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Introduction

Good phrasing is essential to communicating musically. The exercises in this book teach the techniques behind phrasing and are designed to help you make the leap from playing notes to playing music.

This book is divided into sections on harmony, rhythm, and melody. Learning about these fundamental elements of music is just like learning a new language. At first you learn wordshow they're spelled and pronounced. Next comes simple phrases and sentences, providing you with a basic understanding of the new words and how to use them. Eventually, you move into thinking and communicating in the new language.

The key to good phrasing is knowing when to play and when not to play. It's important to become your own editor. There's a fatuous story about Miles Davis and John Coltrane. During the Kind of Blue period in the late fifties, when they were playing modal compositions, Coltrane was having a hard time ending his solos because of the lack of a closing cadence. Davis wanted Coltrane to cut down on the length of his solos, and 'Trane replied that he didn't know how to get out of them. Miles' response was, "Just take the horn out of your mouth."

One important quality that all great musicians share is flexibility, both in sound (a large tonal palate) and meter (the ability to play behind the beat, in front of the beat, etc.), so they don't sound like machines. Versatility in these two areas will lead to good phrasing, the ability to express yourself, and originality of style.

How to Use This Book

For a long time, I was reluctant to practice patterns. I thought it would make my playing more mechanical and predictable. But when I did start working with patterns, I discovered that just the opposite was true. My ear improved tremendously, allowing me to be more creative and expressive in my playing. Some of the patterns in this book are technique builders, and you will want to incorporate these into your daily practice regime. Others are for playing over specific chords, and you can use the companion CD to hear how they work together. (You can remove the saxophone from the track by panning the balance knob all the way to the left.)

In working with these patterns, try to avoid writing them out. This will help develop your ear immeasurably. If the pattern is too long to remember, break it down into smaller segments. Work toward being able to sing the phrases through the transpositions-in other words, think in terms of phrases rather than thinking of every note and its relationship to the chord. If something in the pattern sparks in you a song or another pattern, go with it. You can always return to the original pattern. It's all part of being flexible and reacting to your musical environment. By improving the connection between your ear and your fingers, you will develop the confidence and the ability to play whatever you hear.

On the etudes that have CD accompaniment, the written solos are just a starting point. Once you're familiar with the written version, try your hand at writing your own renditions, incorporating certain ideas that you like from what's in the book. Then pan out the sax and play your written solos with the rhythm track. Finally, take your own improvised solos.

Have fun and enjoy the book.

