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R. . SHELL IN AUL STAGES OF GUN L]3E AUTHOR: PSSED: Superintendent Research Trials Group Deputy Director (Research)' (A.LS GROUP REPORT ON FIRING TRI&LS W[TH THE 120 M. P. Ma sters) Director F.hM. Chobham Lane. V. 1957 .R.D.Ut-. E. (Ascot 1160).. 214/FV IE "FIHTINGK VEHICLES RESE. IF ?E PROJECT NO: F.E. (LANOLINE-TREITED) SHOT 1ID H.e-. /T. 7__j / RESFRCH DIVISION TRL. S.305 .V. 214 USING .SSIFIED oo COPY NO: S 38 3. S. Chertsey. 20th February. T=NK GUN MOUNTED IN CONQUEROR F. E.ASSI---- M.RCH IM'~ DElVELOPNVENT~ ESTABLISMI1ENT.CL!.V..D.) FILE NO: RF//2/6EPOT NO: T.

A.F.E.T./:acks I 2 ID. Bovington R. B. G. Sec. Co-ord. of S.C.O.A.B. Bovington R-A. D/PC(T) D/TS (One for Sighting Section) 3 4 6 5 7 9 12 14 16 18 21 D/EL D..(Tech.I&C.R. T. D. D.C. R. A. V. of A.D. Equipmenk . Gunnery School S.. D. .O. Bovington R. V. R/FV and Spares 8 1013 15 17 19 20 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 - 25 45 U~CF P"* I D~ . H./Arm.A.B.G. F.A.DISTRIBUTION D. (Kirkcudbright) T/S D. (Col.ing. .C. D/A.R./ R. C.A.C. Cooper) A.Q. (One for S. G. D.F. R.T. I.C.) H. O. R.) D. Centre.V.R.

000 yds. S. Effect of barrel wear on -T. C.000 yds.E.E. Flash-back and after-burn.p. S. A. S.S.D.tENDAT ION Particulars of Ammunition I 2 2 4 Displacement of m. and ivizzle Velocities Recorded During Firings AW UNCLASS1ED . CONFIRv&TION OF GUN LIFE SHELL 7 8 APPENDIX I FIGURES CONCLUSIONS RECO!.i. Shell Record of Bore Measurements at I in. Both types were fired series for series./T.S. D. lanoline-treated shot and iLE. I. S. and 2. starting with a new gun and continuThe information is under the following main ing until the gun vas shot-out. /T. (iii) on I. headings: (i) Dispersion at ranges of 1. 1. S. of H. Contimed firings until barrel was shotout. shell. and probability of hitting.E. shell and (ii) (iii) FATSH-BACK AND AFTER-BURN EFFECTS OF VIND AD DRIFT ON H. with Barrel Wear Displacement of m. with Barrel Wear Effects of Wind and Drift on HE.m.E.p. 4 5 6 shot.E. (iv) Effects of wind and drift Gun life and loss of muzzle velocity. (v TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTIONS I 2 3 INTRODJCTION 1THOD OF TEST RESULTS (i) Dispersion until reaching normal condemning limit. tank gun mounted in Conqueror tank. of A. using A. shell. of R. (ii) Effects of barrel wear on drop of H. S.UNCL 'F ABSTRACT This report aescribes firings with a 120 m.i. S..P. P. D.500 yds. S.

