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A common way to share resources on a peer-to-peer network is by modifying the file-sharing controls via the computer’s operating system. On a peer-to-peer network, resource sharing is handled by each individual user.. Clients on a client/server network do not share their resources directly with each other. Networks are usually only arranged in a ring, bus, or star formation and hybrid combinations of these patterns are possible and are often used on larger networks. Protocols ensure that data are transferred whole, in sequence, and without error from one node on the network to another. Every process that occurs during network communications can be associated with a layer of the OSI Model. Among the Session layer’s functions are establishing and keeping alive the communications link for the duration of the session, keeping the communication secure, synchronizing the dialogue between the two nodes, determining whether communications have been cut off, and, if so, figuring out where to restart transmission, and terminating communications. The primary function of protocols at the Data Link layer is to divide data they receive from the Network layer into distinct frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer. Addressing is a system for assigning unique identification numbers to devices on a network. Connectivity devices such as hubs and repeaters operate at the Physical layer of the OSI Model. Transmission methods using fiber-optic cables achieve faster throughput than those using copper or wireless connections. Eight bits form a byte. A pulse of positive voltage represents a 1. An access point is a device that accepts wireless signals from multiple nodes and retransmits them to the rest of the network. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) belongs to the Transport layer of the OSI Model. Routers use IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to determine which nodes belong to a certain multicast group and to transmit data to all nodes in that group. MAC addresses are assigned to a device’s NIC at the factory by its manufacturer. An IP whose first octet is in the range of 128–191 belongs to a Class B network. Static IP addressing can easily result in the duplication of address assignments. A network is a group of computers and other devices that are connected by some type of transmission media. In a peer-to-peer network, every computer can communicate directly with every other computer. A LAN is a network of computers and other devices that is confined to a relatively small space, such as one building or even one office.
Mail services coordinate the storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network. Protocols at the Presentation layer accept Application layer data and format it so that one type of application and host can understand data from another type of application and host. and disk storage space. security. applications (such as wordprocessing or spreadsheet programs). The device inside a computer that connects a computer to the network media and allows it to communicate with other computers is known as a NIC. and other networking functions. layer of the OSI Model is the Application layer Through Application layer protocols. synchronization. Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria that stipulate how a particular product or service should be designed or performed. applications. software applications negotiate their formatting. The motherboard is the main circuit that controls the computer. Data packets are the distinct units of data that are transmitted from one node on a network to another. . The top. or seventh. Protocols are standard methods or formats for communication between networked devices. Transmission media is the means through which data is transmitted and received. The scheme used to assign a unique identifying number to every node on a network is known as addressing. users. A Web server is a computer installed with the appropriate software to supply Web pages to many different clients upon demand. The Application layer separates data into protocol data units or discrete amounts of data. The network operating system is the software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data. Addresses used to identify computers on the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks are known as IP addresses. A segment is usually composed of a group of nodes that use the same communications channel for all their traffic.A personal computer which may or may not be connected to a network is a workstation. A Host enables resource sharing by other computers on the same network? A node is a client. procedural. The physical layout of a computer network is known as its topology. server. security. File services refer to the capability of a server to share data files. or other device that can communicate over a network and is identified by a unique number. The backbone of a network refers to that part of the network to which segments and shared devices connect. known as its network address. and other requirements with the network. groups. Another term for a remote access server is communications server.
The distance between corresponding points on a wave’s cycle is called its wavelength. A media converter is a piece of hardware that enables networks or segments running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals. is to divide data they receive from the Network layer into distinct frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer. A frame is a structured package for moving data that includes not only the raw data. and error checking and control information.8 mm. A patch cable in which the termination locations of the transmit and receive wires on one end of the cable are reversed is known as a crossover cable. Flow control is the process of gauging the appropriate rate of transmission based on how fast the recipient can accept data. Sequencing is a method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data.4 to 0. called segments. The primary function of protocols in the Data Link layer. Transport layer protocols break large data units received from the Session layer into multiple smaller units. The Physical layer is the lowest. but also surrounded by a shielding made of a metallic substance such as foil. An antenna’s radiation pattern describes the relative strength over a three dimensional area of all the electromagnetic energy the antenna sends or receives.Protocols in the Session layer coordinate and maintain communications between two nodes on the network. Connectivity devices such as hubs and repeaters operate at the Physical layer. The hardware that makes up the enterprise-wide cabling system is known as the cable plant. Networks that transmit signals through the atmosphere via infrared or radiofrequency (RF) waves are known as wireless networks. or first. A device that regenerates a digital signal is called a repeater. Protocols at the Physical layer accept frames from the Data Link layer and generate voltage so as to transmit signals. The loss of a signal’s strength as it travels away from its source is known as attenuation. Checksums are added to data at the source and verified at the destination. A form of transmission that allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium is known as multiplexing. layer of the OSI Model. Twisted-pair cable consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires. MAC addresses contain two parts: a Block ID and a Device ID. or “payload. . Shielded twisted-pair cable consists of twisted wire pairs that are not only individually insulated. each with a diameter of 0.” but also the sender’s and receiver’s network addresses.
. or node. The IP address 127. or diffracted after being issued by the transmitter. Well known Ports are in the range of 0 to 1023 and are assigned to processes that only the operating system or an administrator of the system can access. In narrowband ____.255. TCP provides information about how and where data should be delivered.0 through 169. and communicating with the network. AppleTalk is the protocol suite originally designed to interconnect Macintosh computers.1 is called a loopback address.254. TCP operates at the Transport layer of the OSI Model and provides reliable data delivery services. reflected. Multicasting is a transmission method that allows one node to send data to a defined group of nodes. positive voltages and zero voltages.254. homogenous networks. NetBIOS is a protocol originally designed for IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services for applications running on small. Registered Ports are in the range of 1024 to 49151. 169. PING is a utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed.0. DHCP is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network. a transmitter concentrates the signal energy at a single frequency or in a very small range of frequencies.The geographical area that an antenna or wireless system can reach is known as its range. bound to the NIC. ICMP is a Network layer protocol that reports on the success or failure of data delivery. Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite. When a data transmission involves only one transmitter and one receiver. it is considered a pointto-point transmission. Fading refers to a change in signal strength as a result of some of the electromagnetic energy being scattered. Protocols define the standards for communication between network devices. Resolvers are hosts on the Internet that need to look up domain name information. FTP is an Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP.0.0. Dynamic ARP table entries are created when a client makes an ARP request that cannot be satisfied by data already in the ARP table. Digital signals are composed of pulses of precise. including the data’s source and destination addresses. ARP is a Network layer protocol that obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host. and then creates a database that maps the MAC address to the host’s IP (logical) address. APIPA assigns the computer’s network adapter an IP address from a predefined pool of addresses. configured correctly. that IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) has reserved for this purpose.255.
A process’s port number plus its host machine’s IP address equals the process’s socket. Networks running more than one protocol are called multiprotocol networks.Define the minimum acceptable performance of a product or service. In the context of TCP/IP.Binding is the process of assigning one network component to work with another. ISP .A method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data. Checksum .A unique character string that allows the receiving node to determine if an arriving data unit matches exactly the data unit sent by the source.A business that provides organizations and individuals with access to the Internet and often. An IP address that is assigned to a device upon request and is changeable is known as a dynamic IP address. such as e-mail and Web hosting. a packet is also known as an IP datagram. . other services.A connection-oriented protocol. TCP . Sequencing . Standards .
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