Kitchen Theory

Milk and Milk Products

Made by: Ardy Tristianto

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Table of Contents

Cover Page Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 1 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 2 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 3 Milk and Milk Products Effects on Human s Health ................................ ............................... 3 Milk Law Regulations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 3 Preservation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 3 Cheese and Yogurt Making Process ................................ ................................ ........................ 4 Fett I.T. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 References List ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 5

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Abstract: This essay discusses about the processes involved in the production of milk and dairy products andthe effects of milk on human s health. This essay also gives information about milk preservation methods and thelaw regulationsof milk production.

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Introduction Milk is produced by mammal s gland, such as cowand goat.Milk is a base of other dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, and an important part of human diet because it provides essential nutrition to our body. Milk and Milk Products Effect s on Human s Health Milk contains many essential nutrients needed by our body. It is an excellent source of casein, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D that are important for the growth of muscles, teeth and bones,andalso for nervous and immunity system (Patton: 2004, pp.112-118).It contains vitamin A, B6, B12, D, and E, and minerals, which is magnesium, zinc, and potassium, which help to maintain a healthy blood pressure. Milk also serves as an energy sourcefor the metabolism processes. Furthermore, consuming milk isproven to reduce the risk of kidney stones and breast cancer (Wilson and Temple: 2004, p.206 -212). However, researcher stated that over-consumption of milk can result in serious illnesses like diabetes and autismbecause of the high level of saturated fat and calories(Minton: 2009). Consuming milk and dairy products, especially yogurt,can also result in lactose intolerance and raise the risk of ovarian cancer and cataracts because of galactose contained in it (Leckie: undated). Milk Law Regulations Many countries adopt the Swiss and American law regulations which focus on sanitation of the milking process, milk container, sales procedure, and milk storagewhich has to be stored at 4°C and protected from lights and odours. Defatted milk or milk from other animal also has to be identified clearly.Next, un-homogenized milk must be stirred before resale to make sure the equality of the fat content. Lastly,strict checking on all the production processes, both in the laboratory and in the farm, is necessary to avoid any undesirablecontamination (Pauli: 1999, p.114). Preservation One method to preserve milk is by Pasteurization . Milk is heated to 75°C for fifteen seconds and cooled immediately.Pasteurized milk has storage time of ten days. Second is

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Ultra-Heat-Treated or UHT that is done by heating milk to 130-150°C and quickly cooled to below 5°C then packed and can last for elevenweeks (Nestlé: 1996, p.2). Third is Evaporated and Condensed Milk where water is extracted from the milk using heated vacuum. For evaporated, milk being sterilizedand can last for one year. For condensed milk, the addition of sugar helps to preserve the milk up to two years. Next is Dry Milk which usingdrums or spray drying method that changes the milk into powder form, whichcan last for one year. The last is homogenization where fat molecules are broken up and followed by pasteurization or UHT methods (Pauli: 1999, pp. 114-115). Cheese and Yogurt Making Process Processing milk makes cheese and yogurt. Cheese is made firstly by pasteurization, then Ripening or acidification of milk, then addition ofRennet enzyme to coagulate milk protein to cheese curd, then cutting and c ooking, then draining to remove the whey. Next is Salting to preserve the cheese, and thenpressing, then drying to allow protective rind to develops, Waxing, and finally aging process to let the character and flavour of the cheese to develop (Leverentz: 2007). Yogurt is made firstly by modifying the milk composition to increase the solids and fat contents. Next is Pasteurization and Homogenization of the modified milk, followed by fermentation in warm temperature. Finally, other ingredients e.g. fruits or flavouringcan be added too(Romanowski: undated). Fett I.T. In cheese products, the fat marking is called Fett I.T.. This represents the percentage mass of fat in the solid-drycheese, which indicates the richness of the cheese (Pauli: 1999, p.120). Conclusions In brief, milk and dairy products arehighly beneficial for our health as long as consumed within considerable amount.

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References List
Leckie, S. undated. Some Disadvantages of Milk.[online] Available at: http://www.angelfire.com/biz5/SoulFood2/nutrition/vegetarian/disadvantagemilk.html. [Accessed November 7th 2009].

Leverentz, J.R. 2007. Cheese Making Instructions.[online] Available at: http://www.leeners.com/cheese-making-process.html. [Accessed November 7 th 2009].

Minton, B.L. 2009. Milk Protein Linked to Autism, Schizophrenia, Diabetes and Heart Disease . [online] Available at: http://www.naturalnews.com/026684_cows_diabetes_casein.html . [Accessed November 6 th 2009].

Nestlé Food Services. 1996. A Solid Base for Professional Chefs. Switzerland: Nestlé Food Services.

Patton, S. 2004. Milk: Its Remarkable Contribution to Human Health and Well-Being. [online book] New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Available from: http://books.google.com/books?id=UO65_skj1BEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navli nks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false [Accessed November 7th 2009].

Pauli, P. 1999. Classical Cooking the Modern Way: Methods and Techniques. 3rd ed. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Romanowski, P. undated. Yogurt: How Products are Made. [online] Available at: http://www.enotes.com/how-products-encyclopedia/yogurt [Accessed November 6th 2009].

Wilson, T., Temple, N.J. 2004. Beverages in Nutrition and Health. [online book] New Jersey: Humana Press Inc. Available from: http://books.google.com/books?id=c9kBaiMK_sC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false [Accessed November 6th 2009].

*[Words Count: 623]

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