Contents

Harmony

Page CD Track

#1 Modes , , , , . , , , .. , .... , , , , , , , , , .. 4

#2 Major Scale Patterns """"""'" 6

#3 Major Chord Patterns """"""" 8

#4 Minor Chord Patterns """""'" 10

#5 Diatonic Seventh Chords """"'" 12

#6 Arpeggios. . , , " , , " , , , . , . . " , , , , 13

#7 Dorian Mode, , . , , .. , , , , , , , , . , , .. 15 1

#8 Mixolydian Mode, . , , ... , ... , , , , , , 16 2

#9 The II-V-I Progression, , , , , , , , , . , . 18 3

#10 The Minor I1-V-J. , , , , , , ... , , , , , , , 20 4

#11 IIm7-V7 Etude, ... , , , , . , , , , , , . , .. 22 5-6

#12 One-Measure IIm7-V7 Patterns, , , . , ,25

#13 Descending Ninth Chords, , . , , . , , ... 28 7

#14 Fourths, , , , , , , , , . , , .. , , .. , , , , , , , 30

#15 Bebop Mixolyclian . , , , , , . , . , , , . , .. 32

#16 The Diminished Scale, , , , .. , , , , , , , , 34

# 17 The Altered Scale , , , , , , , , . , . . . , . , , 38 8

#18 The Whole-Tone Scale ... , , , , , , . , , ,42

#19 Polychords. , , , , , , . , , , , . , . , .. , , , , 44 9

#20 Tritone Substitutions, , , , , , , , . , , , , , ,46

#21 The Passing Diminished, , . . . . , . . . , , 48

, 49 10-11

#22 Pentatonics. , , , , , . , , ... , , , , , . , , . ,

Rhythm

#23 Jazz Legato Tonguing, , .. , , , , , . , , .. 53

#24 Developing a Swing FeeL, . , , . , . , , .. 54

#25 Energizing Your Lines. , , .. , .. , . , .. .' 56

#26 Manipulating Time. , .. , , , , , , , , , , , , 58

#27 Three Against Four. , , . , ... , , , , , , , , 59

#28 Rhythmic Displacement , , , , , , , .. , , , 60

#29 Chromatic Scales in Cycle ".""", 61

#30 Challenge Tempo . , . , , , , , , , , , . , , , , 62

Melody Page CD Track
#31 Creating Melodies, , , , , , , , , . , , , . , . ,63
#32 Melodic Embellishment , . , , , , , , , , , , 66 14
#33 Contour Lines, , , , , , ....... , . , , . , , 68 15
#34 The Blues Scale , . , , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , 70 16
#35 Blues Guide-Tone Line .. , , . , , , , . , , . 71
#36 Melodies from the Blues Scale, , , , . , . 73 17
#37 Building a Solo, , , , . , , , , . , , , , , , , , , 74 18
#38 Arpeggiating Chords in a Progression, , 76 19
#39 Chord Scales " , , , , , . , . , , , , , , , , , , 79 20
#40 Horizontal and Vertical Approaches. , , 82 21
#41 Making Patterns Musical . , . , , , , , , , , 84 22
#42 Soloing in a Limited Range, , , , ... , , . 86 23
#43 Rhythm Changes, , , , . , . , , , , . , , , , , , 89 24
#44 Playing in a Key Center, , , . , , .. , . , , , 92 25
#45 One-Chord Vamps .. , . , , , , , , , , , , , , 94 26
#46 Neighboring Tones. , , , , , , , .. , . , , , , 95
#47 Approach Notes, , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,96
#48 Developing a Motif, , , , , , , , . , , . , . , , 98
#49 Flexible Embouchure. , , , , . , , , , , , , 100
#50 Finding Your Voice , """.".",,102
About the Author . , , , , . , , , , , , , , , , 103 12

13

ARMON¥'

Idea #

Modes

In classical music, the use of modes can be traced to twentieth-century composers like Ravel and Debussy. Looking for a new palate of tonal colors, they began exploring these permutations of basic Western scales. Named for Greek cities and regions, some modes-like the Ionian and Aeolian-are just other names for familiar scales like the major scale and natural minor scale. Other modes, like Dorian and Phrygian, are derived from folk music in other countries.

In jazz, modes played an important role in the "cool" school of bebop. As musicians grew tired of bebop's complex chord progressions and were looking for a fresh sound, they Simplified the chords, often using one chord for many measures, and based the melodies and improvisations on new-sounding scales or modes. Miles Davis was at the vanguard of this new style, as documented on his 1959 masterpiece Kind of Blue. The new modes also seeped into popular music-the Mixolydian mode was used in the opening measures of the Beatles' tune "Norwegian Wood."

Our first example is an Ionian scale (major scale). Notice that the two half steps are between the third and fourth degrees, and the seventh and root.

Ionian

.~ ~~

o

o. (J

<c>:

1/2

o

.)

~"""C7z}' ~ 1/2

The Dorian mode is built on the second degree of a major scale. For example, D Dorian mode consists of the same notes as a C major scale. The Dorian mode may also be thought of as a major scale with a minor third and minor seventh, and it would naturally be used over a minor chord. The second, fourth, and sixth degrees provide the richest sonorities. Some tunes that are based on Dorian modes are "So What" (Miles Davis), "Impressions" (lohn Coltrane), and "Little Sunflower" (Freddie Hubbard).

Dorian

Et ~ ... ~~~~o~ .• ~) ~~o ~'~' ~o ======s

~~ ~ 0 II. =====tl

<:>: 1/2

112

The Phrygian mode is built on the third degree of a major scale-e.g., from E to E using the notes from the C maj or scale. Notice the Spanish flavor of this scale. Use of the Phrygian is usually independent of a specific chord; the music would simply state Phrygian mode. Some compositions that utilize this mode are "Flamenco Sketches" (Miles DavislBill Evans), "Ole" Oohn Coltrane), and "Masqualero" (Wayne Shorter).

4

Lydian is a major-sounding mode and has the same notes as the major scale a fourth below; it's essentially a major scale with a raised fourth degree. This mode is usually played over a major chord, a major 7h1 chord, or a major 7~5 chord. Some tunes based on this mode include "In Case You Haven't Heard" (Woody Shaw), "Black Narcissus" (Ioe Henderson), and "Nefertiti" (Wayne Shorter).

