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trSmpm 1

yxrqHk;xGufay:cJhonfh

r[mpnfomoem acwfOD;pmtkyf

avmuwGif opfqef; vSygonf[k aMuG;aMumf xGuaf y:vmaom t&m0w¬KwdYk onf olYxuf opfqef;aom
aemufaemuf t&m0w¬Krsm; xGuaf y:vmaomtcg ta[mif;tjzpfoYkd aumif;aumif;BuD;a&mufMu&\/ opfqef;
ygonfqakd om wcsKd Yenf;Oya'o ynm&yfonf aemufwcsed rf mS awGY&aom tajzrSet f & r[kwrf rSe[
f k ypfy,f
jcif;udyk if cH&wwfavonf/ þenf;ESiEf iS v f w
l Ykd onf raeYu taumif;qH;k qdak om tBuHÓPfwYkd uykd if ,aeY
tcsderf mS rsufu,G ûf yum ypfy,fwwfMuavonf/ vltrsm;ESihf qH;k jzwfxm;onfh taumif;qH;k qdak om qH;k jzwfcsuf
udyk if wem&Drjynfrh S raumif;[k qH;k jzwfjyefum pGeYf y,f ypfwwfMuonfvnf;½Sod nf/

þowfy|mef½rI w S ef nf;pmtkyif ,fonfum; vGecf ahJ om 37-ESpu f xGuaf y:cJ\


h ? odkYaomf þpmtkyfü yg½Sd
aom 0dyóem ½Irw S ef nf;rsm;onfum; ûyjyifajymif;vJp&m r½Sad om {um,er*¾-waMumif;wnf;aom c&D;-wck
wnf;aom vrf;a[mif; vrf;rSwjf zpfonfh owdy|mef½rI w S ef nf;rsm;om jzpfaomaMumifh ,cktcsdetf xd r½d;k
r[mif;bJ opfviG f awmufy yDjyifvsuf t½Sed tf [kef aumif;pGmjzifh Ed;k Mum;wuf<uvsuf ½Sad yonf/

þpmtkyrf S owdy|mef ½Irw S ef nf;wdYk onf pmtkyjf zpfay:p [kt


d wdwu
f mvu crf;em;0ifx h ,f wifw h ,f
pHn
k D enf;rSpD jH yjzpfcMhJ uovdyk if ,ckacwfrmS vnf; rwdrrf aumyJ vufawGU enf;ESihf a&maESmvsuf ½So
d nfjh yif aESmif;
acwf a,m*Drsm;ESihf okawoDrsm;twGuyf gtm;opf tifopfavmif;vsuf OD;wnfvyI ½f mS ;aeayonf/ xdYk aMumifh
aus;Zl;awmf½iS f r[mpnf q&mawmf bk&m;BuD;u þpmtkyif ,fukd 0dyóemvrf;nTeu f srf;[k &Jwif; cdik rf mpGm
emrnfay;vdu k jf cif; jzpf[efwal yonf/

'kwd,tBudrf pmtkyfjzpfay:vmyHk

þpmtkyf\ aemufausmzH;k wGif ]]qdycf eG ½f mG ? ausmif;tpfrBuD; a':qifEiS hf OD;uHcsde-f raomif;? armifneG fY-
r{qif?h armifxeG ;f atmif-rjrMunfwYkd\ "r®'geukov kd [ f k awGY&\/ ausmif;tpfrBuD; a':qifum r½Sad wmhNyD? ,ck
'kw, d tBudrf þpmtkyf jzpfay:vmonfrmS ausmif;tpfrBuD; a':qif\ ajr;rsm; jzpfMuaom OD;nGeYf -a':at;qifh
wdYk uolwYkd tzGm;\ ukov kd jf zpfaomtzd;k wef"r®&wemjzpfonfh þ0dyóemvrf;nTeu f srf;pmtkyif ,fukd aysmufu,G f
wdrjf rKyfroGm;apvdMk uay? wnfwefYaeapcsiMf u\? tzGm;\ ukov kd u
f kd topftopf xyfrH wd;k yGm;aeapcsifMu\?
xdYk aMumifh tzGm;\ ukov kd uf kd qufvufNyD; ukov kd ûf yvdyk gaMumif;udk OD;nGeYf -a':at;qifw h Ykd u aus;Zl;awmf½iS f
q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;tm; avQmufxm;Mu&m q&mawmf bk&m;BuD;u ukov kd ûf ycGihf ay;vdu
k yf gonf/

odYk aomf pmtkyrf mS 'kw, d urÇmppf tygt0if acwftqufqufukd jzwfoef;vm&ojzifh ½Sm;yg;aom pmtkyf
wtkyjf zpfí aeavNyD? ukov kd ½f iS u
f ud,
k w
f ikd v
f J pmtkyu
f kd ½SmazG\? eD;pyforl sm;uvJ 0dik ;f 0ef;½SmazGMu\? pmtkyf
½SmyHak wmf zGi&hf onfrmS tcsed u
f mv Mumanmif;oGm;awmh\/

pmtkyf'kv’bwtkyf

tcsdeMf umjrifph mG aysmufu,G f wdrjf rKyf aeaom þpmtkyu f kd &½Sv


d maom aus;Zl;awmf½iS f q&mawmf
bk&m;BuD;\ Zmwdjzpfonfh qdycf eG ½f mG rS 'umwOD;u 0rf;omtm;&pGmESihf ud, k wf ikd u
f ,
kd u
f s o,faqmifvmcJ\ h ?
odYk aomf vlom &efuek af &mufvmcJ&h \? pmtkyv f mydYk o\l c&D;aqmif ypön;f rsm;udk cg;ydu k Ef u
Id cf &H ojzifh pmtkyf
rSmum; tjcm; ypön;f rsm;ESit hf wl olc;kd aemufoYkd aumufaumufygoGm;&avonf/ odYk aomf tm;ravQmh? þpmtkyf
&½SEd ikd rf nfh ae&mrsm;udk qufvufppkH rf;jyef&m 'kw, d tBudrf þpmtkyif ,fukd &vmjyefonf? &ygaomfvnf;
aemufq;kH pmom;w½GuEf iS hf ausmbuf tzH;k pkwaf eí tcuftcJ½adS ejyef\/

xdYk aMumifh ½Sm&jyef\? aemufq;kH wwd,tBudrf ½SmawGYaom pmtkyrf mS um; txufaz:jyyg aumif;rI½iS f
trnfrsm; ygvmonfh tzH;k uav;ESiw hf uG aemufq;kH pm½Guyf g ygvmaomfvnf;tay:a'gifph eG ;f rsm; pkwaf eí
tay:qH;k rS pm 4-aMumif;rSm tjynft h pHk rygawmhay? odYk aomf uHaumif;ao;onfrmS pkwaf eonfh ,if;pmom;
trSmpm 2

rsm;onf ygVdtud;k om"ursm;omjzpfí rl&if;ygVd pmtkyrf sm;rSu;l ,l&\?,if;odYk ppD Ofumþpmtkyu f kd rlvaumif;
rI½iS rf sm; jzpfMuaom tqdyk g OD;nGeYf EiS hf a':at;qifw h Ykd u rçwnf vª'gef;í tjcm;aom ukov kd ½f iS rf sm;uvnf;
yg0ifv'ª gef;Muum 'kw, d tBudrf yHEk ydS x f w
k af 0vdu
k jf cif; jzpfygonf/þodYk þyHk tcuftcJ trsKd;rsdK;MuHKum
xGuaf y: vm&aom pmtkyjf zpfaomaMumifh þpmtkyu f kd pmtky'f v
k b
’ [k qdv
k u
kd jf cif; jzpfygonf/

OD;yOöi;f wdYk onf þpmtkyif ,fukd rawGY&bl;rD ,cifu qdv k Qif 1306-ckEpS rf mS xGuaf y:aom 0dyóem
½Ienf;usrf;BuD;udk yXrqH;k pmtky[ f k rSwo f m;xm;cJMh uonf/ 10-1-76-aeYurl ]]'Dpmtkyu f kd jyefyEkH ydS &f atmif
vufEydS pf ufeYJ ul;ay;prf;}}[k aus;Zl;awmf½iS f q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;u wm0efay;aomtcgrS þ0dyóem vrf;nTef
usr;f pmtkyo f nfom yXrqH;k pmtkyjf zpfaMumif;udk od&ayawmhonf/

]]rlvusrf;nTe;f eHygwfrsm;t&mwGif ,ckacwf q|rlpmtkyrf sm;&JU pmrsufEmS eHygwfukd vJv, S jf y&r,f}}[k


trdeYf ½o
dS jzifh usrf;nTe;f ½SmumrSbJ ygVd t|uxm #Dum 17-usrf;wdYk rS pmrsm;udk 71-ae&m cGí J jzefYí tESYH
jyxm;aMumif;udk &ifo h yf½aI rm tHMh obG,&f m awGY&ygawmhonf/ xdYk aMumifh þusrf;i,fukd usrf;nTe;f eHygwfrS wyg;
rûyrjyifyJ yifu, kd t
f wdik ;f jyefvnf½u kd Ef ydS x
f m;aom r[mpnf omoemacwfO;D usr;f uav;om jzpfaMumif;
udv
k nf; xyfavmif;í odaptyfygonf/

þ 0dyóem vrf;nTeu f srf; ü ygVd t|uxm #DumwdYk ukd 71-ae&m cGí J jyxm;&m0,f 0do'k rd¨ *frS 21-ae&m
r[m#DumrS 12-ae&m owdy|meokwrf S 8-ae&mç y#dorÇ'd gr*frS 6-ae&mç tbdan,sokwrf S 6-ae&mç
tjcm;usr;f rsm;rS wae&mpD ESpaf e&mpD jyxm;ojzifh ur®|mef;ESihf pyfqikd af om usr;f rsm;rS trsm;qH;k jyxm;jcif;
jzpfayonf/

þodYk rsm;pGmaom ygVd t|uxm #Dumrsm;udk ud;k um;í a&;om;xm;aomfvnf; ae&mwdik ;f rSm ygVd
pmom;rsm;rsm;BuD;xkwí f teuf½n S ½f n
S af jrmajrmBuD;udk qGiJ ifay;aeonf r[kwaf y/a,m*DÓPfawGY ud, k af wGY yg
aom owdy|mef½rI w S ef nf;udk OD;wnfí odyo f nf; uspfvpf cdik rf mpGmESihf ½Irw
S yf kH tESpo
f m& oufoufuo kd m
xkwEf w
I af &;om;&if; pyf&mqdik &f m ygVd t|uxm#DumwdYk ukd wdYk ½kH yif½h kH xd½kH rd½kH [yfr½d rkH Q xyfum n§yu f m
olYae&mESiohf l tcsufusus n§í d n§í d om jyoGm;jcif; jzpfayonf/

xdYk aMumifh þpmtkyo


f nf a,m*Drsm;\ tm;aq;wcGujf zpf\/ ur®|mef;q&mwdYk \ rSwaf usmufozG,f
jzpf\/ ygVd jrefrmpmay ynm½Siw f Ykd \ ayMudK; aywefozG,f jzpf\/ "r®uxduwdYk \ tjrKawozG,f jzpf\/
okawoDwdkY\ avhvmp&m &wemjywdu k Bf uD;ozG,f jzpf\/ edur© Z® Ñmo,"mwf ½So
d w
l Ykd \ vufo;kH awmifa0S;
ozG,jf zpf\/

þusrf;\ odyo f nf; uspfvpfyçkH aphpyfaocsmyHçk tcsuftvuf jynfph ykH çkH rSeu f efwu
d syHçk eufeoJ rd af rGYyçkH
jynf0h cdik rf m tESpo
f m&½Syd w
kH Ydk ukd ynm½Srd eS u
f zwfMunf½h rkH Qjzifyh if ½Si;f vif;odjrifum oabmcsif; tH0if*iG u
f s jzpfae
ayvdrrhf nf/

þodkYjzpf&jcif;rSm tb,faMumifhygenf;

þusr;f ûyol aus;Zl;awmf½iS f q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;onfum; yifu, kd o


f abmtm;jzifv
h nf; eufew J nfNidrf
aom oabm½So d nfjh yif tmp&d, e,vufuikd f enf;vrf;ydik af om rif;uGe;f oxHk aZw0efq&mawmf bk&m;BuD;xHrS
xH;k rSpD &H q&menf;ususjzifh av;vausmfrQ tm;xkwcf &hJ aomaMumif¤h if;? tuGeYf tnGeYf twGeYf tvGeYf rygbJ ygVd
t|uxm #Dumenf;usus or½d;k us ur®|mef;rsm;udo k m nTejf ya[mMum; a&;om;cJah omaMumif¤h if; þusr;f
þpmonf þodYk þyHk jynfph &kH jcif; jzpfayonf/
trSmpm 3

jynfhpHkyHkrSm-

þpmtkyf ESm 6-wGif ]]jrifqcJ Pü jrifw,f[k rrSwv f Qif tEko, udavom ude;f yHu k kd usOf;usOf;ESihf
ay:vGif xdrad tmif ½Si;f jyxm;\/ xdYk twl Mum;qJç eHqçJ pm;qJç xdqçJ odqJ cPwdYk ü rrSwv f Qif tEko,
udavom ude;f yHwk Ykd ukd (33-36-39-43-49) wdYk ü a,m*DawGUtwdik ;f a&;í owdy|mef ygVdawmfEiS hf ,Souf yf
jyxm;\/

27-30-35-wdYk ü ]]xdo k Ykd jrifw,f[k rSwpf Of rnfonfh ÓPftcdu


k üf rnfonft
h jcif;t&mtm;jzifh odyçkH
uif;Nidr;f yH}k }wdYk ukd jyxm;/

11-ü ]]usurf w
S q
f ifjcif pOf;pm;aeaom olwYkdrmS um; y&rwf ½kyef mrf obm0vu©Pmtppf ponfukd
rodEikd b
f J ynwfvu©Pm ponfuo kd m od&aMumif;}} udk OyrmESiw
hf uG axmufjyxm;ayonf/

trsm;tm;jzifh oGm;w,fç &yfw,fç xdik w


f ,fç tdyw f ,f ponfjzifo h m nTeMf um;avhç ½Irw
S af vh½MdS uonf/
roGm;rD (oGm;w,f[k rrSwrf )D ]]oGm;csiw
f ,f? oGm;csiw
f ,f}} [laom pdwOf ;D uav;u pí rSwzf Ykd nTeMf um;ol ½Irw S f
olrsm;rSmum; enf;yg;vSayonf/ aus;Zl;awmf½iS f r[mpnf q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;\ Xmersm;ü oGm;csiw f ,fç &yfcsif
w,f-paom pdwOf ;D uav;rsm;rS pí rSw&f efneT Mf um;xm;&m nTeMf um;&jcif; taMumif;&if;rsm;udk ESm(53-54) wdYk ü
uGuw f d tHus axmufjy nTeMf um;xm;ayonf/

13-46-51-52-53-54 ponfwYkd ü ½Irw S ef nf;rsm;udk jrefrm wZÆmynwfjzifh tdro


f ;kH pum;vH;k twdik ;f
½d;k ½d;k pif;pif;ESihf ½Si;f ½Si;f av; nTejf yoGm;\/

16-17-26-73 wdYk ü w0Dxv d ;kH odr;f MuHK;í rSw&f aMumif;udk jyxm;onfrmS vnf; euf½iI d ;f us,0f ef;aom
teuft"dygÜ ,f jzpfygvsuf usOf;usOf;ESihf yDjyifay:vGiaf tmif udik jf yovdk ydik Ef ikd v
f aS yonf/

81-ü a'oemuúrESihf y0wåu d rú udk cGjJ cm;í tuGuu f sus axmufjyxm;onf/ 85-ü xl;jcm;aom
w'*Fy[meftaMumif;udv
k nf; eD;pyf&m tjcm;w'*Fy[mefrsm;ESihf EdiI ;f ,SOí
f jyxm;ao;\/

olYacwfEiS hf olYtcg y&0g'Dy*k Kd¾ vfqw


kd m ½Spd jrJ r[kww f akH vm? xdYk aMumifh 87-üvnf; avmukw&å mr*fom
vQif tEko,udk y,fEikd \ f / avmuD0yd óemonf tEko,udk ry,fEikd [ f k xifjrif,q l aom xdak cwfu y&0g'D
yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;udk xdxrd rd u
d vdí t|uxm #Dumwnf;[laom ayMudK; aywefwYkdjzifh n§Ed iId ;f wdik ;f wm axmufjyNyD;vQif
y#dywf\ ab;&efwYkd ukd ÓPfawGYtajccHaom y&d,wåw d wH ikd ;f jzifh tcdik t
f rm um0dik ;f &Hxm;í jyxm;ay\/

þyHk þenf; jynfph x


kH rd í d tESpof m&½Sad om þ0dyóem vrf;nTeu f srf;udk 'kw,
d tBudrf jyefvnfyEkH ydS í
f
pmzwfy&dowf\ ESv;kH tdro f Ykd a&mufatmif ydYk aqmifqufo, G f aygif;ul;ay;&jcif;jzifh pmzwfy&dwo f wf\
pdwof EÅmef0,f waeYw&ufrQ tm;xkwv f pkd w
d f edur© ZÑmo,"mwfrsm; jzpfymG ; ay:ayguf ude;f atmif;oGm;onf
qdv
k Qifyif þtrSmpm a&;&usdK;eyfygNyD? &uf½n S v
f rsm; oJorJ rJ J tm;xkwaf wmhrnf[k qH;k jzwfEikd pf w
d f jzpfay:yg
vQifum; tb,frmS qdb k ,
G &f m ½Syd gawmhrnfenf;/ y#dywåo d moemawmftwGuf tm;wufb, G w
f &yf jzpfygayonf/
trSmpm 4

"r®puf[lonf vsifjrefpl;½S xufjrufvS\

þpmtkyif ,f jzpfay:NyD;aemuf tcsdet f cgtavsmuf wwfEikd o f rQ a[majymjyo&if; 9-ESpaf vmuftMum


1379-ckEpS u f rl aus;Zl;awmf½iS f q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;\ owdy|mefw&m;rsm;udk ud, k w
f ikd u
f sifo
h ;kH í Munfñkd
,HMk unfMuaom 'um 'umrrsm;onf urÇmvH;k qdik &f m 0dyóemjzefYjzL;a&;tzGUJ [k trnfwyfí tzGYJ wckzUJG NyD;vQif
vufvrS ;f rD&S mrSm omoemûyMu\/ xdt k zGUJ udk zGYJ pnf;pOfwek ;f u emrnfu MuD;us,fvyS gwum;? wurÇmvH;k ESYH pyfzYkd
rvG,u f [
l yk if xifcMhJ uao;onf/ odYk aomf q&m'um nDnw G pf mG omoemûy&if;yif wpwpESihf vufawGUusio hf ;kH
olrsm; wd;k yGm;vmonfEiS t hf rQ ,HMk unforl sm;rSm qxufwyH ;kd yGm;rsm;vmcJ&h m ,cktcgwGif aus;Zl;awmf½iS f
q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;\ owdy|mef *kP&f eHYwYkd onf jrefrmEdik if w H iG ;f 0,f ½GmtESYH jrdKYtESYH e,ftESYH oif;ysHY êudiv f iId f
onfomru tm½Swu kd w
f cGivf ;kH udk ausmfjzwfí Oa&my tar&dupaom urÇmt&yf&yftxd êudiv f iId f oif;ysHUum
wdik ;f odjynfausmf xifay:vSaom urÇmausmf q&mawmfb&k m;BuD; jzpfvmayonf/ ,if;odYk jzpf&onfrmS vnf;
ÓPfawGYtajccHaom owdy|mef"r®puf\ tpGr;f owåad Mumifyh ifjzpfayonf/ "r®pufonf vsifjrefp;l ½S\/ cdik rf m
awmifw h if;\/ aocsmuse\/ uGuw f td u
H s jzpf\/ xdYk aMumifh owå0gtm;vH;k at;Nidr;f &mrSef jrwfeAd mÁ efBuD;qDoYkd
"r®pufwyfqifxm;aom r*¾i, f mOfBuD;jzifh pD;eif;vdu k yf gEdik Mf uygap[k- yw¦emûyvsuf .......

