NATO/PfP Logistics Officers Course 2009


Belgrade, September 14th – 25 th 2009

1. Background 2. Language 3. Non-Attribution Policy Attendance 4. Plagiarism 5. Access to Internet

6. Arrival 7. Non-Academic Matters 8. Finance 9. Access to school building 10.Fraud 11.Copy Services 12.Refreshments During Breaks 13.Distribution Boxes 14.Uniform and Dress Policy 15.Meals 16.Mail Services 17.Security 18.Personal Responsibility 19.Services 20.Telephone 21.Emergency Medical Care 22.Public Transportation

23.General 24.Room Key 25.Syndicate Rooms 26.Rest rooms 27.Cleaning Service 28.Room Problems 29.Laundry Facilities 30.Animals/Pets 31. Accommodation Building Visitation 32.Social Events 33.Care and Maintenance of Facilities and Equipment 34.Open Flame Devices and Combustibles 35.Quit Hours 36.Video cassette/CD players



Attendance is imperative and an unexcused absence may result in a student being removed from the course and returned to his nation. Attendance Attendance is mandatory for all events scheduled on the weekly calendar. which occurred in 2002. you must tell the course staff. Please make a request through your National Senior who will act on your behalf. No translation is provided. especially when other international students are involved in common work. In other words. If you want to have an excused absence for personal reasons other than illness. upon the order of Minister of defence of Serbia and Montenegro. 3. you must receive approval in advance from the Course Director.are strictly speakers own and are assumed to represent his or her institution or government. Please be advised that it is expected that students (primarily from Serbia) will not communicate in their national languages during educational program and activities. presentations. 6. 4. 14 October. "what is said at the PKOC stays at the PKOC". All speeches. 3 . the PKOC adheres to a strict practice of "non-attribution". It is forbidden to attribute remarks to the speaker. After decision of Republic of Montenegro to obtain a full sovereignty. after 10 years absence. Background The PKOC was established in 2003. Plagiarism Plagiarism can result immediate removal of the participant from the course and return to his/her nation. All documents will be published in English. Non-Attribution Policy In order to encourage free and open discussion. Language Policy Course working language is English. Long absence due to illness will be discussed with the National Authorities. Access to Internet Students will be provided free Internet access after the lectures in the syndicate rooms during working time and 24 hours access in accommodation building. since June 2006. It was the result of renewal of participation of SMAF personnel in PKOs. PKOC becomes the Serbian Armed Forces PKOC. If you are not able to attend the lecture or any other activity because of illness. remarks and discussions made here . 5.whether by the members of the Instructors Team. 2.PART I SERBIAN ARMED FORCES PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS CENTER 1. visitors or students .

Access to the school building All students will be able to access the PKOC only at certain times: MON-FRI 08. Copy Service For any copying please contact the Course Admin Officer. Distribution boxes Each student is assigned an individual distribution box. 13. For any other beverages students can use the vending machine in the PKOC hall. +381648329455).19. part called Banjica (phonetically: Baniza). including formal dismissal from the institution. soft drinks and mineral water. Fraud Fraud against the PKOC shall be dealt with as a serious offence that is not condoned. daily allowances and travel costs of instructors and students sent by her. 10.PART II ADMINISTRATIVE AND GENERAL INFORMATION 7. 12. Refreshments during breaks During the morning break. Many administrative announcements are distributed to the students via distribution boxes.00 hrs the students are able to enter the building only through the back door. Arrival The PKOC is located in the General Staff barracks in Belgrade. which is used to disseminate course schedules. 8. The PKOC abhors any form of dishonesty and any wilful intent to deceive can result in severe penalties. They are located in the PKOC hall next to the conference room. Notes 4 . students will be provided with coffee. 14. mail. course readings and general information on a wide range of activities. Please check your distribution boxes daily. in accordance with national regulations pay salaries. Finance Each country shall. 11.00 . Non Academic Matters The local points for all non-academic matters during working hours are the Course Director Capt Saša Vujčić (mob. and during the afternoon break. with coffee all free of charge.

The weather in the Serbia can be inclement at times. The participants do not have access to 5 . The ID card should be worn and be visible at all times. instructors or fellow students are also routed through the distribution boxes.19. Name Centar za mirovne operacije Združene operativne komande GŠ VS Neznakog junaka 38 11000 Beograd Serbia 18.10 .30 Dinner: 18. Some of you may find the food bland while the others may find it to spicy. 15.07. − Welcome & Farewell dinner. Meals We will do our best to provide everybody with satisfactory food. Warm civilian clothing should be worn for all outdoor visits and activities. As there are good gym facilities available near the PKOC. Breakfast: 07. Smart casual.40 Lunch: 13. sports kit is also recommended for those who wish to take part in physical activity. 16.15 17.30. please be tolerant and treat the meals as another form of intercultural exchange. Mail service Since PKOC is located in Belgrade the students can use the country's postal system.and memos from the course staff.35 .14. Students with specific nutritional needs will be provided by appropriate meals. Military combat / battle dress uniform (temperate climate). warm outdoor clothing and shower proof jackets are therefore strongly recommended. Security General Temporary ID cards will be provided to all participants. − Outdoor activities and sightseeing of the Belgrade. − Classroom activities. Mail should be addressed as follows: Rank. Please report any unsatisfactory conditions or poor service at the dining facility directly to Course Director. − Sport activities. Civilian clothing. Uniform and dress policy During this course the following outfit will be needed: − Reporting to PKOC.

