology. this goal cannot be achieved with current resource productivity and current trifling with the ecosystem without bursting the limits of the globe (Figure 1) (Seliger. The interaction between research and education imposes dynamics on how creative solutions are . Management guides the creation. Sustainability in engineering can be defined as the application of scientific and technical knowledge to satisfy human needs in different societal frames without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Regional legislations are. the principle of sustainability as a mission statement for development moves in the spot of attention. They utilise imagination. technologies and practical experience to shape competitive processes and products. Technology interpreted as science systematically exploited for purposes offers huge potentials to contribute. and products. Based on this definition. To achieve this goal. Technology enables for processes transforming natural resources into products to meet human needs.
Until now. activities for reduction of resources and energy in a product. 2004). In addition. However. knowledge and value creation is no longer limited to niches of wealth but more and more accessible by everyone. methods. on the one hand. Several best practice examples regarding ecoefficient and sustainable products are promoted by predominantly large global-acting companies (NN. which has had some successes in the cycle economy market. Different societal frames with different value systems considering economical. development. including components. governments. the term ‘cycle economy’ was introduced (NN. the scientific approaches have neglected to enhance sustainability in the use phase and have also focused on the design for environmental and material level . 2000) and WEEE (NN. After this. These dynamics must be mastered by management considering chances for cooperation and risks of competition.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 61 developed for relevant tasks. there are activities for reduction of toxic materials. pure economic success is still difficult to achieve. and utilisation. procedures and tools for planning. 2 Approaches in sustainable manufacturing From the 1980s. only few companies. 2003a). Owing to new means of transport and communication. The changed paradigm is realised by the Integrated Product Policy (IPP). the paradigm for sustainable manufacturing has been changed from production-oriented to product–oriented one. There is still a lack of scientific basic principles. so-called cleaner production. the potential of sustainability in engineering is not exploited yet. The product-oriented approaches are. everywhere at anytime. Even the consolidated environmental regulations such as ELV (NN. The activities were extended to the reduction of resources and energy use in production. Figure 2 Engineering perspectives in sustainability Source: Seliger (2004) Currently. However. Until now. reuse and remanufacturing of components or products for the profitability of their activities. adduction. 2003b) make demands on pretreatment of toxic materials. organisations and institutions are considering and incorporating aspects of sustainability. activities in sustainable manufacturing started to focus on waste reduction in production. the cycle economy approach has focused on material recycling. ecological and socio-political issues in different regions of the globe have to be taken into account (Seliger. 2007a). On the other hand. and development and use of renewable materials.
there are the three strategies illustrated in Figure 3: • Implementation of Innovative Technologies is a strategy focusing on the evaluation and implementation of feasible and innovative technologies for resource-saving applications. modularity and lightweight construction. Framework for sustainable manufacturing based on Kim et al. However. fuel cell. The low fuel consumption results mainly from . (2006) • • Figure 3 2. Hereby implementation means both.g.5 l diesel fuel per 100 km. Extension of Product Life Span is a strategy focusing on extending the time between cradle and grave of a product by expanding the use phase and realising multiple use phases. A best practice example for the application and implementation of innovative technologies is the automobile Loremo (Figure 4).. Loremo is an acronym for Low Resistance Mobile.g. e. Innovative technologies can be applied to improve product and process design. Seliger et al. photovoltaic and laser technology. This strategy intends to maximise productivity per resource input. Improving the Use-Intensity is a strategy to improve use-productivity by increasing the utilisation ratio of a product.62 G. application and implementation. sustainable manufacturing for the next generation should focus on enhancing use-productivity in the total product life cycle. Innovative technologies are. innovative technologies can be implemented in products for resource-saving applications. which are used for resource-saving applications.1 Implementation of innovative technologies The objective of this strategy is the evaluation and implementation of innovative technologies. For enhancing use-productivity. Moreover. Vital element of this strategy is the evaluation of technology according to sustainable manufacturing. The automobile is powered by a turbo-charged combustion engine and consumes 1. e.. recycling. The resource consumption for production and disposal of products shall be reduced with this strategy.