Mixolydian mode is found on the fifth degree of the major scale and can be thought of as a major scale with a lowered seventh degree. The scale is applied to dominant seventh chords. Tunes that make use of the Mixolydian mode are "Maiden Voyage" and "Watermelon Man" (Herbie Hancock), "Well You Needn't" (Thelonious Monk), and "Killer Joe" (Benny Golson).

Aeolian mode is found on the sixth degree of the major scale. Also known as the natural minor, this scale is used over a minor chord when functioning as a tonic in a minor key. Some compositions that utilize the Aeolian mode are "My Favorite Things" (Richard Rodgers) and "Autumn Leaves" (johnny Mercer).

Aeolian

~(J

G--- ......

o

112

The Locrian mode is built on the seventh degree of the major scale. Its characteristic sound comes from the combination of a minor third, seventh, and sixth, plus a diminished interval between the root and the fifth. The Locrian mode is played over a minor 7~ 5 chord, also known as a half-diminished chord. The minor 7~ 5 chord usually functions as a II chord in a minor key. There are many compositions that utilize this mode, including "Airegin" (Sonny Rollins), "Night in Iunisla" (Dizzy Gillespie), "What Is This Thing Called Love," and "Night and Day" (Cole Porter).

Locrian

5

Major Scale Patterns

Idea #

The following major scale patterns are designed to improve technique and ear training as well as to combine aspects of harmony and phrasing that improvising musicians encounter on a regular basis. I recommend adopting the exercises as part of a daily warm-up routine. It wouldn't be practical to play each one in every key every day; work out a schedule based on your available time and level of playing that incorporates all of the patterns. The familiarity that comes from working on these every day will eventually allow you to focus on tone, attack, releases, and all the other subtleties that go into amazing phrasing. To develop your musical reflexes, it's best to transpose these exercises by ear.

[A]

$Ii UJ2!.L1m DfQjl{tl1P ~ IttmPD ~ I

II

6

MA.RMO

~ _

RM()N~

riY\';li!~(0'

:::.:

Idea #.ii<

Major Chord Patterns

This series of patterns is based on major triads and major seventh chords. These exercises are designed to improve your technique and phrasing while also developing your ear. It's important to try playing these patterns through all the keys without writing them out. Make them a part of your daily practice routine. Practice using various tempos and articulations.

' ., ,:., -. ".- .. '.:' .. :

6 -? ~Chr~~iCl'j ;= J J j D U~:~:J~II &3r~J~;~gj~.c&]' J J a @i;;;iq:,~~

rn:J Whole steps C

'!J:iJJ

__ D r-;;

1" 3 J"1 X J J 1 J "~toJ J:j f.f~ j J J j ] J .•• ~

etc.

[Q Minor 3rds

$ 1 c .. -, . 'j 1'3 g.~-r J J 1 ~

J- .- -J __ ---_--

OOJ Major 7ths

~ Cmaj7 F

-=~-) ~l j j _J--::=.~ FJ J j :f-J __ J J J

D+ _

llis J j #~: j j 1 fJ j }::-~~

etc.

Dmaj7

I I ~t 1~_r1 e ~r !r~rn1f:H ~g

etc.

8

HA.RMO

[HJ ~. ~~--Jl

Fmaj7#11

IFj J [ r r q r [ ¥ fie QtJ crt e t=_ c ¥~~

3

Emaj7# 11

~-r [ r 8: [ r ~3·~-~ r IJ j l~:J~J~. ~Jg, W j ~ __ J jaiF r rJ r El

333

~ :~

~Jl etc.

[IJ Gmaj7 P#maj7 Fmaj7

8va--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,

"-\ ~_-_-Jg f r=r::-" r Il1-S-=t • !r----I j j ) r:-- 19b qr r~~ +j 3' F J

)¥- u:=::-(r Ct - L J ~ - = q"'q -- etc.-

9

-

RMONY

Minor Chord Patterns

Idea

These patterns are based on minor triads and minor seventh chords and are the minor-key equivalent of the patterns in Idea #3. Again, play through these patterns in all the keys without writing them out, and incorporate them into your daily practicing.

[AJ Chromatic

[ID Whole steps Fm

4a itS J a J J J ) I r r f T j

Gm

I.BJ J J r r fJ I r [ f Y j ~

etc .

<, '" [Q Minor 7th chords

J Dm7

$! fa J j J j J)

E~m7

I ~l ~j J j ~J J J'. t ~f r" J II

J etc.

[j2J Minor (major 7) Em(maj7)

$ t fJ J ill i ill J j C [ F;; J

Fm(maj7)

111,3 J j f j J J C f F7 J ~Q

= etc.

rn.J Chromatic down

Dm ~ C#m

$t, E f:oPE

Cm Bm B~

fT @fl g tr @

etc.

