Docket No.

113

RED -LA'KE E A X I , AND PETER GRALTS , ET AL. ,
e x . r e l . RED LAKE B A N D , PE?!BIXA BAXDi), AND KATIERIXE CARL EARRETT ET AL. , c x . r e 1. DEXB'INA IiAND, JOHW B. AZUliE ET AL., ex. r e 1 CHIEF LITTLE Sl-ELL'S BAND OF :'EXBIM CHI?PEIJI\ INDIANS,

Docket No. 246

.

TIE LITTE SHELL BAXD OF CHIPPEWA INDIANS, AND JOSEPH H . DUSSOPE ET AL., e x . r e l . s a i d Band, CHI?PEWA CREE TRIBE OF THE ROCKY BOY'S RESERVATION, MONTANA, AND JOE CORCORAN, e x . r e l . CHIFPEKA CREE TRIBE OF TkE ROCKY BOY ' S RESERVATION, BLilNC-ZE PAIENAUDE ET AL., e x . r21. L I T Z E S E L L BAXD OF IXDL4NS A D THE CHIPPEWA X CREE TRIBE,

Docket No. 1 9 1

Docket No. 2 2 1

-3
4

TIE TITREE AFFILIATED TRIBES OF THE FORT
BERTHOLD RESERVATION, Plaintiffs,

Docket Nos. 3 and 350-C

THE UNITED STATES OF AXERICA,

Defendant. Decided: June 30, 1970

FIXDINGS OF FACT

I.

P l a i n t i E f i n Docket No. 1 1 3 , T u r t l e Elountain Band o f Chippewa

I n d i a n s , i s a n o r g a n i z e d band o f Aulerican I n d i a n s w i t h a t r i b a l organi z a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r a s h a v i n g a u t h o r i t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e band. tiff

The members o f t h e T u r t l e N o u n t a i n Band p l a i n -

a r e l a r g e l y d e s c c n d c n t s o f t h a t group of P l a i n s - O j i b w a who s i g n e d

t!le PIcCumbcr Agreement of 1892.

23 Ind. C l . Corn. 315
The Pcmbina Band, p l a i n t i f f i n Docket No. 246, i s a n i d e n t i f i a b l e

group of American I n d i a n s , whose members g e n e r a l l y a r e d e s c e n d a n t s of t h e Plains-Ojibwa who moved t o the White E a r t h R e s e r v a t i o n i n Minne s o t a a f t e r 1873. P l a i n t i f f s i n Dockets 1 9 1 and 2 2 1 c l a i m t o be Little

s u c c e s s o r s t o t h e i n t e r e s t s of L i t t l e S h e l l and h i s f o l l o w e r s .

S h e l l and h i s f o l l o w e r s l e f t t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e McCumber Comm i s s i o n and r e f u s e d t o s i g n t h e McCumber Agreement. W find t h a t these e

p l a i n t i f f s t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a n i d e n t i f i a b l e group o f American I n d i a n s , many of whose members a r e descendants o f Chief L i t t l e S h e l l and h i s fgllowers. Cree T r i b e . The L i t t l e S h e l l Band i s sometimes known a s t h e Chippewa-

2.

P l a i n t i f f i n Dockets 350-3 and 350-C, The Three A E L i l i a t e d

T r i b e s of t h e F o r t Berthold R e s e r v a t i o n , i s a n i d e n t i f i a b l e g r o u p o f American I n d i a n s e n t i t l e d t o m a i n t a i n a n a c t i o n under t h e I n d i a n Claims Commission A c t .

It i s t h e s u c c e s s o r i n i n t e r e s t o f t h r e e I n d i a n t r i b e s ,

t h e A r i k a r a , t h e Mandan, and t h e H i d a t s a ( a l s o known a s t h e Gros V e n t r e ) .

3.