reduced component variants. by applying a business model. he/she needs system-accompanying quality management. 2. The company is one of the biggest trailer manufacturers worldwide. First. information and communication systems to guarantee product pursuit and product access.2. operation. Figure 4 Automobile concept of the Loremo Source: NN (2007) The Schmitz Cargobull AG is a company mainly producing trailer for freight transport on the road. This service-oriented approach is also called selling use instead of selling the product (Seliger et al. and more efficient production processes (Naber.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 63 the reduction of the weight and the air resistance. . The Loremo AG is an innovative start-up company located in Munich. Germany. 2. rent.and service-contracts regulate the responsibilities between customer and service provider. 2000). Leasing-.2 Improving the use-intensity of products Improving the Use-Intensity of products is regarded as the use phase in the product life cycle.. Therefore. the efficiency of product development and production processes has been improved. He is responsible for the accessibility of the required utilisation and the treatment of the equipment over the whole lifetime. The service provider manages the costs of investment. 2007b). The second approach is related to a more sustainable use of a product by the user. the service provider offers the functionality of the product to the customer without passing the product out of his possession. 2006). maintenance and disposal. The service provider is responsible for the availability of the use at the right place and time in adequate quality. Germany. Two approaches have been identified to achieve this goal. Its headquarters is located in Horstmar. The objective of this strategy is to increase the utilisation ratio of a product or of its components. transport. the customers only pay for the use that they obtain by the product and not the product itself (Seliger.3 billion Euros in 2005–2006.1 Service-oriented business model In a service-oriented business model. where the use of a product and not the product itself is the object of the companies’ business. Schmitz Cargobull had an annual turnover of about 1. More product variants can be realised with a higher quality by reduced development time. The start of mass production is planned for 2009 (NN. A new Loremo variant shall be equipped with a hybrid power technology to improve performance and reduce diesel fuel consumption. 2004). By applying modularity and standardisation on their product spectrum. Consequently.
integrability. The firm now has 7000 clients. Three hundred and fifty million Euros are acquired by maintenance and remanufacturing services. 2007c). 1999). Requirements on products for the service-oriented business model are modularity. which the MVS repairs and services itself.. On the other hand.. This is an exemplary instance of ‘sale of use’. Instead of investing in its own machine park. 65. customisation. The annual after sales market for the automobile industry has over 100 billion Euro market turnover and the market has 20 billion Euro turnovers for leasing and renting service alone.000 vehicles and 400 million € turnover in 2005 (NN. 2000). More than 58% of the companies have at least one service program of the three listed in Figure 5: modernisation and retrofitting. The implementation of these properties in a high level increases the applicability and the availability of a product.64 G. leasing and renting of commercial vehicles. 1997). approaches by the machine tools industry amount to 5 billion Euros for domestic production and import in Germany. . Logistics include all necessary processes to provide the demanded use at the right place and time in adequate quality (Fleig. Their service motto is full service ‘ready to use’. which intensifies the use of the machines and eliminates the long periods of inactivity associated with ‘normal’ use. Their service includes total maintenance and meeting clients’ product requirements as well as extension of product life span by remanufacturing and upgrading (NN. 2007d). The company possesses 1200 employees. More than 8% of companies operate all three service programs (Fleig. convertibility as well as diagnosability to support customer-driven adaptability (Seliger et al. Figure 5 exemplarily shows the application of approaches by the investment goods industry in Germany. 2000). as well as reverse logistics and disposal. Its main field of business is the Full Service Hiring of constructional and agricultural machines. Figure 5 Sustainable production and service in Germany MVS Zeppelin GmbH is the largest provider of full service leasing of construction machines in the EU. Requirements of the service process are higher idle capacity costs of a product when compared with the extra costs to be paid for logistics and information management (Seliger et al. Mercedes Benz CharterWay GmbH is involved in the buying. the customer hires the appropriate equipment from MVS as and when it is needed. renting and leasing. Seliger et al.