[f] With major 7th

Dm(maj7) C#m(maj7) Cm(maj7) Bm(maj7)

tt ,t11tr~w: 'i¥fttJ 1,~~ifrI!t ~

etc.

[§] Minor 9th arpeggio Fm7

~ ~ ~ I CbE rJ r cp l~ d

E1J b~g t JE

3 > etc.

10

HARMO

IHl Minor 9th aJ1lcggio Em? E~m?'e

, r f f t t T r· [f if ~ t E IF r I 'C i ~f f 't b~ l~ bE II

51-- ---4.1 ~

F# 7 Fm7

rn Gt P r 'f r r4-J if t ~ I Ie t r f I~€ f ~ftr ~E t t Fg

~ ~ I - - - 1 . etc.

r r I 'f ~ t f Q f f £ f [ Q f

rn Fmll

~ i Ji I oJ 1= -"EE r F b[ ~



F I

3

3

EmIl 3

J 1) I J A J iJl EtJ ~r r F II

II

etc.

11

~a7~,ql';if;_")J;;;"-=,,~ "~~A " _ y. ~~

ARMONV'

Diatonic Seventh Chords

In this exercise, we take the major scale and build a seventh chord on each pitch. Below, we start with the key of G and then move to E Note that in every major scale, when you build a seventh chord on the I it will always be a major seventh, II is always minor, III is minor, IV is major, V is dominant, VI is minor, and VII is minor 7b 5. Repeat each exercise in all twelve keys.

Key of G

Gmaj7 Am7 Bm7 emaj7 D7 Em7 Fhn7~5 Gmaj7

,j t E f IT tE t_ ctUutt'i.f-rr!tr I

Key of F

Fmaj7 . Gm7 .. Am7 .. B~maj7 C7,. _ Dm7~... .~ Em~7~5 :=-t:-= fIlL,

~mrzcawcnl~W-€fJ~- _. ~- ..

Gm7 Fmaj7

~ Etiw t@~·· ~~~~

Em7~5

Dm7

C7

F

12

Arpeggios

This exercise is designed to illustrate the five basic chord types-major, dominant, minor, minor 7~ 5, and diminished. Starting with the major chord and changing one note at a time, work through the chords. After playing the arpeggios for a while, try singing them as an aid to developing your ear. Also familiarize yourself with the following chord symbols, which are commonly found in a fake book or lead sheet.

Major c: M MA
Dominant 7 dom7
Minor -7 m7 mi7
Minor 7~5 -7~5 0
Diminished 0 dim Example A is in one octave. Example B is in two octaves (when applicable). Example C is in first inversion (starting on the third degree). Example D is in second inversion (starting on the fifth), and Example E is in third inversion (starting on the seventh).

MARMO

[A] Gmaj7

¥cJ rj l[ ITJlcF rttr Ef IcE r) U r:r leE a [J & 1& g tt ~ I

G7

Gm7~5

Gm7

II

[ill or two octaves when possible

Cmaj7 C7 ~ ~ Cm7 ~

'i 13 J] d r1lbCEJ iJ J] If] 3P=c:r rf Ife CJ J;;; J] I~·JJ ~E ~ I

IIJ First inversion

Gmaj7 .. .. ,. 1IfI_ .. G7. lit Gm7~.

* i [r:~O? at Et-~ICF#[J Lj~ EJ Icr~FJ=t[ EJ ICE gy Co EJ I~cr±f to Et J

II

13

14

Idea #

DorianMode

In Idea #1, we learned how to construct and play seven modes. Now let's try playing in the Dorian mode over this 32-measure progression. On the CD, you'll find accompaniment parts to play over.

First, play the Dorian scale through the chord changes.

D Dorian

J = 138 0>
TRACK 1
fa: Dm7 '-- Em7

Dm7 Em7
~

Fm7 Gm7
~

Fm7 Gm7 Ebm7
~ Play 3 times
I :11
Once you feel comfortable, try stretching and taking a solo using Dorian scales. Begin the phrases on an upbeat to give your lines momentum. Experiment with anticipating the chord change by a beat or two, as in the following example. This will help lead you into the next chord and give your phrases more direction.

