HUMAN_PROPORTIONS

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Here are the human proportion marking points on a normal-twenty-year-old. The skull is the basic division of the human body which is eight heads high. The parting between the legs is one quarter head below the middle of the body. HEAD START WITH A [3 x 4] OVAL. Divide this head like this: The top of the skull. The pupils are in the middle of the head, top to bottom. The bottom of the nose is between the pupils and bottom of the chin. Exactly where confines to the individual. 1/3 below the nose is between the lips. 2/3's below the nose is the chin crease.

SIDE-VIEW-HEAD The head sideways is one head-length high and one head-length wide. The top of the ear is on line with the eye. The ear hole is in line with bottom of the nose, and the backbone/skull pivot point. The bottom of the ear varies with the individual.

FRONT-VIEW The face triangle is from the center of each pupil, through the nostrils of the nose to a point between the top front teeth. To me, this is an important trait, everybody's triangle is a little different.

The smiling mouth lines up under the pupils, and the two iris usually equal the maximum smiling width of the mouth.

This charcoal self-portrait drawing is on a white background. It was then painted with only two neutral dark-making colors, Red Oxide and Ultramarine Blue. A Burnt Sienna glaze was then used for warmth where it is needed.

This shoulder line is two head-lengths (two widths on a female) wide and is the top line of the torso triangle that extends down to the space between the legs. again. everybody is a little different. and it starts under the chin of that top first head. The chin to the shoulder line is 1/2 of one heads-length. The width of one eye is usually equal to the space between the eyes. . The neck space is 1/4 of one head-length.. 1/4 head extra neck space and 1/4 head down on the second head.Five eye-widths span the center of the skull. It is the top of three trunk heads and is drawn under this neck space. This leaves space for the neck-support muscles above the clavicle. at the bottom of the second head. THE-BODY DRAWING PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY A perfect body is 8 heads high. The second head is the shoulders head. or the chest triangle that only extends down to the hip line. One quarter of one head down in this second head is the shoulder line. slightly rearranged. That is. The space between the pupils is an average of two-and-a-half inches. The nipples separation space equals one-head length.

ending at the bottom of the third torso head. From the outside points of the bend-line triangle to the bottom of the knee caps is two head-lengths. The bend-line is always considered the center of the body. connects from the center of the shoulder ball which is a quarter head circle reaching the end of the shoulder line. shoulder line and arm lines. and is two head-widths wide. The third bend line triangle is the quarter head high triangle within the 3rd trunk head. Two egg shaped heads. The rib cage can be represented by a 3x4 oval two heads high. The top line is 1/4 head above the space between the legs and two head-widths wide. 3 and 3/4 heads up from the bottom. which forms the top line of this third. The ankle is 1/4 head off the ground. the legs and the body are at their widest. making for a total of 8 heads high. The foot is one head-length long. which was 1 and 1/4 head-lengths.. equal to the average face height. not head-width wide. The top three torso heads are lowered 1/4 head because of the empty neck space. which has no added 1/4 head space for the neck as happened in the top 4 heads. The calf muscles are higher on the outside of each leg than on the inside. The ankle bones are higher on the inside. upside-down. The knee cap is a 1/4 head length circle. The big torso triangle is from the shoulder line to the space between the legs. not more. side-by-side. The width of the waist at the belly button is one head length wide. will fit into the trunk area. legs. Start with the center balance line from top to bottom.The nipples to the belly button equals one head-length. ending at the top of the third torso head down. Define the head. The second triangle is the hip triangle.. marking the hip bones down to the space between the legs. smallest triangle. . not more. IN ACTION 1. Vertically overlap the two center heads by 1/4 of a head. showing the top of the bend-line triangle. From the center of the knee cap to the ground is two head-lengths. The lower arm is 1 and 1/4 heads long. The chest side view is one head-width wide at the nipples. Divide it in half. is 3/4's of one head-length high up into the lowest torso head. At the center of the body is the bend-line. The upper arm. From the belly button to the space between the legs is one head. This bend-line can also be measured as four heads up from the base. The hand is 3/4 of a head long. From the top line of the hip or trunk triangle line to the space between the legs. including the 1/4 head neck space or. 2. starting at the top of the second head. This leg space is actually 4 and 1/4 heads down from the top. THE-DRAWING-ORDER OF A STICK FIGURE. The upper arm. is 1 and 1/2 heads long. from the shoulder triangles outside edge. Just below the leg space. the bend-line-triangle. 3.