1338-ck
t½Sifauvmo
0gqdv k
omoemh&yd of m
&efuek ûf rdU/

ed'gef;

r[mum½kPu d or®morÁK'¨ jzpfawmfru l ek af om jrwfpmG bk&m;ocifwYkd\ avmuü yGiahf wmfr&l jcif;\


vd&k if;y"metaMumif;BuD;rSm a0ae,s owå0gtaygif;wdYk tm; edAmÁ efcsr;f omBuD;udk &½Scd pH m;Edik Mf uap&ef &nfoefawmf
rljcif;yif jzpfayonf/ xd&k nfoefawmfrcl sut f wdik ;f edAmÁ efcsr;f omBuD;udk cHpm;&jcif;rSmvnf; rdrw d Ykd oEÅmefü
r*fÓPfç zdv k Ó
f Pf jzpfay:atmif 0dyóemtvkyu f kd wu,fwrf; tm;xkwEf ikd af om olwYkd EiS o hf m oufqikd af yonf/
xd0k yd óemtvkyu f kd tm;xkwrf rI mS vnf; jrwfpmG bk&m;a[mawmfro l nfh twdik ;f rSeu
f efpmG a[majymnTejf yol½ydS grS
ae&mwus jzpfEikd af yonf/

xdYk aMumifh yd#uwfusr;f wdYk ü uRr;f usif wwfajrmufawmfru l ek af om q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;wdYk onf rdrw d Ykd
pGr;f Edik o
f rQ tav;*½kûyum 0dyóemtm;xkwef nf;udk toD;toD; a[majym nTejf yawmfrMl uayukeo f nf/ xdo k Ykd
a[majymawmfrMl uaomaMumifh yd#uwf usr;f *efukd rwwfç rodaomolwYkdyif jzpfjim;aomfvnf; tm;xkwv f ykd gu
0dyóemtvkyu f kd vG,v
f ifw
h ul tm;xkwEf ikd Mf uonf/ uREfyk w
f Ykd tzdYk vGepf mG 0rf;ajrmufz,
G Bf uD; jzpfygayonf/

,cktcg oxHûk rdU aZw0efawmausmif;ü oDwif;oH;k aexdik af wmfral om rif;uGe;f aZw0ef q&mawmf bk&m;
onfvnf; 0dyóem enf;vrf;udk a[mMum; nTejf yawmfrMl uaom txufyg q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;wdYk wiG f tyg t0if
wyg; jzpfawmfral yonf/ ¤if;rif;uGe;f q&mawmf bk&m;BuD;rSm oDv;kH q&mawmf bk&m;BuD;\ wynfw h yg; jzpfaom
ppfuikd ;f awmif½;kd tv,fawm& q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;\ xHrS enf;edosudk cH,&l ½Sb d ;l onf[\ l /

,ckyEkH ydS t
f yfaom pmwrf;i,fuav;rsm;udk a&;om;í uREfyk w f Ykd tm;ay;cJah om bke;f awmfBuD; OD;aombe-
rSmvGecf ahJ om 8-ESpaf vmufu ¤if;rif;uGe;f aZw0efq&mawmf bk&m;BuD;xHü cdrk ;DS aexdik v f suf enf;edosukd cH,l
cJb
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vrf;rSet f ppfjzpfonf[k ,HMk unfEpS o f uf oabmusco hJ nf jzpfí jrwfpmG bk&m;wdYk vdv k m;awmf rl&if;jzpfaom edAmÁ ef
csr;f omBuD;\ eD;aom taMumif;tppftrSef jzpfonf[k ,HMk unftyf ,HMk unfxu kd v
f aS yaom þowdy|mef
½Irw S ef nf; 0dyóemtvkyw f &m;BuD;udk rdr\d aqGrsKd ;ÓwdwYkdtm; a[majymjyo&ef rsm;pGmvdv k m; awmifw
h jcif;
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h suf aepOftwGi;f rSmyif nDwa,mufaoqH;k oGm;
&m w&m; ra[mvdu k &f onfth wGuf rsm;pGmaemifw&cJo
h nf[\ l /
trSmpm 5

odYk jzpfí 1300 jynfEh pS f uqekv f twGi;f rSm oDwif;oH;k aexdik Nf rJjzpfaom armfvûrdiûf rdU awmif0ikd ;f uav;
wdu
k af usmif;rS xGucf mG cJí h rdr\ d Zmwdblrdjzpfaom a½Tbûkd rdUqdycf eG ½f mG odYk <ua&mufawmfrv
l mNyD;vQif (7) vcefYrQ
aexdik vf suf aqGrsdK;OmwdwYkd EiS w hf uG vma&mufMuaom yk*Kd¾ vftaygif;wdYk tm; owdy|mef½rI w S ef nf; 0dyóem
tvkyw f &m;BuD;udk pGr;f Edik of rQ a[majym nTejf yawmfral vonf/

xdo
k Ykd a[majymonfukd emcHrw S o f m;Muí o'¨g qE´veG pf mG tm;BuD;Muukeaf om yk*Kd¾ vfaygif;rsm;pGmwdYk onf
¤if;owdy|mef 0dyóemtvkyu f kd pGr;f Edik o
f rQêud;pm; tm;xkwMf uuke&f m tcsdKUaom yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd rmS þowdy|mef
½Irw
S ef nf;udk r*fzvkd ef Ad mÁ efoYkd a&mufaMumif; vrf;a[mif; vrf;rSe[ f k {uef,MkH unfcsuf &Muukeí f woufywfv;kH
tcGiohf mwdik ;f tm;xkw&f ef qH;k jzwfcsuf ½SMd uayuke\ f /

odYk jzpfí 0dyóem"r®a'oujzpfaom q&mbke;f awmfBuD;onf armfvûrdio f Ykd rdrjd yef<uoGm;aomtcg


¤if;wynfw h Ykd tm; owdy|mef½rI w
S ef nf;udk usrf;*efEiS hf ES;D aESm a[majymí tm;xkwEf ikd Mf uap&ef 0dyóemvrf;nTe-f
[k trnfwyfxm;aom pmwrf;wckEiS hf ypöKyÜew f &m;udk a½S;OD;pGm ydik ;f ydik ;f jcm;jcm;odatmif 0dyóem½Ioifah Mumif;
axmufxm;ud;k um;&ef pmwrf;wcktm;jzifh om"urSwpf pk mwrf;i,f 2-ckwYkd ukd tusOf;csKyfa&;om;í uREfyk w f Ykd tm;
ay;cJah vonf/

¤if;pmwrf;rsm;udk Munf½h v I akd om olwikd ;f tm;&atmif Munf½h cI iG rhf &bJ ½Sad ecJah v&m ,cktcgrSm
o'¨goDvponfwYkd EiS hf jynfph akH om qdycf eG ½f mG ae ausmif;trBuD; a':qifu Munf½h v I okd w
l ikd ;f tm;&yg;& 00BuD;
Munf½h MI uí r*fzv kd ef Ad mÁ efoYkd tjrefa&mufaMumif; aumif;jrwfaom 0dyóemtvkyu f kd vsifjrefpmG tm;xkwEf ikd Mf u
NyD;vQif jrwfpmG bk&m;ocifwYkd\ vdv k m;awmfr&l if;jzpfaom edAmÁ efcsr;f omBuD;udk &½Scd pH m;Edik Mf uap&ef &nfoef
awmifw h aom or®mqE´jzifh ¤if;pmwrf;i,f 2-ckukd yH½k u kd af pí "r®'ge ukov kd tf jzpf a0iSurf;vSr;f jcif;udk
ûyvduk yf gaMumif;/

armifxeG ;f [H? armifb;kd csKef


0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 6

0dyóem vrf;ñTeu
f sr;f
earm wó b*0awm t&[awm
or®morÁK'¨ó/

0Ed́wGm o-"r®oC
H ?H edAmÁ e r*¾a'ouH/
wóH 0dyóemr*¾? a'ouH r*¾ygyuH/

0dyóemr*¾a'ou-rnfaom þ0dyóem vrf;nTeu


f srf;ü 0dyóem[laomyk'\
f teufukd a½S;OD;pGm
½Sif;vif;jyaytHh/

tedpmö 'd0aoe 0d0ad "e tmuma&e yówDwd 0dyóem? t|omvdet


D |uxm pmrsufEmS eHygwf «95»

tedpmö 0'daoe? tedp-ö tp½SdonfwdkY\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h 0d0ad "e tmuma&e? trsdK;rsdK;aom tjcif;t&m
tm;jzif/h yówd? ½Ijrifwwf\/ £wdwo®m? xdYk aMumif/h 0dyóem? 0dyóemrnf\/

þt|uxmvm0dû*d[\ f t&tm;jzifh tedpö tp½Sad om trsdK;rsdK;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ½Ijrifaom


or®oetp tEkavmr tqH;k ½Sad om ÓPf (10) yg;onfomvQif-0dyóem tppfrnf\? tb,faMumifq h akd omf-
xdo k r®oetp-tEkavmrtqH;k ½Sad om ÓPf (10) yg;onfomvQif-tedpt ö p½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ½Ijrif
Edik af omaMumifh aywnf;/ tm;xkwpf ü jzpfay:aom emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPf ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf þÓPf 2-yg;wdYk onf
0dyóem tppfrrnfuek ?f tb,fah Mumifq h akd om xdÓ
k Pf 2-yg;wdYk wiG f emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPfonf emrf½yk w f Ykd \
oabmrQuo kd mvQif ydik ;f jcm;odjrifEikd \
f ? ypö,y&d*[¾ ÓPfonf tusdK;jzpfaom emrf½yk Ef iS w
hf uG taMumif;w&m;
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aywnf;/

xdYk aMumifh 0do'k rd̈ *f 'k eHygwf «241» üvnf; 0dyóem, p uvmyor®oeH tm'd-[k rdeYf qakd wmfral y\/

0dyóem, p? 0dyóemÓPf\vnf;/ tm'd? tpum; uvmyor®oeH? taygif;vdu


k t
f m;jzifh oH;k oyfaom
or®oe ÓPfaywnf;/

þt|uxmwdYk \ tvdt k m;jzifh emr½lyy&dapä'ç ypö, y&d*[


¾ þÓPf 2-yg;wdYk onf 0dyóem
tppfrrnfjim;aomfvnf; or®oe tp½Sad om (10) yg;aom 0dyóemÓPf tppfwYkd \ tajccH taMumif;&if;
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tjypfr½S[
d k rSw,
f u
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wenf;um;? 0d£wd Oyoa*¾g? yóemwd taw¬m? ay#aumya'oygVdawmf eHygwf (250)

0d£wd? 0d[o l nfum;? Oyoa*¾g? Oyom&wnf;? yóemwd yóem[lonfum;? taw¬m?


vd&k if;teufaywnf;/ þygVdawmf tvdt k m;jzifh 0do'´grSm teufx;l r½S?d Oyom&yk'rf Qom pum;wefqmrQom?
yóem [laom o'´guomvQif vd&k if;teufukd jy\[k qdak omaMumif?h ¤if;ygVdbmom yóem[laom yk'u f kd
½Ijrifjcif; odYk r[kwf ½Ijrifaom todÓPf[k jrefrmbmom jyefq&kd \/ xdYk aMumifh emrf-½kyfw&m;wdkYudk vu©Pm-
&oypöKy|mef y'|meftm;jzifh jzpfap? ½Ijrifjcif; odYk r[kwf ½Ijrifwwfaom todÓPf [lorQonf 0dyóemrnf\[k
qd&k m\/

þenf;ü emr½Iyy&dapä'ÓPfEiS hf ypö, y&d*[


¾ ÓPfrsm;onfvnf; pifppfrck stm;jzifh 0dyóemrnfuek \
f /

xd0k yd óemudk ov’uP


© m[lívnf; t|uxmwdYk ü ac:a0:ao;\/ xdYk aMumifh 0do'k rd̈ *f yXr tkyf eHygwf
(270) ESihf yg&mZduPft|uxm 'kw,d eHygwf (23) wdYk ü ov’uP
© mwd 0dyóem-[k rdeYf qakd wmfrMl uuke\
f /
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 7

ov’uP© mwd? ov’uP © m[lonfum;? 0dyóem? 0dyóemaywnf;/ xdYk aMumifh ov’uP © mESihf 0dyóem
wdYk rmS -o'´geuf uGjJ ym;aomfvnf; Aka'¨gESihf b*0gyk'w
f Ykd onf tbda",sw¬v&kd if;teuftm;jzifh wluek o f uJo
h Ykd
t&aumuf vd&k if;teufjzpfaom tbda",sw¬ 0peD,w¬tm;jzifh wlMuuke\ f / xdYk twl ygVdbmom 0dyóemyk'rf S
jyefqt kd yfaom ½Ijcif;[laom jrefrmpum;ESihf ov’uP © m[laom yk'rf S jyefqt kd yfaom rSwjf cif;[laom
jrefrmpum;rsm;onfvnf; toHuaJG omfvnf; vd&k if;teufrmS emrf½yk w f &m;wdYk ukd vu©Pm &o ypöKy|mef
y'|meftm;jzif¤h if; tedpö tp½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzif¤h if; xif½mS ;odjrifatmif ESv;kH oGi;f rI wckwnf;yif jzpfí
twlwyl if jzpfMuuke\ f /

xdYk aMumifh 0dyóemudk ½Ijcif; ½Iaom todÓPf [lí¤if;? rSwjf cif; rSwaf om todÓPf[í
l ¤if; ac:qdk
Edik af y\/

þusrf;i,füum; ygVdbmom ov’uP


© m-yk'rf S jyefqt
kd yfaom rSwjf cif;[laom jrefrmpum;udk y"mexm;
í a&;om;aytHh/

0dyóem {0 ra*¾g ykAb Á m*r*¾bm0awmwd 0dyóemra*¾g? yóem, 0gr a*¾g Oyga,mwd 0dyóemra*¾g?
wóa'oaum 0dyóemr*¾a'oaum *aE¦m? þodYk 0dû*d[ûf yí 0dyóemvrf;nTeu f srf;? ½Iy-kH rSwyf kH vrf;nTeu
f sr;f ?
½Ienf;=rSwef nf; vrf;nTeu
f srf;[lí qdv
k o
kd nf/

,cktcg r½Irw
S jf cif;ü tjypfujkd yí ½Irw
S jf cif;ütusdK;udjk yvsuf ½Irw
S yf u
kH kd tusOf;tm;jzifh jyqdak ytH/h

jzpfcu
kd jf zpfcu
kd ½f yk ef mrfwYkdurkd ½IrrSwb f aJ rharhavsmhavsmhayghayghqqaeaomolwYkd \oEÅmefü tEko,udav
omude;f 0yfíy&d,|k mef0w D u d rú udavomESit hf ukov kd u
f u
H ok v
kd u
f wH Ykd \ 0ifa&mufjzpfay:&m wHcg;aygufBuD;rsm;ESihf
tvm;wlaom tcdu k t f wefY cPumvBuD;rsm;rSm tusOf;tm;jzifh (6) yg;rQom ½SMd uuke\ f /

xdk (6) yg;wdYk rmS jrifaomcP 1? Mum;aomcP 2? eHaomcP? 3? pm;aomcP 4? xdaomcP 5?


odaomcP 6? þ(6)yg;wdYk aywnf;/

xdk (6) yg;wdYk wiG f jrifaomcP qdo k nfrmS ? pu©K'Gg&? pu©Kyom'[k ac:aom Munfvifonfh rsufp½d yk üf
½lyg½H[
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ac:aom rsupf x d üJ tqif;udk awGYaom jrifawGYvnf; jzpfay:\? pu©Koræó Zma0'em[k ac:aom
jrifvYkdaumif;wJo
h abm okca0'em? jrifvYkdraumif;wJo h abm 'kua© 0'em? jrifvYkdraumif;waumif;oabm Oayu©m
a0'em? þcHpm;rI (3) yg;wdYk wiG f wyg;yg;aom cHpm;rIvnf; jzpfay:\? þ'Gg&tm½Hk-0dnmPf-zó-a0'em[laom
(5) yg;aomw&m;wdYk \ nDnw G pf mG jzpfay:aom cPü jrifru I pd w
ö ckNyD;av\? þodYk w&m; ig;yg;wdYk
nDnw G af omtm;jzifh jrifruI pd wö ckNyD;aom cPudk jrifaomcP[k ac:\/

jrifaom cPü jrifaomoabmudk jrifw,f[k rrSwb f aJ rhavsmhíaeaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf jrifqcJ Pü ½Sad om
Munfvifaom rsupf ½d yk u f vkd J rSeu
f efpmG rod? jrif&aom tqif;½kyu f v kd J rSeu
f efpmG rod? jrifaom pdwu f v
kd J
rSeuf efpmG rod? jrifawGYaom zóudv k J rSeu f efpmG rod? jrifcpH m;rIa0'emudv k J rSeu f efpmG rod? tb,foYkd
rSeuf efpmG rodoenf;[lru l m;? vu©Pm &o ponftm;jzifh ½kyef mrfoabmrQ[k rod? a½SUjrifr-I aemufjrifrrI sm;pGm
qufpyfvsuf jzpfaeonfukd wckpw D ckpD ydik ;f jzwfírod? þodYk reS u f efpmG rodonfukd qdv k o
kd nf? Xdo
k YkdreS u
f efpmG
rod&aomw&m; ig;yg;wdYk ü? igbJ-olb?J a,musmf ;bJ-rde;f rbJ tjywftjcm;r½Sd wckwnf;bJ NrJw,f ponfjzifh
tvGt J rSm;tm;jzifh xifrwS of jd rifwwfaom t0dZmÆ arm[ jzpfoifjh zpfxu kd af omtcGihf ay:av\? þodYk t0dZmÆ jzpf
xduk o f nfukd yif tm&r®PmEko,-tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ w d yk EÜ aé c:aom t0dZmÆ Eko,ude;f 0yfonf[k qd&k onf?
¤if;t0dZmÆ Eko,ude;f vQif t0dZmÆ Eko,ESihf yl;wGí J jzpfwwfaom wPSmEko, 'd|mEko, ponfwYkd vnf; ude;f 0yf
av\/

xdo
k Ykd jrifqcJ Pü yg0ifaom w&m;ig;yg;wdYk ukd rSeuf efpmG rodojzifh t0dZmÆ Eko, tp½Sad om tEko,
udavomwdYk ude;f 0yfavNyD;aomaMumifh jrifqcJ Pü y&d,|k mef udavom rjzpfao;jim;aomfvnf; jrifNyD;onfrS
aemufcP? aemufumv? aemufaeY? aemufv? aemufEpS w f Ykdü taMumif;nDnw G yf gu xdrk eS u
f efpmG rodcahJ om
ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk EiS phf yfí igMunfvifw,f Munfvifwm ighrsufpb d ?J igjrifw,f jrifwm igbJ? ig\pdwb f ?J
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 8

jrifawGYwmigbJ? igjrifvYkdaumif;w,f raumif;bl;? jrifvYkdaumif;wmigbJ? jrifvYkdraumif;wmigbJ? a,musmf ;


udjk rifw,f? rde;f rudk jrifw,f? jrif&wma,musmf ;bJ? rde;f rbJ? vufajcbJ wH;k wdik b f J ponfjzifh tvGtJ rSm;tm;jzifh
BuHpnf odjrifav\? xdt k jrif xdtk m½Hw
k Ykd u¤kd if; xdtk jrif xdt k m½HEk iS hf tvm;wl 0w¬KwdYk u¤kd if; awmifw h
MuHpnfrad v\? ysupf ;D ap&efvnf; MuHpnfrad v\? þodYk BuHpnfjcif;onf pdwo f EÅmefü tEko,bHrk S taMumif;
tm;avsmpf mG x<ujzpfay:vmaom y&d,|k mefuad vomrnf\? þodYk y&d,|k mefuad vom jzpfNyD;aemuf taMumif;
nDnw G jf yefygu ud,
k t f rlt&m EIwt f rlt&mrsm;udk jzpfapí vGeu f sL;aom 0Dwu d rú udavomwdYk onf¤if;? rdr\ d
aumif;pm;csrf;omrIukd awmifw h í tukov kd u f H ukov kd u
f w
H Ykd onf¤if; xdu k o
f nft h m;avsmfpmG jzpfavuke\ f ?
xdok YkdjrifqcJ Pü tEko, y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavomrsm; jzpfwwfonf jzpfEikd o f nfukd &nfawmfrí l
owdy|mefygVd awmfü-

pu©K avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem OyÜZwÆ ?d {w¬ ed0od rmem ed0o d wd?
½lygavmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H pu©K0dnmPH avmau yd,½lyo H mw ½ly?H pu©Koræaóm avmau yd,½lyH
omw½ly?H pu©KoræóZm a0'em avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem OyÜZw
Æ ?d {w¬e0d o
d rmem
ed0o
d wd [k a[mawmfral y\/ (okwrf [m 246)

avmau? ysufwwfaom ocFg&avmuxJü/ pu©K? rsufpo d nf/ yd,½ly?H cspfp&moabmaywnf;/


omw½ly?H om,mp&m oabmaywnf;/ {omwPSmOyÜzrÆ mem? xdw k PSmjzpfcyhJ gvQif/ {w¬OyÜZw Æ ?d þcspfp&m
om,mp&maumif;aom rsupf üd jzpf\/ {omwPSmed0o d rmem? xdw
k PSm ude;f 0yfchJ 0ifcyhJ gvQif/ {w¬e0d o
d wd?
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jrifawGYaom zóonf/ pu©KoræóZma0'em? jrifawGUvdjk zpfaom cHpm;rIonf/ yd,½ly?H wnf;/ omw½ly?H wnf;/
{omwPSm? onf/ OyÜZrÆ mem? jzpfcyhJ gvQif/ {w¬OyÜZw Æ ?d þcHpm;rIüjzpf\/ {omwPSmed0o d rmem/vQif?
{w¬e0d o
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h pHv
k v
kd Qif owdy|mefygXf edó,üMunfah v/

þowdy|mefowk üf ½lyonm ½lyoaOöwem ½lywPSm ½ly0dwuf ½ly0dpm&rsm;udv k nf; wPSm\


ude;f &mjzpf&m[k a[mawmfral o;\/ þusrf;üum; tusOf;rQudo k m qdv k akd omaMumif¤h if;? txufü jyvwHah om
tbdan,sokwf ponfrsm;ESihf wxyfwnf;nDapvdak omaMumif¤h if;? a½SUig;yg;rQudo
k m xkwjf yvdu k af yonf/

þowdy|mefygVdawmfü t0dZmÆ ponfurkd jybJ wPSmwckwnf;udo k m jyawmfrjl cif;rSm ork',opömudk


jy&mtcef;jzpfaom aMumifah ywnf;/ wPSmrS wyg;aomt0dZmÆ ponfukd rjyygwum;[k tjypfrwifMuavESi/hf
vd&k if;oabmrSm wPSmjzpfonfqu kd orÜ,w k ,f OS af bmf ,SOb f ufjzpfí ruif;Edik af omaMumifh t0dZmÆ jzpfonf
ud¤k if;?t0dZmÆ jzpfygu orÜ,w
k o
f wåd Oyedó,owåt d m;jzifh tm;vH;k aom udavomjzpfonfu¤kd if; jyjcif;udpö
NyD;avawmhonf omwnf;/ xdYk aMumifh 0dbif;ygVdawmf OmP 0dbif; eHygwf (353)ü/