INTRODUCTION 1. . was used with breech ring No.P. mean wear (her.C.S. during the summer.SECRET ORIGIN I. Displacement of I.25". 1. Eskmeals). (iii) Velocities of all rounds fired were obtained by 3 channel P. shot and H.S.D.D.S. range are shoym in Table 2 (page 4). Arising from the A. (v) The speed and direction of the wind were recorded at two points on a line parallel to the line of fire. (ii) Both types of anmnition were fired series for series (10 rounds per series) at each range until the dispersion increased to abnormal The dimensions. I . S.D.S. and the dispersion of either type had not The moan values for each type at each deteriorated ulth gun wear. mounted in Conqueror tank No.E. WTHOD OF TEST (i) One 120 m. this observation applied whether the projectile . shell when the propellant charge for both The report types was NQ/S. are shown in Table I (pages 2 and 3). i. gun mounted in "Conway" F.P.D.214/FV IE. shot and H.S.R. and vert. F./T.A.V..E. shell.vas case ramed or stick rammed during the loading operation.) at 1" C. F./T.D.R. the propellant charge for each type of ammunition has been changed (details of anunition used in this trial are shown in Appendix 1) and in an attempt to reduct. shot. firings the most notable feature that can be attributed to tho lanolino treatment is the complete absence of "hIld rounds" and the extremely small number of rounds rejected during Only one miss was recorded .R.P. vertical targets at 1.E. of R. was measured 5 minutes after the completion of each series.P. SECRET 3. 282-094 and NQ/S. modified for.000 yds.1 F. had exceeded the normal condemning limit .m. A"R. andthe velocities shown in the report are muzzle velocities. the "core" tapers have been treated with lanolin. (iv) The effects of vrind and drift on the H. (iii) Flash-back and after-burn./T.2 Subsequent to these firings. shell due to gn wear and the effects (ii) on the probability of hitting when the range to the target is not known. of R. dispersion of 0.500 yds.E.E. Report (No.D. and 2. barrel diameter at 1" C.S. (P. showed that the accuracy of both types of anunition vis not affected until the wear of the barrel at I" C.V.P.36A (mean hor. S. of the series. Totals of ammunition fired at this stage of the trial.V.22 min. (iv) Flash-back and after-burn were recorded by visual observation. No./T.P.C. The records were corrected for the distance from the gun muzzle to midway between the sets of skyscreens. and 214 rds. 2.m.S.p. This trial was initiated by the Research Trials Group under F.25".E.either ty\e . exceeded 0. (v) Confirmation of effective gun life. I/507. excluding 5 cleaner rounds (2 A. 1956. and 3 H.E.S... at Kirkcudbrightp to obtain information under the following headings:shell against (i) Dispersion of A.this occurred vAen the gun wear analysis.E. at all ranges) or 1. H. indIcating that the wear limit had been reached. and vert. the dispersion of the iI.I 34-04 0 respectively.e.. 214. 40 BA 76. S.4004 to assess the accuracy of A. 1.S.000 yds.D. of R.V. S.D. 145) described trials with the 120 m. . RESJLT S 3.i.D. and E.E. = 0. Project Sheet No.3 The trials reported herein were carr-fed out in Conqueror. L/322. S.1 Results of firings for dispersion obtained until the barrel reached the normal condemning limit. fume extraction.V. equipments by arrangement with C. barrel.and two strikes were rejected The because if their position relative to the m.) equalled 190 rds.

26 0. 0.D. /T. E./T. F S.34 0. I" C. S. S. 0. A.P.767 4. 0. Hor.718 Chal Te. S. H.38 4661 4. Vert.32 0.25 0. 0.6 0.P.25 0.p.E.P. Vnrt Type of Ammulnition 1. H.s. S. S.5 0. E. 845 4.D.E.S. S.816 61 60 4672 4.ES- 0. of R.S.858 60 64 A.65 0.P.P.S. S.P. 0.E. H./T.25 Vert.873 56 A.25 0.43 4669 4.S.i 0 Hor. H. 0.78k 55 59 A. D. &S A./T.S. D. S.S./T.S. 2.D.SECRE Table Dispersion Values arc Shc A. D.25 0. A.26 0.) 4.P. 0. H. H. 4656 4 461b 4.895 60 A./T./T.S. A. D. S.39 0.800 55 A. H.41 4697 4. sean L (f.P.000 Yds. S.D.S.27 0. P./T. H.P. 0.6 4707 4715 4. -V. SDCRET .D.E.751 6r 0.28 4779 4.47 0. 0. E..P.22 4800 4. H.833 H. P.000 Yds. S.39 0. D. (ins. Records D. A. 1. P& S. S. D./T.735 5- A./T. D.D. P. P./T. E. H. 62 A.S. S. . E. A. H.) 4780 1 Iean Dia. H. E.500 Yds.29 Hor. 5] H. 0./T.E.D.E. 34 4662 4./T.S.26 034 4665 4.905 63 2.44 4657 4.881./T.S.