The I n d i a n s who occupied t h e p r a i r i e s o f North Dakota were a

d i s t i n c t and i d e n t i f i a b l e group, a l t h o u g h e a r l y e r r o r s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s e m a n t i c c o n f u s i o n l e d a t times t o a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f names a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of them a s a p a r t o f t h e woodlands Chippewa from whom they separated. I n t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y , when f i r s t c o n t a c t e d by

w h i t e e x p l o r e r s , t h e woodlands Chippewas were i n t h e a r e a a r o u n d Lakes Huron and S u p e r i o r . Beginning in t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h

c e n t u r y , t h e y s t a r t e d pushing t h e i r way westward a c r o s s M i n n e s o t a , g r a d u a l l y d i s p l a c i n g t h e Sioux and d r i v i n g them a c r o s s t h e M i s s i s s i p p i

23 Ind. C1.

Corm. 315

and s o u t h ta :he

Xinnesota River.

ay t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y

t h e C h L ~ p e z a shad extcncied t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n t h r o u g h n o r t h e r n X i m e s o t ; a n d a c r o s s t h e Red R i v e r i n t o n o r t h e a s t e r n North D a k o t a . They had a

l a r g e n u c b e r o f v i l l a g e s , bands a n d i o c a l d i v i s i o n s s c a t t e r e d o v e r a r e g i o n e x t e n d i n g a t h o u s a n d m i l e s from e a s t t o w e s t , a n d many o f t h e s e b a n d s came t o be known by t h e name o f t h e v i l l a g e , l a k e o r r i v e r n e a r which t h e y r e s i d e d . ( S e e , Red Lake, Pembina and White E a r t h Bands v .

U n i t e d S t a t e s , 6 I n d . C l . Corn. 247, 254 (1958), a f f ' d i n p a r t and rev'd. i n D a r t 164 C t . C 1 . 389 (1964)). Around t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p r i o r t o t h e a d v e n t

4.

o f w h i t e t r a d e r s i n t h e a r e a , t h e f o r m e r l y woodland o r i e n t e d g r o u p o f

-

i

Chippewas iaoved o u t beyond t h e b o r d e r o f t h e p l a i n s i n p u r s u i t o f t h e buffalo. They s u c c e s s f u l l y r e o r i e n t e d t h e i r c u L t u r e t o l i f e o n t h e

p l a i n s , d e v e l o p i n g t h e b i s o n - h i d e t i p i , t h e Red R i v e r c a r t , h a r d s o l e d Eootwear a n d new c e r e m o n i a l p r o c e d u r e s . were h u n t i n g i n t h e T u r t l e Nountain a r e a . Around 1800, t h e s e I n d i a n s These I n d i a n s who a d a p t e d

t o t h e p l a i n s formed a g r o u p which may b e s t be i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e Plains-Ojibwa.

5.

The P l a i n s - 0 jibwa a r e a n i d e n t i f i a b l e g r o u p o f A m e r i c a n

I n d i a n s on whose b e h a l f a n a c t i o n may be m a i n t a i n e d u n d e r t h e I n d i a n C l a i m s Commission A c t . The P l a i n s - 0 jibwa have a l s o b e e n known b y

many o t h e r names, among which a r e Bungi, S a u l t e n u x , T u r t l e M o u n t a i n Band, Pembina Band, L i t t l e S h e l l Band, Chippewa and Chippewa-Cree 6.

.

The P l a i n s - O j i b w a c o n s i s t e d of two d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h e The f u l l b l o o d g r o u p

f u l l b l o o d s and t h e mixed b l o o d s o r h a l E - b r e e d s .

2 3 Ind. C1. Comm. 315

32 9

was d i s t i n c t l y i n t h e i n i n o r i t y .

The mixed blood c u l t u r e c o n s i s t e d o f k'hile t h e mixed bloods had

a m i v t c r e of Europezn and I n d i a n e l e m e n t s .

t h e i r own government d i s t i n c t from t h a t of the f u l l b l o o d s , t h e two groups u s u a l l y a c t e d i n c o n c e r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i r u s e o f t h e land. I n t h e T u r t l e Mountain a r e a , t h e mixed bloods seemed t o have

r e c o g n i z e d t h e head c h i e f of the f u l l blood e l e m e n t ' a s t h e i r c h i e f executive .
The ambiguous p o s i t i o n of the mixed bloods was d e s c r i b e d by J . B .

B o t t i n e a u i n h i s p e t i t i o n on behalf o f t h e T u r t l e Mountain I n d i a n s t o
t h e House Committee on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n 1895 ( P I . Ex. 150, Dkt. 113,

T i e h a l f - b r e e d I n d i a n , e s y e c i a l l y , h a s s u f f e r e d more
h than the full-blood did, i n h i s e f f o r t t o s e c u r e t home h e had l o c a t e d and improved upon s a i d o r i g i n a l r e s e r v a t i o n , because the u n f o r t u n a t e h a l f - b r e e d I n d i a n h a s , s o f a r , never b d h i s p o s i t i o n o r s t a t u s f i x e d by t h e United S t a t e s . He i s one t h i n g t o t h e Government t o - d a y , and, p e r h a p s , to-morrow he i s metamorphosed i n t o an e n t i r e l v d i f f e r e n t person.