second-hand vehicle and remanufacturing service providers. the whole product and also components or modules can be used in different applications. their customers do not need to buy the product and also they do not need to worry about such maintenance issues. Nokia employed 67.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 65 The core competence of the company is service providing for its commercial vehicles regarding repair inspection. Flexible products incorporate the needed functionality for defined applications.2 Distributed use of products and components This approach is aiming at increasing the utilisation ratio of products and components by its distributed use in different applications. The decision for one of these possibilities has to be carried out in the product development process by evaluating the economical. In the same year.g. ecological. e. then the utilisation ratio is 10%. and technological feasibility according to the type of the respective product. modular disassembly toolkit (Seliger et al. and changing functionality modules.. mobile telephone. 1999). if an automobile is used in average for 2. For example. strategic aspects as well as customer requirements have to be considered. Mercedes Benz CharterWay GmbH operates a systematic closed network with repair service. and maintenance service. Product-related requirements are modularity. e. Additionally. Use of flexible and reconfigurable products for various differing applications.693 . 2007d) 2. Two possibilities of increasing the utilisation ratio have been identified: Multiple use of products’ functionality in applications not necessarily offering but providing the respective functionality. respectively. a stand-alone MP3 player used in combination with a car radio and a home entertainment system. The market share rose to 36% in the third quarter of the year 2006. Hereby. removing.. standardisation of components and interfaces. The utilisation ratio is related to a product or component and can be calculated by comparing the standing time with the operation time. Therefore.4 h a day. A reconfigurable product can be adapted to different applications by adding. and high product and component quality. Figure 6 Examples of a sustainable product service system Source: NN (2007c.g. They only buy the services of the company. e. Nokia is the world’s largest manufacturer of mobile phones.2. The company also has activities about feedback on component wear behaviour and product life cycle information with its parent company (Figure 6).. To the same time functionalities and thus functional carriers of products are substituted.. product and component compatibility.g. Hereby.
66 G. Modification is the adaptation of a product during the use phase due to changed functional requirements. Today’s mobile phones substitute products such as MP3 player. inspecting. Favourite channels and personal settings could be stored on the personal mobile device. repairing.. Kinds of adaptation are up. Figure 7 Primary Energy Demand of EEE along the product life cycle Source: Basdere (2004) 2. navigation system. and . However. Modification and adaptation require disassembly and reassembly processes (Müller. The integration of more functionality in a mobile phone has a positive effect on the resource productivity in case other products or product modules can be substituted. Additional processes are cleaning. in the business group mobile phones 3682 people (NN. on the other hand. The mobile phone is a device accompanying the user to almost every place. replacing. people. Especially in the electronic industry. 2001). For example. 2000). on the one hand. an integrated device for mobile television could substitute the television receiver at home. Originally. radio. 2004). external GPS device. enlargement and reduction as well as rearrangement and modernisation. 2007e). e. cleaning.3 Extension of product life span Extension of the product life span can be achieved. This seems apparent. A balanced strategy of preventive maintenance preserves or increases the residual value of a product (Seliger. testing. photo and video camera for basic applications. the mobile phone was used mainly for phone calls and storing phone numbers. data storage. Multiple use phases are realised by remanufacturing and adaptation. The miniaturisation in the electronic industry leads to an integration of more functionality in electronic products. Seliger et al. Maintenance and modification are means of expanding the use phase of a product. such approaches have a high potential to increase the resource productivity. by expanding the use phase and. the functionality of mobile phones is often expanded by external modules using Bluetooth as module interface.g. The company that can offer the best composition of additional functionality in a high quality is more successful on the market. component supply and removal. by the realisation of multiple use phases.and downgrading. Nasr defines remanufacturing as reviving a product to a like-new condition in terms of performance and durability by disassembling. since the manufacturing of electronic devices consumes plenty of resources (Figure 7) (Basdere.