Dm7 Em7
~¥¥tEJ. A /\ ~---E *
I 111 I J I II
J) J j' r V I f - 't lEU I 15

5

~7

Mixolydian Mode

As we saw in Idea # 1, the Mixolydian scale is built off the fifth degree of a major scale (or you can think of it as a major scale with a lowered seventh degree). Here it is in C.

c

2

4

6

This scale is used on unaltered dominant seventh chords. Practice it with the chord progression on the CD, which is made up of dominant sevenths in the cycle of fourths.

TRACK 2

C7

~i II:

F7

._. *_._._. -~'--'-'-=j

-.:== '. '-'4====~========::: ..... :]

B~7

*~~~~~~~~====t~~~7T~. ~~.~

.~~ ---q= .·_-tit

-~-'=+=-.. -====~

" *~7 ~~'~====._._' __ '~_'===='~'_"'-'_~='== __ -'=='- __ '========._:-.~_ .• ~=_.

D 7 G 7 Play 4 times

*~~~~~t~~~~±2~·~~ .. _'-'~::_'~:==-~E~:=:-'~,,_~~

16

HARMON

Finally, work on playing these patterns with the rhythm section on the CD. Try transposing the patterns without writing them out. Transpose by numbers if you have difficulty, but work toward being able to play the patterns in all keys by just using your ear and singing the lines.

[AJ C7

~! ~ _Fit] j J

F7

J D I JiJ J J J J J J I 0/ i j J tEe rill E f'E CJ ~£J ] J II

etc.

/\
~ ~
" • r r L
-:E r E t - II F "..,J t II
etc. J 3 - " t· J A
~C rtt - r I I F r r ~C E II
~~- -~
-
etc. [ill C7

~! F

r ---t f r r • ~r IJ J J:- - J J t II
I
etc. [EJ C7
~ % r ~F It " ~r J I . -- ][
t ~ D r E J E ____" Ii t
.J . etc.
3
[Q] C7 ~C f ~r
~ [- " ._ It A
i r I r r I f +i~=r:= L 4
etc. 17

The 11- V-I Progression

E~~:~~::i:~:~:£~r~~~~I;~ ~;~;E:i~~~:~;:~;::;£~;;~~:~ a;I;('~lft;0;.

key area or key of the moment. Grouping these chords into coherent phrases enables you to simplify what might at first glance seem to be a very complex chord progression. Looking at the big picture will smooth out your phrases and get you away from thinking from chord to chord.

All the patterns below deal with the Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian scales. They're designed to help you hear the progression as well as learn to play in all twelve keys. Examples involving alterations on the dominant seventh chords appear later in the book.

Dm7 _ G7 Cmaj7''i@ ••• ;.jfJ~·[;;':··

~ uD J: oFj J] IcrrJl~EJ IfJ J?><j a J ITl3 J~

:11

Dm7

~~ II) - J J J j

G7

Cmaj7

~c I j J J J~J j J !i{o

:1

>

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

IfJ J J~rJ J] IfJ J J=r

> >

Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 .

"11:31 31 c: E d liE ~.~ c teE liM J 2 i~ :l EIJ ~ J ~ F1 Jd!

Dm7 G7 _ Cmaj7

~mJJ n aOIA N A f] IUU UUIU a ~~ E~ill

Dm7 G7 Cmaj7

~ J f=J hJlr E fJ J J1J lilH) P j;Jo

:11

18

MA_RMQ

Dm7 G7 Cmaj7

~1 F f_J 'fu {iFl I err fc_~:~E4=~':'Ef:j~:]~"'~~~L ~:=--~~;ll

Dm7 G7 Cmaj7

~I t§f( ref If E ri ~~'···~~~~··· .. ~~-:n

Practice these patterns along with this progression on the CD,

A

I,

Dm7

Il

L

G7

GCmaj7

Cm7

C P7

r B~maj7

TRACK 3

i:~~~1I: ~~~_~~-"~ .... ~k~-,-·~," ~:II~I: ~~~~~~:.:._ffil

f

B~m7

$ II::"

IS!, Abmaj7

nL, Gbmaj7

:11

( pli {1 l3 IC' /\

P#m7 B7 Emaj7 Em7 A 7 Dmaj7

~~II:~~~~~~~-:"~~~:II:~~~~~~~:II

fL

Ebm7 Ab7

~ .. _---~--~I ~~~~~:II~I: ~-:~:~"~~~~~~~

1: L,

,I '

nb D~maj7

(55'

Bmaj7

p'it· G L f: n 0

~~: .. B~m7~~~E7~~IA~ma~~7~~E~_~'_~:~ _~ml~t~m7~~~D~7~~G~m~aj~7 ~~~~

C) C

Gm7 C7 Pmaj7 Fm7 B~7 El maj?