When h i s v o t e i n an e l e c t i o n i s wanted, he i s a w h i t e man: but should he have taken UD a homestead upon t h e p u b l i c l a n d s , and be l i v i n q on i t , and t h e t r a c t h a ~ ~ e n t o be coveted by a white man. why, t h e n t h e w h i t e man s q u a t s on t h e land and f i l e s a c o n t e s r a q a i n s t t h e h a l f - b r e e d i n t h e land o f f i c e on t h e eround t h a t t h e h a l f - b r e e d i s an Indian and a s such he c a n n o t h o l d a e a i n s t the w h i t e m n . The r e s u l t i s t h e w h i t e man wins every time. (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . I n n e g o t i a t i n g the c e s s i o n of t h e s u b j e c t l a n d s , a l l p a r t i e s assumed t h a t t h e T u r t l e Nountain Band p r o p e r l y i n c l u d e d mixed b l o o d s a s w e l l a s f u l l bloods. The i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e Conmissioner of

I n d i a n ~ f f i a s ' t o the McCumber Commission informed t h e c o m i s s i o n c r s r t h a t t h e y were t o t a k e an a c c u r a t e census of "only t h o s e I n d i a n s who

23 Ind. CL. C o m ~ . 315

have j u s t c l s i z s upon t h e government, and a r e , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , p r o p e r ones w i t h whom t o n e g o t i a t e ."

(fl. Ex. 142, Dkt. 113, a t p . 13) .

The c e n s u s was t o b e broken down i n t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s which i n c l u d e d d i s t i n c t i o n s between I n d i a n s who were f u l l b l o o d s and t h o s e who were mixed b l o o d s . 7. parties. The mixed b l o o d s welcomed t h e f u l l b l o o d s i n t o t h e i r h u n t i n g A1e:tander Ross t o l d o f a n i n c i d e n t i n which f u l l b l o o d s

accompanying s u c h a h u n t i n g p a r t y a t t a c k e d a S i o u x p a r t y n e a r t h e Cheyenne R i v e r . t h e mixed b l o o d s . 8. An arrangement f o r p e a c e w i t h t h e S i o u x was made by

( P I . Ex 77, Dkt. 246, a t pp. 269-271)

.

D r . James H. Howard, w i t n e s s f o r p l a i n t i f f s , t e s t i f i e d a s t o

t h e l o c a t i o n of a number o f v i l l a g e and h u n t i n g s i t e s i n North D a k o t a . Stump Lake wzs rezembered by I n d i a n s a s t h e s i t e o f Black Duck V i l l a g e . B l a c k Duck was a s u b - c h i e f o f t h e T u r t l e Mountain Band. Graham's I s l a n d , on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f D e v i l ' s Lake, was t h e s i t e o f a g r e a t b a t t l e between t h e Chippewa and S i o u x i n 1852. West o f Rugby, North Dakota and s o u t h o f Round Lake, was a c a m p i n g s i t e t o which t h e Plains-Ojibwa came on h u n t s . b e r r i e s i n t h e a r e a w h i l e t h e men were h u n t i n g . B u f f a l o Lodge V i l l a g e , n e a r t h e p r e s e n t B u f f a l o Lodge L a k e , was t h e s i t e of a stockaded Plains-Ojibwa v i l l a g e o c c u p i e d u n t i l 1824 o r 1825 when t h e ~ i o u x r o v e them o u t and d e s t r o y e d t h e v i l l a g e . - T h e r e d a f t e r t h e Plains-Ojibwa v i s i t e d t h e a r e a , b u t t h e y n e v e r a g a i n b u i l t a permanent v i l l a g e t h e r e . Dog Dcn was a h u n t i n g s i t e f o r t h e P l a i n s - O j i b w a . The h i l l w a s Women g a t h e r e d w i l d

23 Ind. C ? .

Corn. 315

33 1

famous a s

3

1~)otr;oui o r enemies and was so used by t h e S i o u x a s w e l l a s f

by t h e Plains-Ojibwa

.

9.