No cameras are allowed in the barracks. Protect your personal property . Do not put items in your pockets until you have paid for them. Sexual harassment Proper behaviours toward the opposite sex is fundamental to all cultures represented at the PKOC. Exchange offices or banks are very common in the city and there are no significant differences in rates among different exchange offices. Climbing any structure in the barracks is forbidden. Rewiring or tampering with any electrical outlets. unwanted physical contact and actions of similar nature. 19. smoke detectors. The security of the perimeter is the responsibility of the guard’s force. which may cause injury. The PKOC follows accepted statutes that govern the standards of acceptable behaviours between the sexes. Close and lock all windows when you leave your room.thinks PREVENTION. keep it until you come back to the PKOC. is prohibited. All possible measures will be taken to maintain to confidentiality. Improper behaviours toward members of the opposite sex will not be tolerated. Theft It is understood that all students will respect the property of the others. Personal responsibility Security within the barracks The PKOC is located in a closed military installation. this can be considered as shoplifting. Horseplay such as pushing and shoving on stairs and running in halls. All financial transactions are in Serbian dinars. Running should be in the direction of the oncoming traffic. They will not steal. These statutes specifically forbid such unacceptable behaviours as: lewd and suggestive language. Site safety Jogging on site is not permitted. Misconduct could result in dismissal from the PKOC and referral to Serbian/national authorities for possible prosecution. fire alarm systems. In some stores you must pay for the items in the section where you have found the item. Shopping When shopping in Serbia. We ask that each student be especially mindful of the sensitive subject. lights and heaters is a serious offence. Report missing or stolen items immediately to the Course Director. and will be reported for investigation. 6 . Light colour or reflective material is encouraged during periods of limited visibility. Do not give the money to the cashier until the bill is totalled. Do not throw away the cash register ticket. For jogging use the areas out of the barracks. you must be careful not to pass the check out register area with the merchandise you have not yet paid. Still we strongly recommend that you never leave valuables or personal items unattended at any time. Do not take items from one section of the store to another.restricted areas. No weapons and/or ammunition are allowed in the Barracks.

we will withhold the student evaluation. What we will do: We will cooperate with the authorities and request that any investigation be completed without delay. we will end the students stay here. Services Bank facilities Banks can be found all around Belgrade. 20. a treadmill. or ask them to allow you to call. it brings discredit on us all and the mutual mission of international goodwill we promote here. The only exception is if the CO allows celebrations with some alcohol.Disciplinary action The Serbian Police will notify PKOC if a student is detained for suspicion of crime. Telephone Official Telephone and Faxes Only limited access for international calls is given at the PKOC. To make international official duty call or send an official fax you can do that through the deputy Course Director. The fitness room with different equipment. If the local authorities determine that the student was guilty. ATM machines are also everywhere around the town. We consider all our students to be future leaders of their countries. exercise cycles. If the investigation is not complete before graduation. Alcohol: There will be no drinking of alcohol in PKOC. The closest are 800m to the left of the PKOC. and rowing equipments can be found on the ground floor of the accommodation building. too. Nobody can be coerced into drinking. What we will not do: We will not presume quilt. smoking in the rooms is strictly FORBIDDEN. Physical Training The gym in the Military Academy can be used daily after working hours through Course administration. e. It is forbidden to drink or to store alcohol in the accommodation or the PKOC. please cooperate with them and identify yourself as a PKOC student. 21. If Serbian Police or the Military Police detains you. If one of us breaks the law. Religious service Serbian armed forces do not have any religious facilities inside of the barracks. drop them from the course and send them home. we will include that information in the student evaluation that is sent to the student's government. We will not take any action without clear evidence of innocence or guilt. If the result determines that one of our students is guilty. Smoking outside is allowed only beside the trash bin. Ask the police to call one of the emergency phones listed on the card you have been given. 7 .g. Tobacco and alcohol Tobacco:The only smoking area inside the PKOC is the PKOC central hall (in the corner) and in the front of accommodation facility.

