THE POST-CHRIST JEWISH COUNCIL OF JAVNEH (90A.D.) CONTENTS 1.

THE AT JEWISH RABBI AT JAVNEN WERE ANTI-CHRISTIAN 2. THE COUNCIL OF JAVNEH HAD NO AUTHORITY (EVEN AMONG JEWS) TO CHANGE SCRIPTURE OR THROW OUT ANY BOOKS FROM THE CANON. 3. IT WAS FROM THE COUNCIL OF JAMNIA (OR JAVNEH) WHICH THE PROTESTANT REFORMERS DREW THEIR OLD TESTAMENT CANON. ☩ ☩ ☩ THE JEWISH RABBI AT JAVNEN WERE ANTI-CHRISTIAN ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ (Errata of the King James 1965 p.324) “This counsel (I.E. Javneh 90A.D.) not only declared the Deutero Canonical books as Christian fabrication but when so far as to required all Jews to curse the Name of Jesus of Nazerith. The council lacking in authority could not bring in end to the issue of the Deutero-Canonical books. Even today the Ethiopian Jews still follow the original Canon of the septuagint. It is the counsil of Javneh’s Canon that the Protestants accept and use for their Bible.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (DEFENDING THE DEUTERO CANONICALS 1996) In order to combat the spreading Christian cult, rabbis met at the city of Jamnia or Javneh in A.D. 90 to determine which books were truly the Word of God. They pronounced many books, including the Gospels, to be unfit as scriptures. This canon also excluded seven books (Baruch, Sirach, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Tobit, Judith, and the Wisdom of Solomon, plus portions of Esther and Daniel) that Christians considered part of the Old Testament. ☩ ☩ ☩ (The Books of The Bible 1997 p.102) “One group of Jews rejected Jesus. The other group accepted Jesus Christ as their Messiah and became completed Jews, or in other words Christians. The Hebrew Canon of the majority of today’s Jews is the Canon that was settled upon by a group of Rabbis meeting in Jamnia [Javneh] in 90 AD. However, these Rabbis were exclusively those who rejected Jesus (and all of the New Testament. At this same meeting they also required all Jews to curse the Name of Jesus of Nazerith.) The other group, the completed Jews, or Christians, accepted the Deutero Canonical books as equally inspired. This can be seen in their writings where they use and quote from these books and even call them Holy Scripture.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Scripture alone? 1999) “The decision of a Jewish council which was held more than 50 years after the resurrection of Christ are not binding on the Christian community just as the ritual walls of Judaism are not binding on the Christians.... The council was to some extent a polemic directed specifically against the "sect" of Christianity, therefore, was inherently opposed to Christianity. These Jews most likely accept the shorter Pharisaic Canon precisely because the early Christians accepted the longer Septuagint canon the decisions of this council represented the judgment of just one branch of Judaism within Palestine not of Judaism as a whole” ☩ ☩ ☩ (The Canon of The Christians 1987) “The word Septuagint means "seventy" which (according to legend) was the number of elders of Israel who did the translation into Greek at Alexandria, Egypt. It differs textually with Hebrew Bible and is divided into four divisions: the Law, Historical books, 1

Poetical and Wisdom books and finally books of the Prophets. Compared to the Hebrew Bible, it has extra books which now exist in Catholic Old Testament. It is commonly believed that after the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 CE, the Jews under the leadership of Yohanan ben Zakkai decided at Jamnia (or Javneh) to adopt the Hebrew Scripture as their canon (This Hebrew canon also excluded seven books Baruch, Sirach, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Tobit, Judith, and the Wisdom of Solomon, plus portions of Esther and Daniel that the early Christians considered part of the Old Testament). It was the Anti-Christian resentment of Rabbi Zakkai that led the council to not only reject the Greek Septuagint but also the Christian New Testament Gospels... Rabbi Zakkai also called upon every Jew to curse the name of Jesus.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Jewish encyclopedia 1955 p. 593) “the appearance of the Septuagint (which the Jews of the Christian centuries rejected) was greeted enthusiasm everywhere; but with the rise of the Christian sect, and its adoption of the version of the Bible, the jews began to denounce it vehemently, accusing the Christians of falsifying the Greek texts this resentment eventually led Rabbi Zakkai and the council of Jamnia (or Javneh) to openly reject the Septuagint whitch contained the seven books (Baruch, Sirach, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Tobit, Judith, and the Wisdom of Solomon, plus portions of Esther and Daniel)...The council rejected all of the New Testament as Apocrypha ... They also required all Jews to curse the Name of Jesus of Nazerith.” ☩ ☩ ☩ EVEN AMONG THE JEWS THE COUNCIL HELD NO AUTHORITY TO DETERMINE WHAT WAS CANONICAL SCRIPTURE AND WHAT WAS NOT ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol. 2, page 174). “In any case, Christians have no reason to accept Jewish canon declared after our Lord ascension” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Errata of the King James 1965) “This counsel (I.E. Javneh 90A.D.) not only declared Deutero Canonical books as Christian fabrication but when so far as to required all Jews to curse Name of Jesus of Nazerith. The council lacking in authority could not bring in end to the issue of Deutero Canonical books. Even today the Ethiopian Jews still follow the original Canon of septuagint. It is the counsil of Javneh’s Canon that the Protestants accept and use for their Bible.” the the the the