The mised b l o o d s , accompanied by f u l l b l o o d s , engaged i n

a n n u a l b u f f a l o h u n t s , moving west and s o u t h from S t . J o s e p h , l o c a t e d on t h e banks of t h e Pembina R i v e r . D e t a i l s o f t h e s e h u n t s were g i v e n

i n 1851 by F a t h e r R i c h e r LaFleche ( P I . Ex. 55, Dkt. 246) c r i b e d t h e a r e a i n which t h e y hunted a s :

.

He d e s -

" e x t e n d i n g between t h e A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r t o t h e North t h e Red R i v e r t o t h e E a s t , t h e Cheyenne R i v e r and t h e H i l l d e s P r a i r i e s t o t h e South, t o t h e West, a l i n e dra~n from t h e s o u r c e t o t h e mouth of t h e Mouse R i v e r . . ." Xe wenr on a s f o l l o w s t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f t h e a r e a by t h e
..-.

-&

Plains-Ojibwa:
A few h a l f - b r e e d s caught by s u r p r i s e i n some l o n e l y s p o t had been m s s a c r e d by t h e ~ i o u x from t i m e t o t i m e , b u t p e a c e had never been o p e n l y broken between t h e two p e o p l e s . U t o t h i s y e a r , t h e h a l f p b r e e d s have always had t h e run of t h i s t e r r i t o r y which t h e y c o n s i d e r a s being t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d . B e f o r e t h e y s e t t l e d a t t h e Red R i v e r , no s a v a g e n a t i o n had d a r e d occupy t h i s d e s e r t which formed a d i v i d i n g w a l l between t h e w a r r i n g t r i b e s ."
11

...

10.

A common landmark i n accounts o f h u n t i n g t r i p s by t h e P l a i n s -

Ojibwa was t h e M i s s o u r i Coteau. glacier.

This i s a r i d g e l e f t by a r e t r e a t i n g

I t i s most c l e a r l y seen running due e a s t o f t h e M i s s o u r i R i v e r

through Dog's Den.

I t i s a l s o found f u r t h e r e a s t a l o n g t h e S o u r i s R i v e r See Map, PI: Ex. 2 , Docket 113.

and t h e T u r t l e and Pembina Mountains.

F a t h e r L a F l e c h e i n d i c a t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e hurt of which he w r o t e t h e y broke i n t o two camps, and t h e main camp " s e t o u t f o r Dog House, a way which w e w e r e accustomed t o following1'. T h i s was i n t h e d i r e c t i o n

23 Ind. C 1 . Corn. 315 of t h e S i o u x . He went on t o s t a t e :

Our march continued w i t h o u t f u r ~ h e ri n c i d e n t t o t h e p r o x i m i t y of P r a i r i e H i l l ( ~ o t e a u - d e s - P r a i r i e s ) o r Big H i l l (Grand Coteau ....) There they encountered a Sioux camp. The Sioux t o l d them, "We came h e r e

t o camp, f a r t h e r than u s u a l , i n o r d e r t o do some t r a d i n g w i t h t h e h a l f breeds." Thus t h e M i s s o u r i Coteau i s d e s c r i b e d a s a u s u a l h u n t i n g

a r e a f o r t h e Plains-Ojibwa and a s a p l a c e t o which t h e S i o u x d i d n o t usually venture.

11.

The t e r r i t o r y of the plains-Ojibwa extended i n t o t h e a r e a

n o r t h of t h e Canadian b o r d e r , and Plains-Ojibwa from t h e n o r t h o f t e n followed t h e b u f f a l o s o u t h . D e s c r i b i n g e x p l o r i n g e x p e d i t i o n s i n 1857 and 1858, Henry Youle Hind w r o t e (PI. Ex. 22, Dkt. 113, a t p . 1 7 9 ) : There a r e now two d i s t i n c t bands o f b u f f a l o h u n t e r s , o n e b e i n g t h o s e on Red R i v e r , :the o t h e r o f t h e White Horse P l a i n , on the A s s i n i b o i n e . Formerly t h e s e bands were u n i t e d , b u t , owing t o a d i f f e r e n c e which s p r u n g up between t h e m t h e y now m a i n t a i n a s e p a r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and proceed t o d i f f e r e n t h u n t i n g grounds. The Red River h u n t e r s . go t o t h e Coteau d e M i s s o u r i , and even a s f a r a s t h e Yellow S t o n e R i v e r ; t h e White Horse P l a i n s e t t l e r s g e n e r a l l y h u n t w e s t o f t h e S o u r i s R i v e r , and between t h e branches of t h e Saskatchewan, but a l s o over t h e same grounds a s t h e i r Red Rivcr b r e t h r e n . " 12. I n 1845, F a t h e r Belcourt wrote t h a t t h e h u n t e r s o f t h e Red t h e Plains-Ojibwa of North Dakota, had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r

River, i . e .

w i n t e r q u a r t e r s a t t h e e x t r e m i t y o f T u r t l e Mountain and on t h e Mouse River.