UK. printers. They have operations in the Netherlands. such as mobile phones and flat screen monitors. Dell and IBM. Figure 8 shows before and after views for remanufacturing of a commercial vehicle engine (Hoefling.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 67 reassembling the components of a product (Nasr. Their remanufactured product spectrum ranges from a 1 kg water pump up to 1200 PS military tank engines. In the following. Belgium. 2005). Fujitsu Siemens. 61% of engines and components are directly remanufactured. convertibility. 3 Efficient adaptation processes Allowing multiple use phases of products and components is a major element of the strategy extension of product life span. redeployed and sold worldwide. Its European remanufacturing factory in Shrewsbury. Germany. is the largest European remanufacturing factory.5% (NN. Especially EEE products. monitors. Adaptation processes are applied to react on changed functional requirements of the next use phase in the respective market.000 assets were processed. servers. The main products are PCs. which is a growth rate of 7. customisation. The environmental impacts caused by production and disposal can be reduced. have a large impact on the environment because of their large production volumes and often short time scales of technological and stylistic obsolescence. the standard of living can be enhanced. In 2005. They say their remanufacturing process saves 85% of the energy in comparison with original production. The company buys end-of-life IT products from several leasing companies and strategic partners like HP. Figure 8 Before and after the remanufacturing of a vehicle engine block Source: Hoefling (2005) The Flection Group is one of the largest ‘Re-Use of Information Technology’ companies in Europe. exemplary case studies enhancing the product life span by efficient adaptation processes will be presented from own research work. About 2450 Assets are refurbished and remanufactured per day. and 25% of the remaining material is recycled. 2007f). France and Spain. notebooks. 2004). . integrability. while the remarketing of remanufactured and adapted products can be profitable business fields. Requirements to products for this strategy are modularity. They had 15 Million revenues in 2005. keyboards and copiers. The Caterpillar Remanufacturing Service has 12 remanufacturing factories all over the world. more than 288. and diagnosability supporting efficient processes of preventive maintenance and modification as well as remanufacturing and adaptation. By providing affordable remanufactured products and components in low and medium income regions.
. products have to be designed considering the whole life cycle. The groupings have to be carried out with respect to different competing goals. Thus. For efficient remanufacturing and adaptation processes.. serviceability and technical lifetime (Kimura and Satoru. which can be described as module drivers (Erixon. The implementation of these properties in a high level increases the applicability and the availability of a product in multiple usage phases. A vital element of physical independency is the design of disassembly and reassembly suitable module interfaces. A multicriterion modularisation methodology based on module drivers has been developed and implemented in a software-based module configuration tool called Module Configurator. Aspects of technological stability. the use provider is responsible for the continuous failure-free availability of the products functionality. 2004).1. 2007). For instance. The Module Configurator supports the complex process of developing modular product architectures (Zettl et al. On the other hand. diagnosability becomes a core competency of the use provider.68 G. signal and energy flow are integrated in the physical design of the module interface. . starting from the development along their use up to their reuse or disposal. 2006. 2002) have to be considered while developing the modular structure of the product. The physical independency between modules is higher than between components within a module. in the business model selling use instead of selling products. multiple and universal (Basdere et al. 3. Seliger et al. upgradeability. Module interfaces can be divided into definite. flexible and adaptable tools and production facilities as well as product-accompanying information systems are necessary to provide data about the product status. 3. 1998). Hereby. functions for material. on the one hand.1 Modularity Modularisation is the key enabler for adaptability and reconfigurability of a product allowing quick disassembly and reassembly of modules. The objective of modularisation is to achieve a high degree of physical and functional independency of the modules. 3.1 Technological enabler Product and process-related enabling technologies for efficient adaptation of products and components are modularity and diagnosability. the carriers of functions have to be grouped appropriately. To achieve functional independency of a product. Seliger and Zettl.1. But also by purchasing the product the availability of knowledge about physical changes is of significance for the user to plan maintenance activities or to decide whether the product or its modules can be reused. The standardisation of module interfaces is significant for the reuse of modules in different product generations and variations.2 Diagnosability Knowledge about the usage and status of a product allows adaptation in case of physical changes. The highest degree of independency is achieved by multiple and universal interfaces that allow an arbitrary exchange of the modules leading to a highly flexible product structure.