If bought on the bus or trolley is 50 dinars. Please notify Course Staff in case of illness so that prior arrangements can be made. Pay telephones Pay phones are not provided in PKOC. 400 din. (1 Euro= aprox. including the passports and visas. please notify the Course Admin Officer in advance. but you can find them throughout town.after dialling 0). 42 dinars .Room telephones Telephones in the rooms can be used for receiving calls from outside only (+381 11 3958***). Emergency medical care In case of emergency medical help contact the Course Staff. 26. Syndicate rooms Syndicate rooms are available for student’s group working and rehearsal. Visas and passports The sending Nations are responsible for the travel arrangements of their student officers to Belgrade. Room key Room key is the student’s own responsibility and should be held all the time with you. 28.) plans to attend the graduation. Public transport The easiest way to get to the centre of city is to take trolley No. Rest Rooms Rest room is provided for student leisure time. in single bedrooms. outgoing calls are limited only for inside of barracks use or for local calls (Belgrade 011 postal code area . Serbia. minister. The PKOC cannot take any responsibility for the security of your room. Accommodation is free of charge. Cleaning 8 . General During your stay you will be accommodated in the "Mali Internat". 23. 25. The cost of the ticket is. etc. PART III ACCOMMODATION BUILDING OPERATING PROCEDURES 24. 95 dinars). Taxi from the PKOC to the town canter is approx. 22. Graduation and departure If a special guest from your country (ambassador.41. 27. if bought on any newspaper stand.

gas cookers. 29. etc. finding accommodation. Animals/pets Do not bring animals and pets into the residence building. Laundry facilities Clothing service is available in the accommodation building on the ground floor (the washers and a dryers). Please leave the laundry room clean and be considerate of others using the facilities. use of combustible chemicals. Students don't have to provide their own washing detergent. 34. 33. Care and maintenance of facilities and equipment All faults with working or living conditions should be reported to DCD immediately. Report any problems immediately to the reception desk. and lanterns in the residence building. The PKOC is unable to assist participants in such matters as securing visas. Recreational trips On 20 th September 2009 there will be a guided tour of the Belgrade city. If you make any damage to your room. Accommodation building visitation Overnight guest are not permitted in the accommodation building under any circumstances. 31. Irons and ironing boards are also available for students' use in the laundry room.Our cleaning personnel do cleaning of bathrooms and corridors. you may have to pay for the damage. It is in occupant’s responsibility to ensure that the accommodation stays in good order. fuels or cleaning fluids is also prohibited. Cleaning personnel is not allowed in your rooms so that means you are responsible for maintaining your rooms. Similarly. Do not try to fix the problem yourself or force the machines to work! Personal hygiene items can be bought at the GS Officers Mess. Room problems Any problems with the rooms should be reported to the Course Admin Officer. Open flame devices and combustibles Please do not use any open flame devices such as candles. 30. This prohibition includes family members. fabric softener etc. 32. 35. Social events Welcome dinner Welcome dinner will be held in one Belgrade restaurant on 14th September 2009. We will ensure prompt repair of all faulty items. 9 .

all electronic equipment will be shut of for the duration of the night. PART IV Serbia at a glance Flag Anthem: Bože Pravde Coat of Arms Capital Largest City Official language(s) Government President Prime Minister Formation and Independence Formation of Serbia Formation of the Serbian Empire Independence from the Ottoman Empire Formation of Yugoslavia Serbia and Montenegro union dissolved Area Total 1 I Belgrade 44°48’N 20°28’E Belgrade Serbian1 Republic Boris Tadić Vojislav Koštunica 850 1345 July 13.00-06.45-08. Rusyn. Video cassette/CD players. Quiet hours To respect every ones privacy and to ensure all residents are afforded the opportunity for a full nights rest. The definition of disturbance is a single complaint. 10 . 37. If a second complaint is received.30 (MON-FRI) and from 23.361 km2(111th) 34.36. and Croatian.00 (SAT-SUN) the volume of all TV. A third complaint will result in all violators being reported to their national representative or National Authorities.116 sq mi n Vojvodina. Hungarian. the following policies are in effect: from 23. in Kosovo-Metohia also: Albanian. the following languages are also official: Romanian. 2006 88. 1918 June 5. Slovak. Since VCR or CD players are not provided to the students by PKOC. students are allowed to bring their own and use them according to the regulations. 1878 December 1. radios and stereos will be turned down so as not to disturb other residents.