(PI. Ex. 205, Dkt. 113, a t p p . 136-137).

I n 1 8 5 4 , Governor Stevens i n h i s r e p o r t t o the War Department on h i s " E x p l o r a t i o n s f o r a Route f o r t h e P a c i f i c Railroad" s t a t e d t h a t

2 3 Ind. C1. Corn. 315

t h e Red R i v e r h a l f b r e e d s range from e a s t of t h e Red R i v e r t o t h e Mouse R i v e r v a l l e y .
(PI.

Ex. 7 3 , D k t . 2 4 6 , a t p . 1 4 8 ) .

H. S . T a n n e r ' s map of 1834, PI. Ex. 1 2 , Dkt. 113, i n d i c a t e d t h a t
t h e P l a i n s - 0 jibwa

,

t h e r e c a l l e d t h e " ~ h i ~ ~ e w a o c c u p i e d the a r e a n o r t h y",

o f D e v i l ' s Lake a t l e a s t a s f a r west a s a l i n e due n o r t h from t h e w e s t bank o f D e v i l ' s Lake. I n t h a t map, no o t h e r t r i b e was shown i n t h e a r e a

p r e s e n t l y claimed by t h e Chi-ppewa p l a i n t i f f s . 13. ~ r o m 1800 t o 1825, s e v e r a l e x p l o r e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t some ' One r e p o r t p l a c e d

A s s i n i b o i n e I n d i a n s were found i n t h e a r e a claimed.

-4

Cree i n t h e a r e a a s w e l l .
f

One such r e p o r t was of A l e x a n d e r Henry, who ~ e found CrPe and He North

--

i n t h e summer of 1806, journeyed t o Mandan v i l l a g e s .

A s s i n i b o i n e camped around t h e w e s t e r n end o f T u r t l e Mountain. i d e n t i f i e d ' t h e S i o u x f r o n t i e r a s t h e r i d g e a d j o i n i n g Dogs Den. o f t h i s , h e i n d i c a t e d , t h e y need d r e a d o n l y t h e A s s i n i b o i n e s .

I n 1804-1805, Lewis and C l a r k l o c a t e d t h e A s s i n i b o i n e s a s f o l l o w s (Def. Ex. 81, a t p . 217): between t h e A s s i n i b o i n and t h e M i s s o u r i , a r e two bands of A s s i n i b o i n s , one on t h e Mouse r i v e r . . . t h e o t h e r r e s i d i n g on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e White r i v e r . Beyond t h e s e , a band of A s s i n i b o i n s . wander o n t h e heads o f M i l k , Porcupine, and Martha's r i v e r s ; w h i l e s t i l l f u r t h e r t o t h e norch a r e s e e n two bands of t h e same n a t i o n r o v i n g on the Saskaskawan.

...

..

...

I n 1825, General Henry A t k i n s o n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e A s s i n i b o i n e s :
i n h a b i t t h e c o u n t r y from t h e head of Milk R i v e r , e a s t , on both s i d e s of t h e p a r a l l e l of l a t i t u d e 4 9 , b a c k towards Lake T r a v e r s e . They f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t t h e M i s s o u r i , and push war p a r t i e s a c r o s s a g a i n s t t h e Mandans and Mina t a r e s . (De f . Ex. 85)

.

14.