,H avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {w¬ owåmeH &m*gEkoa,m tEkaowd/ ,H avmau tyÜ, d ½lyH
tomw½ly?H {wåmeH yd#CmEkoa,m tEkaowd? £wd £arok 'GD ok "ar®ok t0dZmÆ tEkywdwm? wa'ua|m
rmaem p 'd|pd 0dpu
d pd mä p '|mAÁm [lía[mawmfr\
l /

avmau? ysww f wfaom ocFg& avmuxJü? ,Hy, d ½ly?H tMuifcsppf &maumif;aom oabmonf/
,Homw½ly?H tMuifom,mp&maumif;aom oabmonf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / {w¬? þcspfz, G of m,mzG,o f abmü/
owåe?H owå0gwdYk \/ &m*gEkoa,m? &m*tEko,onf/ tEkaowd? ude;f \/ avmau? ü/ ,H tyÜ, d ½ly?H tMuif
rke;f p&maumif;aom oabmonf/ ,Htomw½ly?H tMuifom,mzG,rf aumif;aom oabmonf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / {w¬?
þrke;f zG,o f abm om,mbG,rf [kwaf om oabmü/ owåmeH? wdYk \/ y#dCmEkoa,m? y#dCtEko,onf?
tEkaowd? ude;f \/ £wd£arok'o D́ "k ar®o?k þcspfz, G f rke;f bG,of abm 12-rsKd;wdkYü/ t0dZÆmonf/ tEkywdwm?
usa&mufued ;f 0yf\/ wa'ua|m? xdt k 0dZmÆ ESihf wnf&m[laom? rmaemp? rmeud¤k if;/ 'd|pd ? 'd|ud ¤kd if;/ 0dpud pd mä p?
0dpud pd mä ud¤k if;/ tekywdwm? usa&mufued ;f 0yf\[lí '|AÁm? rSwt f yf\/

þt&mü-oEÅmemEko, tm&r®Pm Eko,wdYk wiG ?f tm&r®PmEko,jzpfaMumif;udk rlv#Dum tEk#u


D mwdYk ü
xif½mS ;pGm zGijhf yawmfrMl u\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 9

þjycJNh yD;aom pum;t&tm;jzifh tEko, y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú txd jzpfay:&mü um,uH-0pDuH
ajrmufatmif vGeu f sL;aom 0Dwu
d rú udavomonf tb,fah Mumifh jzpf&ygoenf;/ pdwo f EÅmefü y&d,|k mef
udavom x<ujzpfay:aomaMumifah ywnf;/

¤if;y&d,|k mef udavomonf tb,faMumifh jzpf&ygoenf;/ jrifqcJ Pu tEko, udavom ude;f 0yf
avNyD;aom aMumifw h nf;/

¤if;tEko,onf tb,fah Mumifh ude;f 0yfcyhJ goenf;/ jrifqcJ Püyg0ifaom ig;yg;aomw&m;wdYk ukd
vu©Pm &oponftm;jzif¤h if;? tedpö tp½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzif¤h if; rSeu
f efpmG rodaomaMumifw
h nf;/

¤if;ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk ukd tb,fah Mumifh rSeu f efpmG rodygoenf;/ jrifaomoabmudk jrifqcJ Pü
jrifw,f[rk rSwbf J arharhavsmhavsmh ayghayghqq trIrhJ trSwrf hJ aejcif;aMumifw
h nf;/

þqdck NhJ yD;aom tpOftm;jzifh trdu I u f p jymom'fr;D avmif[k qdb k o


d uJo
h Ykd? jrifqcJ Pü? jrifw,f
[krrSwb f J 0dyóemuif;rJv h suf trSww f rJah erdonfrS tpûyí taMumif;nDnw G yf gu 0Dwu d rú udavomESihf
tukov kd uf t
H rsdK;rsdK; ukov
kd uf H trsdK;rsdK; jzpfymG ;í tyg,fab;trsdK;rsdK; oHo&mab;trsdK;rsdK; jzpfymG ;oGm; Edik o
f nf
udk odjrifMuojzifh udavomab;tyg,fab; oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf jrifaomcPwnf;
[laom wHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifEikd f ap&ef jrifaomoabmudk jrifaomcPwdik ;f cPwdik ;f jrifw,f
jrifw,f[k ½Irw S &f m\/

þodYk jrifqcJ Pü jrifw,f[k ½Irw S af omolrmS jrifqcJ Pü ½Sad om ig;yg;aomw&m;wdYk wiG f xif½mS ;aom
w&m;wckcu k kd y"meûyí rSeu
f efpmG odojzifh xdjk rifqcJ Pü wûydief ufjzpfysuaf om oabmw&m;tm;vH;k udk odjcif;
udpNö yD;\/

tb,foYkd rSeu f efpmG odygoenf;[lr?l emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPf tcdu k t


f wefYü vu©Pm-&o-ypöKyÜ|mef
tm;jzifh rSeu
f efpmG od\? ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPftcduk t f wefYü taMumif; y'|meftm;jzifrh eS u f efpmG od\/ or®oe-
O',AÁ,paom txufÓPfwYkd \ tcdu k tf wefYü? a½S;a½S;tjrifEiS hf aemufaemuftjrif ra&mrpyfbJ tydik ;f ydik ;f
jywfí rjrJaom tedpt ö jcif;t&m? qif;&Jaom 'kut © jcif;t&m? tESprf í hJ tpd;k r&aom tewåtjcif;t&m? jzpf ysuf
aom tjcif;t&m? ukeq f ;kH ysupf ;D aom tjcif;t&mpaomtm;jzifh rSeu f efpmG od\/

þt&mü usufrw S af vhvmtyfaom A[ków k ÓPf r½Sad om olwYkd rmS vu©Pm-&o ponftm;jzifh
b,foYkd oEd ikd t
f ehH nf;[k ar;ppfb, G ½f adS y\/ okwr,ÓPf r½Sad omfvnf; ½kyef mrf obm0udk jzpfay:cdu k f
jzpfay:cdu
k üf ½Irw S í f wu,fjzpfysufaom ½kyef mrfukd odaomolrmS vu©Pmtm;jzifah omf¤if;? &otm;jzifah omf¤if;?
ypöKy|meftm;jzifah omf¤if; odEikd yf gay\/ þoabmudk vu©Pmac:onf/ &oac:onf/ ypöKy|mef ac:onf
[líum; owr,ÓPfr½So d wl Ykd rajymEdik af cs? usufrw
S í
f pOf;pm;qifjcifaeaom olwYkd rmS rlum;? wu,f
jzpfysufaom ½kyef mrfukd r½Ir-d rrSwrf ad omaMumifh y&rwf½yk ef mrf obmo vu©Pm tppfponfukd rodbJ ynwf
vu©Pm ponfuo kd m odav\/

Oyrmtm;jzifh qifukd rjrifb;l aomolonf qif\ vu©Pm qif\ pGr;f a&owåd qif\ [efyef
tjcif;t&mwdYk ukd usrf;*eft& usufrw S í
f pOf;pm;Munfah omfvnf; wu,fq h ifu¤kd if; wu,fqh if\ pGr;f &nfowåd
tppfu¤kd if;? [efyeftjcif;t&m tppfu¤kd if; rawGYrod&m? qif\vu©Pm ponfukd rMum;bl;ao;aom olyif
jzpfaomfvnf; tvkyv f yk u
f ikd af eaom qifBuD;udk ud, k w f ikd f 'd|awGYjrif&vQif qif\vu©Pm owåt d jcif;t&m
tppftrSew f Ykd ukd {uefoEd ikd af y\/þtwlyif usufrw S í f qifjcifrrI mS y&rwftppfoYkd ra&mufbJ wZÆmynwfrQ
udo
k m oday\/ rusufrw S b f ;l aomfvJ wu,fjzpfysufaeqJ ½kyef mrfukd ½Irw S af eolrmS y&rwftppf trSeu f kd
vu©Pm ponftm;jzifh odEikd yf g\/

xdrk w
S yg; Munfvifaom rsufp½d yk f xif½mS ;aomtcg Munfvifw,f[lí¤if;? tqif;xif½Sm;aomtcg
tqif;[lí¤if;? jrif&w,f[í l ¤if;? zóxif½mS ;aomtcg awGYw,f[í l ¤if;? a0'emxif½mS ;aomtcg jrifaumif;
w,f ponfjzif¤h if;? olYtrnfEiS o
hf w
l yfí rrSw&f bJ jrifw,f[í l om tb,fah Mumifrh w S &f yg oenf;[lí jim;tH?h
xdo
k Ykd oltrnfEiS ohf l aeom;wus usufrw S of ifah omfvnf; xdok Ykd olYtrnfEiS o
hf l aeom;wus jzpfatmif
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 10

rSwaf eygu rSw&f ef trnfrsm;aomaMumifh þoabmudk b,foYkd rSw&f ygtHeh nf;/ þtjrifukd b,fvkd rSw&f yg
tHeh nf;[k pOf;pm;qifjcifrI rsm;aeayvdrrhf nf? xdo k YkdpOf;pm;rI rsm;aevQif ypöKyÜef usEikd &f ef vGepf mG cJ&if;\/
pOf;pm;aom pdwrf sm;udv
k nf; rrSwEf ikd b f ½J &dS m\/ xdok Ykd rrSwEf ikd b f J tvGwrf sm;aecJah omf owdç orm"dç ynmwdYk ukd
omvQif jrefrm r&ifu h suEf ikd &f m/ odYk jzpfí jyqdjk cif;jzpfay\/ jrifqcJ Pü½Sad om rnfonfw h &m; xif½mS ;pGm
ay:vmonfjzpfap jrifonf[k vG,u f pl mG rSw&f ef tusOf;tm;jzifh 0dyóem ½Irw S &f mü tm;vH;k aom ynwf
[lorQonf vd&k if;r[kwaf cs/ y&rwf obm0udk odro I mvQif vd&k if;jzpfay\/ tm;xkwpf ü trnfrwyfbJ
obm0oufoufukd r½IEikd af omaMumifo h mvQif obm0ESiq hf ikd af om ygVdwZÆmynwf jrefrmwZÆynwfwYkd jzifh ½Irw S f
&ayonf/ 0dyóemÓPf txl;tm;½Sí d &ifoh efaomtcgürlum;ynwfuv kd w
G í
f y&rwfobm0tppfukd od½rkH Q
odaeEdik v
f Qifvnf; ½Irw S jf cif;udpö NyD;onfomwnf;? xdYk aMumifh jrifw,f[k trnfwrsdK;wnf;jzifo h m ½IrwS af e
aomfvnf; jrifqcJ Pü½Sad om wckcak om obm0tppftrSeu f kd odEikd of nomjzpfí olYtrnfEiS hf olrw S &f ef
tus,frjybJ jrifw,f[í l om tusOf;tm;jzifh rSw&f efjyqdv k u kd af yonf/

xdo
k Ykd jyqdo
k nft
h wdik ;f jrifw,f[í
l rSwaf om yk*Kd¾ vfonf w&Hwcg Munfvifaom rsufpu d kd y"meûyí
od\? w&Hwcgjrif&aom tqif;udk y"meûyí od\/ w&Hwcg jrifwwfaom pdwu f kd y"meûyí od\/ w&Hwcg
jrifawGYzóudk y"meûyí od\/ wcgw&H jrifcpH m; a0'eudk y"meûyí od\/

odwikd ;f odwikd ;f vu©Pmtm;jzifh w&Hwcgod\? &o tm;jzifh w&Hwcgod\/ ypöKy|meftm;jzifh w&Hwcg


od\? emr½lyy&dap'ÓPf wzufurf;odYk a&mufNyD;tcg y'|meftm;jzifv
h nf; od\/

xdYk aMumifh rsufp½d yk u f o


kd o
d nf½adS omf Munfvifaomoabm[líaf omf¤if; 1? tqif;udk jrifapwwf
jywwfaom owåt d m;jzif¤h if;? 2 «½layok tm0dÚeä &oH?tqif;wdYk ü qGyJ Ykd jcif; udp½ö \
dS [k t|uxmüqd\
k / tqif;
qDoYkd qGyJ Ykdonft
h vm; jrifatmifaus;Zl;ûyjcif;udk &nfíqdak omaMumifh ajymvG,af om enf;tm;jzifh jrifapwwfonf
jywwfonf[k qdv k u
kd o
f nf? aemufaemufü o'´geufrusbJ a&;&müvnf; þenf;twlyif vd&k if;oabmudo k m
ESv;kH oif;Muygav»/ jrifr\ I wnf&m[líaomf¤if; 3? rSeu f efpmG odjrifav\/ «þt&mü 1 rSm obm0vu©Pm
tm;jzifh 2 rSm &otm;jzifh 3 rSm ypöKy|meftm;jzifh xifykH odyu kH jkd yonf aemufaemufüvnf; enf;wlyifrw S af v»/

þvu©Pm&o ypöKy|mefwYkd wiG f wyg;yg;jzifo


h mvQif ½Irw
S o
f jd rifEikd \
f ? wyg;yg;udk odjrifvQif udpNö yD;\/
xdYk aMumifh 0do'k rd¨ *fr[m#dum «yXr- 433»

uo®m yaew¬ Ob,*¾[PH? yk*v ¾ ZÑmo,awm? {upöó [d "mwka,m reod ua&mEÅówm


obm0awm *a[ wAÁwH *päE?dÅ {upöó oudpu
ö &Pawm a,m&aom 'kw0d pk w
ö d [k rdeYf \/

ye? apm'emOD;tH?h {w¬? þ"mwfBuD;av;yg;wdYk ukd ESv;kH oGi;f &mü? Ob,*¾[PH? vu©Pm? &o ESpyf g;vH;k
udk ,ljcif;udk uo®m tb,faMumif/h uwH? ûytyfoenf;/ yk*v ¾ ZÑmo,awm? yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd \tvdk tZÑmo,aMumif/h
Ob,*¾[PH? ud/k uwH? \/ [d? csJYíqdOk ;D tH/h "mwka,m? "mwfwYkd u/kd teodua&mEÅó? ESv;kH oGi;f aom/
{upöó? tcsdKYaomoltm;/ wm? xd"k mwfBuD;av;yg;wdYk onf/ obm0awm? obm0vu©Pmtm;jzif/h *a[wAÁw?H
,ltyfonf\tjzpfoYkd / *päE?dÅ a&mufuek \ f /{upöó? tm;? oudpu ö &Pawm? rdru d pd u
ö kd ûyjcif;tm;jzif/h
*a[wAÁx?H odYk / *päE?dÅ a&mufuek \
f / a,m? tMuifrrd \
d udpu
ö ûkd yjcif;ud/k &aomwd? &o[lí/ 0kpw ö ?d qdt
k yf\/

(tcsKdYrmS vu©Pmtm;jzifh xifí? tcsdKYrmS &otm;jzifh


xifaomaMumifv h u©Pm&oESprf sKd ;vH;k ud?k t|uxmq&mqdt
k yf-
onf[vl \
kd )

tqif;udk odonf½adS omf - rsufpüd xifvmaom oabm[líaomf¤if;-1? jrif&aomtm½H[


k í
l aomf¤if;-2?
jrifr\
I usufpm;&m [líaomf¤if;-3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

jrifaom pdwu f kd odonf½adS omf-jrifwwfaom oabm[líaomf¤if;-1? tqif;rQudo


k m tm½Hûk yonf
[líaomf¤if;-2? tqif;qDodkY a½S;½Iaeonf[líaomf¤if;-3? rSeu
f efpmodjrifav\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 11

jrifawGYzóudk odonf½adS omf-tqif;udk awGUaom oabm[líaomf¤if;-1? tqif;ESiw hf u


kd cf u
kd o
f nf
[líaomf¤if;-2? rsufpd tqif;jrifrw
I Ykd \aygif;qHrk jd cif;[líaomf¤if;-3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

jrifvYkdaumif;aom okca0'emudk odonf½adS omf jrifvYkdaumif;wJoh abm[líaomf¤if;-1? aumif;wJt h bdYk ukd


oH;k aqmif cHpm;jcif; udpt
ö m;jzifah omf¤if;-2? pdwx
f üJ om,mp&m[líaomf¤if;-3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

jrifvYkd raumif;aom 'kua© 0'emudk odonf½adS omf-jrifvYkdraumif;wJo h abm[l¤if;-1? raumif;wJt h bdYk ukd
oH;k aqmifcpH m;jcif; udpt
ö m;jzifah omf¤if;-2? pdwx
f üJ emusifccH ufr[
I í
l aomf¤if;-3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

jrifvYkd raumif;waumif; Oayu©ma0'emudo k o


d nf½adS omf raumif;waumif; tv,ftvwfoabm[lí
aomf¤if;-1? jrifaom pdwu f kd r½Tirf ñdK§ ;apaom udpt
ö m;jzifah omf¤if;-2? odraf rGYNidro
f ufw,f[í
l aomf¤if;-3?
rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

þae&mü pu©K0dÓPfpw d rf mS Oayu©mESio hf m,SOo


f nf r[kwyf gavm okcç 'kuw © Ykd ukd tb,fah Mumifh
jrifaom cPü xnfo h iG ;f í jyoenf;[ljim;tHh pu©KÓPfrmS -okcç'kuw © Ykd EiS hf r,SOo f nfrmS rSeaf y\? odYk aomfvnf;
0dyóem½Irw S &f m pu©K'Gg&0Dxd wckv;kH ü yg0ifaom w&m;wdYk ukd odr;f usHK;í waygif;wnf;½I&aomaMumifh oEÅ&D P-
aZm-w'g½Hw k Ykd EiS ,
hf OS af om okc 'kuw © Ykd u&kd nfí þüqdak yonf/ 0dyóem½Irw S &f mü-pdww f ckcsif; wckcsif;toD;oD;
ydik ;f jcm;í ½Irw S af e&onf r[kwb f -J w0Dxv d ;kH udk odr;f usHK;í ½Irw
S &f aMumif;rSm? y#dorÇ'd gr*fygVdawmf-b*FÓPf
tcef;ü a[mawmfrt l yfaom pum;jzifh vGepf mG xif½mS ;\/ þusrf;ü tusOf;rQ xkwfaqmifíjytHh/ tus,ftvdk
½Syd gu 0do'k rd̈ *ft|uxmb*FÓPftzGiühf aocsmpGm Munf½h MI uygav ynm½Sd olawmfaumif;awGwYkd /

½lyg&r®PwmpdwHå OyÜZw
dÆ mG bdZw
Æ ?d wH tm&r®PH y#docFgwó pdwó
å b*ø tEkyów/ y#dorÇd'g 55?

½lyg&r®Pmwmpdw?Hå ½kyuf t
kd m½Hûk yaompdwo
f nf/ OyÜZw
dÆ mG ? jzpfNyD;í? bdZw
Æ ? ysuf\/wHtm&r®PH
xd½k yk t
f m½Hu
k ?kd y#docFg? ysufw,f[o k Nd yD;í? wópdwó å ? ysufw,f[o k ad om¤if; pdw\
f / b*ø? tysufudk/
tEkyówd?½I\/ y#dorÇd'gr*fygVd teuf/

þygVdawmfü ½kyyf sufonfukd ½INyD;vQif ¤if;ysufw,fvYkd ½Iaom0dyóempdwu f kd ysufw,f[k wzef½o


I nf
[k jy\/ xdo
k Ykd jyojzifh 0dyóempdwf w0Dxv
d ;kH udk ½Irw
S &f aMumif; xif½mS ;\/

þodYk jrifqcJ Pü yg0ifaom 5 yg;aom w&m;wdYk ukd jrifqcJ Püyif ½Irw S í


f vu©Pmtm;jzifh jzpfap?
&otm;jzifh jzpfap? ypöKy|meftm;jzifh jzpfap? ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPfoYkd a&mufaomtcg y'|meftm;jzifh jzpfap odjrif
&rnfukd &nfawmfrí l =

pu©KH bdua© 0 tbdan,sH? ½lyg tbdan,sm? pu©K0dnmPH tbdan,sH? pu©Koræaóm tbdana,sm?


