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Nikhil C. Lagali M.C.A. Dept. (ASM’s IBMR College Chinchwad) analyse300@gmail.com vishal.kulkarni8078@gmail.com

Vishal R. Kulkarni M.C.A. Dept. (ASM’s IBMR College Chinchwad)

Abstract - The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. Over the past several decades, quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we have some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that show unique quantum properties? Today the answer is yes, and many research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computers are different from traditional computers which are based on transistors.

The basic principle behind quantum computation is that quantum properties can be used to represent data and perform operations on these data. Experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits (quantum bits). Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national government and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes. We intend to enlighten certain aspects of Quantum Computing as this subject is still in the experimental stages.

Intro Quantum theory applies to the behavior of matter at small atomic . a quantum computer with three qubits or quantum bits. the fundamental level of computer information. not a 1.scales. On the other hand. As most of us are aware. 011 and so on up to 111. but a 0 AND a 1. Thus. A bit is a binary digit. quantum computing deals with utilizing subatomic particles and electrons instead of silicon chips. not a 0. from 000. This is basically the superposition of two states. can at a given instant store all eight states due to superposition. nothing is certain at the quantum level. not wrongly called Alice-in-Wonderland-style science. Quantum computing is primarily based on a concept known as quantum interference. 010. At any given time. All they need is a significant amount of time and space. Consider a regular computer register with three bits. 001. It's not like regular computers cannot perform tasks that quantum computers can. . the register can take one of eight different states.

has led to several quantum algorithms with substantial advantages over known algorithms with traditional computation. 100-bit devices are on the drawing table and future technologies promise even greater scalability. In 1999. it is easy to show that an efficient algorithm for factoring implies that the widely-used RSA public-key system becomes efficiently breakable. adiabatic solution of optimization. small quantum devices of 5 to 7 bits have been built in the laboratory. researchers using the Number Field Sieve succeeded in factoring a 512-bit product of two primes (RSA-155) in 8400 MIPS years. quantum key distribution. and recently. A 1024-bit product (RSA309) would take approximately 1.Despite significant practical difficulties. Gauss sums and Pell's equation Reduction in size .Advantages The exponential speedup offered by quantum computing. In particular. The most significant is Shor's algorithm for factoring the product of two large primes in polynomial time.The security of many modern cryptosystems relies on the seeming intractability of factoring the product of two large primes. While the best-known factoring algorithms for a classical computer run in exponential time.Additional algorithms include Grover's fast database search.6 billion times more computation! . based on the ability to process quantum information through gate manipulation. precise clock synchronization. Security . Shor's algorithm can factor an n-bit integer in O(n3) time (O(n3(log(n))log(5)) with error correction).

Particularly troublesome is moving the qubits over large distances where it must be constantly ensured the data is safe from corruption. 2) A universal set of quantum operations must be available to manipulate the initialized system and bring it to a desired correlated state. This makes each qubit a physical transmitter of quantum information. Teleportation transmits a quantum state between two points without actually sending any quantum data. The second requirement encompasses multi-qubit operations. but rather two bits of classical information for each qubit on both ends. 3) The technology must have the ability to reliably measure the quantum system. a restriction which places great constraints on quantum data distribution. and recursively encoding until the desired reliability is obtained. provided the imperfect gates have failure probability below a certain threshold. 4) It must allow much longer qubit lifetimes than the time of a quantum logic gate. Reliable and realistic implementation technology: There are multiple approaches from very diverse fields of science for the realization of a full-scale quantum information processor. Efficient quantum resource distribution: The quantum no-cloning theorem (i. thus. and superconducting quantum computation are just a small number of many physical implementations currently being studied. One method is to repeatedly error correct along the channel at a cost of additional error correction resources. 2. No matter the choice. which has been experimentally demonstrated on a very small scale. 3. Robust error correction and fault tolerant structures: Due to the high volatility of quantum data.e. Another solution is to use a purely quantum concept to implement a long-range wire teleportation. which says that an arbitrarily reliable quantum gate can be implemented using only imperfect gates. and transmit it to another location. it implies that a quantum architecture must also allow for sufficient and reliable communication between physical qubits. is the Threshold Theorem. A successful architecture must be carefully designed to minimize the overhead of recursive error correction and be able to accommodate some of the most efficient error correcting codes. for our purposes. Solid state technologies. any technology used to implement a quantum information processor must adhere to four main requirements 1) It must allow the initialization of an arbitrary N-qubit quantum system to a known state. . trapped ions. duplicate. Each qubit must be physically transported from the source to the destination. The most important result. performing all computations on encoded data. actively stabilizing the system's state through error correction will be one of the most vital operations through the course of a quantum algorithm. but fundamentally different from their classical counterparts. the inability to copy quantum data) prevents the ability to place quantum information on a wire.Disadvantages 1. Fault tolerance and quantum error correction constitute a significant field of research that has produced some very powerful quantum error correcting codes analogous. This remarkable result is achieved through four steps: using quantum error-correction codes. using fault tolerant procedures.

Take factorization. While quantum computers can prove to be racehorses of the computer industry. the algorithm to factorize it gets increasingly complex. Cryptography is based on the fact that in mathematics. so does the complexity of multiplication.000 digit number. Let's consider a simple example.Use and scope The main area that quantum computers will directly influence is cryptography or security. if you have a large number. while the largest number to be factorized as a mathematical challenge was comprised of 129 digits .it can be shown that more complex factorizations can take longer than the age of the universe to complete. but even then. a quantum-based computer would take around 20 minutes. it is both possible and computable. A classical computer is expected to take about 10 million billion billion years to factorize a 1. On the other hand. primarily because of the various number of iterations the computer has to run through to obtain the right factors. Agreed that as the numbers get larger. took 8 months and 1600 hackers . There is a definite algorithm.which nonetheless. In comparison. and development of new algorithms will be required . cryptography as we know it today will cease to exist. It is very easy to multiply two numbers. certain computations are easier to perform in one direction as compared to another. In fact.

A65. 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science. [Grover96]. 97-117. quant-ph/0108048. Preskill. A400. 212-219. ``Polynomial-Time Algorithms For Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer''. Lond. Grover. R. Peter. Soc. ``A Fast Quantum Mechanical Algorithm for Database Search'' Symposium on Theory of Computing STOC-96. . Childs. 2002. [Shor94]. 1985. pp. David Deutsch. 1996. L. Shor. Farhi. Rev. E. A. 1994. Phys. M. pp. Proc. and J. 124-134. pp.References [Deutsch85]. [Childs2002]. ``Robustness of adiabatic quantum computation''. W. ``Quantum Computational Networks''.

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