☩ ☩ ☩ (Errata of the King James 1965) “The counsel had no real authority (even among the Jews) to determine the Canonicity of scripture. Considering this counsel happened 60 years after Christ died there is no reason for Christians to accept their verdict.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 6, p. 1146) “There is no evidence that the Rabbis at the council of Javneh (90A.D.), had the legitimate authority to determine scripture for the Jewish religion” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol. 2, page 173) “The authority of council (Javneh 90A.D.) was rejected by the early Christians and the Jews of Ethiopia and Alexandria.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible 1963 p.1324) “The council of Javneh ( 90 A.D.) was made out above Rabbis ( or teachers ) with no religious authority to accept or reject scripture.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (The Books of The Bible 1997 p.102) “Jews in many parts of the Roman Empire ( such as Alexandria and Ethiopia ) refused to accept Javneh’s ( 90A.D.) claime of authority”

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☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible 1963 ) “Even in the second century of the Christian era the Jewish rabbis were not fully agreed on the Canonicity of certan books (e.g. Cant, Eccl; cfr. Also 4, Esd 14,44ff).” ☩ ☩ ☩ (The Encyclopedia of Judaism, vol 15 page 117) “says that the limit of the third part (Writings) was not finalized until mid of second century. In addition, the Hebrew Canon was also not accepted by Ethiopian Jews who accept Septuagint to this day “ ☩ ☩ ☩ (Dictionary of Biblical Literacy 1986. p.321) “Precisely when Jewish leadership officially adopted the traditional 39 books of the so-called "Hebrew Canon" is not known; nor is there agreement as to exactly what criteria were used in determining the Canon.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Scripture alone? 1999) “The decision of a Jewish council which was held more than 50 years after the resurrection of Christ are not binding on the Christian community just as the ritual walls of Judaism are not binding on the Christians.… The council was to some extent a polemic directed specifically against the "sect" of Christianity, therefore, was inherently opposed to Christianity. These Jews most likely accept the shorter Pharisaic Canon precisely because the early Christians accepted the longer Septuagint canon the decisions of this council represented the judgment of just one branch of Judaism within Palestine not of Judaism as a whole” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Background To The Bible, An introduction to Scripture Study 1978. p.124) “There is no record of a decision reached by an authoritative Jewish body closing the Old Testament Canon. Each synagogue was authonomous;” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 6, p. 1147). “The group of Jews which met at Javneh became the dominant group for later Jewish history, and today most Jews accept the canon of Javneh. However, some Jews, such as those from Ethiopia, follow a different canon which is identical to the Catholic Old Testament and includes the seven Deutero Canonical books” ☩ ☩ ☩ IT WAS FROM THE COUNCIL OF JAMNIA OR JAVNEH ( 90 A.D. ) WHICH THE PROTESTANT REFORMERS DREW THEIR OLD TESTAMENT CANON ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ ☩ (DEFENDING THE DEUTERO CANONICALS 1996 p.621) To justify this rejection of books that had been in the Bible since before the days of the apostles (for the Septuagint was written before the apostles), the early Protestants cited as their chief reason the fact that the Jews of their day did not honor these books, going back to the council of Javneh in A.D. 90. But the Reformers were aware of only European Jews; they were unaware of African Jews, such as the Ethiopian Jews who accept the Deutero Canonicals as part of their Bible. They glossed over the references to the Deutero Canonicals in the New Testament, as well as its use of the Septuagint. ☩ ☩ ☩ (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright 1993) most Protestant bodies, whose canon conforms to that of the contemporary Hebrew Bible. There the books follow the order of the Palestinian Hebrew Canon, which appears to have been adopted by A.D. c.100, although most of the books had clearly received Canonical status well before this time. ☩ ☩ ☩ (Errata of the King James 1965 p.324) “This counsel (I.E. Javneh 90A.D.) not only declared the Deutero-Canonical books as Christian fabrication but when so far as to required all Jews to curse the 3

Name of Jesus of Nazerith. The council lacking in authority could not bring in end to the issue of the Deutero Canonical books. Even today the Ethiopian Jews still follow the original Canon of the Septuagint. It is the counsil of Javneh’s Canon that the Protestants accept and use for their Bible.” ’☩ ☩ ☩ (encyclopedia Americana 1995 Vol 15 p.1496) “The Protestant Old Testament Canon is based upon the Jewish council of Javneh (90 C.E.)” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible 1963 p.1287) “It was from Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai and the council of Jamnia (or Javneh) which the Protestant reformers drew their Old Testament Canon.” ☩ ☩ ☩ (Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 6, p. 1148). “Protestantism derives its Old Testament Canon from the European Jews who followed the Canon of the council of Jamnia or Javneh (90 CE.).”

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