,rd'H pu©Koræó ypö,m OyÜZw Æ d a0',dwH okcH 0g 'kuH© 0g t'kur© okcH 0g wrÜt
D bdan,sH [k a[mawmfr\
l /
y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmf (7) oVm,we oH,w k f (258)

bdua© 0 &[ef;wdYk / pu©KH ? rsufpu


d /kd tbdan,sH? odtyf\/ ½Iyg? tqif;wdkYudk/ tbdan,sm?
odtyfuek \ f / pu©K0dnmPH? jrifaom pdwu f /kd tban,sH? odtyf\/ pu©Koræaóm? jrifawGYru I ?kd tbdana,m?
odtyf\/ pu©Koræóypö,m? jrifawGYraI Mumif?h okc0H g? csrf;omrlvnf;jzpfap/ 'ku0H© g/ qif;&Jrv I nf;jzpfap/
t'kur© okc0H g? rqif;&J rcsr;f omrlvnf; jzpfap ,rd'H a0',dw?H tMuifcpH m;rIonf/ OyÜZw
Æ ?d jzpfay:\/ wrÜ?d
xdck pH m;rI 3 rsKd;udv
k nf;/ tbdan,sH odtyf\/

þtbdan,sokwf ygVdawmfü rsufpu d kd od&rnf tqif;udk od&rnf ponfjzifh toD;toD;


a[mawmfrt l yfaomfvnf; 0dyóem½Irw S af omolrmS jrifru I pd ö wBudrw
f nf;ü yg0ifaom 5-yg;aom w&m;wdYk ukd
wckNyD;rS wck ig;Budrw f ikd w
f ikd f od&rnf[k rqdv k akd y? tu,fí wcgjrif wcgjrifü ig;Budrpf D ig;BudrfpD ½IrSwf
ae&ygvQif xdok Ykd ½Irw
S af eqJrmS yif xyfrí H jrifrpI onf tBudraf ygif;rsm;pGm jzpfay:vmayvdrrhf nf/ xdok Ykd jzpfay:
vmygu jzpfay:wdik ;f ig;Budrpf v D u
kd í
f ½IrwS &f ef rSED ikd af wmhrnf r[kwaf cs/ tu,fí rSaD pumrl b*FÓPf tcef;ü
Ówtm½Hk\tysufukd rSw½f NI yD;vQifNyD;csif; ÓP-0dyóempdw\ f tysufukd 0Dxrd jcm;bJ wwef ½IrwS Ef ikd o
f nf
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 12

qdak om y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmfEiS hf {uefpifppf rnDnw G Ef ikd af v&m? xdYk aMumifh 0dyóem ½Irw S af om olrmS jrifqJ
cPü½Sad om ig;yg;aomw&m;wdYk wiG f xif½mS ;&m wyg;yg;udo k m y"meûyí ½Irw S &f m\/ xdkodkY ½IrSwfí xif½Sm;&m
wyg;yg;udk y"meûyí odjrifjcif;tm;jzifh jrifqcJ Pü½Sad om w&m;ig;yg;vH;k udk ½Irw S jf cif;udpö odjrifjcif; udpNö yD;\/
þodYk wyg;yg;udk y"meûyí od½rkH Qjzifh wûydief uf wcsufwnf;yg0ifaom w&m;tm;vH;k wdYk ukd odjcif;udpö
NyD;pD;aMumif;udk atmufyg t|uxm#Dum pum;wdYk jzifv h nf;,HMk unfpmG rSwo f m;Muygav olawmifaumif;
ynm½SdawGwdkY/

{0H ok0o d 'k ½¨ yl y&d*[


¾ ó yeó t½ly"r®m wD[d tmuma&[d Oy|[EÅd zó0aoe 0g a0'em0aoe 0g
0dnmP 0aoe0g? uxH? {u ówm0 yx0D"mwk uu©Vvu©Pmwd tm'Dem ea,e "mwka,m y&d*P ¾ ES ó
Å
yXrmwdeyd gawm zaóm? wHorÜ,w k må a0'em a0'emu©aE¨m onm onmu©aE¨m o'¨zð aóe apwem
ocFg&u©aE¨m pdw0Hå n
d mPu©aE¨mwdOy|mwd? þodYk ponf 0do'k rd¨ *f 'kw,
d tkyf (226)

tm&r®aP y0wårmaeok pdwaå pwodauok towdy?d ykAmÁ y&da, zkoevu©aPm zaóm ww¬ oAÁyXrH
tbdeyd waEÅm 0d, a[mwDwd 0kwHå ]]yXrmbdeyd gawm zaóm}} wd? aweó zkoemuma&e okygu#bma0e
okygu#bma0e Oy|meH 'aówd/ zaó ye Oy|daw ,o®ð tm&r®aPaom zaóm wó tEkb0evu©Pm
a0'emç oOÆmeevu©Pm onmç tm,l[e vu©Pm apwemç y#d0Zd meevu©PH 0dnmPEÅ?d £aryd ygu#m
a[mEÅwD d tm[ ]]wHorÜ,w
k må a0'em}} wd tm'd/ ¤if;0do'k rd̈ *f\tzGihf r[m#Dum 'kw,
d tkyf «356»

{0H? þqdck NhJ yD;aom enf;jzif/h ok0od 'k ½¨ yl y&d*[


¾ ó? aumif;pGm pifMu,faom ½kyu f kd odr;f qnf;rI½adS om/
tó? xdak ,m*D yk*Kd¾ vftm;/ t½ly"r®m? emrfw&m;wdYk onf/ zó0aoe 0g? zó\ tpGr;f tm;jzifah omf¤if;/ a0'em
0aoe0g? a0'em\tpGr;f tm;jzifah omf¤if;? 0dnmP0aoe0g? 0dnmPf\tpGr;f tm;jzifah omf¤if;/ £wd? þodYk /
wD[t d muma&[d? oH;k yg;aom tjcif;t&mwdYk jzif/h Oy|[EÅ?D xifuek \ f / uxH? tb,foYkd xifuek o f enf;/ {uó?
wOD;aomoltm;? wm0? a½S;OD;pGm/ yx0D"mwk? yx0D"mwfonf/ uu©Vvu©Pm? cufrmjcif;vu©Pm½S\ d /
£wdtm'demea,me? þodYk tp½Sad omenf;jzif?h "mwka,m yg&d*P ¾ Ek óÅ ? "mwfwYkd uo kd rd ;f qnf;½IrwS pf Of/ yXrmbde
ygawm? a½S;OD;pGm tm½Hük usaom/ zó? zóon/ Oy|mwd? xif\ wHorÜ,w k må a0'em? xdzk óESihf ,SOaf om
a0'emonf/ a0'emu©aE¨m? a0'emu©Em¨ aywnf;/ onm? xdzk óESi, hf OS af om onmonf/ onmu©aE¨m? onm
u©Em¨ aywnf;/ zaóeo'¨/ð zóESiw hf uG/ apwem? apwemonf/ ocFg&u©aE¨m? ocFg&u©Em¨ aywnf;/ pdw?Hå
xdzk óESi, hf OS af om pdwo f nf/ 0dnmPu©aE¨m? 0dnmPu©Em¨ aywnf;/ £wd? þodYk ? Oy|mwd? xif\/
/0dok'd̈r*fteuf/

tm&r®aPy0wårmaeok/ tm½Hük jzpfuek af om/ pdwaå pwodauok? pdwaf pwodww f Ykd wiG /f ykAyÁ &da,?
a½SUusaemufusaom pdwaf pwodwo f nf/ towdy?d r½Sjd im;aomfvnf;/ zkoevu©aPmzaóm? awGYxjd cif;
vu©Pm ½Sad om zóonf/ ww¬? xdt k m½Hük / oAÁyXrH? tvH;k pHw
k Ykd \a½S;OD;pGm/ tbdeyd waEÅm 0d,? usa&mufouJh
odYk ? a[mwd? jzpf\/ £wd? xdYk aMumif/h yXrmbd edygawmzaómwd? yXrbdeyd gawmzaóm[lí/ 0kw?Hå rdeYf qakd wmf
rltyf\/ awe? xdpk um;jzif/h tó? xdzk ó\/ zkoemuma&e? awGYxad omtjcif;t&mtm;jzif/h okygu#bma0e?
tvGex f if½mS ;onf\ tjzpfjzif?h Oy|meHxifjcif;ud/k 'aówd/ jyawmfr\ l / ye? qufOD;tHh/ zaó? zóonf/
Oy|daw? xifvwfaomf/ ,o®t ð m&r®aP? tMuiftm½Hük / aomzaóm? xdzk ójzpf\/ wó? xdktm½Hkudk/
tEkb0evu©Pm? cHpm;jcif;vu©Pm ½Sad om/ a0'em? a0'em¤if;? oOÆmeevu©Pm? rSwjf cif;vu©Pm½Sad om/
onm? onm¤if;/ tm,l[evu©Pm? tm;xkwjf cif; vu©Pm½Sad om/ apwem? apwem¤if;/y#d0Zd meevu©P?H
odjcif;vu©Pm½Sad om? 0dnmPH? 0dnmPf¤if;/ £wd? þodYk / £aryd? þw&m;wdYk onfvnf;/ ygu#m? xif½mS ;
ukeo f nf/ a[mEÅ?d jzpfuek \
f / £w/ xdYk aMumif/h wHorÜ,w k må a0'emwdtm'd? wHorÜ,w k må a0'em tp½Sad om
pum;ud/k tm[? rdeYf awmfr\ l / r[m#Dum-teuf/

þt|uxm#DumwdYk ü zóonf a0'emponfwYkd EiS hf waygif;wnf; ,SOw f í


JG jzpfaomaMumif/h ¤if;zó
wckxifvQif <uif;aoma0'em tp½Sad om w&m;rsm;vnf; xifjcif;udpNö yD;aMumif;jyvd&k if;jzpfay\/ zóxifvQif
<uif;aomw&m;wdYk ukd owr,ÓPf udrk í DS wckpw D ckpD aphiatmif BuHpnfqifjcif&rnf[jk yvd&k if; r[kwaf y/
xdo
k Ykd okwr,ÓPfurkd íDS BuHpnfqifjcif&rnfqvkd Qif zóxifjcif;udk jy&ojzifh aus;Zl;r½SNd yD? tb,fah Mumifeh nf;
zórxifaomfvnf; okwr,ÓPfurkd í DS MuHpnfqifjcifygu jzpfEikd af omaMumifah ywnf;/ xdYk aMumifh xdo k Ykd pOf;pm;
qifjcifruI kd r,lbJ zówckwnf; xifay:rIjzifh <uif;aom orÜ,w k wf &m;wdYk \ xifjcif;udpNö yD;pD;rIukd jyonf[k
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 13

íom NrJNrHpmG rSw,


f u
l ek \
f / þodYk aomteuft"dygÜ ,fuykd if &nfí okwrf [m0g t|uxm (314)ü¤if;? oar®m[
0daem'eDt|uxm «252» ü¤if; þodYk red Yf qakd wmfral o;\/

wd0ad "m [d t½lyur®|mae tbdead 0aom zó0aoe 0g a0'em0aoe 0g0dnmP0aoe 0gwd/ uxH
{upöó [d oH cdawåe0g0dwmå a&0g y&d*[ ¾ ad w½lyur®|mae wo®t
ð m&r®aP pdwaå pwodumeH yXrmbdeyd gawm
wHtm&r®PH zHok aEÅm OyÜZrÆ maem zaóm ygua#m a[mwd? {upöó wH tm&r®PH tEkb0EÅD OyÜZrÆ mem a0'em
ygu#m a[mwd? {upöó wH tm&r®PH y&d*a¾ [wGm 0dZmeEÅH 0dnmPHygu#H a[mwd? ww¬,ó zaóm ygua#m
a[mwd? aomyd ]]e au0vH zaóm0 OyÜZw Æ ?d awe o'¨ð wa'0g&r®PH tEkb0rmem a0'emyd OyÜZw Æ ?d
oOÆmeermem onmyd apw,rmem apwemyd 0dZmeermeH 0dnmPrÜd OyÜZw Æ w
D }d } zóyOöraua,0 y&d*P
¾ mS wd/
þodkYponf/

t½lyur®|maetbdead 0aom? emrfur®|mef;üESv;kH oGi;f jcif;onf/ zó0aoe0g? zó\tpGr;f tm;jzif¤h if;/


a0'em0aoe0g? a0'em\tpGr;f tm;jzif¤h if;/ 0dnmP0aoe0g/ 0dnmPf\tpGr;f tm;jzif¤h if;/ £wd? þodYk /
wd0ad "m? oH;k yg;tjym;½S\ d / uxH? b,foYkd enf;[lr/l {upöó? tcsdKYaom yk*Kd¾ vftm;/ oHcad wåe0g? tusOf;tm;jzifh
jzpfap/ 0dwm¬ a&e0g;/ tus,ftm;jzifjh zpfap/ ½lyur®|mae? ½kyu f r®|mef;ud/k y&d*[ ¾ ad w? odr;f qnf;½Irw S t f yfonf
½Sad omf/ wo®ð tm&r®aP? xd½k rI w S t
f yfaom ½kyt f m½Hük / pdwaå pwodumeH? pdwaf pwodww f Ykd \/ yXrmbdeyd gawm?
a½S;OD;pGmusjcif; [laom/ wHtm&r®PH zHo k aEÅm OyÜZrÆ maem? xd½k yk t f m½Huk kd awGYxv d suf jzpfay:aom/ zaóm?
zóonf/ ygua#m? xif½mS ;onf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ {upöó? tcsdKYaom yk*dK¾ vftm;/ wHtm&r®PH tEkb0EÅD
OyÜZrÆ mem? xd½k yk tf m½Hu
k kd cHpm;vsufjzpfay:aom/ a0'em? a0'emonf/ ygu#m? xif½mS ;onf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/
{upöó? tcsdKYaom yk*Kd¾ vftm;/ wHtm&r®PH y&d*a¾ [wGm 0dZmeEÅ?H xd½k yk t f m½Hu
k kd odr;f ydu k í f odaom/ 0dnmPH?
0dnmPfonf/ ygu#H? xif½mS ;onf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ ww¬? xdo k ;kH a,mufwYkd wiG ?f ,ó? tMuifot l m;/ zaóm?
zóonf/ ygua#m? xif½mS ;onf/ a[mwd?jzpf\/ aomyd? xdzk ó xif½mS ;aomyk*Kd¾ vfonfvnf;/ (zóyOörau
a,0y&d*P ¾ mS wdüpyfav)/ ]]au0vH zaóm0? oufoufzó csnf;omvQif/ eOyÜZw Æ ?d jzpfonfr[kwaf cs/
aweo'¨?ð xdzk óESiw hf uG/ wa'0g&rPH tEkb0rmema0'emydOyÜZw Æ /d xd½k yk t f m½Huk ykd ifvQif cHpm;wwfaom
a0'emvJ jzpfao;\/ oOÆmeermemonmyd? rSwo f m;wwfaom onmvJjzpfao;\/ apw,rmem apwemyd?
aphaqmfwwfaom apwemvJjzpfao;\/ 0dZmeermeH0n d mPrÜOd yÜZw
Æ ?d odwwfaom 0dnmPfvjJ zpfao;\/ £wd?
xdYk aMumif}h } zóyOöraua,0? zóvQif ig;ckajrmuf½adS om w&m;wdYk uo kd mvQif/ y&d*P ¾ mS wd? odr;f ydu
k ½f rI wS o
f nf
rnf\/

þt|uxmwdYk ü zówckwnf; xifaomfvnf; zówckwnf;udo k m odr;f qnf;½IrSwfonf rrnf/


pifppftm;jzifh zóESihf wûydief uf,OS w
f íJG jzpfaom a0'em onmç apwemç 0dnmPfwYkd uv kd nf; odr;f qnf;
½Irw
S o
f nfyif rnfawmhav\/ zówckuo kd v
d Qif a0'emponfwYkd ukd odjcif;udpNö yD;av\/ þrQomruao;}
zówckukd odr;f qnf; ½Irw S rf v
d Qif odjrifvQifç wûydief ufwaygif;wnf; jzpfay:Muaom? w0Dxt d wGi;f ½Sd pdwf
apwodu-f 20 ausmf-30ausmfwYkd ukd odr;f qnf;½Irw S jf cif;udpö odjrifjcif;udpö NyD;av\/ tb,fah Mumifq h akd omf
rauGruGm,SOaf om orÜ,w k wf &m;rsm; jzpfMuaomaMumif[ h k qdvk akd yonf/ qdt k yfNyD;aom t"dygÜ ,fonf qdv k wHh
aom t|uxmum;wdYk jzifv h nf; xif½mS ;\/

£"ye pu©K0dnmP orÜ,wk må wa,m cE¨m/ aw[d pu©K 0dnmaPe o[ 0dnmwAÁwmå wa,m cE¨m/
aw[d pu©K 0dnmaPe o[ 0dnmwAÁwmå pu©K0dnmP0dnmwAÁmwd0w
k /Hå oVm,weoH,w
k t
f |uxm (6)/

£"ye þokwüf um;/ pu©K0dnmPorÜ,w k må ? pu©K0dnmPfEiS ,


hf OS u
f ek af om/ wa,mcE¨m? a0'emç onmç
ocFg& [laom cE¨moH;k yg;wdYk onf/ pu©K0dnmP 0dnmwAÁm"r®m? pu©K0dnmP 0dnmwAÁw&m;rnfuek \ f / [dopöH?
rSe\f / aw? xdak 0'emç onmç ocFg&[laom apwodwf cE¨moH;k yg;wdYk u/kd pu©K0dnmaPeo[? pu©K0dnmP
ESiw
hf uG? 0dnmwAÁwmå ?odtyf odxu kd o
f nf\tjzpfaMumif/h pu©K0dnmP 0dnmwAÁmwd? pu©K0dnmP 0dnmwAÁwYkd
[lí/ 0kwmå ? a[mtyfuek \
f /

zóm[ma&wD[d y&dnm[d y&dnmaw 0daóm a0'em y&dnmwm0 a[mEÅ?d wHrv


l uwåm
wHorÜ,w
k w
å må p/ ed'ge 0*¾o,
H w
k f t|uxm «103»
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 14

zóm[ma&? zótm[m&ud/k wD[yd &dnm[d? oH;k yg;aom Ówç wD&Pç y[me y&dnmwdYk jzif/h
y&dnmaw? ydik ;f jcm;í odtyfonf½adS omf/ wdaóm a0'em? oH;k yg;aom a0'emwdYk u/kd 0g? wdYk onf/ y&dnmwm0?
ydik ;f jcm;í odtyfNyD; wdYk onfomvQif/ a[mEÅ?d jzpfuek \
f / uo®m? tb,fah Mumifeh nf;[lr/l wHrv l uwåmp?
xdzk óvQif taMumif;&if;½So d nf\ tjzpfaMumif¤h if;/ wHorÜ,wk w
å må p? xdzk óESihf rauGruGm ,SOo f nf\
tjzpfaMumif¤h if;aywnf;/

emr½ly y&dapä' ypö,y&d*[


¾ þÓPf 2-yg;onf Ówy&dnmrnf\/ or®oeç O',AÁ, þÓPf 2-yg;
onf wD&Py&dnmrnf\/ b*FÓPfrpS íç y[mey&dnmrnf\/

0dnmPo®ð [d y&dnmaw wH y&dnmwar0 a[mwd wHrv


l uwåm o[kyEÜ w
é må p/ ed'ge0*¾o,
H w
k f
t|uxm «105»

0dnmPo®?ð 0dnmPfu/kd y&dnmaw? ydik ;f jcm;í odtyfonf½adS omf/ wH? xdek mrf½yk u f /kd 0g-xdkemrf½kyfonf/
y&dnmwar0? odtyfNyD; rnfonfomvQi/f a[mwd?jzpf\/ uo®m? tb,faMumifq h akd omf wHrv l uwåmp? xdk
0dnmPfvQif taMumif;&if;½So
d nf\ tjzpfaMumif¤h if;/ o[kyEÜ w
é må p? xd0k n
d mPfEiS t
hf wlwuG jzpfaomaMumif¤h if;
aywnf;/

þoH,w k f t|uxmwdYk ü pu©K0dnmPfEiS hf ,SOaf om emrfw&m;wdYk ukd pu©K0dnmPfEiS hf twlwuG od&rnf


[lí¤if; zówckuo kd v
d Qif zóaMumifjh zpfaom a0'em zóESi, hf OS af om a0'emwdYk ukd odjcif;udpNö yD;\ [lí¤if;
0dnmPfwckukd odvQif 0dnmPfaMumifjh zpfaom emrf½yk 0f n d mPfEiS w hf ûydief uf twltuGjzpfaom emrf½yk w f &m;wdYk ukd
odjcif;udpNö yD;\ [lí¤if; rdeYf qakd wmfral omaMumifh zówckwnf;udjk zpfap a0'emwckwnf;udk jzpfap 0dnmPf
wckwnf;udk jzpfap y"meûyí od½rkH Qjzifh w0Dxt d wGi;f ü wûydief uf jzpfay:Muaom pdwaf pwodwf 20-ausmf 30-
ausmfwYkd ukd odr;f qnf; ½Irw S jf cif;udp?ö odjrifjcif;udpö NyD;aMumif;rSm tvGex f if½mS ;av\/ xdrk Qomruao;
½kyw
f &m;wckcu k kd jzpfap? emrfw&m;wckcu k jkd zpfap y"mûy ½Irw S of jd rif½rkH Qjzifh wûydief uf jzpfay:Muaom ½kyef mrf
tm;vH;k udk odjcif;udpö Ny;D aMumif;uvnf;? o[kyeÜ w é å [laom t|uxmpum;jzifh NrJNrHpmG rSwo f m;&m\/

½kyef mrfw&m;trsm;wdYk wiG f vGeuf xJ if½mS ;aom ½kyef mrfwyg;yg;udk y"meûyí ½Irw S o
f jd rif½rkH Qjzifh wûydief uf
jzpfaom ½kyef mrftm;vH;k wdYk ukd 0dyóem pdww f Budrw f nf;jzifh od\[k qd&k mü xd½k yk ef mrftm;vH;k wdYk ukd
o½kyo f csmF ESiw hf uG ajymjyEdik af tmif xifjcif;odjcif;rsKd ;r[kwaf y/ pifppftm;jzifh xdw
k ûydief ufjzpfaom ½kyef mrfw&m;
wdYk ü tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ w
d yk EÜ é tm&r®PEko,[k ac:aom t0dZmÆ tp½Sad om udavom rusa&muf rude;f 0yfEikd af tmif
odjcif;rsKd ;jzpfay\/

xdYk aMumifh jrifaomcPü jrifw,f[k rSwaf omolrmS pu©Kyom'udo k mvQif ¤if;pu©KESit


hf wl jzpfay:Muaom
½lyg½Hçk pu©K0dnmPfç zóç a0'emwdYk uv kd nf; teko,rude;f Edik af tmif odjcif;udpNö yD;av\/ ½lyg½Hkudk odvQifvnf;
¤if;½lyg½HEk iS t
hf wl jzpfay:Muaom pu©Kyom'ç 0dnmPfç zóç a0'emwdYk uv kd nf; odjcif;udpNö yD;av\/ pu©K
0dnmPfukd odvQifvnf; ¤if;0dnmPfEiS t hf wl jzpfay:Muaom pu©Kyom'ç ½lyg½Hçk zóç a0'emwdYk uv kd nf; odjcif;
udpNö yD;av\/ zóç a0'emwdYk ukd odvQifvnf; enf;wlyif odjcif;udpNö yD;av\/ xdk 5 yg;aom w&m;wdYk wiG f wckck
udok vd Qif useaf omw&m; 4 yg;udo k m odjcif;udpö NyD;onfr[kwaf o;? pu©Kyom'½lyg½Hw k Ykd EiS hf wûydief uf
jzpfay:aom ½kyt f m;vH;k ud¤k if;? pu©K0dnmPfç zóç a0'emwdYk EiS , hf OS af om emrftm;vH;k ud¤k if; odjcif;udpNö yD;avonf
omwnf;/ odjcif;udpNö yD;qdo k nfrmS tm&r®PmEko, rude;f onfukd qdv k \
kd / aemufaemufüvnf; enf;wlyif/

þodYk jrifaom cPwdik ;f cPwdik ;f jrifw,fjrifw,f [krw S íf aeaomolonf rsufp½d yk çf tqif;½kyçf


jrifaom pdwef mrfç jrifawGYemrfç jrifaumif;ç jrifraumif;ç jrifvYkdraumif;waumif; cHpm;rIemrfç [laom 5 yg;aom
w&m;wdYk ukd emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPftcdu k üf vu©Pm&o ypöKy|meftm;jzifo h \
d / ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPftcdu k üf
y'|meftm;jzifv h nf;od\/ or®oeç O',AÁ, b*FÓPfpaom txufÓPf 10 yg; tcdu k t
f wefYü tedpçö 'kuç©
tewåç tjcif;t&mtm;jzifv h nf; od\/ xdo k Ykd odaomaMumifh xdik g;yg;aom w&m;wdYk ü igbJob l J a,musfm;bJ
rde;f rbJ vufajcbJ tusÐyq k ;kd bJ ponfjzif¤h if; jrJw,f csrf;omw,f igaumifbJ ponfjzif¤h if;? tvTt J rSm;tm;jzifh
xifrw S o
f jd rifwwfaom t0dZmÆ arm[jzifch iG rhf ½Sd uif;pifav\/ þodYk t0dZmÆ jzpfciG hf r½Sad wmhbJ uif;pifomG ;
onfuykd if jrifqcJ Pü½Sad om xdk 5 yg;aom w&m;wdYk ü tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ w
d yk EÜ t
é m&r®PmEko,ac:aom
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 15

t0dZmÆ Eko, rude;f [k qdo


k nf/ t0dZmÆ rude;f vQif t0dZmÆ jzpfygrS twlwuGy;l wGí
J jzpfEikd af om wPSmEko,
'd|mEko,ponfwYkdvnf; rude;f [k qd&k ay\/