23 2483 4.905 65 0.25 254 4.S.) Charge Temp.39 0. Vert.33 2550 4752 53 55 59 0.29 60 0. Hor.24. ---- 1. 61 0. Hor. i.13 2566 4.) I C.24 2544 2554 4.32 2521 2533 0.16 2569 4.s.E.801 62 60 0. V. () S.786 50 50 55 0.735 63 65 0.31 2587 4. 57 0.21 2. DORKE 0.836 55 56 o. Records Charge Tezp.718 4. H.28 0.23 56 0.33 0..27 2532 -4.25 254.860 61.2 -2559 4.24 0. - 4ean Mean Ia. .000 Yds.834. ort.1 -0.000 Yds.39 0.500 Yds.718 60 61 57 0.32 2500 4. 27 63 0. (f. °F. - Vert. of' R (04. Hor. 4.16 60 64 0.884 63 . -L 2. 4.2 0.ECRET 'able I c Shoym in Mile.p. CF.873 56 62 0.895 61 0.28 0.28 0.45 024 0.

to 9' 0 0R 3-- 41 0*0 44) 0~0 0 0 ________ n U-1 p p C.3 .

H.36 0. H.132 0. H.972 4.964. Temp. D.95".Da S. t45.35 0.6 mi.24 2510 4619 2528 4568 2490 4.000 Yds. diameter at I" Co of R.E.D.21 Mean all Ranges Hor.S.000 Yds.2 Continued Firings Since the barrel wear of 0. the strike on ground of the occurred.31 Vert. A.. Mean MLV. 5 rounds.7 0.E.S.52 0.S. " A.32 0. discarded pot was recorded for all rounds. 0. Its mean value (hor. D.m.500 Yds.34 0.29 0.E. S.23 compares with the result obtained in 1953 and contained in F. exceeds 4. A.E. P. all ranges) is recorded as having an S. Vert. Vert. when the mean value for case rain-aed p.974 50 55 58 59 54 55 5550 51 0.22./T. A. further firings are shown in Table 3 (continuing from Table I). C.91 0. (0. Table 3 Type of Ammn.964 4./T.S.R. Vert.29 0. 0.37 0. H. 2.26 0.E. Verto f.) at i in. Hor.26 0.D. P. Report No.-ojectiles was 1. E.43 0. However. 0.974 4.26 Vert. S. is the dispersion of the H.S.SECRET Table 2 1 .S.500 Yds.p. of R. 1. before the last series. Hor. Hor. 3. and vert.V. and when a comparatively large number of "wild rounds" During firings with A. P.000 Yds.S. SECRET ./T. Mean (ins. 1.18 $) S.D.000 Yds. this represents at a deterioration of about 5G/ on the 1953 value of 0.s. H.972 4.P.R. 0. Ch.3 0.R.E. It is apparent from the dispersion values shown in Table 3 that very little useful life remains in the 120 m. OF. 5/10 missed target.S.S.38 0. shell.3 0.25" had not affected the dispersion of either type of ammunition.55 0. Hor.32 0. Hor.29 Vert.E.S. /T. H.9544.972 4. 0.D.D.25 2506 2521 N.P.26 A. Hor. A. 0. 0. N. --0 1 of A-mm Type 1.R. firings were contirued to determine what The results of these further useful life remained in the gun barrel. the zones are about the same as measured during other firings and no correlation exists between Another apparent important factor strike of pot and strike of core.39 0. of 0. H. it is doubtful if this increase in dispersion will affect the probability of hitting targets at unknown ranges.3 min S.23 0. 2.21 0.. 34 0.38 0.973 4. 4.E. 4. tank gun barrel when the bore However.