. evaluate and transfer data about economic.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 69 Current existing monitoring systems are based on the recognition of indications of failure (Engel et al. Figure 9 Principle of EWA/LCU functionality Source: Buchholz (2005) The product knowledge is crucial to guarantee the required functionality and to make reuse of products economically feasible. Yang et al. The main physical values they analyse are force. 2003). the permanent access on knowledge about the usage of a product is possible. The developed electronic system is called Embedded Watchdog Agent/Life Cycle Unit (EWA/LCU). Moreover. 2000). The challenge lies in the methodical modular design of hardware and software components of the EWA/LCU and integration of performance assessment and prognostic capabilities within the frame conditions of embedded technology. braking system and bearings.. processing and transferring by microcontroller boards and for initiating maintenance and save disassembly by actuators (Figure 9).g. This allows adaptation of the product in case of capacity and functional changes.. in this project a freight train bogie. and Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) in case of physical changes. 2000). With the help of the LCU. current. Life-cycle-accompanying diagnosis requires the identification of use-intensity factors for components and modules of a product (Seliger et al. and magnetic field (Seliger et al. The goal is to minimise the downtime and extend the utilisation phase of a freight train bogie by monitoring standard components such as shock absorber.. In a collaborative research project between the Center for Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) of the Universities of Cincinnati and Michigan and the Technical University (TU) Berlin.. 2005. the concept of the LCU can be used to collect. restricted power supplies and limited processing power (Buchholz. environmental and social . the LCU concept is investigated for the assessment and performance prediction of product condition. The Life Cycle Unit (LCU) enables checking for the deterioration status of components by sensorial devices. temperature. e. for data storage. store. 2004).
They are also a part of the interface between robot and tools allowing automated application as well as labourer and tool for manual application.2 Applications for processes and products The application of the technological enabler modularisation and LCU are introduced and discussed on the examples Intelligent Disassembly Tool Kit (DTK) allowing process-sided efficient adaptation and modular Mobile Telephone Kit (MTK) allowing product-sided efficient adaptation. Carrier modules are required for the connection between acting. The data and information is transmitted between the DTK-LCU and the module LCUs using Bluetooth. while the two remaining LCUs are integrated into the acting module (Figure 10) and the energy module. The main characteristics and advantages are highlighted. the DTK has been equipped with LCUs. process and transmit process data. the module driver adaptation/modification of the product gained the highest importance. To enhance the reliability. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). 3. This concept enables extended utilisation of products and components (Buchholz and Odry.. Acting modules are interacting with the product by transmitting force and torque for loosening and handling operations. The LCU monitors the different modules of the DTK to assess. and information modules. the LCUs in the DTK modules may be accessed independently. According to Basdere et al. the energy module.2.70 G. The DTK supports easy reconfiguration to different process conditions. Quick and accurate configuration of the DTK is supported by the development of disassembly and reassembly suitable multifunctional interfaces. (2004). 2004). The DTK interfaces support functions such as physical stability. Energy is supplied to the independent module LCUs using newly designed pin connectors.1 Adaptable and Intelligent Disassembly Tool Kit (DTK) The development of modular tools for manual as well as automated disassembly processes lead to the development of the DTK. reconfigurability as well as energy and information flow.g. the modules were equipped with definite interfaces allowing accurate configuration of the DTK modules. the system consists of three networked LCUs: The DTK-LCU delivers the status of the DTK. that are not affecting the rotational lock systems between the DTK modules..g. The final product structure is characterised by the carrier module. the acting module and the information module. aspects of a product to support. diagnose and predict the behaviour to reduce downtime and idle capacity. The generation of the DTK product structure has been supported by the application of module drivers. The user of the DTK can access the DTK-LCU to get information about the DTK status. The uplink between the DTK-LCU and the disassembly system is implemented using Ethernet. . Information modules acquire. Hereby. the kinematics module. In case more detailed information on module level of the DTK is needed. Seliger et al. e. store. 3. mechanical energy from converting the energy of the source such as electricity as well as compressed air and oil. e. The gathered sensor data is used to predict the wear of the DTK components and to deliver accurate facility information to the DTK user. Energy modules support. Currently. Life Cycle Costing (LCC). energy.