þodYk jrifqcJ Pü tEko, udavomrude;f cJah omaMumifh jrifNyD;onfrS aemufae aemufumv aemufaeY
aemufv aemufaemufEpS w f Ykd ü xdrk eS u
f efpmG odjrifcNhJ yD;í tEko,ude;f cGirhf &cJah om ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk EiS hf
pyfvsOf;í igMunfvifw,f? Munfvif'gighrsufpb d ?J igjrifw,f? jrif'g ig\pdwb f ?J jrifawGYwm igbJ? igjrifvYkd
aumif;w,f? igjrifvYkdraumif;bl;? jrifvYkdaumif;'gigbJ? jrifvYkdraumif;'gigbJ? a,musfm;udjk rifw,f? rde;f rudk
jrifw,f? jrif&'g a,musmf ;bJ? rde;f rbJ? vufajcbJ? wH;k wdik b f pJ onfjzifh tvTt J rSm;tm;jzifh rxifrw S f rBuHpnfEikd f
awmhay/ þodYk tvGt J rSm;tm;jzifh xifrw S Bf uHpnfrrI sm;pdwf oEÅmefü rjzpfay:vmjcif;udk y&d,|k mef udavom
uif;onf[k qd&k ay\/ y&d,|k mefuad vomrjzpf&onf½adS omf? ¤if;y&d,|k mefrS qufvufí jzpfymG ;wwfaom
0Dwu d rú udavomESihf tukov kd u
f çH ukov kd uf w
H Ykd vnf; jzpfciG rhf ½Sd uif;Nidr;f av\/ xdu k rH S jzpfymG ;vwHah om
½kyef mrfcE¨mvnf; uif;Nidr;f av\/

þodkY0dyóemudavomç uHç cE¨mwdkYudk y,f&mü ,HMk unfrw


S o
f m;Edik b
f ,
G &f m t|uxm#Dum pum;wdYk ukd
xkwjf yOD;tH/h

0dyóem [d w'*F0aoe o'¨ð cE¨mbdocFga&[d udavao y&dpZö wd? 0do'k rd¨ *f yXrtkyf (282)

0dyóem? 0dyóemonf/ cE¨mbdocFga&[d o'¨?ð tusdK;jzpfaom ½kyef mrfcE¨m? taMumif;uH tbdocFg&


wdYk EiS w
hf uG/ udavao? udavomwdYk u/kd w'*F0aoe? w'*Fy[mef\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h y&dpZö wd? y,fpeG Yf \/

0dyóemu w'*Fy[mefjzifh y,fjcif;rSm 'geç oDvç omrnukov kd w


f Ykd \ w'*Fy[mefjzifh y,fjcif;ESihf
rwlaMumifu
h kd xif½mS ;apvdo
k nfjzpfí ¤if;0do'k rd̈ *f\tzGihf r[m#Dum yXrtkyf (345)ü/

w'*F0aoemwd {w¬ tedpmö Ekyóem wm0 w'*Fy[ Ü me0 aoe edpeö nH y&dpZö wd? y&dpZö EÅD p wxm
tyÜ0wå,d H a, ]]edp}ö }EÅd *[P0aoe udavomç wr®Lvum tbdocFg&mç w'kb,rlvum p 0dyguu©Em¨
tem*aw OyÜaZÆ,sKH ? aw oaAÁyd tyÜ0wåu
d &P0aoe y&dpZö wd? wxm 'kum© Ekyó em'a,m? ('kuo © nm'a,m
roif)h [k zGijhf yawmfr\
l /

w'*F0aoemwd{w¬? w'*F0aoe[laomygXfü/ wm0? a½S;OD;pGm? tedpmö Ekyóem? tedpmö Ekyóemonf/


w'*Fy[me0aoe? w'*Fy[mef\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h edpo ö nH? jrJonf[k edpo ö nmud/k y&dpZö wd? y,fpeG Yf \/p?
qufí qdOk ;D tH/h om? xdt k edpmö Ekyóemonf/ y&dpZö EÅ?d y,fpeG Yf onf½adS omf/ (þyk'u f kd y&dpZö wd [laom Bud,mü
pyfav) wxmtyÜ0wå, d ?H xdo k Ykd rNrJ[k ½Iaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh 0dyóemÓPf rjzpfco hJ nf½adS om (þyk'u f kd
OyÜaZÆ,sHKü pyfav/) edpEö dÅ *[P 0aoe? jrJ\[k,o l nf\ tpGr;f tm;jzih/f a,udavomp? tMuif udavomwdYk
onf¤if;/ wr®Lvum? xdu k ad vomvQif taMumif;&if;½Su d ek af om/ a,tbdocFg&mp? tMuifuo k vkd f tukovkd u
f H
tbdocFg&wdYk onf¤if;/ w'kb,rlvum? xdu k ad vomESiu hf v
H Qif taMumif;&if;½Su
d ek af om/ a,0dyguu©Em¨ p?
tMuif0yd gu©Em¨ wdYk onf¤if;/ tem*aw? aemiftcgü/ OyÜaZÆ,sHK? jzpfay:uke&f m\/ oaAÁy?d tvH;k pHv k nf;
jzpfuek af om/ aw? xdu k ad vom tbdocFg&cE¨mwdYk u/kd tyÜ0wåu d &P0aoe? rjzpfatmif ûyonf\tpGr;f tm;jzif/h
y&dpZö wd? y,fpeG Yf \/ 'kum© ekyóem 'a,m? 'kum© Ekyóem ponfwYkd onf/ wxm? xdYk twlyifwnf;/

t"dygÜ ,ftusOf;um;/ 0dyóemÓPfutedpö ponfjzifo h jd rifvQif xdo


k jd riftyfaom tm½Hu
k kd edppö onfjzifh
xifrw S pf v JG rf;wwfaom udavom jzpfciG rhf &yJ uif;Nidr;f av\/ udavomuif;vQif-udavomrSwqifh jzpfymG ;
vwHah om uHEiS hf b0opf cE¨mwdYk jzpfciG rhf &yJ uif;Nidr;f av\/ þodYk uad vom uH0yd gu©Em¨ wdYk rjzpfEikd af tmif
trSetf wdik ;f odjrifjcif;udk 0dyóemu udavomudk y,fonf[k qd&k ayonf/xdYk twlyif 0dyóemu emrf½yk f
oabmrQom[k odjrifEikd v f Qif ynwf trsKd ;rsKd ;udk pGv J rf;rSwx f ifwwfaom udavomwdYk jzpfciG rhf &/ udavom
rjzpf&vQif uHç ESihf 0dygu©Em¨ wdYk jzpfciG rhf &/ þodYk ynwf ponfukd pGv J rf;wwfaom udavomESihf uHç 0dygu©Em¨ wdYk
rjzpfEikd af tmif ½kyef mrfoabmrQ ponfjzifh trSet f wdik ;f odjrifjcif;udvk nf; emr½ly y&dapä'ç ypö,y&d*[ ¾
ÓPfrsm;u udavomudk y,fonf[-k rSw, f &l m\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 16

þodYk jzpf&mü b0opf 0dygu©Em¨ -tb,fah Mumifh rjzpfay:bJ csKyfNidr;f &ygoenf; .... ukov
kd u
f H
tukov
kd u
f H 0Dwud rú udavomwdYk rjzpfay:bJ csKyfNidr;f aomaMumifw
h nf;/

¤if;uHEiS hf 0Dwu
d rú udavomwdYk tb,faMumifh rjzpfay:bJcsKyfNidr;f &ygoenf;/ pdwo
f EÅmefü y&d,|k mef
udavom rjzpfay:bJ csKyfNidr;f aomaMumifw
h nf;/

¤if;y&d,|k mefuad vom tb,fah Mumifh rjzpfay:bJ csKyfNidr;f &ygoenf;/ jrifqcJ PwGif ig;yg;aomw&m;
wdYk ü tEko, udavom rude;f cJah omaMumifah ywnf;/

¤if;tEko,udavom tb,fah Mumifh rude;f ygoenf;/ jrifqcJ Pü ig;yg;aomw&m;wdYk ukd rSeu


f efpmG
odjrifcahJ omaMumifh aywnf;/

¤if;w&m;ig;yg;wdYk ukd tb,fah Mumifrh eS u


f efpmG odjrifygoenf;/ jrifaomoabmudk- jrifqcJ Pü jrifw,f
[k owdynmjzifh aumif;pGmrSwaf omaMumifw
h nf;/

þqdtk yfcNhJ yD;aomtpOfjzifh wcsufcw k çf q,fcsufjywf[k qdb k o


d uJo
h Ykd jrifaomoabmudk jrifqcJ Pü
jrifw,f[k owdynmjzifh rarhravsmah umif;pGm rSw½f rkH Qjzifh jzpfxu dk af om tEko, y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavom
ukov kd u
f H tukov kd u f w
H Ykd EiS w
hf uG ¤if;wdYk rS wqifjh zpfymG ;vwHah om tyg,fab; oHo&mab; trsdK;rsdK;wdYk rjzpfay:
vmbJ csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufomG ;edik o f nfukd odjrifMuojzifh xdu k ad vomab;ç tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;wdYk ukd
aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonfjrifaom cPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifvmEdik b f J csKyfNidr;f
uif;aysmufap&ef jrifaomcPwdik ;f ç cPwdik ;f jrifw,fç jrifw,f [k rSw&f m\/

Mum;aomcP ponfwYkd ü xl;&mudk tusOf;tm;jzifo


h m jyqdak ytH?h tus,fukd jrifaomcPü qdck NhJ yD;aom
pum;tpOfukd rS;D í csJYMuav/

Mum;aomcPqdo k nfrmS aomw'Gg& aomwyom'[kac:aom Munfvifaom em;½kyüf o'´g½H[ k k ac:aom


toH ½kyx f ifaomaMumifh aomw0dÓPf[ak c:aom Mum;aompdwf jzpfay:\/ aomworæó[k ac:aom
Mum;awGYrvI nf; jzpfay:\/ aomworæóZm a0'em[kac:aom? Mum;vdYk aumif;wJo h abm? Mum;vdYk raumif;wJh
oabm Mum;vdYk raumif;waumif; oabmwnf;[laom þcHpm;rI oH;k yg;wdYk wiG f wyg;yg;aom cHpm;rIvnf;
jzpfay:\/ þ'Gg&ç tm½Hkç 0dnmPfç zóç a0'em[laom 5- yg;aom w&m;wdYk \ nDnw G pf mG jzpfay:aomcPü
Mum;rIupd ö wckNyD;av\/ þodYk w&m;ig;yg;wdYk nDnw
G af omtm;jzifh Mum;rIupd ö wckNyD;aomcPudk Mum;aom
cP[k ac:\/

Mum;aomcPü Mum;aomoabmudk Mum;w,f[k rrSwb f J arharhavsmah vsmah eaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf Mum;aom
cPü ½Sad om Munfvifaom em;½ky-f Mum;&aom toH½yk f Mum;wwfaom pdwef mrf-Mum;awGYrI zóemrf-Mum;vdYk
aumif;aom cHpm;rI ponf a0'ememrf [laom þw&m;ig;yg;wdYk ukd rSeu f efpmG rod/ rodvQif rod&aom ¤if;w&m;
ig;yg;ü tEko,ude;f \ taMumif;nDnw G v
f Qif Mum;NyD;aom aemufumvwdYk ü y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavom
ponfjzpfay:vm\/ xdYk aMumif?h owdy|mefygVdawmfü aomwH avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly/H o'´g aomw0dnmPH
aomworæaóm aomworæóZm a0'em avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem OyÜZw Æ ?d
{w¬e0d o
d rmem ed0o
d wd?[k a[mawmfr\
l / teuf t"dyÜg,ftus,fudk a½S;enf;udkrSDí odav/ okwfr[m (246)

þodYk Mum;qJcPü Mum;w,f[k rrSwrf o d nfrS tpûyí taMumif;nDnw G yf gu 0Dwu d rú udavomESihf


tukov kd uf H ukov
kd u
f H trsdK;rsdK;txd jzpfymG ;í tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab; trsdK;rsdK; jzpfay:Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh
udavomab;ç tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf Mum;aom cPwnf;[laom wHcg;
aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifEikd af p&ef Mum;aomoabmudk Mum;aomcPwdik ;f ç cPwdik ;f Mum;w,f Mum;w,f
[k ½Irw
S &f m\/

xdo
k Ykd Mum;aomcPü Mum;w,f[k ½Irw S o f rl mS Mum;qJcPü½Sad om ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk wiG f xif½mS ;aom
w&m;wckcu k kd y"meûyí rSeu
f efpmG odojzifh xdMk um;qJcPü wûydief uf jzpfysuMf uaom w&m;tm;vH;k udk odjcif;
udpNö yD;\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 17

Munfvifaom em;½kyu f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf em;Munfvifaom oabm[lí¤if; 1? toHukd Mum;ap


wwfonf [lí¤if; 2? Mum;rIwnf&m[lí¤if; 3? rSeu f efpmG odjrifav\? (1-obm0vu©Pm 2-&o? 3-ypöKy|mef
tm;jzifh xifyo
kH yd [
kH k rSwaf v/)

toH½yk u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf em;üxifaom oabm[lí¤if; 1? Mum;&wJt
h m½Hk[lí¤if;? 2? Mum;rI\
usufpm;&m[lí¤if; 3? rSeuf efpmG odjrifav\/

Mum;aompdwu f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf Mum;wwfwhJ oabm[lí¤if; 1? toHrQudo k m tm½Hûk yonf


[lí¤if; 2? Mum;½HkrQuav;bJ «[lvdk»/ roHqDodkY a½S;½Iaeonf[lí¤if;/ 3? rSefuefpGm odjrifav\/

zóa0'emwdYk ukd odyrkH mS jrifqcJ Pü jycJah om zóç a0'emwdYk ukd odyEkH iS t


hf xl;vSNyD; enf;rSí
D odav/

ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPfoYkd a&mufaomtcg y'|meftm;jzifv
h nf; od\/ xdYk aMumifh tbdan,sokwüf /

aomwH tbdan,sH? o'´g tbdan,sm? aomw0dnmPH tbdan,sH? aomworæaómtbdana,sm?


,rd'H aomworæóypö,m OyÜZwÆ d a0',dwH okcH 0g 'kuH© 0g t'kur© okcH 0g wræd tbdan,sH[k a[mawmfr\
l /
«oVm,we0*¾o, H w
l f «258»

or®oeÓPfç O',AÁ,ÓPfç b*FÓPf ponfwYkd oYkd a&mufaomtcg tedpt ö p½Sad om tjcif;t&m


tm;jzifvh nf; od\/ xdo
k Ykd rSeu
f efpmG odwikd ;f ç odwikd ;f tvGtJ rSm;tm;jzifh xifrw
S o
f jd rifwwfaom t0dZmÆ tp
½Sad om tm&r®PmEko,rude;f onf jzpfí y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavomponfwYkd jzpfciG rhf &bJ csKyfNidr;f avuke\
f /

þodYk Mum;aomoabmudk Mum;qJcPü Mum;w,f[k owdynmjzifh rarhravsmh aumif;pGm rSw½f rkH Qjzifh
Mum;rIEiS phf yfí jzpfxu kd af om udavom uHwYkdEiS w
hf uG? ¤if;wdYk rw
S qifh jzpfymG ;vwHah om tyg,fab; oHo&mab;
trsdK;rsdK;wdYk rjzpfay:vmbJ csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmuf oGm;Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh xdu k ad vomab;ç tyg,fab;ç
oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UGH aom yk*Kd¾ vfonfMum;aom cPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk
r0ifEikd bf J csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufap&ef Mum;aomcPwdik ;f cPwdik ;f Mum;w,fMum;w,f[k rSw&f m\

eHaomcPqdo k nfrmS Cme'Gg& Cmeyom'[k ac:aom Munfvifaom ESmacgif;½kyüf *E¨m½H[ k ak c:aom


teHY½yk x
f ifaomaMumifh Cme0dnmPf[ak c:aom eHaompdwf jzpfay:\/ Cmeoræó[kac:aom eHawGYrv I nf;
jzpfay:\/ CmeoræóZma0'em[k ac:aom eHvYkd aumif;wJo h abm eHvYkd raumif;wJo h abm eHvYkd raumif;waumif;
oabmwnf;[laom þcHpm;rIo;kH yg;wdYk wiG f wyg;yg;aom cHpm;rIvnf; jzpfay:\/ þ'Gg&ç tm½Hkç 0dnmPfç zóç
a0'em[laom ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk \ nDnw G pf mG jzpfay:aom cPü eHru I pd ö wckNyD;av\/ þodkY w&m;ig;yg;wdkY
nDnw G af omtm;jzifh eHru
I pd Nö yD;aom cPudk eHaomcP[k ac:\/

xdek aH omcPü eHaomoabmudk eHw,f[rk rSwb f J arharhavsmhavsmhaeaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf eHaomcPü½Sad om


Munfvifaom ESmacgif;½kyf eH&aom teHY½yk f eHwwfaom pdwef mrf eHawGYrzI óemrf eHvYkdaumif;aom cHpm;rIponf
a0'ememrf [laom w&m;ig;yg;wdYk ukd rSeu f efpmG rod? rodvQif rod&aom ¤if;w&m;ig;yg;wdYk ü tEko,ude;f \/
taMumif;nDnw G v
f Qif Mum;NyD;aom aemufumvwdYk ü y&d,|k mef 0Duu d rú udavom ponfjzpfay:av\/
xdYk aMumifh owdy|mefygVdawmfü?

CmeH avmau yd,½ly?H *E¨m CmP0dnmPH Cmeoræaóm? CmeorÜóZma0'em avmau yd,½lyH


omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem OyÜZw
Æ d {w¬e0d o
d rmem ed0o
d wd [k a[mawmfral y\/ okwrf [m 0g -

þodYk eHqcJ Pü eHw,f[k rrSwrf o d nfrS tpûyí taMumif; nDnw G yf gu 0Dwu d rú udavomESihf
tukov kd u
f H ukov kd u
f H trsdK;rsdK; txdjzpfymG ;í tyg,fab; oHo&mab;trsdK;rsdK; jzpfay:Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh
udavomab; tyg,fab; oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UGH aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf eHaom cPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS
xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifEikd af p&ef eHaomoabmudk eHaom cPwdik ;f cPwdik ;f eHw,fewH ,f[k ½Irw S &f m\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 18

xdok Ykd eHaomcPü eHw,f[k ½Irw S af omyk*Kd¾ vfrmS eHaom cPü½Sad om ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk wiG f
xif½mS ;aom w&m;wckcu k kd y"meûyí rSeu
f efpmG odojzifh xdek qH cJ Pü wûydief uf jzpfysuMf uaom oabmw&m;
tm;vH;k udk odjcif;udpNö yD;\/

Munfvifaom ESmacgif;½kyu
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf ESmacgif;Munfvifaom oabm[lí¤if; 1? teHYukd
eHapwwfonf[í
l ¤if; 2? eHr\
I wnf&m[lí¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

teH½yk u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf ESmacgif;üxifaom oabm[lí¤if; 1? eH&wJt
h m½H[
k í
l ¤if; 2? eHr\
I
usufpm;&m[lí¤if; 3? rSeu f efpmG odjrifav\/

eHaompdwu f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf eHwwfwo hJ abm[lí¤if; 1? teHUrQudo


k m tm½Hûk yonf[í
l ¤if; 2?
teHYqo
D Ykd a½S;½Iaeonf[í l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

zóa0'emwdYk ukd odyrkH mS jrifqcJ Pü jytyfNyD;aomenf;udk rSí


D odav\/

ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPfoYkd a&mufaomtcg y'|meftm;jzifv
h nf; odjrif\/ xdYk aMumifh tbdan,sokwüf /

CmeH tbdan,s?H *E¨m Cme0dnmPH? Cmeoræaóm? ,rd'H Cmeoræóypö,m OyÜZw


Æ d a0',dwH okcH
0g 'kuH© 0g t'kur© okc0H g? wræD tbdan,sH - [k a[mawmfr\
l / oVm (258)

or®oe O',AÁ, b*FÓPfponfwYkd oYkd a&mufaomtcg tedpt ö p½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifv h nf;


odjrif\/ xdo k Ykd rSeu
f efpmG odwikd ;f odwikd ;f xdo
k t
d yfaom ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk ü tvGt
J rSm;tm;jzifh xifrw
S o
f jd rif
wwfaom t0dZmÆ tp½Sad om tm&r®PmEko, rude;f onfjzpfí y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavom ponfwYkd jzpfciG rhf &
bJ csKyfNidr;f avuke\ f /