t 3. S.E. A.000 yds.S. of R. Series to series variation = I min. 48 min. I.1 Effects on H. the gun had fired another 25 rds. 4th qtr.D. of R. S rounds fired have been plotted (figure 1) in order to determine displacement due to gun wear throughout the life of the gn.29 i vert./T.SECRET in which five rounds (H. 29 min. Thus if the angles of tangent elevation for a new gun are taken as:at 1. per 0. shot .2 Effects on A.S.E. shot should be the same throughout gun life. SECRET . S.1" vwear at the C. of R.p. hor.D. at 2. due to gun wear.000 yds. P. 7 min. making totals (fired for dispersion) of 215 rds.shows that there is no effect due to gun wear. 3.500 yds. 11 rin. incidental errors. S.E. (8. New gun range visually estimated. The percentage probabilities are shown in Table 4.3 and a correction equal to 1. S.P.5 min. 1.fl.up to the point when gun wear at " C.2 ) at 2. Obtained from 7 series. is achieved when the angles of tangent elevation are: at I.D. S.3. 0. and 50 rds. 0. i (as found during this trial).P. 3.1" wear. scale by a fixed amount.E. Target with the First Round of a H./T.S.S.3. and the probability of hitting with A.E. and 264 rds. 0.i. Ammunition The mean points of impact of all series of H.S.OO yds. gun.23 9 S.000. 40a 13/) 51 20./T.25" .i. H..H. Series to series variation = 0. -Table 4 Probability of Hitting a 7' 6" Sq. S.p.H. ./ 27/ 51. (21. 1.53 m".at 1.E. rangefinder/operator error 15 R S.000 yds.D. However.H. H.000 Yds.S./T. 2. This leads to a simple method of compensating the gunner's sight for gun barrel vear by offsetting the sight datum of the H. according to the bore measurement at 1" C. Obtained from 8 series. In the absence of any correction for this drop of the m. Hor. of H. S.29 #ivert.3 Effect of Gun Wear on Position of Mean Point of IMa.P. The mean points of impact of all series are plotted in figure 2.D. 99 93/ 571/ 84% 64. E. (14.D. 5.500 yds.D.P.64 min. 0. it was found that the smallest mean displacement of the m. the effects on the probability of hitting with the first round of an engagement will be very serious.34 S. Shot An examination of the positions of the mean points of impact of all series of A.D. S. A. D. It Vill be seen that (although not theoretically justifiable) it is possible to draw a straight line with the same slope through each set of values at the three ranges (1.000 yds. is applied./T. 15 m"n Obtained from 5 series. The factors and their values used in the calculations are: gun dispersion.500. Thus the values shown are those expected under ideal range conditions. Engagement Target Range New gun. Series to series variation = 0.).000 Yds. 72 min.D. adequate compensation will be provided throughout gun life. S.6 ) at 1.500 Yds. 2. 0.) missed the target. had reached 0.

500 yds.p. Shot The results of the analysis of the lateral displacement of show inconsistency to such A. and 5 with H.E. and 50 rounds of H. using a different gun. with A. and 2.D. of R. figure 3.E. against the mean nuzzle velocity recorded for each series fired. although in this trial some 25 rounds of A. hazard.. reaches 0.C.36 mils.S. The results will.S. S. shot due to crosswind ar drift a degree that they are not sufficiently reliable to warrant publication. shot has an S. Measurements taken during this tank gun is 0. although on Severe occasions of severe flash-back the appearance can be alarming.D. expected from the 120 m. or 1.SECRET 4 FIASH-BACK AND AFTER-BURN Flash-back is defined as the emission of flames from the chamber when the breech opens and the empty cartridge case is ejected on semiautomatic (S .) action during run-out of the gun after firing. Drift. of 0. shot variation between 1. CONfmIRmTION OF GUN LIFE As previously stated.P./T.22 min. THE EFFECTS OF WIND A1TD DRIFT ON H.E.S. SHELL The speed and the direction of the wind relative to the line of at to points on a lino very fire iere recorded throughout the trial The records for all close to and parallel with the line of fire. it shows With A.1 treated A. but this is eliminated after-burn might present a more serious in Conqueror tank as the mpty cases from the breech are ejected automatically from the fighting compartment to outside the tank. After-burn is defined as flaming in the ejected cartridge case.* Table 5 Displacement in Range 10 f.P.V.E.s. S.25".D.25" wear at I" C.A. the normal condemning limit for the 120 m.S. COICLUSIONS The dispersion (mean horizontal and vertical) of the lanoline7. crossAind. S. With guns designed and fitted for ftne extraction.p.D.P.s. 6.P.000 Yds.P. SECRET . it may persist for several minutes.D. 5 mins. tank gun after wear at 1" C.S.D.P.000 yds. after the completion of each series. 6. 7.P.) were experienced.A. have been plotted trial.000 yds.p.E. remain in the records at F. with useful life may be The firings confirm that little H. however. and figure 4 shows that the maxium loss of nuzzle velocity due to wear of gun is about 250 f. rounds of H. S.E. 103 5. shot and about 100 f.s. of R. S.S. and the show that only one case of flash-back records made during this trial (with A.m. 60 2.D. shell. 5.m. were fired after the wear figure had been reached and before the target was missed due to the erratic trajectory of the rounds.500 Yds.S./T.e been resolved and the crosswind components (mean in of the two recording positions) have been plotted and are shov The effects are summarised in Table 5 below..D.D.P. little H The plots shown by a + sign are the results of firings of another trial made at 1. Neither are considered very seriously by the R.R. ha.000 Yds.) and eleven cases of after-burn (6 with A.2 33 60 120 Inches From Aiming Point 1.S. 27 Effects of Wind and Drift on A. instances of both flash-back and after-burn have decreased considerably.D. 1.