. Finish the torso triangle and the bend-line triangle. 5. the shoulder balls. connect a line to the bottom of the knee cap for the inside of the leg. adjusted for artists. The bottom of the knee cap is two heads up from the bottom. the width of the shoulders is two heads high. put the trunk triangle in. From the bottom of the bend-line triangle which is the space between the legs. These simple steps include the lines that can catch any action. to finish the form. balanced. It's accurate. fast! Now. Connect another line from the outsides of the top of the bend line triangle to the bottom of the knee caps. Now add the hands and feet. a female's shoulders are narrower at two heads wide. and the stick figure is finished. Add the calf lines.4. Accurate 8-head-high human figure. That's it. knee caps and rib cage. This drawing is a male. and ready for the muscles.

Accurate 8-head-high adult male human figure. . adjusted for artists.

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. adjusted for artists.Accurate 8-head-high 7 year old female human figure. The rest of the body has the same divisions as an adult body. This 7 year olds head is 1/4 of one head larger than the 7 heads used to make the rest of her body.

It's divided in half at the space between the legs. 1/4 head above the space between the legs. It's an age to head size ratio. .A 17 year old would have 8 full sized heads making up the divisions their body. Here is da Vinci's figure. The center of the human form should be at the bend-line. de Vinci was wrong. Check it out on yourself. Michelangelo was right.

Michelangelo's David matches my chart recommendations. .

12-8-9. 2 hour sitting. .Left .

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A one hour and a ten minute pastel. 12-16-9. 2 hour sitting.12-14-9. .Right . I didn't get the picture finished but it does show an intermittent stage close to finished. I bought a new hemp paper drawing pad and it holds the texture much stronger than the colored paper so it took longer to fill it.

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Fantasy Portrait of Kiana and Breea. new window. two little Hawaiian girls. .Life drawing sessions.

Make sure that the women are comfortable. AN ESSENTIAL RULE You must sit your model down. thinking that it might also be of interest to others. 2 The palette must be prepared. This helps to gather your thoughts and is essential for several reasons: 1 You should never keep anyone waiting. as well as the sitter's bearing and particular mannerisms which it is essential to note. You should be as far away from your model as possible. Tripier Le Franc. 3 People or business should not interfere with your concentration. "ELIZABETH'S ADVICE ON THE PAINTING OF PORTRAITS" Excerpted from the memoirs of portrait painter Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun (1755-1842) "I have decided to add here at the end of my memoirs the advice that I wrote my niece. POINTS THAT SHOULD BE OBSERVED BEFORE YOU BEGIN TO PAINT You should always be ready half an hour before the model arrives. this is the only way to catch the true proportion of the features and their correct alignment. but at a higher level than yourself. the same applies when trying to achieve an overall .Open a new window for notes and the painting lesson progress. that they have something to lean against. Mme J. and a stool beneath their feet.

the mirror might also help you decide upon this point. especially for the public. This puts them in a good humor and they will hold their position more willingly. Do we not recognize people we know from behind. You should try and complete the head. The background to the sitter should in general be a subtle and uniform tone. in three or four sittings. which should either be facing forward or at a threequarter turn. for they all want to give advice and will spoil everything. that they have fresh complexions etc. the model will become too small. so that the pose will only add to the likeness. or the models will grow bored and impatient and their expression will change noticeably. say they are beautiful. when drawing the body. there are a great many people who do not know how to look at a painting. Do not be discouraged if some people cannot find any likeness in your portraits. Tell them not to bring their friends to the sitting. the body would not appear as elegant and the head would appear too close to the shoulders. Try several different poses. for it too should receive some of the reflected light. though if you draw the head too low. if the background is sky than the rules are different and you should put something blue behind the head. keep a little white fabric to drape around the head. or at least the basic stages. If you were to sketch him sitting down. drape her in a neutral colored fabric like grey or light green. take care to allow more space on the side to which the body is turned. this is why you should allow models to rest and aim to keep their attention for as long as possible. allow an hour and a half for each sitting. they will then try harder to hold their pose. This is particularly necessary for men since we are more used to seeing them standing than seated. While you are working on the head of a woman dressed in white. especially that of a young man. My experience with women has led me to believe the following: you must flatter them. and it should be in a place where you can refer to it all the time. so that your gaze does not wander from the model's head. Before you begin. if however you wish to paint her in white. You must also tell them that they are marvelous at posing. Do not paint the head too high on the canvas since it makes the model look too tall. it is the best guide and will show up faults clearly. You should also have a mirror positioned behind you so that you can see both the model and your painting at the same time. this adds to the resemblance. he should stand up for a moment before you begin so that you can sketch the general outline of the body. The reverse will result in a visible difference. Choose not only the most comfortable but also the most fitting for the person's age and character.likeness. a situation to be avoided at all costs. neither too light nor too dark. although you may consult artists and people of taste. talk to your model. two hours at the most. Likewise for the head. . even when we cannot see their face? When painting a man's portrait.