þodkY eHaomoabmudk eHqcJ Pü eHw,f[k owdynmjzifh rarhravsmh aumif;pGm rSw½f rkH Qjzifh eHrEI iS phf yfí
jzpfxukd af om udavom uHwYkd EiS w hf uG ¤if;wdYk rw
S qifh jzpfymG ;vwHah om tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;ç trsdK;rsdK;wdYk
rjzpfay:vmbJ csyk Nf idr;f uif;aysmufomG ; Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh xdu
k ad vomab;ç tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab; wdYk ukd
aMumuf½UGH aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd onf eHaomcPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifvmEdik bf J csKyfNidr;f
uif;aysmufap&ef eHaomcPwdik ;f ç cPwdik ;f eHw,fç eHw,f[k rSw&f m\/

pm;aomcPqdo k nfrmS Zd0gS 'Gg& Zd0gS yom'[k ac:aom Munfvifaom vQm½kyüf &om½H[ k ak c:aom
t&om½kyf xifaomaMumifh Zd0gS 0dnmPf[ak c:aom pm;aompdwf jzpfay:\/ (csdKç csOfç pyfç zefçiefç cg; [laom
t&omudk odaompdwf jzpfonf[k qdv k o
kd nf/) Zd0gS oræó[kac:aom pm;awGYrvI nf; jzpfay:\/ Zd0SgoræóZm
a0'em[kac:aom pm;vdYk aumif;wJo h abm pm;vdYk raumif;wJo h abm pm;vdYk raumif;waumif; oabm[laom þ
cHpm;rI oH;k yg;wdYk wiG f wyg;yg;aom cHpm;rIvnf; jzpfay:\/ þ'Gg&tm½Hk 0dnmPfzó a0'em[laom ig;yg;aom
w&m;wdYk \ nDnw G pf mG jzpfay:aomcPü pm;rIupd ö ckNyD;av\/ þodkY w&m;ig;yg; wdkY\ nDnw G af omtm;jzifh
pm;rIupd ö wckNyD;aomcPudk pm;aomcP[k ac:\/

xdpk m;aomcPü pm;aomoabmudk pm;w,f[rk rSwb f J arharhavsmah vsmah eaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf pm;aom
cPü½Sad om Munfvifaom vQm½kyf pm;&aom t&mom½kyf pm;wwfaom pdwef mrf pm;awGYrzI óemrf pm;vdYk
aumif;aom cHpm;rI ponf a0'ememrf [laom þw&m;ig;yg;wdYk ukd rSeu f efpmG rod? rodvQif rod&aom ¤if;w&m;
ig;yg;wdYk ü teko,ude;f \? taMumif; nDnw G v
f Qif pm;NyD;aom aemufumvwdYk ü y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavom
ponfjzpfay:vm\/ xdYk aMumifh owdy|mefygVdawmfü Zd0gS avmau yd,½lyH omw½lyH &o Zd0gS 0dnmPH Zd0gS
oræaóm Zd0gS oræó Zma0'em avmau yd,½lyH omw½lyH {aw¬omwPSm OyÜZrÆ memOyÜZw Æ d {w¬ ed0o d rmem
ed0o
d wd[k a[mawmfr\ l / okwrf [m «246»

þodYk pm;qJcPü pm;w,f[k rrSwrf o d nfrS tpûyí taMumif;nDnw G yf gu 0Dwu d rú udavomESihf


tukov
kd u
f H ukovkd u
f H trsdK;rsdK;txd jzpfymG ;í tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab; trsdK;rsdK;jzpfay:Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 19

udavomab; tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf pm;aomcPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS
xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifEikd af p&ef pm;aomoabmudk pm;aomcPwdik ;f ç cPwdik ;f pm;w,fç pmw,f[k rSw&f m\/

xdo k Ykd pm;aomcPü pm;w,f[k ½Irw S af omyk*Kd¾ vfrmS pm;aomcPü ½Sad om ig;yg;aomw&m;wdYk wiG f
xif½mS ;aom w&m;wckcu k kd y"meûyí odojzifh xdpk m;qJcPü wûydief uf jzpfysuMf uaom oabmw&m;tm;vH;k udk
odjcif;udpNö yD;\/

Munfvifaom vQm½kyu f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf vQmMunfvifaom oabm[lí¤if; 1? t&omudk


odaponf[í
l ¤if; 2? t&momudk odr\
I wnf&m[lí¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

t&om½kyu
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf vQmüxifaom oabm[lí¤if; 1? vQmjzifo
h &d wJh tm½H[
k í
l ¤if; 2?
vQmjzifo
h rd \
I usufpm;&m[lí¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

pm;wJph w
d f t&omudk odwphJ w
d u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf t&omudk odwo hJ abm[lí¤if;? 1? t&momrQ
udo
k m odwwfonf [lí¤if; 2? t&momqDoYkd a½S;½Iaeonf[í l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

zóç a0'emwdYk ukd odyrkH mS jrifqcJ Pü jytyfNyD;aom enf;udrk í


DS odav/

ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPfoYkd a&mufaomtcg y'|meftm;jzifv h nf;/ odjrif\/ þodYk odjriftyfonfukd &nfí
tbDan,sokwüf Zd0gS tbdan,sm? &om Zd0gS 0dnmPH Zd0gS oræaóm ponfjzifh a[mawmfr\
l /

or®oe O',AÁ, b*FÓPf ponfwYkd ukd a&mufaomtcg tedpt ö p½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifv h nf;
odjrif\/xdo k Ykd rSeu f efpmG odwikd ;f odwikd ;f xdo
k t
d yfaom w&m;ig;yg;wdYk ü tvGt J rSm;tm;jzifh xifrw
S o
f jd rif
wwfaom t0dZmÆ Eko, tp½Sad om tm&r®PmEko, rude;f onf jzpfí y&d,|k mef0w D ud rú udavomponfwYkd jzifh
cGirhf &bJ csKyfNidr;f avuke\f /

þodYk pm;aomoabmudk pm;qJcPü pm;w,f[k owdynmjzifh rarhravsmb h J aumif;pGmrSwaf e½Hrk Qjzifh


pm;rIEiS phf yfí jzpfxukd af om udavomuHwYkd EiS w
hf uG ¤if;wdYk rS wqifh jzpfymG ;vwHah om tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;
trsdK;rsdK;wdYk rjzpfay:vmbJ csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufomG ;Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh xdu k ad vomab;ç tyg,fab;ç
oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf pm;aom cP[laom wHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifvmEdik b f J
csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufap&ef pm;aomcPwdik ;f ç cPwdik ;f pm;w,fç pm;w,f [k rSw&f m\/

þae&mü t&omudk odro I nfyif pm;rI[q k v


kd &kd if; jzpfí csdKonfuo kd v
d Qifç csdKw,f[rk w
S ?f csOfonfukd
odvQifç csOfw,f[rk w S /f xdYk twl pyfç zefç iefç cg; wdYk uo kd v
d Qifvnf; pyfw,fç zefw,fç iefw,fç cg;w,f[k
rSwaf v? xrif;yGuJ kd Munfrh I vufjyifrI yg;pyfziG rhf I 0g;rI vQmjyifrI rsKd rIwYkdum; raem'Gg&ü qdv k wHah om rSwef nf;
jzifh rSwaf v/ xrif;udk jrifrrI mS jrifqcJ Pü rSwyf kH twdik ;f rSw?f vufEiS x hf rif;xdrI EIwcf rf;ç vQmç vnfacsmif;
ponfwYkdEiS hf xdrrI sm;rSm xdaomcPü jyvwHah omenf;jzifrh w S ?f xrif;eHY [if;eHYrsm;eHaomtcg eHaomcPü
jyNyD;aom rSwef nf;twdik ;f eHw,f[rk w S af v/

xdaomcPqdo k nfum; um,'Gg& um,yom'[kac:aom Munfvifaom ud, k ½f yk üf azg|AÁm½Hk[k


ac:aom Murf;xrf;ç cufrmEl;nHaom yx0DtawGUtxd? yl-aEG;-at;aom awaZm tawGYtxd? awmifw h if;ç
aysmhtad om 0ga,m tawGYtxd½yk f xifaomaMumifh um,0DnmPf[ak c:aom xdopd w d jf zpfay:\/ um,oræó
[k ac:aom xdawGUrIvnf; jzpfay:\/ um,oræóZm a0'em[kac:aom xdvYkd aumif;wJo h abm? xdvYkd raumif;
wJo
h abm? xdv k Ykd raumif;waumif; oabm [laom þcHpm;rI oH;k yg;wdYk wiG f wyg;yg;aom cHpm;rIonfvnf;
jzpfay:\/ þ'Gg&ç tm½Hkç 0dnmPfç zóç a0'em [laom ig;yg;aomw&m;wdkY\ nDnw G pf mG jzpfay:aomcPü
xdru I pd w
ö ckNyD;av\/ þodYk w&m;ig;yg;wdYk nDnw G af omtm;jzifh xdru
I pd wö ckNyD;aom cPudk xdaomcP[k
ac:\/

xdx
k ad omcPü xdaomoabmudk xdw,f[rk rSwb f J arharhavsmhavsmh aeaomyk*Kd¾ vfonf xdaomcPü
½Sad om Munfvifaom ud,k ½f yk ?f xd&aom tawGYtxd½yk ?f xdwwfaom pdwef mrf? xdawGYrzI óemrf? xdvYkd
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 20

aumif;aom cHpm;rIponf a0'ememrf [laom þig;yg;aomw&m;wdYk ukd rSeu f efpmG rodç rodvQif rod&aom ¤if;
w&m;ig;wdYk ü tEko,ude;f \/ taMumif;nDnw G v
f Qif xdNyD;aom aemufumvwdYk ü y&d,|k mef 0Dwu
d rú udavom
ponf jzpfay:av\/ xdYk aMumifh owdy|mef ygVdawmfü/

uma,m avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H azm|AÁm um0dnmPH um,oræaóm umoræóZm a0'em


avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem OyÜZw
Æ ?d {w¬ ed0o
d rmem ed0o
d wd-[k a[mawmfral y\/
(okwrf [m0g-246)/

þodYk xdqcJ Pü xdw,f[k rrSwrf o d nfrS tpûyí taMumif;nDnw G yf gu 0Dwu d rú udavomESihf


tukov kd u
f H ukov kd uf H trsdK;rsdK;txd jzpfymG ;í tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;ç trsdK;rsdK; jzpfay:Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh
udavomab;ç tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;ç wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf xdaomcPwnf;[laom wHcg;ayguf
rS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifEikd af p&ef xdaomoabmudk xdaomcPwdik ;f cPwdik ;f xdw,f xdw,f[rk w S &f m\/

xdo k Ykd xad omcPü xdw,f[½k rI wS af om yk*Kd¾ vfrmS xdaomcPü½Sad om 5-yg;aom w&m;wdYk wiG f
xif½mS ;aom w&m;wckcu k kd y"meûyíodojzifh xdx
k q
d cJ Pü wûydief ufjzpfysuMf uaom oabmw&m;tm;vH;k udk
odjcif;udpNö yD;\/

Munfvifaom ud,
k ½f yk u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf ud,
k Mf unfvifaom oabm[lí¤if;-1? xdaponf
[l¤if;-2? xdr\
I wnf&m[lí¤if;-3? rSeu f efpmG odjrifav\/

tawGYtxd½yk uf kd y"meûyíodonf½adS omf ud,


k üf xifaom oabm[lí¤if;-1? xd&wJhtm½Hk[l¤if;-2? xdr\
I
usufpm;&m [l¤if;-3? rSeuf efpmG odjrifav\/

xdwphJ w
d u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf xdwwfaom oabm[lí¤if;-1? tawGYtxdrQudo
k m tm½Hûk yonf
[lí¤if;-2? tawGYtxdqo D Ykd a½S;½Iaeonf[í
l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

zóa0'emwdYk uokd yd rkH mS enf;wlyif/ ypö,y&d*[


¾ ÓPfoYkd a&mufaomtcg y'|meftm;jzifv
h nf; odjrif\?
þodYk ojd riftyfonfu&kd nfí tbdan,sokwüf uma,m tbdana,smazm|AÁm um,0dnmPH um,oræaóm
ponfjzifah [mawmfr\l / (oVm-258)

or®oe O',AÁ, b*FÓPfponfwYkd oYkd a&mufaomtcg tedpt ö p½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifv h nf;


odjrif\/ xdo k Ykd rSeu
f efpmG odwikd ;f odwikd ;f xdo
k t
d yfaom w&m;ig;yg;wdYk ü tvGt J rSm;tm;jzifh xifrw
S f odjrif
wwfaom t0dZmÆ tp½Sad om tm&r®PmEko, rude;f onfjzpfí y&d,|k mef0w D u d rú udavom ponfwYkd jzpfciG rhf &bJ
csKyfNidr;f avuke\f /

þodYk xdaomoabmudk xdaomcPü xdw,f[o k wdynmjzifh rarhravsmhbJ aumif;pGmrSwaf e½Hrk Qjzifh


xdrEI iS phf yfí jzpfxukd af om udavom uHwYkd EiS w hf uG ¤if;wdYk rwS qifh jzpfymG ;vwHah om tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;ç
trsdK;rsdK;wdYk rjzpfay:vmbJ csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufomG ;Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh xduk ad vomab;ç tyg,fab;ç oHo&m
ab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf xdaomcPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifvmEdik b f J
csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufap&ef xdaomcPwdik ;f ç cPwdik ;f xdw,f[k rSw&f m\/

þxdro I nf twGi;f tjyif wud, k vf ;kH ü jyefYEUHS \/ ajrzsmMurf;-xH;k -wdik -f 'kw-f ql;-ajimif-h xD;-bdeyf-
vHck sD-tuÐs-aeyl-avyl-a&yl-av{-a&{-tdy&f m-acgif;tHk;- apmif tp½Sad om A[d't D̈ awGYtxd trsdK;rsdK;wdYk EiS ¤hf if;?
ajcaxmuftcsif;csif;-vuftcsif;csif; ajcESiv hf uf ajcvufç qHyifwYkd EiS hf ud, k -f ud, k xf üJ aoG;av-tom;ç
taMumç t½d;k tp½Sad om tZÑwåtawGYtxd trsdK;rsdK;wdYk EiS ¤hf if; xdrjS zpfay:wdik ;f rvpfrvyfatmif rSw&f avonf/
tm½Ht k xl;a0'emtxl;rsm; ray:vQif xdwikd ;f xdwikd ;f xdw,fxw d ,f[k omrnom rSwaf v/ tm½Ht k xl;-okc 'ku©
a0'emtxl;rsm; ay:vmaomtcg tm½Hak 0'em tm;avsmfpmG rSw&f m\/ rSwyf u kH m;-ylvQif ylw,f[rk w S ?f {vQif-
{w,f[rk w S ?f aEG;vQif-aEG;w,f[rk w
S ?f csrf;vQifcsrf;w,f[rk w S ?f tdu
k v
f Qif-tdu k w f ,f[rk w S ?f armyef;vQif-
armw,fç yef;w,f[k rSw?f emvQi-f emw,f[rk w S ?f usOv f Qi-f usOwf ,f[rk w
S ?f udu k cf v
J Qi-f udu
k cf w
J ,f[k rSw?f
,m;vQif ,m;w,f[k rSw?f anmif;vQi-f anmif;w,f[k rSw?f rl;vQi-f rl;w,f[k rSw?f awGYxv d Ykd aumif;vQif-
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 21

aumif;w,f[rk w S f þodYk ponfjzifh ac:a0:ajymqdak eMu jrefrmpum; ½So


d nft
h wdik ;f tm½Ho
k abm a0'emoabm
rsm;udk xif½mS ;atmifrw
S af v/

xdo
k Ykd rSwo
f jzifh þxdrüI todÓPfjzpfykH txl;rsm;udq
k &kd ef½adS o;\/ tb,fenf;[lr-l

yx0Dazm|AÁ½yk u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf cufrmonf[í l ¤if;? Murf;wrf;onf [lí¤if;? El;nHo h nf
[lí¤if;-1? waygif;wnf; jzpfaom½kyw f Ykd \ wnf&m[lí¤if; 2? waygif;wnf;jzpfaom ½kyw
f Ykd ukd cHvif½h u
G af qmif
onf[í l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrif\/

awaZmazm|AÁ½yk u
f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf ylonf[í l ¤if;? aEG;onf[í l ¤if;? at;onf[í l ¤if; 1?
&ifu
h sufaponf [lí¤if; 2? waygif;wnf;jzpfaom ½kyw
f Ykd ukd El;nHah ponf[í l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrif\/

0ga,mazm|AÁukd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf axmufuefonf[í l ¤if;? awmifw


h if;onf[í l ¤if;? aysmhto
d nf
[lí¤if;? 1? a½GU½Sm;onfç vIy½f mS ;onf[í
l ¤if; 2? a½TYaqmifonf wGe;f aqmifonf[í l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG od\/

ud,
k q
f if;&J[k ac:aom um,du'kua© 0'emudk y"meûyí odonf½adS omf raumif;wJt h awGYukd cHpm;aom
oabm[lí¤if; 1? pdwaf pwodww
f Ykd ukd ñd;I aponf[í
l ¤if; 2? ud,
k x
f üJ usOfemcHcufonf[íl ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG
od\/

ud,
k cf srf;om[kac:aom um,duokcudk y"meûyí odonf½adS omf aumif;wJt h awGUudk cHpm;aomoabm
[lí¤if; 1? pdwaf pwodww f Ykd ukd ½Tiv
f ef;wd;k yGm;aponf[í
l ¤if; 2? ud,
k x
f üJ om,mp&m cHomonf[í l ¤if; 3?
rSeu
f efpmG odjrif\/

odaom cPqdo k nfrmS raem'Gg&[k ac:aom b0ifpwd f tm0ZÆe;f pdwüf "r®m½H[


k k ac:aom y&rwfoabm
ynwfoabm xifaomaMumifh rae0dnmPf[k ac:aom odaompdwf jzpfay:\/ raemoræó[k ac:aomxdawGUrI
BuHawGUrIvnf; jzpf\/ raemoræóZm a0'em[kac:aom odvYkd BuHvYkd aumif;wJo h abm odvYkd MuHvYkd raumif;wJh
oabm? odvYkd MuHvYkd raumif;waumif; oabmwnf;[laom þcHpm;rI oH;k yg;wdYk wiG f wyg;yg;aom cHpm;rIvnf;
jzpfay:\/ þ'Gg&ç tm½Hkç 0dnmPfç zóç a0'em[laom ig;yg;aom w&m;wdYk \ nDneG pf mG jzpfay:aom cPü odrI
MuHruI pd w
ö ck NyD;av\/ þodYk w&m;ig;yg;wdYk nDnw
G af omtm;jzifh odrçI MuHrI udpw ö ckNyD;aom cPudo
k ad om
cP[k ac:\/ oH-|-wwd, tky-f 50

raemwd b0*Fpw d /Hå "r®mwd tm&r®P/H raem0dnmPEÅd o[m0ZÆeuZ0eH/ y/ tm0ZÆeH b0*Fawm


tarmapwGm raemwd o[m0ZÆaee b0*ø'|AÁ?H "r®mwd tm&r®P?H raem0dnmPEÅd Z0e0dnmPH-[laom oH,w k f
t|uxm 5 ESit hf nD 'Gg&ç tm½H0k n
d PfwYkd ukd aumuf,al v/ odYk jzpfaomaMumifh yom'½kyo
f ck rk ½kyf pdwaf pwodwf
edAmÁ ef ynwf[al om "r®m½Hk tppf 6-yg;? raem'Gg&ü xifaom MoVm&du½kyf 12-yg;? þtvH;k pHu k kd raem'Gg&
üvnf;xif? raem0dnmPf\vnf; jzpfaMumif;jzpfí "r®m½Hük aumuf,t l yf\/ 0dyóem\ tm½Ht k &mürlum;
avmuDw&m; wdYk uo kd mvQif aumuf,t l yf\/ ynwfEiS hf avmukw&å m w&m;wdYk ukd r,ltyf/

ur®ZH tm,we 'Gg&0aoe ygu#H a[mwd/ y/ raem'Gga& [',0w¬K um, bm0 'ou0aoe
ap0Owkork|mem'd0aoe p pwkyPÖmo ar0-[k rdeYf qt
kd yfaom 0do'k rd̈ *f t|uxm ('kw,
d tkyf 259) ESit
hf nD
[',0w¬Kudvk nf; raem'Gg&ü oGi;f ,l&m\/

xdok ad omcPü odaomoabmudk odw,f[k rrSwb f J arharhavsmhavsmh aeaomyk*Kd¾ vfonf odaomcPü


½Sad om ESv;kH pdwçf ESv;kH ½ky?f ypöKyÜejf zpfaom oabmtm½Hk odaompdwçf awGYaomzóç cHpm;aom a0'em[laom
þw&m; 6-yg;wdYk ukd rSeu f efpmG rod? rodvQif rod&aom ¤if;w&m;wdYk ü teko,ude;f \/ taMumif;nDnw G v
f Qif
odNyD; MuHNyD;onfrS aemufumvwdYk ü y&d,|k mef 0Dwu d rú udavom ponf jzpfay:av\/ xdYk aMumifh owdy|mef
ygVdawmf (okwfr[m0g 246) ü-
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 22

raem avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem OyÜZw


Æ ?d {w¬ ed0o
d rmem ed0o
d wd/ "r®m?
raem0dnmPH? raemoræaóm? raemoræóZm a0'emavmau yd,½ly?H omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrÆ mem
OyÜZw
Æ ?d {w¬ ed0o
d rmem ed0o
d rmem ed0o
d wd-[k a[mawmfral y\/

þodYk oad omcPü odw,f[k rrSwrf o d nfrS tpûyí taMumif;nDnw G yf gu 0Dwu d rú udavomESihf
tukov kd u
f H ukov dk u
f H trsdK;rsdK;txd jzpfymG ;í tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;trsdK;rsdK; jzpfay:Edik o
f nfukd odjrifojzifh
udavomab;ç tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf odaomcPwnf;[laom wHcg;aygufrS
xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk r0ifEidk af p&ef odaomoabmudk odaomcPwdik ;f odw,f odw,f[k rSw&f m\/

xdkodkY odaomcPü odw,f[k ½IrSwfaomyk*dK¾ vfrSm odaomcPü½Sdaom 6-yg;aom w&m;wdYk wiG f xif½mS ;
aom w&m;wckcu k kd y"meûyí odojzifh xdo
k q
d cJ Pü½Sad om wûydief ufjzpfysuMf uaom w&m;tm;vH;k udk odjcif;udpö
NyD;\/

xdk 6-yg;wdYk wiG f ESv;kH pdwu


f kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf oabmtm½Hw
k Ykd \ xif&m[lí rSeu
f efpmG od\/