2002 census Density GDP(PPP) Total Per capita Currency Time Zone -Summer (DST) Internet TLD Calling code N/A 9. is a landlocked country in central and south-eastern Europe. The northern Serbian territories (the Serbian Despotate) were totally conquered in 1459 when Smederevo fell.203 102nd) Dinar2 (CSD) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) .46 billion (82nd) $5.yu(. The capital is Belgrade.cs reserved) +381 Serbia. covering the central part of the Balkan Peninsula and the southern part of the Pannonian Plain. A Serbian kingdom (centered around Duklja) was established in the 11th century. The Empire was disintegrated and fell to the Ottoman Turks after the historic Battle of Kosovo in 1389. The medieval Serbian state was re-formed in the Raška region in the 12th century by the Serbian Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja. 2 The Euro is used in Kosovo-Metohia. and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west. under Stefan the First Crowned.411 106.400. and Montenegro. It lasted until the end of the 12th century. Serbia borders Hungary to the north. Croatia.396. 11 . and Herzegovina in 1482. HISTORY The roots of the Serbian state date back to the 7th century and the House of Vlastimirović. Bosnia fell a few years after Smederevo.34/km2(70th) 275/sq mi 2005 estimate $43.000(83rd) 9. Romania and Bulgaria to the east. In 1220. Serbia became a kingdom. and in 1346. Stefan Dušan established the Serbian Empire.Water(%) Population 2005 est. the Republic of Macedonia and Albania to the south. officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија or Republika Srbija).

After the collapse of the second Yugoslavia in 1992 until the year 2003. Despite the civil wars in neighbouring Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria finally overpowered it. replaced the House of Obrenović. which lasted for 78 days. In 1876. However. The attacks were stopped when Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević agreed to remove all security forces. The struggle for a modern society. The Serbian Army won several major victories against Austria-Hungary during World War I. As it was semiindependent from the Ottoman Empire. was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. which resulted in Germany declaring war on Russia in support of its ally Austria-Hungary. which was signed at the Congress of Berlin by the Great Powers. Montenegro. as German military planners wished to avoid a war on two fronts against both Russia and France. the House of Karađorđević. Serbia was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. granted complete independence only to Serbia and Montenegro. human rights and a nation-state lasted almost three decades and was completed with the adoption of the constitution on 15th February 1835. popularly called Nedić's Serbia.L. Between 1998 and 1999.000 casualties . Serbia. but the joint forces of Germany. who blocked their unification until the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 and WW I.264. Serbia remained peaceful until 1998. except from 1842 to 1858. The First Serbian Uprising of 1804-1813. led by Đorđe Petrović (also known as Karađorđe or "Black George"). 12 . and 58% of its male population. 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo in Austria-Hungary by Gavrilo Princip. the Treaty of Berlin of 1878. together with Montenegro. In 1945. However. Serbia was a German-occupied puppet state that included present-day Central Serbia and Banat. was a founding member of the Kingdom of Serbs. From 1815 to 1903. served as a pretext for Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia. a South Slav unionist.Between 1459 and 1804. they attacked France first. and Bosnia declared war against the Ottoman Empire and proclaimed their unification. Russia started to mobilise its troops in defence of its ally Serbia. especially against Serbs and Jews. Austrian subject and member of ‘’The Young Bosnia’’. The occupying powers committed numerous crimes against the civilian population. who was descendants of Đorđe Petrović. later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. led by Josip Broz Tito until his death in 1980. along with Montenegro. the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. leaving Bosnia and Raška to Austria-Hungary. Serbia was established as one of the federal units of the second Yugoslavia. The June 28. This eventually culminated in all the major European Powers being drawn into the war. In 1903. After 1918. it is considered to be the precursor of the formation of modern Serbia. Serbia had 1. and the Second Serbian Uprising of 1815 resulted in the establishment of the Principality of Serbia. Serbia. Croats and Slovenes. Serbia. continued clashes in Kosovo-Metohija between Serbian and Yugoslav security forces and the “K. During World War II. despite three Austrian invasions and numerous rebellions. when Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević ruled Serbia. the House of Obrenović ruled the Serbian state. In World War I.A” prompted a NATO aerial bombardment.28% of its total population.

with cold winters. into which the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had been transformed. state-certified results showed 55. and a more Adriatic climate in the south with hot. On June 3. It shares borders with Albania. BosniaHerzegovina. From 2003 to 2006. the Republic of Macedonia. the National Assembly of Serbia declared Serbia the successor to the State Union. The Serbian climate varies between a continental climate in the north. which was just above the 55% required by the referendum. and Romania. Serbia is landlocked. The next day. although the Danube River provides shipping access to inland Europe and the Black Sea. ancient mountains and hills. The Danube River dominates the north. On May 21. Montenegro held a referendum to determine whether or not to end the union with Serbia. humid summers with well distributed rainfall patterns. Hungary.5% of voters in favour of independence. Serbia's terrain ranges from the rich. dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy inland snowfall. and hot.including the military and the police. GEOGRAPHY Serbia is located in the Balkans (a historically and geographically distinct region of south-eastern Europe) and in the Pannonian Plain (a region of central Europe). the Parliament of Montenegro declared Montenegro independent of the State Union and on June 5. ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS 13 . and have them replaced by a body of international police and coalition troops of the UN and NATO. Croatia. Montenegro. and. 2006. limestone ranges and basins in the east. the Morava River. Serbia was part of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. flows through the more mountainous southern regions. Bulgaria. fertile plains of the northern Vojvodina region. A tributary. in the southeast.