range scale datum mark in Conqueror. S.P. At this stage of wear it was found that the drop of muzzle velocity vas about 250 f. the inert filled) shell suggest that:(i) the lateral displacement of tne H.000 yds. D. and no reliable values were obtained. but with H. tank gun should remain at the Dresent measurement of 4. or 0.E. 7. 7. ivhen firing H.5 The results obtained on this trial using H.S. In the absence of any compensation for this it will have a serious effect on the probability of hitting the standard size target with the first round of an H.H. of R./T.E.E.3 The effect of gun barrel wear on the vertical displacement of A. S. crosswind should be 27" at 1. the "ild round" is very seldom experienced. when the barrel wear reaches 0.000 yds.m.S. both projectiles being case rammed. of 0.m. 7.E. P. and (ii) the lateral displacement of the H.S. 60" at 1.000 yds. gun in Conqueror tank. 7. it is recommended that the I.p.S. shell. 7.1H. of R.4 Flash-back and after-burn do not present a hazard when firing the 120 m..S. considering the other errors in tank gunnery this accuracy appears to be quite adequate. be modified by the addition of suitable further markings below it.2 The dispersion (mean horizontal and vertical) of the H. shell due to a 10 f.500 yds.500 yds.D.26 mils.7 The normal condenaing limit for the 120 m.214. 95" at 1" C.e.000 yds.L shell large vertical displacements may be expected during engagements at 2.P. (i.s. 7.9 min. shot were too inconsistent.S. the markings representing a correction of 1 5 min.H.2" at I" C.E.H.000 yds. when the range is determined using an optical rangefinder having an error of 15R 7.E. engagement.H. when firing A. shot and 100 f.E.. shot is insignificant.S.6 The results derived from the records made to determine the effects of crosswind and drift on the lateral displacement of A. 8. F. S. shell due to drift should be 33" at 1.s.p. . REameMT IONS To compensate for the effect of gun barrel war on the displacement of H. and 120" at 2. and 103" at 2. shell has an S. 1" of barrel wear. 60" at 1.V. per 0.S. SECRET .p.SECRET having lanoline-trcated core tapers.E.D. shell.E..s.D.

7 drms. Shell Cartridge LI TK. (Lanoline-treated) Amunition Cartridges Cartridge Q. 6 drms.A.SECRET APPENDIX 1 Particulars of Anminition A. Makes RLB/53 to D2/L/835/GE.1031. LI-A2. Shot A.EI filled G. 0 drms. 33 Lot 41 and igniter cartridge XI. 7/54.C33 Lot Weight of charge 11 lb.55 Inchterf. 120 r. Ammunition Up to Series Y4. Tank Gun. 4 ozs. 10 ozs. SECRET . Shell 0//202 Cy.351 = 300. S. Prac. K.P.P.aD 1/55. AA = 29 lb./T. Packed in C. 11rked F.E.F. Lot 5 Cy. Fitted with primer No.m.A. - 2/88/311 H.S. Date of proof 10.S. Propellant NH. From No. accepted Service stock.D. 1034. 9 ozw.V. Fitted with traser Filled to IA/1906. 155 Beyond Series 34. 033 Lot K. 0 ozs. N/W = 29 lb.E. Cartridge 6/GF D2i =109 Propellant NH. 21832. Weight of charge 11 lb.D. 35 Mk.D. Propellant NQi" 071 Lot B.R.11. S. I.