ESv;kH ½kyu
f kd odonf½adS omf odrI pdwuf ;l MuHpnfrI pOf;pm;qifjcifrwI Ykd \ wnf&moabm[lí¤if; 1? odrI
trsdK;rsdK;wdYk ukd aqmifwwfonf[í l ¤if; 2? ¤if;odrw I Ykd ukd xrf;aqmifaom tjcif;t&m½So
d nf[í
l ¤if; 3? rSeu
f efpmG
odjrif\/

avmuD ½kyef mrf y&rwftm½Hu


k kd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf xd½k yk f xdek mrfwYkd \ obm0vu©Pmç &oç
ypöKy|meftm;jzifh odjrif\/

MuHoad om raem0dnmOfukd y"meûyí odonf½adS omf MuHaomoabm awG;aomoabm pOf;pm;qifjcifaom


oabm odaomoabm[lí¤if; 1? oabmtm½Hkudk tm½HkûyumrQ[lí¤if; 2? oabmtm½HkqDodkY a½S;½Iaeonf[lí¤if;
3? rSeu
f efpmG odjrifav\/

zó a0'emwdYk ukd odyrkH mS jrifqcJ Pü qdck NhJ yD;udk rSí


D odav/

txl;um; ½Tiv f ef;0rf;ajrmufaomtcg 0rf;omrIock a0'emudk y"meûyí 0rf;ajrmufw,f 0rf;omw,f[k


rSw&f m\/ pdwEf v
S ;kH rom,maomtcg 'kua© 0'emudk y"meûyí 0rf;eJw,f pdwaf v;w,f pdwyf w l ,f ponfjzifh
ac:a0:ajymqdak eustwdik ;f om rSw&f m\/

ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPfoYkd a&mufaomtcg y'|meftm;jzifv
h nf; od\/ þodkYrSwfí rSeu
f efpmG odjriftyfonf
udk &nfí tbdan,sokwüf -

raem tbdana,sm? "r®m tbdan,sm? raem0dnmPH tbdan,sH? raemóræaóm tbdana,sm? ,rd'H


raemoræó ypö,m OyÜZwÆ d a0',dwH okcH 0g 'kuH© 0g t'kur© okcH 0g? wrÜd tbdan,sH? [k a[mawmfr\
l /
(oVm,we0*¾o,H w
k f 258)

or®oe O',AÁ, b*FÓPfwYkd oYkd a&mufaomtcg tedpt ö p½Sad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifv h nf; rSeu f efpmG
od\/ xdkodkY rSefuefpGm odwdkif; odwdkif; odtyfaom xdkw&m; 6-yg;wdYk ü tvTt
J rSm;tm;jzifh xifrw S f odjrifwwf
aom t0dZmÆ tp½Sad om tEko,rude;f onf jzpfí y&d,|k mef0w D ud rú udavom ponfwYkd jzpfciG rhf &bJ csKyfNidr;f av
uke\
f /

þodYk odaomoabmudk odaomcPü odw,f[k owdynmjzifh rarhravsmhbJ aumif;pGm rSwaf e½Hrk Qjzifh
xdo
k rd EI iS phf yfí jzpfxu kd af om udavomuHwYkd EiS w
hf uG ¤if;wdYk rS wqifh jzpfymG ;vwHah om tyg,fab;ç oHo&mab;
trsdK;rsdK;wdYk rjzpfay:vmbJ csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufomG ;Edik o f nfukd odjrifojzifh xdu k ad vomab;ç tyg,fab;ç
oHo&mab;wdYk ukd aMumuf½UHG aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf odaomcP wnf;[laomwHcg;aygufrS xdak b;trsdK;rsdK;wdYk
r0ifvmEdik b f J csKyfNidr;f uif;aysmufap&ef odaomcPwdik ;f cPwdik ;f odw,f odw,f[k rSw&f m\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 23

þodaom cPü odw,f[k rSw&f rnf[k jyjcif;onf tusO;f rQukd jyjcif;jzpf\/ tus,ftm;jzifh qdak om
þodro I nf tm½Hk tm;jzifv h nf; tvGerf sm;\/ 0dnmPftm;jzifv h nf; tvGerf sm;\? odyt
kH jcif;t&m tm;jzifv
h nf;
tvGerf sm;\? xdYk aMumifh xifaomtm½Ht k m; avsmfpmG ¤if;? odwwfaom 0dnmPftm; avsmfpmG ¤if;? odyt kH jcif;t&m
tm; avsmfpmG ¤if; rSw&f m\? rSwyf t
kH us,fukd t>rufrQ jyOD;tH/h

oGm;aomtcg vIy½f mS ; 0ga,mvGeu f aJ om ½kyt


f aygif;onf raem'Gg&ü xif\/ xdYk aMumifh oGm;vdak om
pdwu f kd oGm;csifw,f[k rSw?f oGm;½kyu
f o
kd mG ;w,f [líaomf¤if;? b,fvrS ;f w,f nmvSr;f w,f [líaomf¤if;?
<uw,f vSr;f w,f csw,f [líaomf¤if; rSw/f (oGm;vdak om pdwv f yI ½f mS ; 0ga,mwdYk ukd y"meûyí wûydief uf
jzpfaom ½kyef mrftm;vH;k udk od\/)

xdYk twl &yfaomtcg xdik af omtcg tdyaf omtcg wdYk ü&yfvkd xdik v
f kd tdyvf akd om pdwu f kd &yfcsifw,f
xdik cf sifw,f tdycf sifw,f[k rSw?f axmufuef awmifw h if;onfh 0ga,mvGeu f aJ om ½kyu f kd &yfw,f xdik w f ,f
tdyw f ,f [k rSw/f

(&yfvkd xdik v
f kd tdyv
f akd ompdwf axmufuef 0ga,m wdYk ukd y"meûyí wûydief ufjzpfaom ½kyef mrf tm;vH;k
wdYk ukd od\/)

xdYk aMumifh owdy|mef ygVdawmfü *päaEÅm 0g *pämrDwd yZmemwd- ponfukd a[mawmfr\


l /

auG;ç qefYç udik çf wGe;f ç qGçJ ,dr;f ç uke;f ç aumhç iHYk ç armhç apmif;iJçh ponfukd ûyvkad ompdwu
f kd auG;csifw,fç
qefYcsifw,fç udik cf sifw,fç wGe;f csifw,fç qGcJ sifw,fç ,dr;f csifw,fç uke;f csifw,fç aumhcsifw,fç iHYk csifw,fç
armhcsiw
f ,fç apmifih chJ sifw,f ponfjzifh rSw/f 0ga,mvGeu f aJ om auG;½kypf onfwYkd ukd auG;w,fç qefYw,fç
udik w
f ,fç wGe;f w,fç qGw J ,fç ,dr;f w,fç uke;f w,fç aumhw,fç iHYk w,fç armhw,fç apmif;iJw h ,f ponfjzifh
ac:a0: ajymqdak eustwkid ;f rSw&f m\/

(auG;vdak ompdwf ponfEiS hf auG;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaom vIy½f mS ;0ga,m ponfwYkd ukd y"meûyí
xdt
k cdu
k t
f wefYü wûydief uf jzpfysufaom ½kyef mrftm;vH;k udk od\/ odjcif;udpNö yD;\[k qdkvdkonf/)

xdYk aMumifh tbduaú EÅ y#duaú EÅ orÜZmeum&Da[mwd paom orÜZnyAÁukd a[mawmfr\


l /

rsu&f nf ESm&nf ,dxk u


G af omtcg acR;xGuaf om tcg ponfwYkd ü ,dpk ;D aom tmayg"mwfonf raem'Gg&ü
xif\/ xd,
k pkd ;D aom oabmudk ,dpk ;D w,f ,dx
k u
G w
f ,f [krw
S /f

pdx
k ikd ;f aom rsufEmS ponfwYkd ukd prf;oyfrad omtcg raem'Gg&ü pdx
k ikd ;f aom zGYJ pnf;aom tmayg"mwfxif\?
¤if;udk pdx
k ikd ;f w,f zGUJ pnf;w,f [krw
S f/

a,musmf ; rde;f rwdYk \ pdwrf mefjzifh &,fjcif; ûyH;jcif; MuHpnfjzif; ponfwYkdukd ûyrdaomtcg &,fw,f
ûyH;w,f MuHpnfw,f ponfjzifrh w S ?f xdo
k Ykd rw
S o
f jzifh bm0½kyEf iS hf wuG xdt
k rlt&m ½kyef mrfwYkd ukd od\/

vdck siaf wmifw


h jcif;ç pdwqf ;kd jcif;ç 0efwjkd cif;ç remvdjk cif;ç ysHUvGijhf cif;ç wnfjcif;ç ESpo
f uftm;&jcif;ç
Munfñjkd cif;ç owd&jcif;ç arhjcif;ç ½Sujf cif;ç aMumufjcif;ç cspfjcif;ç oem;jcif;ç rke;f jcif;ç ½GUjH cif;ç ponfwYkd
jzpfay:aomtcg raem'Gg&ü xifvmaom xdek mrfw&m;udk ajymqdak eustwdik ;f jrefrmwZÆmynwfjzifh vdck siw f ,fç
awmifwh w,fç pdwq f ;kd w,f ponfjzifh rSwaf v/ (xdo k Ykdaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifjh zpfaom emrfw&m; wckcu k kd
y"meûyí wûydief ufjzpfaom w&m;tm;vH;k udk od\/)

þodkY 6-yg;aom cPwdkYü jzpfay:wdkif;aom 'Gg&ç tm½Hkç 0dnmPfç zóç a0'emwdkYudk vu©Pmç &oç
ypöKy|mefç y'|mef tm;jzif¤h if;? O',ç 0,tm;jzif¤h if;? tedpö tp½Sad om tjcif;t&mwdYk jzif¤h if; xifatmif
odjrifatmif rvpfvyfap&bJ wrSwEf iS whf rSwf qufpyfapvsuf ½IrwS í
f aeaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf tEko, ude;f cGirhf &
onf jzpf y&d,|k mef ponfuif;vsuf udavomESihf ra&mr,Sub f J jrif½rkH Q Mum;½Hrk Q eH½HkrQ pm;½HkrQ xd½HkrQ od½HkrQom
wnfav\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 24

xdo
k Ykd tEko, y&d,|k mef udavomwdYk EiS hf ra&mr,Sub f J oufoufjrif½rkH Q ponfü wnfvsuf
ocFg½kayu©mÓPf txd tpOftwdik ;f wufí r*fÓPf zdv k Óf Pf ypöa0u©PmÓPfwYkd ajzmifrh eS pf mG a&mufav\/

xdYk aMumifh O'gef;ygVdawmfü -

wo®m wd[ aw Am[d, {0H oduw d© AÁ?H 'da|'d|rwåH b0dówd? okaw okwrw¬H b0dówd? rkaw
rkwrw¬H b0dówd? 0dnmaw 0dnmwrwåH b0dówd? {0H [d aw Am[d , oduw d© AÁ/H ,awm acg aw Am[d,
'da| 'd|rwåH b0dówd? okaw okwrwåH b0dówd? rkaw rkwrwåH b0dówd? 0dnmaw 0dnmwrwåH b0dówd?
wawm wGH Am[d, e awe/ ,awm wGH Am[d, e awe? wawm wGH Am[d, e ww¬/ ,awm wGH Am[d,e
ww¬? wawm wGH Am[d, ae0de"ç [k&çH e Ob,rEÅa&e/ {ao0aEÅm 'kuó © - [lí a[mawmfral y\/

(oVm,weoH,w
k f rmvkusyw
k o
å w
k f 295) üvnf; enf;wlyif a[mawmfr\
l /

Am[d,? cspo f m; Am[d,/ wo®m? xdo k Ykd oifuw&m;usifv h í


kd w&m;a[m&ef awmif;yef aomaMumif/h
aw? oifonf/ {0H? þqdv k wHah omenf;jzif/h oduw d© AÁ?H usif&h rnf/ ,xm/ tMuif tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh usifv h Qif/
aw? oift h m;/ 'da|? jrifonfü/ 'd|rwå?H jrif½rkH Qonf/ b0dówd? jzpfvwH/h okaw? Mum;onfü/ okwrwå?H
Mum;½HkrQonf/ b0dówd? jzpfvwH/h rkaw? eH pm; awGUxdaom tm;jzifh a&mufonfü/ rkwrwå?H a&muf½rkH Qonf/
0g? eH½rkH Q pm½Hrk Q xd½rkH Qonf/ b0dówd? jzpfvwH/h 0dnmaw? odonfü/ 0dnmwrwå?H od½rkH Qonf/ b0doówd?
jzpfvwH/h Am[d,? cspfom; Am[d,/ aw? oifonf/ {0H [d? þqdck NhJ yD;aom tjcif;t&m jzifo h mvQi/f oduwd© AÁ?H
usif&h rnf/ Am[d,? cspfom; Am[d,? aw? oiftm;/ 0g? oif\pdwüf / ,awm? tMuiftcgü/ 'daV 'dVrwåH
b0dówd? jrifonfü jrif½rkH QjzpfvwH/h okaw okwrwåH b0dówd? Mum;onfü Mum;½Hrk Q jzpfvwH/h rkaw rkwrwåH
b0dówd? a&mufonfü a&muf½HkrQ jzpfvwHh/ 0dnmaw 0dnmwrwåH b0dówd? odonfü od½rkH QjzpfvwH/h wawm?
xdok Ykd jrif½rkH Q? Mum;½Hrk Q? eH½rkH Q pm;½Hrk Q xd½rkH Q od½rkH Q jzpfaomtcgü/ (jrifaomf Mum;aomfvJ avmb a'go
jzpfciG rhf ½Sb
d J jrif½kH Mum;½Hrk Qomç [lv)kd Am[d,? cspfom;Am[d,/ wG?H oifonf/ awe? xdjk rifrpI onfEiS phf yfaom
udavomESiw hf uG/ e b0dówd? rjzpfvwH/h (jrifrI ponfukd taMumif;ûyí tEko, y&d,|k mef rjzpfawmhNyD
[lv)kd ,awm wGH Am[d, e awe? Am[d, tMuif tcgü oifonf xdjk rifrpI onfEiS phf yfaom udavom
ESiwhf uGrjzpf/ wawm wGH Am[d, e ww¬? Am[d, xdt k cgü oifonf xdjk rifrpI onfü jrifwm igyJç ig\OpömyJç
ig\ ud, k yf J ponfjjzifh udavomjzifh rwnfvwH/h ,awm wGH Am[d, e ww¬? Am[d, tMuiftcgü oifonf
xdk jrifrpI onfü udavomjzifph v JG rf;í rwnf/ Am[d,? cspo f m; Am[d,/ wawm? jrifrpI onfüpGv J rf;í
rwnfaom xdt k cgü/ wG?H oifonf/ £"? þypöKyÜeaf vmuü/ ae0 tw¬?d r½S?d awmhonfomvQifwnf;/ [k&?H
wyg;aom aemifwrvGef avmuü/ e tw¬?d r½Sad wmhonfomvQif/ Ob, rEÅ a&e? þavmu wyg;aom
avmutm;jzifh avmuESpyf g;vH;k ü/ e tw¬?d r½Sad wmhonfomvQifwnf;/ {ao0? udavomjzifh pGv J rf;tyfaom
oifr½Sjd cif;onfyifvQif/ 'kuó © ? oHo&m 0#fqif;&J\/ taEÅm? tqH;k tNyD; edAmÁ efMuD;aywnf;/

þokwf\ teuft"dygÜ ,f tus,fukd odvv kd Qif O'gef; ygVdawmf t|uxm oVm,weoH,w


k f t|uxm
(28) ESihf 0dbif; tEk#u
D m (182) wdYk ü Munf½h aI v/

t½SiAf m[d,onf þokwu


f kd Mum;em½Hrk Qjzifh cdygÜ bdn{w'*f& &[EÅm jzpfawmfr\
l /

bma0wAÁm yedapö0?H odwy|me bm0em/


y#dywåd &oó'H? yw¬,aEÅe omoae/

þusrf;onfum; 0dyóem vrf;nTe[ f al om trnftm;avsmfpmG 0dyóemvrf;rSeu f kd usrf;*efEiS thf nD


nTeMf um;½Hrk Qomjzpfí þusrf;udk Munf½h ½I rkH Qjzifh 0daooÓPftjrif½odS w l Ykd rS wyg;wjcm;aom omrefy*k Kd¾ vfwYkd onf
q&morm;r½Sb d J 0dyóemÓPfç r*fzv kd Óf PfoYkd a&mufatmifajzmifrh eS pf mG rusifEh ikd af y&m? xdYk aMumifh usrf;*efEiS hf
tnD 0dyóemÓPfç r*fÓPfç zdv k Ó
f Pfç ypöa0u©Pm ÓPfwYkd EiS w hf uG zvormywf 0ifpm;yHt k xd r,Gi;f rrSm;
&atmif ae&mwus nTejf yEdik yf gonf[k 0efcEH ikd af om q&morm;xHü enf;cHí tm;xkwMf uygav olawmfaumif;
awGwdkY/

NyD;\/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 25

ypöKyÜefudk a½S;OD;pGm 0dyóem ½IrSwftyfaMumif;


ESifh

0dyóemu tm&r®Pm Eko,udky,faMumif;udk


taxmuftxm;jyK&ef om"u

ygVd t|uxm #Dum

ygXo*F[

ygVd t|uxm #Dum ygXo*F[

earm wó b*0awm t&[awm or®morÁK'¨ó

twDwH emEGm *ar,s? eyÜ#u d acF tem*wH/


['wDwH y[Dew H ?H tyÜwOå ö tem*wH/
ypöKyÜEOé ö ,H "r®?H ww¬ ww¬ 0dyówd/
toH[&D H toHuyk ?HÜ wH 0d'gG rEkjAL[a,/
Oy&dyPÖmoygVdawmf eHygwf (226)
aewåyd gVdawmfeyH gwf (128)

twDw?H twdwjf zpfaom/ ,H cE¨yOöu?H tMuifcE¨m ig;yg;taygif;onf/ tw¬d? ½Sd\/ wH? xdck E¨mig;yg;
taygif;onf/ y[De?H aysmufchJ csKyfcNhJ yD/ (y[DeH ed½'k Ḧ tw¬ rwH-[laom tXuxmzGiEhf iS t hf nD teufay;onf)
wo®m? xdo k Ykd aysmufcNhJ yD; csKyfcNhJ yD;jzpfaomaMumif/h twDw?H twdwcf E¨mig;yg;ud?k e tEGm*ar,s? wPSm'd|w d Ykd jzifh
tpOfrvdu
k &f m/ tem*wOö? tem*wf cE¨mig;yg; taygif;onfvnf;/ tyÜw?Hå ra&mufao; rjzpfao;/ (tyÜwHå
tZmwH tedAw Á å t|uxmzGi)hf wo®m? xdo k Ykd rjzpfao;aomaMumif/h tem*wH? tem*wfcE¨mig;yg;ud/k eyÜ#u
d acF?
wPSm'd|wd Ykdjzifh rajr§mv
f ifh rawmifw h &m/

ypöKyÜE?Hé ypöKyÜejf zpfaom/ "r®O?ö cE¨mig;yg; w&m;udv k nf;? ww¬ ww¬? xdx k jkd zpfqcJ PüomvQif/ ,H
0dyówd? 7-yg;aom tEkyóemwdYk jzifh tMuif½rI w S \ f / (ww¬ ww¬mwd ypöyEÜ ré HÜ "r®H ,w¬ ,aw¬0 aom OyÜaEém?
ww¬ waw¦0 tedpmö EkyóemyD[d owå[d tekyóem[d 0dyówd-[laom t|uxm zGiEhf iS t hf nDyif) toH[&D ?H
wPSm'd|w d Ydk jzifh rqGiJ iftyfaom/ 0g? wPSm 'd|w d Ykd rqGiJ ifEikd af tmif/ toHuyk ?HÜ wPSm'd|w d Ykd aMumifh rysufp;D aom/
0g? rysufp;D atmif/ wH 0dyóeH? ypöKyÜew f &m;udk ½Irw S af om xd0k yd óem ÓPfu/kd 0d'gG ? ynm½So d nf/ tEkjAL[
a,? yGm;ap&m\/

þba'´u&wåow k üf cPypöKyÜejf zpfaom emrfw&m;wdYk ukd 0dyóem½Ií rjzpfEikd af omaMumifh t'¨gypöKyÜe[


f k
,l&\/ xdt k '¨gypöKyÜeu
f v
kd nf; 0dyóem\tm½Hrk mS wb0vH;k udk r,l&? wb0twGi;f ü jzpfqjJ zpfaom tpdwt f ydik ;f
t'¨gi,fuo
kd m ,l&\/ xdYk aMumifyh if ww¬ ww¬ [laom tm"m&0daooeudk a[mawmfral y\/ xdyk 'k w f Ykd \ tzGihf
t|uxmpum;jzifv h nf; jzpfcu kd f jzpfcu
kd f t'¨gypöKyÜeif ,fukd ,l&aMumif;xif½mS ;\ ¤if; t|uxm\ teufrmS -

ww¬ ww¬mwd? ww¬ ww¬ [lonfum;/ ypöKyÜEré dÜ "r®? ypöKyÜewf &m;udv


k nf;/ (0dyówdEiS phf yf) ,w¬
,aw¬0? tMuif tMuifcPüomvQif/ aom? xdyk pöKyÜew
f &m;onf/ OyÜaEém? jzpf\/ ww¬ waw¬0? xdx k jkd zpfqJ
cPü omvQif/ tedpmö Ekyóem'D[?d tedpmö Ekyóem tp½du S ek af om/ owå[d tekyóem[d? 7-yg;aom
tekyóemwdkYjzifh/ 0dyówd? ½IrSwf\/