you should build up from the darkest colour. this will eventually blend with the mingling. that is to say not a thick but a ripe tone. The upper half of the pupil is always intercepted by the upper eyelid. The sharper the nose. although they are not quite the natural colour (this is so with any object you paint). On the head. Some people have large pupils and others small. The white of the eye in shadow should be a pure and pristine tone. take care not to give the sitter an ambiguous gaze. The eyelashes in the shaded part are clear and stand out bright and this is why you should use ultramarine when painting a light part that is in shadow. if they are unpowdered. chosen according to the complexion of the sitter. The eyebrow should be prepared in warm tones and one should be able to see the flesh beneath the gleam of the hairs which should be light and delicate. The mid-tones should be broken up and less thick than the highlights. Always thicken the highlights and always make them golden. which should be darker or lighter depending on its shape. Study van Dyck. The colour of the cheeks. There should always be highlights on the brow bone. but they are always perfectly round. Between the highlights and the mid-tones there is another tone not be overlooked. but if the person is angry you will often see the whole pupil. Sometimes the eye should reflect light from the nose and share some of its shadow. which has tints of violet. in the corner of the lower lip and at the top of the chin and they should always blend in with the surrounding tones. both sharp and diffuse. the cheek bone near the nose. interior parts of the ear etc. You should take care that the highlights diminish gradually and that the most salient and consequently the brightest part is always the most luminous. accompanied by a strong reddish touch in the cavities. It is made up of shadow and highlights. these two highlights often give way to others less golden in the middle of the upper eyelid. Never use a heavy consistency of paint on the pupils: they will look more real if they have a transparent quality. in the middle of the lower eyelid. should have a peach tone in the hollows and a golden rose colour on the more fleshy parts. You should paint in as much detail as possible. blue and green. Shadow must be strong but transparent at the same time. the lower half of the pupil is intercepted and covered by the lower eyelid. on the bridge and the lower lip. Observe the eye socket. Immediately after the first layer comes the flesh tone.Whether you are painting in pastels or oils. according to the way light falls upon the head. the two colours merging imperceptibly with the highlights to emphasis the facial bones which should be golden. the finer the light should be. mid-tones and reflections from the nose. . shifting mid-tones. the nostrils and the darker. and ensure that you make the pupils round. such as the eye socket. the sparkling lights. When the eye smiles. and the highlighting on the head should emphasis the bone and muscle. or at least along some part of it. than on the middle of the nose. and the mid-tones. depending upon the position of the head and the eye. are either in the pupil or in the white of the eye. should never look grey or dirty. the latter being weaker than the former. then paint the mid-tones and finally the highlights. above the upper lip.

the way the neck sits upon the shoulders is different from that of other peoples: it is wide. have ears that are situated a little too high according to perfect proportion. Look at the heads of Greuze and study the way in which your model's hair grows. In between these highlights is the natural flesh tone which fades into the center. you should make the shape as beautiful as you can. in form and colour. especially if the sitter's skin is very fine. sunken cheeks. eventually becoming the shadow that defines the shape of the brow bone. there is a definite concentration of light on these prominent areas. Above the eyebrow. depending upon the colour of the hair. like metal. This mid-tone mingles softly with all the other mid-tones. It is also essential to study the ear and to place it in the correct position. depending upon the whiteness and delicacy of the skin. It is then interrupted and reappears near the eyebrow. this will add to the likeness and the painting will be more truthful. As far as possible. Likewise. it is vital for a true likeness and is a very important key to the personality. The shadow is warm. These people also have very strong temple bones. The first is at the top of the forehead. After this shadow. study the art of antiquity or beautiful examples in nature. The edge of the hair should.The setting of the eye is always painted in delicate bluish or violet tones. For example. . Observe the forehead well. just beneath the hairline. an inevitable error if one does not follow the method I have just described. but always cautiously. try and paint the complete ear and study its cartilage formation well. Take care not to be too heavy with the latter or the eye will look as though it's full of tears. understanding that it is a link between the head and the neck. You should observe the part where the hair falls next to the skin so that you will be able to render it as realistically as possible. apart from the ear hole which should always be dark and opaque. even if you are going to paint hair over it. there is a slightly golden reflection. This in turn gives way to the colour of the temple where there will often be a blue vein visible. along with the prominent forehead and the usually flat. you might notice how in general the German. The highlights on the hair are only visible on the prominent parts of the head. for this helps to accentuate the turn of the head. you should conserve this characteristic trait. there should never be a hard line between the two. The hair should be drawn in a body and should remain as such for the most part. Rubens or van Dyck. the hair and the skin should mingle slightly. have something of the background colour. such as in the self portraits of Raphael. this way the hair will not look like a wig. if more feebly. on the same bone on the other side. it is probably better to use a glaze. thick and rises high behind the ear. curls reflect light in the center and a few stray hairs break the uniformity. So if you happen to be painting a German. For this reason one should sometimes break into the blue tones with gold. the tone should become a little warmer: the accumulation of these hairs has the same effect as a mass of curls falling onto a well lit forehead. otherwise the colours may bleed into the shadow and the main flesh tones of the face. The light returns. When the forehead has a square but prominent bone. The colour that determines its shape should be warm and transparent. and especially the Austrian race.