'II: .. --_~"I ~~~~~~~:I~II: ~~:~~~~- ~.: ..... ~_: .. - .. ~ .. =I.'-~::=:::~'- ~~~:II

G

19

0fk(,:\S;::il"",~~.lf,;:.,",-'W,",,~

RMONY

The Minor 11- V-I

Now let's look at the II-V-I progression in a minor key. The Locrian scale is used on the IIm7~5 chord except in Example I, which uses the Super Locrian scale (a raised ninth flpIJ!"<',:>;1 On the dominant seventh chords, a variety of # 9 and ~ 9 extensions are played. On the I minor chord, the melodic minor, Dorian, or minor pentatonic scale is used.

[AJ Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ -~"- ~- r r r V f r -e-
i r r I I I
I
[ill Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ r r I F r r ~- I f r :r r If #F r
r r I I /

:11

[Q Bm7bS

~ i IT r r F~r

Am7

I t C f r t tc f r I f r f: r

:11

[Q] Bm7bS

~~iJJ J 3J

E7b9

rtf ,3 qJ j j

Am7

IF r r ; A

lliJ Bm7bS E7b9 Am7

4=t 'IE.: U r: r r bp I f C #~ :; j r r; I r f f t r #t¥ ~

[f] Bm7[,S

J$ir UrfEr

E~9 Am7

! r c E!r _ C f r 1 I r - :g r C1r'1

[§J Bm7[,S E7[,9 Am7
~ i I ! i J i J i J lie F ~ r c I-_c- ~
J • • J • r J r ~
c_ --. d I

[HJ Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ i E F CJ r F 1 r r #r g- r r C r 1 F
C E I F=- J 2]

co Bm7[,S E7[,9 Am7

~ i er U E E f r IE r r r fir ~U· I E::c ~:f J J J ;J_JJ * :11

20

HA.RMO

Bm7hS

~~~.~~~~~~~~~~~~~

t:MJbS· Am7hS

~~~~~~~~~~~

D;v,Jb~ Gm7~S

.. ~ II:

EVYt~ 0)
TRACK 4
Am7
c~.'w ~
S)1A1;7
Gm7
... F2.~ _. ::ggjJ
-
c
Fm7
:::=m
Bl; VVty
Ebm7
_-1 ·-:rl
/
Ab~+
Dbm7
.. :11
.
·~h viII ~
Bm7
,II
,]
F- ~ '7-
Bhm7
:11
I Practice along with this progression on the CD track.

1~~ ~:;2 i q

C"",.){6 Fm7[,S

~~: ~~~~~

ISbV'"lJ ~) E~m7[,5

~l

TJ

Em7[,S

A7[,9

Dm7

d

G7b9

9

em7

21

~ "'_l'i.J0..*~'"'&%"'''0'm '. "

ARMON¥'

IIm7-Vl Etude

Here is a twenty-four-measure etude running through a IIm7-V7-17 chord progression in every key. You may play the etude as written or transpose each two-measure pattern throughout.

Q)

TRACK 5 I

Bm7 E7 Amaj7

~rlE UJ IIF @, ,J ,~

B~m7 E~7 Al m aj? Am7 D7 Gmaj7

t_ ~~c l l ~~ ~I.- .0

i t~r [f+ r 'F::.fo=l F 'r 'c r-~L 'E r [I eill Ie Eft 1

A~m7 ~ D~7 G~maj7 Gm7 C7 f ~f Fmaj7
~L [,. br fL~. tttt~J~r [ F gr • ---
r I~r ~~ I -ps
I t~k l Fm7 B~7 Ebmaj7

~ 11 IEhi J r ~ ~E 1 I; J ~ j ,~~

Ebm7 Ab7 Dbmaj7

i~~qJ~~Ja:· q]~#~J ····~c $[ !S¥: ~Ck~·~~I.iibhl J J.3] InfiJ 'gr¥1

Em7

A7

Dmaj7

Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 C~m7 F~7 Bmaj7
~r F r r r -r E y4Mf v r I~E Ir F 1£ Jttr r j~. 10 Al
j 22

" .. RMO

Now try these six additional two-measure patterns in all twelve keys. These patterns add alterations to the upper extensions of the V7 chord (# 9) ~ 9, ~ 5) etc.). Take them slowly and play each two-measure pattern without writing it out. Learn to trust your ear. As you become familiar with the progression, create your own two-measure patterns.