leader of the Democratic Party of Serbia. The districts are further divided into 108 municipalities.Political map of Serbia Serbia is divided into 29 districts (5 of which are in Kosovo-Metohija. which is presently under the administration of the United Nations. leaving the Democratic Party (DS) in overall control. and it has no regional government of its own. outside of central government administration) and the city of Belgrade. Central Serbia is not an administrative division (unlike the two autonomous provinces). 14 . POLITICS On 4 February 2003 the parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia agreed to a weaker form of cooperation between Serbia and Montenegro within a commonwealth called Serbia and Montenegro. He was elected with 53% of the vote in the second round of the Serbian presidential election held on 27 June 2004. This usage was also employed in Serbo-Croatian during the Yugoslav era (in the form of "uža Srbija" literally: narrower Serbia). together with G17 Plus and coalition SPO-NS. Nevertheless. in 2004 the DSS gathered enough support to form the new Government of Serbia. The part of Serbia that is neither in Kosovo and Metohija nor in Vojvodina is called Central Serbia. The current President of Serbia is Boris Tadić. Its use in English is purely geographical without any particular political meaning being implied. It has two autonomous provinces: Kosovo and Metohija in the south (with 30 municipalities). and the support of the Socialist Party of Serbia. After the ousting of Slobodan Milošević on 5 October 2000. the country was governed by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia. leader of the Democratic Party (DS). In English this region is often called "Serbia proper" to denote "the part of the Republic of Serbia not including the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo". The Prime Minister of Serbia is Vojislav Koštunica. Tensions gradually increased within the coalition until the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) left the government. and Vojvodina in the north (with 46 municipalities). following several unsuccessful elections since 2002.

Note: The English language sometimes uses the varieties such are "Serbia proper" or "Narrower Serbia").79%. Bunjevci 0.77%. flows through Serbia. in particular the valley of the Morava.43%.71%. who replaced Slobodan Milošević as Yugoslav president in October of 2000. Romanians. Macedonians 0. Together with the former Yugoslav republics of Slovenia. English: Central Serbia.50%. E771.58%. The Morava valley route. Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Slovaks. is often described as "the crossroads between East and West". with more than 25 different national communities. as well as the E662. and E851 pass through the country. Serbian Latin: Centralna Srbija. of which: Serbs 65%.78%. Hungarians 14. the current SCG figures may be reduced by approximately 6% . which is one of the primary reasons for its turbulent history. Roma 1. that the country has been organised from parts ruled by the former Muslim Ottoman Empire in the south and parts ruled by the former Catholic Habsburg Empire in the north. Ruthenians 0. Significant minorities include Albanians (who are a majority in the province of Kosovo-Metohia). Hungarians. Slovaks 2. Bulgarians. which originates in the fact. E763. and Priština International Airport (last one is located in the Serbian province of Kosovo-Metohija). European routes E65. Roma. Romanians 1. For future GDP (purchasing power parity) and GDP (official exchange rate) of Serbia. The E70 westwards from Belgrade and most of the E75 are modern highways of motorway / autobahn standard or close to that. Vojislav Koštunica.75%. is the former Yugoslav president.The current Prime Minister of the Government of Serbia. the province of Vojvodina and Central Serbia (Serbian Cyrillic: Централна Србија. The northern province of Vojvodina is the most developed part of the country in terms of economic strength. Vojvodina was under the administration of Austria-Hungary before the First World War. the province has a population of about 2 million. central Europe's connection to the Black Sea. Niš Constantine the Great Airport. E75 and E80. etc. as of March 2004.97%. E70. regional affiliation 15 . The national carrier is Jat Airways and the railway system is operated by Beovoz in Belgrade and by ZTP Yugoslavia on the national level. Montenegrins 1. Serbia consists of three territories: the province of Kosovo and Metohia. There are three international airports in Serbia: Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport. Croats. which avoids mountainous regions. Vojvodina is one of the most ethnically diverse territories in Europe. According to the last completed census (2002). E762.3%. The two provinces are ethnically diverse. The Danube River. DEMOGRAPHICS Mostly Serbs populate Serbia. undeclared 2. ECONOMY The following economic data from the IMF and CIA apply to the former state union of Serbia and Montenegro (SCG). Croats 2. is by far the easiest way of travelling overland from continental Europe to Greece and Asia Minor. Yugoslavs 2.45%.the average proportion of Montenegro's GDP within the total for SCG between 2003 and 2006. TRANSPORTATION Serbia. Bosniaks. E761.