By 1849, however, t h e Cree and A s s i n i b o i n e i n t h e U n i t e d

23 ind. C l . Corn. 315

S t a t e s were west of t h e S o u r i s (Mouse) R i v e r . I n 1849, F a t h e r B e l c o u r t d e s c r i b e d t h e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n t r i b e s i n t h e a r e a a s f o l l o w s (Def. Ex. 98, a t p . 3 7 ) : The Crees and A s s i n i b o i n s r e g a r d themselves a s e q u a l l y m a s t e r s of these lands w i t h t h e Chippewas.. . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e Mouse r i v e r , which, i n i t s c o u r s e , approaches w i t h i n t h i r t y m i l e s of the M i s s o u r i , and empties i t s e l f i n t o t h e A s s i n i b o i n r i v e r , a b o u t n i n e t y m i l e s from i t s mouth, would appear t o be t h e t r u e l i n e , which i s never passed by t h e h u n t e r s o f t h e t r i b e , e x c e p t perhaps toward i t s s o u r c e where , i t approaches Moose mountain [ i n Canada], which i s a p o i n t where t h e y a r e accustomed t o c o n c e n t r a t e , and f o r t h e most p a r t r e s i d e .

.

.

Maps i n t r o d u c e d by d e f e n d a n t , drawn by D r . W. R. H u r t , lgS-lgg),

(Def. E x .

show t h e A s s i n i b o i n e s t o have been west o f t h e White E a r t h The ? J h i t e E a r t h River i s west of t h e a r e a claimed

R i v e r a f t e r 1780. by t h e Chippewa

15.

A f t e r 1649 t h e P l a i n s - C r e e d i d n o t occupy any l a n d s i n t h e There was

p o r t i o n of North Dakota claimed by t h e Chippewa p l a i n t i f f s .

much t r a d e between t h e Cree and Plains-Ojibwa i n Canada, a n d occas i o n a l l y C r e e t r a d e d o r joined war p a r t i e s w i t h t h e Plains-Ojibwa i n North Dakota. 16. A f t e r t h e s i g n i n g of t h e 1825 T r e a t y of P r a i r i e du Chien, 7

S t a t . 272, t h e Chippeva and Sioux d e f i n e d t h e boundary between t h e i r t r i b e s w e s t of t h e Red River of t h e North. Their agreement became

known a s t h e Sweet Corn Agreement a f t e r t h e Sioux c h i e f who e x e c u t e d
it.

I n 1 8 6 9 , m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s forwarded t o t h e Commissioner o f

I n d i a n A f f a i r s a copy of t h i s agreement which was i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f
a Sioux c h i e f .

I t d e s c r i b e d t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e west o f t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n

23 Ind. C l . Comrn. 315

of t h e Red River w i t h t h e mouth of t h e E u f f a l o R i v e r , a s f o l l o w s :

. . . t h e n f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e of Red R i v e r down t o the mouth of Goose R i v e r , t h e n a s c e n d i n g t h e course or' Gocse River up t o i t s s o u r c e , t h e n t a k i n g a q e s t c r l y c o u r s e and p a s s i n g through t h e c e n t r e of D e v i l ' s Lake; a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e l a k e , c o n t i n u i n g i t s w e s t e r l y c o u r s e t o Maison-du-Chien, from t h e m e taking a northwesterly d i r e c t i o n t o i t s terminus a t a p o i n t on t h e M i s s o u r i River w i t h i n gunshot sound of L i t t l e Knife River. ( P l . Ex. 40, Dkt. 1 1 3 ) .
I n 1863, t h e Pembina Band d e s c r i b e d i t s b o u n d a r i e s somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y t o Governor Alexander Ramsey, w i t h whom i t was n e g o t i a t i n g . The description was a s f o l l o w s : **'Thence up t h e main channel of t h e Cheyenne R i v e r t o a p o i n t about which t h e y could n o t a g r e e among t h e m s e l v e s , t o Dog House, a h i l l on t h e M i s s o u r i Coteau; t h e n c e n o r t h t o t h e Plouse R i v e r ; t h e n c e (PI. a l o n g Mouse River t o t h e B r i t i s h boundary." Ex. 1, Dkt. 113, p. 74). A f t e r 1800, t h e A r i k a r a , Nandan and H i d a t s a were l o c a t e d west of t h e w e s t b r a n c h of t h e S o u r i s River. I n t h e s u m e r of 1851,

d u r i n g a c h o l e r a epidemic a t F o r t B e r t h o l d , some of t h e F o r t B e r t h o l d I n d i a n s d i s p e r s e d f o r a s h o r t time t o s i t e s a s f a r e a s t a s t h e T u r t l e Mountains. They remained i n t h e s e s i t e s o n l y through t h e s i n g l e

18.