Other Patterns

Cm7

F7

B~maj7 Cm7 F7 Bjrnaj?
I- '~~J , II C Ilill! L III ~l ~j --i ,-T- •• ,~
f d ~. J • Cm7 F7
*~ J i
d ~J r E qr Bhmaj? Cm7 F7 Bbmaj7

~~~~~F ~I t~¥g§~~pQ§¥8~r IT II ~r qr ~~F e he C #r!r l-e-, m2d

Cm7 F7 Bbmaj7 Cm7 F7 Bbmaj7
, [ F ~iII! ~~ Ftr=!Ftrl° __ 117 bill!J E gill! ~E r 0- ~
I C P I
J [J ..
3 The next exercise runs through II-V moves in minor keys. For the tonic minor (Im7)) the melodic minor or Dorian scale are the best choices. For the IIm7~ 5) use the Locrian scale (seventh degree of a major scale). In a minor II-V progression, the V chord usually features a ~ 9 alteration (the ~ 5 of the II chord is the same note as the ~ 9 of the V chord). Again, this exercise can be played as written or you can transpose and play each two-measure fragment through each chord change.

j = 80

Bm7bS E7h9 Am7 Bbm7b S EIi?~9 Abm7

~', [r E -~~~fE!r~r~J~I=~'~ffi~~~~:~I~~ci~r~F~~~:- t~F IE'F $f'~J'~JE ~~r~llF2¥F~r~E~":1

TRACK 6

Am7bS D7b9 Gm7 Abm7b 5 DIilb9 Gbm7

r -i ~ L: 1~~fr:E I~r ~tB ~J 3 d ] I~j-· - ..

3

Gm7bS C7b9 Fm7 F~m7bS B7b9 Em7

_~.~~F~r~F~F~1 &~§+§jjta~ ~=r=~~~J $1 #c~qr~F~~~J~: #~c l#F~f~_ .. r~l~r~~~§

Em7bS A 7~9 Dm7

'J4lifJ!1FJ J J It E tf

23

RMON¥

E~m7~ 5 AliJb9 Dbm7

$ J I,J d J §c.: f 'f:tc:1t:= =l

Dm7bS G7b9 Cm7

I' hH:J' U E i Q [; ~ I ~ 1

C#m7bS F#7b9 Bm7 Cm7bS F7b9 Bbm7

~$~#e~gEF ~F J~C ~t~r~#r~r~1 f'~v ~~ _ ~Jg-~~E··-·~:F- he r r t~~·E:e~.·:· ~~II

Finally, here are eight additional minor-key patterns. Pay special attention to patterns D, E, and
G-theyare based on the Super Locrian scale (Locrian scale with raised ninth).
[A] Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ J ~ ~ - .. ~ [ -!II b~ _ .. .. =1 -~
• Be r j
[ill Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
$ % r F r If :~r r r r I r t _. - II
I ..
[Q Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
$ % j IT r F ~ J ~.- -~ r r r r r l-: II
t
[!2J Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ =t==-~- IT IT j E ijr j tl
~ - E r r t

. - - _.-
m_] Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ % #e r r r rt F E ~ I gr E= .. ~- .. - II
J
[f] Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
~ F r i\
r -E Br I E J t - ... .~
r If Ir
I
[QJ Bm7bS E7#9 Am7
$ % F - r r r- I If II
E lie r I I t

[HJ Bm7bS E7b9 Am7
,% r r #- f- - i\
V I j fII I j F fE .. t
I :J
24 MARMO

One-Measure IIm7-Vl Patterns

Continuing along the lines of idea #11, here are some one-measure Ilm7-V7 patterns, first major keys.

[A] Dm7 G7 Cm7 F7 B~m7 E~7

~ i t F f IT t r r:; I Elf -& E tEl I 'r - ~E F 'f F 'f E r::=l I

ill] Dm7 G7 Cm7 P7 E~m7 b A~7 C#m7 P#7

~ 1 [[fiFe U l(bE p1; U n 11,('['fJ rr crt 1#(~E#tntc#B II

etc. etc.

[QJ Dm7 G7 Cm7 F7 E~m7 Ab7 C#m7 P#7

4 i tr g cE GE I Pc @ l.:;'t [f II'UEI,@ of; I#Up@:~ F [!fia

etc. etc.

