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Originally published in: Mobile learning: Crossing boundaries in convergent environments, Rummler, K.

Seipold, J., Lübcke, E., Pachler, N., Attwell, G. (Ed.), Bremen, 2011, p. 69-21

L3T assists m-Learning

Martin Ebner Sandra Schön
Social Learning Information Society Research
Computer and Informationen Services Salzburg Research
Graz University of Technology Forschungsgesellschaft mbH.

L3T is a project founded by two researchers of Technology Enhanced Learning in April
2010 with the goal to establish a book for learning and teaching with technologies, short e-
Learning. Due to the fact that publishing a book in a traditional way is not appropriate for a
Web 2.0 community the project integrates from the very first beginning different Social
Media channels like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube etc. as well as provides different
possibilities for access via mobile phones. In this publication we give a short overview
about the mobile Learning Strategy im more detail how we are able to ensure that all
chapters of the book can be read with modern smartphones like iPhone or Android
phones by developed appropriate Apps. Furthermore an iPad App gives insight in the
possibilities of providing chapters as innovative and interactive eBooks.

L3T, mobile learning, mobile access, iPhone, Android

1. L3T – an innovative book project

The project L3T ("Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien") aims to create a
textbook for learning and teaching with technologies in a collaborative way. Addressing
the goal of instant availability for students as well as teachers each chapter is also
published online with open access since February 2011 [1].
Therefore a call for chapters initiated in April 2010 finally encouraged 115 authors to
participate by writing collaboratively a chapter on learning and teaching with technologies.
Afterwards more than 80 reviewers helped to improve the chapters. The whole process of
the book as well as a huge social media initiative can be found at this URL [1]. By the
integrative usage of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr and other communicational and
media platforms lot of different content is shared by the community to enhance the
chapter of a traditional book.
In this proposal we like to point out how this project also contribute to the field of m-
Learning. M-learning, defined as the combination of e-learning and mobile computing
(Tatar, 2003), promises the access to applications and information that support
learning anywhere and anytime. Even more, handhelds should also support project-based
learning in context, that is, using the mobile as an integral part of one’s own learning
activity; most of all: ongoing assessments and possible feedback (Holzinger et al, 2005)
(Klamma et al, 2007). Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler (Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, 2005)
especially restricted mobile devices in teaching and learning to some few learning and
teaching settings, but expressed especially two major facts: The connectivity within
learning communities through communication techniques and the benefit of location-
independent information retrieval.
From this point of view one of the primary goals of the research team was to extend the
existing open-source platform in use (based on Open Journal System [2]) to allow mobile
access to all articles (information retrieval) as well as the possibility to discuss, comment
any published contribution (connectivity).
We address the research question, how an existing open-source system can be enhanced
to allow access to learning content just-in-time and how communication can be

Originally published in: Mobile learning: Crossing boundaries in convergent environments, Rummler, K.,
Seipold, J., Lübcke, E., Pachler, N., Attwell, G. (Ed.), Bremen, 2011, p. 69-21

established by providing an according API and how we can fullfill the needs from an m-
Learning perspective.

2. Access via Smartphones

According to the widely-used mobile platforms iPhone OS and Android free available apps
(Fig. 1 / Fig. 2) were developed to get all articles on appropriate devices [3] [4]. The
chosen open-source software Open Journal System has been enhanced by a special
developed iPhone/Android gateway (plugin) and offers now an open API to exchange data
with mobile devices. Furthermore to foster discussion amongst different articles the plugin
introduces a comment-possibility to each article via mobile-devices.

Figure 1. iPhone App

The most sophisticated part of the work was the design of the user-interface according to
Human-Computer Interface guidelines (Ebner et al, 2010). Ease-of-use as key principle
led to a complete redesign of the existing data model. Bearing in mind that the interfaces
of iPhone and Android smartphones are differing arbitrarily completely different design
issues had to be carried out. Afterwards paper-mockups and first usability tests with end-
users forecasted user satisfaction.

Figure 2. Android App

In this presentation the m-Learning approach on information allocation and providing

communication possibilities will be pointed out by comparing two developed apps for
iPhone and Android smartphones. The project points out the whole development process
for enhancing the individual learning environment.

3. E-Book for iPad

The project aims not only to assist mobile information retrieval but also to investigate
about how e-books can look like in future. Therefore one chapter of the book, about the
description of different technologies used in classrooms, was taken and published as iPad
App [5] . It can be shown how traditional text can be enhanced by interactive possibilities.
For example Figure 3 shows a diascope, where user can switch pictures via the red

Originally published in: Mobile learning: Crossing boundaries in convergent environments, Rummler, K.,
Seipold, J., Lübcke, E., Pachler, N., Attwell, G. (Ed.), Bremen, 2011, p. 69-21

button on the remote control. With this simple animation it becomes rather clear, how such
technology will work and assists in understanding in understanding the corresponding

Figure 3. Screenshot of the iPad App

3. Conlusion
It can be summarized that traditional text books in future have to adress the needs of a
mobile society. In this particular case an approriate API for the Open Journal System was
developed to allow access to all articles stored on the system. Afterwards two Apps for
iPhone and smartphones with Android OS were programmed and released in the different
App-Stores. Furhtermore one chapter is published as interactive e-Book. Due to the fact
that the the book in general is offered with a Creative Commons license and all Apps are
accessable for free this seems to be a valueable contributions to the field of Open
Educational Resources as well as mobile Learning itself. In future data about the usage
will be gathered to improve the existing environments.

Ebner, M.; Kolbitsch, J.; Stickel, C. (2010) iPhone / iPad Human Interface Design. – in:
Human-Computer Interaction in Work & Learning, Life & Leisure, pp. 489 – 492
Holzinger, A., Nischelwitzer, A.K., Meisenberger, M., (2005) Mobile Phones as a
Challenge for m-Learning: Examples of Mobile Interactive Learning Objexts (MILOs),
in: Tavangarian, D., ed. Third Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive
Computing and Communications IEEE, Kauai Isladn (HI), pp. 307-3.11
Klamma, R., Chatti, , M.A., Duval, E., Hummel, H., Hvannbert, E.T., Kravcik, M., Law, E.,
Naeve, A., Scott, P., (2007) Social Software for life-long learning, Educational
Technology & Societey, 10, 3, pp. 72-83
Kukulska-Hulme, A., Traxler, J., (2005) Mobile teaching and learning, In A. Kukulska-
Hulme & J. Traxler (Ed.) Mobile Learning - a handbook for educators and trainers,
pp. 25-44, LondonNewYork:Routledge
Tatar, D., Roschelle, J., Vahey, P. and Penuel, W.R., (2003) Handhelds Go to School:
Lessons Learned, Computer Research, 36, 9, pp. 30-37

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