and between the Ottoman Empire and the Austrian Empire (later Austria Hungary). The monasteries of Serbia. Slovenians. Of course.50%.411 Vojvodina: 2. not Roman Catholics. built largely in the Middle Ages.0. Poles.000 CULTURE Serbia is one of Europe's most culturally diverse countries.23%. both regions have influenced each other. They also use the Cyrillic alphabet. Ukrainians 0. are one of the most valuable and visible traces of medieval Serbia's association with the Byzantium.116.479. while the north is culturally Central European.725 Central Serbia: 5. The Byzantine Empire's influence on Serbia was perhaps the greatest. Armed Forces Day Notes BELGRADE 16 . the south is rather more Oriental.686 Kosovo and Metohija: 1. others (Albanians. Chinese etc). The borders between large empires ran through the territory of today's Serbia for long periods in history: between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire. Population statistics of Serbia (Estimate May 2005) Serbia (total): 9.800. with their own national church the Serb Orthodox Church. although in the past century the Roman alphabet has gained ground enormously. Germans. As a result. and so the distinction between north and south is artificial to some extent. Serbs are Orthodox Christians.396. SERBIAN HOLIDAYS Date January 1/2 January 7 January 14 January 27 February 15 April 17 April 19 May 1/2 May 9 June 28 Name New Year's Day Orthodox Christmas National Holiday (Orthodox New Year) Saint Sava's feast Day Sretenje Orthodox Good Friday Orthodox Easter Labour Day Victory Day Vidovdan (Martyr's Day) In memory of soldiers fallen at the Battle of Kosovo 1389 "Српска Нова Година" "Srpska Nova Godina" Day of Spirituality Serbian National Day.

beside Athens. The official language is Serbian.6 million inhabitants. while the first record of the name Belgrade dates back to 878 A. and 15. In the field of traffic and transport. the greatest urban whole of the Balkan Peninsula. as a port for river and air traffic. As a result of its tumultuous history. Belgrade is one of the oldest cities in Europe and. The oldest archaeological artifacts from Belgrade area date back to the fifth millennium B. 40 armies have conquered Belgrade. During its long and tumultuous history. while foreigners are recommended to use English in communication. and 38 times it has been raised up from the ashes. in the Balkan Peninsula. at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers. many nations live in Belgrade for centuries.6% of the territory of Serbia. It spreads over 3. an intersection of the roads of Eastern and Western Europe. Also. and as a telecommunication canter. it is a city of the highest importance as a road and railway canter. Belgrade is the capital of Serbian culture. 31. and the majority of the populations make Serbs (86%) of Orthodox persuasion.2% of all employed workers in Serbia work in Belgrade. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe and since ancient times it has been an important traffic focal point.Belgrade (Beograd) is the capital of Serbia. The members of a Celtic tribe founded Singidunum in the III century B.8% of Serbian population lives in this city.C.D.. Belgrade is situated at the place where the Sava joins the Danube. 17 . education.C. It is located in the southeast of Europe. having about 1. science and economy.

on the banks of the Danube river. that are the sunsets. and in winter murky clouds and dark red hazes smother them. The free trade zone is located in the wider area of Belgrade. then commerce and banking. established in 1832. covering 2. they are broad and bright like desert mirages. carries the rain mixed with the dust of panonian plain.Important economic and agricultural capacities are developed in Belgrade. and it breaks there and pours down over the scattered town. established in 1841 and the National Theatre. 30% of the national product of Serbia is made in Belgrade. even in autumn when it grows heavy with the autumn stars in swarms. and the seat of the University of Art. even in spring when it seems that it also blooms. the National Museum. And in every time of year frequently come the days when the flame of that sun setting in the plain. between the rivers beneath Belgrade. It has the greatest concentration of institutions of national importance in the field of science and art. Serbian Nobel Prize laureate. as a compensation to this strange town for everything that isn't there. The city is also the seat of the Belgrade University. Smederevo and Pancevo. driven by the mad wind. established in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy: the National Library of Serbia. along with the ground." Written about Belgrade by: Ivo Andrić. "The sky above Belgrade is wide and high. Then. even during winter serenities with their icy splendour. unstable but always beautiful. even of those houses it otherwise poorly illuminates. having its own autonomous city government. having their own local governmental bodies. Always beautiful and rich. But the greatest splendour of that sky above Belgrade. gets reflected way up in the high celestial dome.000 sqm of business space. Belgrade is the capital of Serbian culture. education and science. and a consolation because of everything that shouldn't be there. In autumn and in summer. especially metallurgy. HISTORY 18 . There is the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. the reddish tint of the sun paints even the remotest corners of Belgrade and reflects into the windows. established in 1869. for a moment. metalworking industry and electronic industry. even during summer storms when the whole of it turns into a single gloomy cloud which. Also. Its territory is divided into 17 municipalities. Belgrade has the status of a separate territorial unit in Serbia. founded in 1808 as the Great School.