rn:J Dm7 G7b9 Cm7 F7b9 Ebm7 Ab7b9 C#m7 p#7b9

ti tr B err I I Ue @ c: 0111 'rp@ c: r r¥f I #[ ~E t:r'c E ell

etc. etc.

[f] Dm7 G7 Cm7 P7 Ebm7 b A~7 C#m7 Fh

~ cc rl tf}:.fl'EEcC;c r E:ftlt£c'rJ e f U 1(I~tJtr Fi II

etc. etc.

25

ARMONY

[HJ Dm7 D07 or G7~9 Cm7 C07 or F7~9 E~m7 E~ °7 or A~ ~9

fi t r IT 1 E tr @t1 'r F be F~g iF F:1 II ~J ~J d ~J J ~ I~ J II

etc. etc.

[IJ Dm7 G7~9 Cm7 F7~9 E~m7 A~bg C#m7 F#7b9

, i [ ffi1' cF 5 I Dr bftt C f tff II 'Pc '~1liEF let r~ II

etc. etc.

[KJ Dm7 G7b9 Cm7 F7~9 E~m7 A~b9 C#m7 F#7~9

, i to 0' a F1F I er rtf Elf E:~ru) bEY d F@ I t~Ptr Ic/[ [} ~

etc. etc.

And now in minor keys. Also practice these patterns descending and ascending in whole steps.
[A] Bm7bS Bbm7bS Eb7 bJ='€
~ .j L r r f I ~r he ! ~f be II

etc.
[ill Bm7bS E7b9 B~m7bS E~b9
, i F r r #r r E _" I ~L ~F ill _. ~r gr r l'E _" II
L J t J
etc.
[§] Bm7bS E7b9 Bbm7bs E~~9
, ! ~ E C r #r r E r ~~ t ~F-:~ ~r gr _.~c t= hE !t II
I
etc.
[Q] Bm7bS E7b9 B~m7bS E~~9
4¥i [ r r ill IC r r F~ -~~lft1! ~r ['F qr: r r ~~
j
etc.
26 HARMON

rnJ Bm7bS E7 Bbm7bS Eb7
~ [ F _,. r ~r ~r ~r ~f gr bE
i f j E -I' I [ E -II !I
j j
etc.
[EJ Bm7bS E7 Bbm7bS Eb7
, ! r f r -fI ~f - ,. I to ~f r Ef l~iII' ~r '~-~
- F
J f ~ I -F'·
j
etc.
[!!] Bm7bS E7b9 Bbm7bS EIrlb9
~ e r PI r ~ I be ~f ~F 1J -- iii' II
-- F-
Ir: F qj -- .. F J
J
etc.
[HJ Super Locrian E7b9 Bbm7bS
Bm7bS Eli? b9
~ i r HE ~ r F F :'F F I ~r gc ~r r 1'[ r:- r r
I
etc.
rr Chromatic
Bm7bS EIrl [,9 Cm7bS F7b9 C#m7bS F7b9
~ i Jlj J 3 J J ,J J I) d ~J PSd~E~ IJ qJ ~J g - J #3 i3
lid II
etc. 27

ARMON¥'

Descending Ninth Chords

One of the best ways to train your ear to hear intervals and their relationship to chords is to play arpeggios through a chord progression. Many of the previous arpeggio exercises were root-based formations. In this exercise, we will concentrate on hearing an arpeggio played from the ninth of the chord down, in order to try and get beyond the up/down patterns associated with arpeggios. By starting on an extension, we are training the ear to important color tone of the ninth.

When you're playing a repetitive pattern like this, try to make it sound like a piece of music rather than a musical drill. Paying close attention to the articulations and making it swing will help it corne to life.

TRACK 7

F#7

~ ~ #r EPr:& ,I) #l

Fmaj7

IF ELf Ji g.

3

3

3

D7~9 ~3 Gm7 Em7 A7 Dm7 rta
~ b. ·~f Et} \ :J. ltir >-
~ _ J J ~;) J. J) I2(J#JJ W- Itt ,I.; I
I .- J!
>- >- >- _.
>- 3 >-
3 Amaj7 Bm7

~§.r~E~~t~j~r~ql~Il~glg~~·"~#~G!r~~~q~p~~~·~~I~T~~t~ti7~J§·j~D~R~r·~

3

D7

E7

Gm7 C7 F6 Fmaj7
r tti9 • J r >- ,I.; F >- ,I.;
I Jl I bIJ .tJ J. I ctr .tJ I
-.
>- >- >-
3 3 3 C#maj7

~I .t

F#7

I #r

F6

Igr

28

3

MA.RMO

Fmaj7

Cm7

F7 Bl maj?

I E ttY itt I f~~~~~~

3

Fm7 B~7

IF b~ Jl l

3

3

29