remanufacturing possibility. slide. disassembly and reassembly suitable module interfaces.. Based on the scenarios. For the development of the modular product architecture. scenario management is used. product innovation.. (2005) 3. Hereby. To derive the necessary information for the module drivers. and decoupling of the electronic interior components from the housing. low grade of modularisation and standardisation. Weak points of current mobile phone models are. and flip phone so that a reconfiguration supported by simple disassembly and reassembly operations of the mobile phone is possible. e. Based on the best modular product architecture. different assembly and disassembly directions. the alignment of the modules has been generated by considering the different form factors of mobile phones. module interfaces and housing components. and 11 modules (Seliger et al. Besides the modules that are used for the candy-bar .g.g. modularisation of the product architecture.. the multicriterion modularisation methodology is applied. recommendations for the design of the MMPK. and treatment after the first use phase (Zettl et al. e. The most important module drivers assigned with a high weighting are: core competencies and supply chain. e. The final arrangement of the modules is characterised by a platform. reuse of functional carrier.g.. 2006). standardisation of modules.. glue and screw connections. and the weights of the module drivers have been derived.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing Figure 10 Dissassembly Toolkit and acting module with attached LCU 71 Source: Seliger et al. 2007). high costs for cosmetic part supply such as housing and keypad. Seliger and Zettl. 2006. Recommendations for the design are. Additional characterisitcs of the MMPK is the standardisation of the housing components for the form factors candy-bar. weak points of current mobile phone models.2 Modular Mobile Phone Kit (MMPK) The Modular Mobile Phone Kit (MMPK) is suitable for efficient maintenance. complex disassembly by snap-fit.2. repair and modification as well as for remanufacturing and adaptation. the printed circuit board. the objective is the identification of product requirements for the first and second use phase.
Modern information and communication technology gives opportunities for an immediate exchange of documents and real-time communication across the globe. i. The slide phone can be opened by sliding the top parts over the lower parts to uncover the numerical keypad (Figure 11). industrialised as well as emerging countries have to face these challenges together to conserve the resources and the ecosystem of the planet for future generations. the modules flip mechanism and second display is added for assembling the flip phone. phone. Apparently. ecological.72 G. Internet-based learning and teaching in internationally assembled teams in cooperation with partner universities has been implemented since a .e. ecological and economical challenges and implementation of sustainability in societal life in different regions of the globe.e. Seliger et al. Globalisation has become an inevitable condition of life confronting mankind with respective complexity in how to cope with the intertwined social.. economical. Figure 11 Virtual Prototype of the Modular Mobile Phone Kit (MMPK) Source: Seliger et al. (2006) 4 Road map A considerable gap remains between an increasing public awareness about social. Education. which means both learning and teaching. Every location on earth can be reached physically in less than one day by modern traffic means and immediately by the communication infrastrucutre. i. Humankind as a community under the framework of globalisation can only survive if the distribution of wealth is shifted to less concentration. For the slide arrangement. increasing the equity and if more use is provided by fewer resources. becomes a coining element of leadership and teamwork in the management of societal institutions owing to an ever-increasing speed of innovation.. a nearly invisible slide mechanism instead of the flip mechanism and a housing cover need to be subjoined. and technological challenges. increasing the use-productivity of resources.