in a cave in Čukarica and near the Bajloni market. exhibitions.000 theatrical performances. monuments. Vinča near Belgrade comes among the most important settlements and cultural sites of the prehistoric period. drinking fountains. CULTURE AND ART Belgrade is the centre of culture and art of Serbia and Montenegro. concerts.Belgrade. Streets. is one of the oldest cities in Europe. Necropolises of the Bronze and Metal Ages as well as the evidence of different cultural influences have been discovered at these locations. archaeological sites. and other sights that deserve recommendation. Remains of human bones and skulls of Neanderthals found in the stone-pit near Leštane. The presence of Illyrians is characteristic for the Bronze Age.. Upper Town. performance events. parks. It is Belgrade where our most notable artists create. The archaeological excavations at Rospi Ćuprija. squares.000 years. Zemun and Vinča confirm hypotheses that the Belgrade area has been intensively inhabited and that its population has been engaged in plough agriculture and other supporting economic activities. It indicates that the area of Belgrade has been continually inhabited and that the intensity of the settling has been getting higher and higher. where over 9. Remains of the late Stone Age culture have been found in Vinčia. a city of very tumultuous history. Many of them have been given the status of cultural assets.. SIGHTS There are spots in Belgrade you must definitely see and feel. above the Sava and Dunav confluence. Žarkovo and in Upper Town. date back to the early Stone Age. Many of today's settlements in Belgrade surroundings lie on cultural layers of earlier prehistoric settlements. and other artistic programs are presented and where prominent authors in the world of art are 19 . the Sava and the Danube has been inhabited as early as Palaeolithic period. Karaburma. The area around two great rivers. Its history lasts full 7.

8 institutions for protection of cultural values. it has abundant vitality. BEMUS. International Competition of Music Youth. and also the supporter of 38 events in the field of culture performed in Belgrade. cultural monuments and other immovable cultural treasures. Belgrade Book Fair). BITEF. Belgrade is an unusual mosaic built up by centuries of overlapping civilizations in which everyone finds at least something that reminds him of home. at the same time the contributor in the implementation of schedules and scheduled attractions of 101 institutions and artistic associations. It is Belgrade where the most significant works of architecture are located. The City of Belgrade is the founder of 9 cultural events (FEST. BELEF. 4 libraries. Joy of Europe. There is no place in the world with such a natural combination of oriental passion and European finesse. On the other hand. sense of humour. the National Museum. curiosity. Belgrade has been repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt.hosted. obviously wrapped up in the inimitable Belgrade charm. Having stood on the path of many conquests going both from the East and from the West. This is not a tourist slogan but the truth. We are not bearing in mind the well know Serbian hospitality that seems to grow with the number of kilometres our guest has made to come to Belgrade. The City of Belgrade is the founder of 34 cultural institutions (10 theatres. That's why you will never get bored in Belgrade! Here are six convincing reasons for you to visit Belgrade as soon as possible: 20 . WHY BELGRADE? Come to a city where you will feel at home. with Kalemegdan accommodating Belgrade Fortress. the National Theatre and the University of Arts. Festival of Documentary and Short film. and has not the continuity of style and the elegance of similar European big cities. The Secretariat of Culture within the City Administration is in charge of culture and art. numerous archaeological sites with remnants of developed civilization and culture on Belgrade territory from prehistory until this day. October Salon. 12 cultural centers and galleries) and the supporter of 2 public companies. Belgrade is the centre of the highest state and national institutions of culture and art: Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences. the National Library of Serbia.

Belgrade Centuries . This is testified by a nearly Ancient sources provide the oldest known name for Belgrade . the fertile plain and a rich hinterland. 6000 years long history . This interpretation indicates the existence of two ethnic roots and is based on the belief that the earlier inhabitants were Singis. and the name of the city gained a Greek sound: Singidunum became Singidon. sports and fair events BELGRADE THROUGH CENTURIES The first settlements on the territory of present day Belgrade date back to the fourth millennium B. and that the name of the settlement came about when the Celts migrated here and finally mixed with the indigenous population. entertainment. i. Favored by the weaknesses in the defence of the Byzantine border.two rivers and a lot of green Belgrade Events . Singidunum passed over to the Eastern Empire. i.Singidunum. Vinča is a prehistoric location on the very bank of the Danube. a natural crossroad of river and land trails were a temptation for all peoples that roamed the region in ancient times.e. Seemingly.Orthodox and other temples Green Belgrade .Belgraders seen through art. With the division of the Roman Empire in 395.C.C. this is a compound word made of the name of the Dacian tribe called Singi and the Celtic word dunum witch means fortress. with remains of material culture of prehistoric man (Neolithic plastics). The stone built fortress rising above the rivers was dubbed Beli Grad (white city). 21 . The name Beograd is officially mentioned for the first time in an epistle dated April 16th 878. bohemianism and politics Belgrade Sights . Slavs started frequently crossing the Danube in the 6th century and gradually settled in the area. town. Byzantium. sent by Pope John VIII to prince Boris of Bulgaria.history of one of the oldest European cities Belgrade Spirit . The first settlers didn't choose this area by accident.what you just must see Religious Belgrade . sport. Two big rivers the Danube and the Sava.and the first written documents date back to the 3rd century B.e. The name of the settlement was preserved throughout the Roman rule.calendar of cultural.