the jaw should be drawn in subtle tints with delicate mid-tones in order to obtain the depth between jaw and neck. such as the elbow. whose beard absorbs the naturally warm flesh tones beneath. for the rest of the body." Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun (1755-1842) *** Eakin's "line of action drawing".Its flesh tones. which is more prominent. The shadow thrown on the neck by the ear is very warm in daylight. If the head belongs to a woman. the mid-tones which curve around the breast should be as light and fresh as possible. the kneecap. HOW TO DRAW A FACE . such as I have described for the head. It is essential to observe the proportion of the collarbones relative to the position of the head. the heel and the knuckles are always darker than the rest of the body. There are rules for the gradation of light. the shadow between the breasts should be warm and transparent. the chest area becomes a little deeper in colour towards the point where the collar bones meet. If you have to paint breasts. put the model in a position where they are well lit. the light focuses strongly upon the thighs and will gradually fade towards the heel. If the figure is seated. in general the articulations. should in general be less luminous than the cheek. the best conditions for painting breasts occur when the light is direct and the colour should grow gradually stronger towards the nipple. even when highlighted. The shadow on the neck should also be very subtle and less ruddy than the face. as well as the way they reflect light. the base of the jaw should have warmer tones than that of a man.

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Picture 1 y y Draw a circle Draw an egg Picture 2 y y y Draw a vertical line in the middle of the egg Draw an horizontal line in the middle of the egg Draw the eyes on this line .The distance between the two eyes is one eye Picture 3 y y y y y Draw the "chin line" at the bottom of the egg Draw the "nose line" at the bottom of the circle. Then you can draw eyebrows and nose . Draw the "eyebrow line" : the distance between chin and nose is the same than nose and eyebrows Draw 2 vertical lines to define the width of the nose which is the same as the width of an eye.

of the nose. Again. it is crucial to apply your imagination on the exact positions of the facial parts. mark the middle of the nose line and chin line to mark the position of the chin. Draw one horizontal and one vertical line passing through the centre of the oval shape. intersecting each other at 90degree. Here are some easy tips on how to draw a face step by step y As the common shape of human face is oval. The horizontal line indicates the position of the eyes and the vertical line. These lines will help you to draw the parts of the face in exact positions. Therefore. Draw the ears between the eyes line and the base of the nose.Picture 4 y y Divide the distance between nose and chin in four equal parts You can draw the mouth between the second and the third lines Picture 5 y y y Draw the shape of the face. Draw the hair line in the middle of the eye line and the upper end of the oval . However. while learning how to draw a face step by step. Draw a small line in between the eye-line and the bottom of the vertical line to mark the bottom of the nose. make sure that you draw these lines with light stokes of pencil so that they won¶t leave any mark after erasing them. mouth and nose. Draw the hair Each face is different then you will have to adapt this proportions to your model ! How to Draw A Face Drawing a face needs an idea about the proportions and positions of the eyes. your first step towards drawing a face is to draw an oval shape.

and then the eyebrows. you need to be careful while using darker pencil until you have perfectly drawn the face. you will be able to draw a perfect and symmetric face. etc. eyes and the mouth. Now. Then carefully draw the nose on the vertical line keeping in mind the line that you have earlier drawn as the bottom of the nose. slightly asymmetric face will also do. the lips. Draw the hair with light strokes and make the hair style. it is time to draw the details of the face. Keep on working and reworking on the problems till they are properly drawn. Still. you may find it difficult to sketch the face with exact proportion. draw the basic shapes of the eyes. you need a darker pencil to add more details to the nose. Refine the shadows with tight strokes of the pencil. Try to draw the lips with equal proportion on both sides. Erase the extra lines of the frames from the face. pupils of the eyes. Draw the eyes on the eye line on the both side of the vertical line. nose and the mouth with light but broad strokes. . The other small horizontal line under the nose line is for the mouth. Draw the hair with fine and close stokes from the defined hairline. Draw the minute features such as eyelashes. Keep your hand loose and draw the eyes. But gradually. after you become an expert and know the basics of how to draw a face step by step. Now that you are done with the basic structure of the face. Initially. detail of the nostrils and its both sides. If the frame of the face is drawn properly.shape. It is the not necessary that the lips and the eyes should be symmetrical on both sides. you are half way through how to draw a y y face step by step. but erase the problem part carefully if it is too asymmetric. These are the basic portions of how to draw a face step by step. First of all.

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