and civil engineering. process. design.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 73 few years. 2007). Water withdrawals in the same time have increased from 2. About one quarter of earth’s surface accounting for 11. resource consumption on global level is higher than the ecological capacity. Since 1985. e. Remarkable losses have occurred in biodiversity.98.g. The average amount of biocapacity per capita on earth in 2001 is calculated. An initiative on Sustainability in Engineering could be structured as shown in Figure 13 (Seliger. Engineering in a broader perspective of potentials and applications is to investigate how to cope with the challenge by increasing the use-productivity of resources. manufacturing. dividing the productive area by 6. Figure 12 Ecological Footprint Source: Wackernagel (2006) . The diagram curves in Figure 12 show humanity’s total ecological footprint and the respective CO2 portion of it from 1961 to 2001. where the indices since 1970 show an exponential decrease.15 billion in 2001. integrate their domain-specific knowledge and experiences thus developing methods and tools in management and technology for useful applications in selected processes and products according to criteria of sustainability. information.8 global hectares biocapacity per capita.3 billion hectares can be considered as biologically productive area contributing to regeneration of resources.04 per year to 3.15 billion people with the result of 1. all determined by human activity have developed. medical. The framework of sustainability in its Global Thinking/Local Acting scheme offers attractive contents in global engineering education. The global population has increased from 3. transportation. electrical.000 km3.08 billion in 1961 to 6. Total energy consumption in 2001 is more than seven times the amount in 1961. Researchers from engineering science. Figure 12 derived from NN (2007g) and Wackernagel (2006) specifies relevant aspects of how in the second half of the 20th century parameters..
environmental and social conditions in different regions of the globe. A common understanding beyond disciplinary borders shall be gained by developing indicators of sustainability. health. energy. Figure 13 Research areas Source: Seliger (2007) The domains and enabling guidelines and tools could be covered in selected aspects of expertise in research and development by the partners of the initiative. Seliger et al. Processes and products are adapted to economical. Wealth is created by growth based on environmentally friendly management and technology. Manufacturing gives methods for realising products in processes. Research clusters are described by how partners. Modelling techniques from mathematics and information science. thus creating sustainability according to the regional and local conditions in the global network of demand and supply. construction. mobility and manufacturing are domains of engineering activities to be directed along the guidelines of sustainability. identify areas of mutual interest and contribute in systemic integration to cope with the challenge of sustainability in engineering. Mathematics and knowledge creation by information science provides tools for modelling solutions without expensive realisations. achieved by respective processes of maintenance and (re)manufacturing represent means of fulfilling elementary human needs by resource-saving technologies. Extraction of freshwater and processing wastewater. Representing imagination and experience. It is expected that crossing disciplinary borders and referring to multiple criteria helps improve design and valuation of processes and products. Water. valuation according to sustainability indicators giving guidelines and tools for design of processes and products. Education enables for convincing and instructing people about the advantages and methods of sustainability in engineering. adaptable equipment for multiple usage phases in agriculture. mobility. energy and resource-saving mobility and construction. energy transformation and storage. the partners apply their common understanding in exemplarily developing physical artefacts and related services of sustainability in and across their respective scientific technical community.74 G. Valuation/assessment helps considering the manifold of sustainability criteria in creating physical artefacts and related services. health. dissemination of knowledge and experiences on . coming from their own areas of competence by interdisciplinary approaches.
financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and of the ‘Comprehensive Planning on Infra-Structure Establishment of the Sustainable Manufacturing’. The road maps are synchronised with the three steps in the strategic development plan: Phase I: Securing technical background and core technologies (technical background for enhancing use-productivity. selected development of core technologies. technological road maps were developed for the 18 technological areas.Approaches to sustainable manufacturing 75 sustainable processes and products by innovative means and tools of education enable for the development of sustainable and innovative means fulfilling human needs (Seliger. Phase III: Facilitating technology transfer and extension of application areas (optimisation of prototypes for mass production. In a study carried out by the Korea National Cleaner Production Center in cooperation with the Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management at Technical University Berlin. domestic and international standardisation of sustainable manufacturing). Industry and Energy (MOCIE). development of systems using the core technologies. securing of international network of sustainable manufacturing). Figure 14 Technological road map: Adaptation – Remanufacturing of complex products Source: NN (2003) Acknowledgements This contribution presents research results of the Collaborative Research Center 281 ‘Disassembly Factories for the Recovery of Resources in Product and Material Cycles’. application of technologies into other industries. Figure 14 shows an example of ‘Remanufacturing’ technologies for complex products in the topic field ‘Adaptation’. . reaching global standards in the field of sustainable manufacturing). financially supported by the Korean Ministry of Commerce. 2007). Phase II: Development and realisation of systems (application of the technologies as real cases.
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