Find your favourite place in Belgrade. Cyril and St.Belgrade is mentioned in several Slavic manuscripts written between 11th and 15th century. peaceful corners in their city. Method.promoters of Slavic literacy: St. The most relevant remarks are found in the St. They've grown accustomed to them. Between the 16th and 19th century Belgrade is referred to with various names in different languages: Alba Graeca. Alba Bulgarica. all these names are translations of the Slavic word Beograd. BELGRADE SITIES Kalemegdan Belgrade Fortress Old Belgrade City center "Skadarliia" Slavija and the surrounding zone Zemun Some of the important city streets have been traced nearly a dozen centuries ago. Bello grado. since they see them every day! RELIGIOUS BELGRADE 22 . However. Griechisch Weissenburg.. The manuscript reveals that in 886. Castelbianco. Nandor Alba. Belgrade hosted two fugitives from Moravia . Strolling around the canter of the city you will be taking a walk through history one can breathe and feel in many places. Clement of Ohrid hagiography written at the end of 11th or at the beginning of 12th century. Don't just follow the recommendations of your hosts -Belgraders are often unaware of the many wonderful..

Ada Ciganlija island. Avala. GREEN BELGRADE When you feel like going outdoors in Belgrade. by sorry fate destroyed and nearly void. It is one of the ten holy feasts dedicated to Christ. In particular.forty days after Easter and ten days before Pentecost. Kosutnjak Hill. there is a traditional religious procession along the main city streets in which many Belgraders take part. 182 trees in Belgrade have been listed as natural monuments and protected by the law. along with other exceptional flora and fauna. Muzej Srpske pravoslavne crkve (Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church) The Museum was founded in 1954. Having rebuilt it. The blending of Orthodox Christianity. Toptider Park. always celebrated on a Thursday . I consecrated it to the Holy Mother of God. painted over the centuries. (Despot Stefan Lazarević) Along with Constantinople. Belgrade is one of the two towns in the world consecrated to the Holy Mother of God. The Belgrade green treasure covers an area of over 4000 hectares. Despot Stefan Lazarević has consecrated it in 1403 with a special charter. the following environments and sites enjoy special protection and status: 23 . Mt. Belgrade is one of the spiritual center of the Balkans. Patrijaršija Srpske pravoslavne crkve (Patriarchate of the Serbian Orthodox church) It was built in 1935. symbolizing the resurrection of the city from ashes. and its exhibits from the cultural history of Serbia make it one of the richest in the country. quoted by the despot's biographer Constantine the Philosopher in his works. The dominant religion in this area is Christian Orthodox. and it also serves as a library and a museum. the grand town of Belgrade. On that day. the biggest problem is deciding where to go first: The Danube and the Sava. on the ground were once stood the metropolitan's residence in 1847-49. the prince Lazar's mantle and the chalice of Ivan the Terrible . Byzantine culture and Slav soul is easily felt even in the smallest churches if one glances at the frescoes of rulers and saints. In the forests in the outskirts of Belgrade dozens of rare bird species live. Particularly valuable are the King Milutin's Shroud from 14th century. Ever since the town feast Belgrade celebrates is Ascension Day. The Russian architect Viktor Lukomski designed the building.the 1st czar of Russia. The Patriarchate is the residence of the Head of the Serbian Orthodox Church. In fact.I cometh and found the noblest burgh from ancient times.

-Zemunski City Park .-The "Jevremovac" Botanical Garden with over 250 species of trees 300 herbaceous species.and ornithological reservation for migratory birds -Veliko ratno ostrvo (Major War Island) . -Banjička suma (Banjica Forest) .as a cultural-historical heritage environment.a reservation for migratory ornitho-fauna -Pionirski park (Pioneers' Park) .as a protected cultural monuments environment. -Topčider Park and Kosutnjak Hill .a protected environment around the Stari Dvor (Old Court) monument -Kalemegdan .protected environment around the Belgrade Fortress and the ZOO. 24 .

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