. :1 P-1 .S. 0 tt "! :.7 FIG* Ng I FIGHTING VEHICLES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT. i m T + 4 :77'_ .1.74...... 4_4 SOIZE tit -4 + DIA AT I C OF 4-9 IN 'POSITION' OF KIP 1..... PFAOJECTILE.... T.. 6 7-t"t:1 . + 4 ... 4_41 J i7 . .. ... 4 4 - : . i: Pi LL Liui:-. t .P....95 IN) 7TT 4:7 1IN 1 0 0 'T. . . . tl TW"'.. R.Hv- ti. . +1 i :44! 7......S... -4 VIEPTICAL DOTTED LIMIT F7 q q: I 4 CONDE: LINE: GUN INDICAT-E:S 15ARREL NOI?MAI- OF 7T T _ 7 7 7t7 -i44_4 tri i_ A: m.4 4141 44.SECRET .. WITH WCAO OF GUN H. lilt it1'.711 7:. BARREL t .. ------ DISPLACEMENT OF M.... :ffxf IX IIvi V i '41. 1 f + -4 T:. it*" IT fI + + R'+ 4 1- . ..!J 000 +: v 4 ilv- 7 0 jtjIT t. I tit + j -TlWW"'t H fH + 0 0 y IN TE 6 MIN.. to L:4'.3: 7171 -- ---- T o. ::1 -4 _7 Jlqi. F (4... I 4t 7.. VUH... ... 120 Vc GUN IN CONQUEROR REPORT N9 T. *1 : .E.. 4.- .4 Fn 7 1 14 777. Z9 MIN + t I. 1.

REPOR17 T. -. Til..NE IND11CATES NORMAL LIMIT OF GUN BARREL- CONDE'NIN11 _4o I~ i P-. .. . WITR A.MIN ii". .P. t V a MIN. ..rj T I'll -I t. +1 4.. 'T E.. tj + 114 E 1:w 44 + 4 t :7 ol t:: j: -Ti -T ....... 4iII ..rq t: m T..D.+ 441t 4t I 1 Hrd_'If 4 TT. 1b.ii 4 i4 iff M..... i t41 4w .P. ..S/T. :4 1 .I. . WEAR OF GUN SHOT BARREL 12014. N9 2 N9 .. .... !t J..... .X-0 4.... ... t' t 1+ 4. Bim AT I C OF... ++ lil ..O(F MP m L.41 - 41 _177 t4 y 9 x 11466AL 77 77 7! DOTTED L11.. . 'T..... R POSITION i. R . GUN IN CONQUEROR FIGHTING VEHICLES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT. ±J:L- pi . ... T 4 j t f 14_ 'T7 -7im BORE DIA A... .:..4 ::t*-: T 7= I p I. E:11 E... -tt .... + + it 15M y T.. a j !i t-:7 t J:7i L DiSPLAcEMENT OF M. ..E... ... .I: . I FIG. II. ..SECRET 1 7 1 j i. MIN 4:1 j.A .

... FIGHTING VEHICLES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT.... r!n 1.E..fi' jj4+ *4 j:.. N9 3.II ... ..S..... ':'7 L EFFECTS 0 N 0 F CR05SWIND....:11 Wit- tatittw DiSPLACEMENT 4 FROM MNY OF AIM(INCHE5) Rio 4 I.... . NCLASS031FIED REPORT N9 TR-7 FIG.It DRIFTu H. # I+ I 14 .. P f4 j T FROM POINT 0 . ..... ........ .. . ..I ##t# tt I z u V) . . SHELL 120% GUN IN COWMAJEROR. tt MM ml I! tn t! I tit. '41 4if.I IIII ..- A I'm trNCHIE m q ++ 4 ... . 7 rtn :il -EA t:l WEE) OF A 10ROUMD !SIENTS TH SERIES.. . 44 t 1 444 f IMF* 1-1-4 4: H444 1 0 t tl + -++ + 1#4 W" 14 44 -44 M . I m i . . t 4'1 4f 1".

E~ STBIHET _>R7 FG 9 FK3H11NG~u VEHLE .MUZZE VLOCIIES5H6WFAR OFEAC MEANVELOITIE FO EAC SERE6 ol ______l___l REOR 1 20MGU I ONURO. EEOMN 4.$fQXWUNCLASSIFIED I 77- -4- 0 -o 00 '. 00 4 - 14 T I N CvR ~wEt 5MNIIAo" MESURMEtT5 RECOD O SOE or COMPETiN SERES.

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