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# Unit – I

## Wave Mechanics & X-ray Diffraction

Tutorial Sheet – 1
1. Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength associated with the following:
a) A golf ball of 50g moving with a velocity of 20 m/sec. (Ans: 6.625 x 10-34 m)
b) A proton moving with a velocity of 2200 m /sec. (Ans: 1.80 Ǻ)
c) An electron moving with a kinetic energy of 10 eV. (Ans: 3.9 Ǻ)

2. What is the de-Broglie wavelength of an electron which has been accelerated from rest through a
potential difference of 100 eV? (Ans: 1.225 Ǻ)

3. Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength associated with a proton moving with a velocity equal to
(1/20)th of the velocity of light. (Ans: 2.64 x 10-14 m)

4. Find the energy of the neutron in units of electron volt whose de-Broglie wavelength is 1 Ǻ. (Ans:
8.13 x 10-2 eV)

5. What voltage must be applied to an electron microscope to produce electrons of wavelength 0.40
Ǻ? (Ans: 960 V)

6. X-rays of wavelength 0.82 Ǻ fall on a metal plate. Find the wavelength associated with the photo-
electrons emitted. Neglect the work function. (Ans: 0.1 Ǻ)

7. What would be the wavelength of quantum of radiant energy emitted, an electron transmitted
into radiation and converted into one quantum. (Ans: 0.0244 Ǻ)

8. Compute the de-Broglie wavelength of a proton whose kinetic energy is equal to the rest energy
of an electron. Mass of a photon is 1836 times that of the electron. (Ans: 0.004 Ǻ)

9. Energy of particle at absolute temperature T is of the order of kT. Calculate the wavelength of
thermal neutrons at 270C. Given mass of the neutron =1.67 x 10-27 kg, Planck’s constant h = 6.60 x
10-34 J-s, Boltzmann’s constant k = 8.6 x 10-5 eV deg-1. (Ans: 1.777 Ǻ)

10. The average kinetic energy of neutrons, atoms and molecules is also expressed in terms of
temperature through the equipartition law E = 3kT/2. Write down the de-Broglie formula for
such particles whose energy corresponds to temperature T. Hence, determine the wavelength of
thermal neutrons; given the rest mass of the neutron is 1.67 x 10-27 kg. (Ans: 1.46 x 10-10 m)

11. Show that the de-Broglie wavelength for a material particle of rest mass mo and charge q
accelerated from rest through a potential difference of V volts relativistically is given by
{ }
1/2
λ = h / 2m0 qV 1 + qV / 2m0c 2 
12. A particle has rest mass mo has a kinetic energy K. What will be the value of λ if K << m0 c 2 .
By - Deepika Gupta, Lecturer SIET, Gr. Noida
Unit – I
Wave Mechanics & X-ray Diffraction
Tutorial Sheet – 2
1. A fast moving neutron is found to have an associated de-Broglie wavelength of 2x10-12 m. find
the kinetic energy, phase velocity and group velocity of de-Broglie waves ignoring the relativistic
change in mass. (Ans: 3.280 x10-17 J, 1.98 x105 m/s, 4.55 x1011 m/s)

2. Calculate the wavelength associated with an electron having kinetic energy equal to 1.512 MeV.
Rest mass energy = 0.512 MeV. (Ans: 0.006348 Ǻ)

3. Calculate de-Broglie wavelength associated with nitrogen at 3.0 atmospheric pressure and 270C
mass of N2-atom = 4.65 x10-26 kg. (Ans: 0.2754 Ǻ)

4. Show that de-Broglie wave velocity is a function of wavelength even in free space.

5. The de-Broglie wavelength associated with an electron is 2x10-12 m. Find its kinetic energy, group
velocity and phase velocity. (Ans: 293.64 keV, 0.774 c, 1.29 c)

6. Show that the phase velocity of de-Broglie wave is greater than the velocity of light.

7. A proton and electron have equal kinetic energies. Compare their de-Broglie wavelengths.

8. Prove that de-Broglie wavelength of a photon is equal to the wavelength of the radiation.

## 9. If uncertainty in a position of an electron is 4x10-10 m, calculate the uncertainty in its momentum.

(Ans: 1.65x10-24 kg m/s)

10. Show that if the uncertainty in the location of a particle is equal to de-Broglie wavelength, the
uncertainty in its velocity is equal to its velocity.

11. Calculate the smallest possible uncertainty in the position of an electron moving with velocity
3x107 m/sec. (Ans: 0.019 Ǻ)

12. Compare the uncertainties in the velocities of an electron and a proton confined to 1 nm box.
Their masses are 9.10x10-31kg and 1.67x10-27kg respectively.