I n t h e 1 8 0 0 ' s t h e b u f f a l o herds d i s a p p e a r e d and w h i t e s e t t l e r s
I n 1892,

i n c r e a s i n g l y moved i n t o t h e Chippewa l a n d s i n North Dakota.

t h r e e commissioners were a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e T u r t l e Mountain Chippewas f o r a c e s s i o n of t h e i r l a n d s .

They w e r e

i n s t r u c t e d t o t a k e a census of t h e T u r t l e Mountain Band, t o o b t a i n a c e s s i o n of i t s l a n d s and t o a r r a n g e f o r i t s s e t t l e m e n t on a r e s e r v a t i o n .

2 3 Ind. C L . Corn. 3L5

336

I n 1831, Agent Waugh of F o r t T o t t e n had s e l e c t e d a committee of

1 6 f u l l bloods and 16 mixed bloods t o a s c e r t a i n who were American
I n d i a n s and members of t h e band. This committee was r s q u e s t e d by t h e

McCumber Commission t o a s s i s t i n t a k i n g t h e census. L i t t l e S h e l l and h i s f o l l o w e r s d e s i r e d a 30 s,uare v a t i o n a t T u r t l e Mountain. mile r e s e r -

idhen t h e commission r e f u s e d t o d i s c u s s

t h i s , L i t t l e S h e l l and h i s f o l l o w e r s l e f t t h e meeting, and t h e Comm i t t e e of 3 2 , which had a s s i s t e d t h e McCumber Conmission i n t h e c e n s u s , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t r i b e i n n e g o t i a t i n g a n agreement t o c e d e t h e land. By t h e terms of t h e McCumber>Agreement, t h e United S t a t e s a c q u i r e d a 1 1 t h e l a n d i n North Dakota owned by t h e Plains-Ojibwa, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e r e s e r v a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n A r t i c l e 2 ok t h e Agreement. I n 1904, Congress approved t h e McCumber Agreement w i t h amendments, and r e q u i r e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y of t h e members of t h e T u r t l e Mountain Band, i n g e n e r a l c o u n c i l l a w f u l l y convened f o r t h a t purpose, c o n s e n t t o t h e amendments and r e l e a s e a l l c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e United S t a t e s b e f o r e payments would be made.
A m a j o r i t y of t h o s e a t t e n d i n g t h e m e e t i n g

of t h e band approved t h e agreement a s r e v i s e d on F e b r u a r y 15, 1905. Thus t h e v a l u a t i o n d a t e f o r t h e land i n q u e s t i o n i s F e b r u a r y 15, 1905. 19. C o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e evidence, we f i n d t h a t t h e P l a i n s - O j i b w a

e x c l u s i v e l y used and occupied f o r a long time p r i o r t o 1905 t h e f o l l o w i n g area: Beginning a t the 9 3 t h p a r a l l e l where i t c r o s s e s t h e I n t e r n a t iona L Boundary, running due s o u t h a l o n g t h e 9 8 t h p a r a l l c l t o t h c p o i n t a t which i t i n t e r s e c t s t h e PIicIdle Branch of t h e Forcst o r S a l t River; t h e n ~ o u t h w e s t t o t h e n o r t h c a s ~ c r n m o s t p o i n t on Stump Lake,

23 I n d . C l . Corn. 315

which i s t h e p o i n t where Stump Lake i s i n t e r s e c t e d by t h c s t r e a m r u n n i n g between Stump Lake and Coon Lake; then w c s t e r l y through t h e evil's Lake complex t o t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r of t h e town of Einnewaukan; t h e n i n a s o u t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n t o Dog Den B u t t e , which i s a p a r t of t h e Missouri Coteau; t h e n i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n t o t h e southwest t i p of B u f f a l o Lodge Lake, which i s where t h a t Lake i s i n t e r s e c t e d by S o u t h Egg Creek; t h e n due west t o t h e w e s t e r n branch of t h e S o u r i s o r Mouse R i v e r ; t h e n up t h e S o u r i s R i v e r t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r of Lake D a r l i n g , then c o n t i n u i n g up t h e S o u r i s River t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary; t h e n e a s t along t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary t o t h e place of beginning. The Plains-Ojibwa d i d n o t e x c l u s i v e l y u s e and occupy f o r a l o n g t i n e ~ r i o r o 1905 any of t h e remainder of t h e l a n d i n N o r t h Dakota t
8

c l a i n e d i n t h i s c a s e by p l a i n t i f f s .

/

ipJohn.,'T. Vance , Cormnis s i o n e r . .

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