þodYk aomt&mü wb0vH;k udk t'¨gypöKyÜe[


f k r,l&bJ aZm0g&jzifh ydik ;f jcm; rSw,
f o
l ifah Mumif;udk 0do'k rd¨ *f
t|uxm ('kw,d tkyf 63) ü/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 26

t'¨gypöKyÜEHé ye Z0e0ga&e 'DaywAÁEdÅ oH,w


k t
å |uxm,H 0kw?Hå wH ok|K 0kw-Hå [k rdeYf qakd wmfr\
l /
teufum; -

t'¨gypöKyÜE?Hé t'¨gypöKyÜeu
f /kd Z0e0ga&e? aZm0g&jzif/h 'DaywAÁ?H jytyf\/ £wd? þodYk / oH,w
k t
å |uxm
,H? oH,w
k t
å |uxmü/ 0kw?Hå rdeYf qt kd yf\/ wH? xdo
k ,
H w
k f t|uxmpum;onf/ ok|K 0kw?Hå aumif;pGmqdt k yfaom
pum;ygaywnf;/

t'¨gypöKyÜEHé Z0e0ga&e 'DaywAÁ?H e ou av e t'¨gypöKyÜE'é K¨ emwd t"dygÜ a,m/ ¤if; 0do'k rd̈ *f\tzGihf
r[m#Dum ('kw,
d tkyf 66)

t'¨gypöKyÜE?Hé t'¨gypöKyÜeu
f /kd Z0e0ga&e? aZm0g&jzif/h 'DaywAÁ?H jytyf\/ ouave ypöKyÜE'é K¨ em? y#doaE¨
pkwjd zifh ydik ;f jcm;tyfaom t'¨gypöKyÜeBf uD; wckv;kH jzif/h e 'DaywAÁ?H rjytyf/ £wd? þonfum;/ t"dygÜ a,m?
oH,w k f t|uxmq&mwdYk \ tvdak wmfwnf;/

jzpfcu
kd f jzpfcu
kd f t'¨gypöKyÜew
f &m;udk 0dyóem ½Irw
S t
f yfaMumif; pum;w&yfNyD;\/

ypöKyÜEmé eH "r®meH 0dy&dPmrmEkyóae ynm O',AÁ ,mEkyóae ÓPH/

ZmwH ½lyH ypöKyÜE?Hé wó edAw


Á v
då u©PH O'a,m? 0dy&dPmrvu©PH 0a,m? tEkyóem ÓPH/

Zmwm a0'em ypöKyÜEmé ? Zmwm onm ypöKyÜEmé ? wóm edAw


Á v
då u©PH O'a,m/

Zmwm ocFg&m ypöKyÜEmé ? awoH edAw


Á v
då u©PH O'a,m/

ZmwH 0dnmPH ypöKyÜE?Hé wó edAw


Á v
då u©PH O'a,m? 0dy&dPmrvu©PH 0a,m? tEkyóem ÓPH/

ZmwH pu©K? aomwH? CmeH? Zd0gS ? uma,m? raem/ Zmwm ½lyg? o'´g? *E¨m? &om? azg|AÁm? "r®m ypöKyÜEmé
awoH edAw
Á v
då u©PH O'a,m/

ZmwH pu©K0dnmPH raem0dnmPH/

Zmawm pu©Koræaóm raemoræaóm-þodkY ponfrsm;pGmvm\/ y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmf (52)/ 0do'k rd̈ *f
('kw,
d tkyf 265) üvnf; tzGiEhf iS w
hf uG ½S\
d /

ypöKyÜEmé eH? taMumif;udpk í


JG jzpfqJ ypöKyÜef jzpfuek af om/ "r®meH? oabmw&m;wdYk \/ 0dy&d{mrm Ekyóae?
azmufjyefysufp;D onfukd ½I&mü/ ynm? ynmonf/ O',AÁ,m Ekyóae ÓPH? O',AÁ,ÓPfrnf\/

ZmwH? jzpfqaJ om/ ½ly?H ½kyo


f nf/ ypöKyÜE?Hé ypöKyÜerf nf\/ wó? xdkypöKyÜef½kyf\/ edAw
Á v
då u©P?H jzpfjcif;
vu©Pmonf/ O'a,m? O',rnf\/ 0dy&dPmrvu©P?H ysufp;D jcif; vu©Pmonf/ 0a,m? 0,rnf\/
tEkyóem? jzpfonf ysufonf[k ½Ijrifjcif;onf/ ÓPH? O',AÁ,ÓPfrnf\/ (aemufaemufygVdrsm; tjynft h pHk
az:í teufay;&ef rcufNyD/)

þy#dorÇ'd gr*füvmaom ypöKyÜerf mS cPduypöKyÜef jzpfaMumif;udk 0do'k rd¨ *f r[m#Dum ('kw,


d tkyf 419) ü-

ypöKyÜE½é yl H emr ZmwH cPwå,y&d,myEéEdÅ taw¬m? wH ye tm'dawm 'ky&Ü *d [


¾ EÅd oEÅwyd pöKyÜE0é aoe
0dyóem bdead 0aom xmwaAÁm-[k zGijhf yawmfr\
l /

ypöKyÜE½é yl H emr? ypöKyÜe½f yk rf nfonfum;/ ZmwH? jzpfq½J yk w


f nf;/ cPwå,y&d,myEé?H cPi,fo;kH yg;ü
twGi;f 0ifaom ½kyw f nf;/ £wd taw¬m? þum;teuf/ wH ye? xdck Pdu ypöKyÜe½f yk u f ukd m;/ tm'dawm? tpü/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 27

'ky&Ü *d [
¾ ?H odr;f qnf; ½Irw S Ef ikd cf \
J / £wd? xdYk aMumif/h tm'dr?dS tpü (xnfyh 'k )f oEÅwyd pöKyÜEé 0aoe? oEÅed
ypöKyÜe\ f tpGr;f tm;jzif/h 0dyóem bdead 0aom? ½Irw S Ef v
S ;kH oGi;f jcif;ud/k umwaAÁm? ûytyf\/

,H ye edAw
Á v då u©P 0dy&dPmrvu©Pmed yóaEÅm cE¨meH O',AÁ,H yówd? £'ró cPawm
O',AÁ, 'óeH/ 0do'k rd¨ *f ('kw,
d tkyf 267)

edAw
Á då vu©Pm 0dy&dPmr vu©Pmed yóaEÅm? jzpfjcif; vu©Pm ysufjcif;vu©PmwdYk ukd ½Irw S vf suf/
cE¨meH O',AÁ,?H cE¨m ig;yg;wdYk \ tjzpftysufu/kd ,H yówd? tMuif½jI rif\/ £'H? þ½Ijrifjcif;onf/ tó?
xdak ,m*D\/ cPawm O',AÁ, 'óeH? cPtm;jzifh tjzpftysuu f kd jrifjcif;rnf\/

,o®m OyÜg'u©aPa,0 edAwÁ v


då u©P?H b*Fua© Pa,0 p 0dy&dPmrvu©P?H wo®m wmed yóaEÅm
cPawm cE¨m eH O',AÁa, yówd emr/ ¤if; 0do'k r¨ *f\ tzGihf r[m#Dum ('kw,
d tkyf 423)

,o®m? tMuifaMumif/h edAw Á v


då u©P?H jzpfjcif;vu©Pmonf/ OyÜg'u©aPa,0? jzpfqcJ PüomvQif/
tw¬d? ½Sd\/ 0dy&dPmr vu©PmOö? ysufjcif; vu©Pmonfvnf;/ b*Fua© ,0? ysufqJ cPüomvQif/ tw¬?d ½S\ d /
wo®m? xdYk aMumif/h wmed? xdjk zpfqcJ Püom½Sad om jzpfjcif;vu©PmESihf ysufqcJ Püom½Sad om ysufjcif; vu©Pm
wdYk u/kd yóaEÅm? ½Ijrifaomolonf/ cPawm? cPtm;jzif/h cE¨meH O',AÁ a,? cE¨mig;yg;wdYk \tjzpf
tysufwYkd u/kd yówd emr? ½Ijrifonf rnf\/

yXrO§d ypöKyÜE"é r®meH O',AÁ,H 'domG tx twDwm em*aw e,H aewd/ ¤if;0do'k rd¨ *f r[m#Dum
('kwd,tkyf 423)

yXrH? a½S;OD;pGm/ ypöKyÜEé "r®meH? ypöKyÜew


f &m;wdYk \/ O',AÁ,?H tjzpftysufu/kd 'domG ? ½IjrifNyD;í/ tx? xdrk S
aemufü/ twDwmem*aw? twdwf tem*wfw&m;ü/ e,H? enf;ud/k 0g? todÓPfu/kd aewd? aqmif\/ 0g?
jzpfap\/

þy#dorÇ'D gr*f ygVdawmf 0do'k rd̈ *f r[m#Dum pum;wdYk jzifh ypöKyÜef w&m;udo k m a½S;OD;½Irw
S íf aumif;pGm
xifjrifygrS twdwf tem*wfwYkd ukd tEG, 0depd , ä ÓPfjzifh ½IrwS qf ;kH jzwf&aMumif;rSm tvGeyf ifxif½mS ;\/ rnforl Q
ry,f½mS ;Edik ?f xdyk pöKyÜew
f &m;\ tjzpftysufukd ½Irw S &f onfrmS vnf; wu,fjzpfqcJ P wu,f ysufqcJ P
wdYk ü½Sad om jzpfjcif; ysufjcif;wdYk ukd odjrifygrS cPtm;jzifh ½Irw
S af om O',AÁ,ÓPf udpNö yD;aMumif; tvGefxif½Sm;
ay\/

owdy|mefygVdawmfü *päaEÅm 0g *pämrDwd yZmemwd tp½Sad om um,m Ekyóemydik ;f ü¤if;-

okcH 0g a0'eH a0',rmaem okcH a0'eH a0',m rDwd yZmemwd-tp½Sad om a0'emEkyóemydik ;f ü¤if;-

oEÅH 0g tZÑwåH umrpäEH́ tw¬d ar tZÑwåH umrpä aE´mwd yZmemwd-tp½Sdaom "r®mEkyóemydik ;f ü¤if;
ypöKyÜeu
f mva[m ypön;f 0dbwfwYkd jzifh a[mawmfral omaMumifh ygVdawmf wdu
k ½f u
kd t
f m;jzifyh if ypöKyÜeu
f kd ½Irw
S f
&aMumif; xif½mS ;\/ pdwmå Ekyóemüum; ygVdawmfü rxif½mS ;í tXuxmü þodYk ziG \ hf / ,o®ð ,o®ð caP ,H
,H pdwåH y0wåwd? (wo®ð wo®ð c aP) ww H H ov’au©aEÅm twåaem 0g pdawå y&ó 0g pdawå umave 0g
twåaem umave 0g y&ó pdawå pdwmå EkyóD 0d[&wd/ okwrf [m0g tXuxm (367)

tMuif tMuifcPü tMuif tMuifpw d jf zpf\? xdx k ckd Pü xdx


k pkd wd uf kd rSwv
f suf rdr\
d pdwüf jzpfapç
olwyg;\ pdwüf jzpfapç &Hcg rdr\
d pdwüf &Hcgolwyg;\ pdwüf jzpfap pdw[ f k ½Ií ae\/ (jrefrmjyef) owdy|mef
ygVdawmfEiS hf þt|uxm pum;jzifvh nf; ypöKyÜeuf kd pí ½Irw
S &f aMumif; xif½mS ;\/

tm&r®PyÜ#docFg b*FgEkyóae ynm 0dyóae ÓPH/

½lyg&r®Pwm pdwåH OyÜZÆdwGm bdZÆwd? wH tm&r®PH y#docFg wó pdwåó b*ø tEkyówd/ þodkYponf
rsm;pGmvm\/ y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmf (55) 0do'k rd̈ *f ('kw,
d tkyf 277)üvnf; tzGiEhf iS w
hf uG ½S\
d /
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 28

tm&r®PyÜ#o d cFg? tm½Huk kd ukeo f nf ysufonf[k odjrifNyD;í/ (,HuOd t dö m&r®PH y#docFg, ZmedwmG ?
c,awm 0,awm 'domG wd taw¬m? ¤if;yk'\ f tzGihf 0do'k rd̈ *ft&az:í teufay;onf\) t*FgEkyóae? ukeo f nf
ysuo
f nf[k odjrifaom ÓPf\ tysufukd wzef½jI rif&mü/ ynm? ynmonf/ 0dyóaeÓPH? b*F0yd óemÓPf
rnf\/ (wótm&r®PH c,awm 0,awm y#docFg, OyÜEó é ÓPó b*ø tEkyóae ,m ynm? £'H
0dyóae ÓPEÅd 0kw/Hå ¤if;yk'w
f Ykd \ tzGihf 0do'k rd̈ *f/ rsOf;om;xm;aom 2-yk'u
f kd qufpyfí teufay;av/)

½lyg&r®wm pdwåH? ½kyfvQif tm½Hk½Sdaom pdwfonf/ 0g? ½kyfudktm½Hkûyaom pdwfonf/ OyÜZÆdwGm? jzpfNyD;í/
bdZwÆ ?d ysuf\/ (½lyg&r®PH pdwåH OyÜZÆdwGm bdZÆwd? ¤if;0gus\ tzGifh 0dok'd̈r*f) wHtm&r®PH? xdk½kyftm½Hkudk/
y#docFg? ukefonf ysufonf[k odjrifNyD;í (y#docFg, ZmedwmG ? c,awm 0,awm 'domG wd taw¬m? ¤if;\tzGihf
0do'k rd̈ *f/) wópdwó å ? ukeo f nf ysufonf[k odjrifaoim xd0k yd óempdw\ f / b*ø? tysufudk/ tEkyówd?
½Ijrif\/ (a,e pdawåe wH ½lyg&r®PH c,awm 'd|?H wó pdwó å tya&e pdawåe b*ø tEkyówDwd taw¬m/
¤if;\tzGihf 0do'k rd̈ *f 'kw,
d pmtky/f 278)

aemufygVdrsm;udk tjynft
h pHak z: teufay;av/

½lyó b*ø'o
d mG yke b*Fg&r®Pó pdwóå b*F'ó ew¬H teEÅ& ar0 tm0ZÅeorw¬wm/ /
þonfum; tm0ZÆemAvaOö0 [laom y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmf\tzGihf 0do'k rd¨ *f t|uxm pum;wnf;/ ('kw,
d
tkyf 280)

½lyó? ½kyf\/ b*ø? tysufudk/ 'doGm? jrifNyD;í/ b*Fg &r®Pó pdwåó? ½kyf\ tysufukd tm½Hûk yaom
pdw\ f / yke b*F'óew¬?H tysufukd wzef½jI rifjcif; tusdK;iSg/ teEÅ& ar0? ½ky\ f tysufujkd rifaom a½SU0dyóem
0Dx\ d tjcm;rJüh omvQif/ (þt&mü w0Dxt d wGi;f ü yg0ifaom a½S;a½S;aZmudk aemufaemufaZmu tm½Hûk y½d;k
xH;k pHr½Sad omaMumif¤h if;? b0ifrjcm;bJ aemuf0x D d qufvufíus½d;k xH;k pHr½Sad omaMumif¤h if;/ b0ifrS teEÅ&ypön;f
rsm;udk r&bJ tm0ZÆe;f rjzpfEikd af omaMumif¤h if; a½SUaemuf 0dyóe,0Dxd ESp&f yfwYkd \tMum;ü wjcm;wyg;udk
tm½Hûk yaom 0Dxw d yg; rjcm;onfuo kd m tjcm;rJ[ h qk akd Mumif; cdik Nf rJpmG rSw,
f t
l yf\/ xdYk aMumifh ½kyf\tysufukd
jrifaom a½SU0dyóem0Dx\ d [laom teEÅ&\ orÁefudk az:í teufay;onf/) tm0ZÆeorwåwm? ]]a½S;0dyóem
pdw\ f udk bifu}kd } ESv;kH oGi;f jcif;iSg pGr;f Edik o
f nf\ tjzpfonf/ tm0ZÆemAvH? b*FÓPfEiS hf jynfph akH om a,m*D
yk*Kd¾ vf\ raem'Gg&0ZÆe;f tm; tpGr;f rnf\/ (þtm0ZÆemAvH-[laom aemufq;kH yk'u f kd teuft"dygÜ ,f ay:vGiaf p
jcif;iSg oHaPÖwAÁygVdawmf&if;rS ,lí teufpyf jyvdu k of nf/)

þy#dorwdr*f ygVdawmf 0do'k rd¨ *f t|uxmpum;wdYk jzifh 0dyóemqdo k nfrmS pdwKå yÜg'fwikd ;f pdwKå yÜg'f
wdik ;f udk toD;toD; wBudrw f Budrpf D vdu
k íf ½Irw
S &f onfvnf;r[kw/f pdwKå yÜg'f wcktwGi;f ü yg0ifaom rsm;pGmaom
orÜ,w k wf &m;wdYk ukd toD;toD; wBudrw f Budrpf D cGjJ crf;í ½Irw S af e&onfvnf; r[kwaf y/ pifppf trSet f m;jzifh
aomfum; w0Dxv d ;kH udk odr;f MuHK;í ½Irw
S &f avonf/ xdw k 0Dxd twGi;f ü yg0ifaom orÜ,w k w f &m;wdYk wiG vf nf;
xif½mS ;&mpdwu f kd jzpfapç zópaom apwodwf wckcu k jkd zpfap y"meûyí ½Irw
S f odjrifygu tm;vH;k aom orÜ,w k f
w&m;wdYk ukd ½IrwS o f jd rifjcif; udpNö yD;av\/ þodkYaom teuft"dyÜg,fonf tvGefxif½Sm; ay\/

aom {0H 0d&awåm ,xm 'd|H ocFg&*wH? wxm t'd|rÜd tEG,ÓP 0aoe eda&ma"wd? aem orka'wd?
eda&m"awm0 reodua&mwd? eda&m" ar0ó yówd? aem ork',EÅd taw¬m/

þonfum; b*FÓPfü eda&m"m Ekyóemudjk yaom eda&ma"wd? aem orka'wd-[laom y#dorÇ'd gr*f
ygVdawmf\tzGihf 0do'k rd̈ *faywnf;/ ('kw,
d tkyf 279)

{0H? þqdt
k yfNyD;aom b*FgEkyóemjzif/h 0d&awåm? wyfrufuif;aom/ aom? xdak ,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vfonf/ 'd|?H
,ckvufi;f jriftyf NyD;aom/ ocFg&*wH? ypöKyÜef ocFg&w&m;taygif;ud/k eda&ma"wd ,xm? csKyfonfukd ESv;kH oGi;f
ouJoh Ykd / (,xm 'd|H orÜwd Oy|dwH ocFg&*wH eda&ma"wd eda&m"H reodua&mwd/ r[m#DumtzGi/hf orÜw?d
,ckypöKyÜeüf / Oy|dw?H xifaom [k ay;) wxm? xdYk twl? t'd|rÜ?d rjriftyfaomtwdwf tem*wfuv kd nf;/
tEG,ÓP0aoe? tEG,ÓPf\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h eda&ma"wd/ csKyfonfukd ESv;kH oGi;f \/ (t'd|rÜd twDwmem*wH
tEG,ÓP0aoe ,xm £'H {w&[d {yH £wa&yDwd tEkred aEÅm eda&ma"wd reoduwóyd eda&m"H reodu
a&mwd/ r[m#DumtzGi/hf /t'd|?H rjriftyfaom/ twDwmem*wrÜ?d twdwt f em*wfuv
kd nf;/ tEG,ÓP0aoe?
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 29

tEG,ÓPf\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h {w&[d? ,cktcgü/£'H? þypöKyÜew f &m;onf/ ed½Zk Ñwd ,xm? csKyfouJo
h Ykd / {0H?
þtwl/ £wa&yd? twdwf tem*wfw&m;wdYk onfvnf;/ ed½Zk ÑEÅ?d csKyfuek \ f / £wd? þodYk / tEkred aEÅm?
EdiI ;f qvsuf/ eda&ma"wd? csKyfonfukd ESv;kH oGi;f \/ reoduwóyf? ESv;kH oGi;f tyfaom twdwf tem*wf\vnf;/
eda&m"H? csKyfjcif;ud/k reodua&mwd? ESv;kH oGi;f \/ #Dumteuf) aem orka'wd? jzpfonfukd ESv;kH roGi;f /
eda&m"awm0 reoda&mwd? csKyfonf[o l mvQif ESv;kH oGi;f \/ tó? xdktwdwf tem*wfw&m;\/ eda&m"ar0?
csKyfjcif;udkomvQif/ yówd? ½I\/ ork',H? jzpfjcif;ud/k aem yówd? r½I/ £wd? taw¬m? þum;ygVdawmf\
teufwnf;/

tm&r®PtEGa,e? Oabm {u 0 0w¬em/


eda&ma" t"drw k wå m? 0,vu©Pm 0dyóem/
y#dorÇ'd gr*fygVdawmf (56)

tm&r®PtEGa,e? rsufarSmufjriftyfaom tm½Ho k Ykd tpOfavQmufojzif?h Oabm? ESprf sKd;aomtm½Hw


k Ykd u/kd
{u0 0wåem? wckwnf;aom ysujf cif;oabmtm;jzifh ydik ;f jcm;Edik jf cif;¤if;/ eda&ma"? csKyfjcif;ysujf cif;ü/
t"drw
k w
å m? ESvHk;oGif;jcif;ç nTwfudkif;½dIif;jcif;¤if;/ {om? þt*Fg 2-yg;ESihf jynfph akH om ynmonf/ 0,vu©Pm
0dyóem? ysufjcif;vu©Pmudk ½Ijrifaom b*F0yd óemÓPrnf\/

þ*gxmüvmaom tm½Hk 2-rsdK; ydik ;f jcm;yHu


k kd r[m#Dum ('kw,
d tkyf 443) ü -

Oabmwd 'd|m'd|bma0e a'Gyd tm&r®Pmed/ {u0 0w¬emwd cPb*F&k wm, ormemwd 0 0w¬myem-[k
zGiq
hf \
kd /

Oabmwd? Oabm[lonfum;/ 'd|m'd|bma0e? rsufarSmufjriftyfaom 'd|tm½Hçk rsufarSmufrjriftyfaom


t'd|tm½HkwdkY\ tjzpfjzifh/ a'Gyd? 2-yg;vnf;jzpfuek af om/ tm&r®Pmed? tm½Hw k Ykd u/kd {u0 0w¬emwd? {u0 0w¬em
[lonfum;/ cPb*F&k wm,? cPbif½o dS nf\tjzpfjzif/h 0g? cPcsif;ysufr½I o dS nf\ tjzpfjzif/h ormemwd?
wlMuuke\
f [lí/ 00w¬yem? ydik ;f jcm;Edik jf cif;wnf;/

tm&r®PtEGa,e Oabm {u00w¬emwd ypöua© wm 'd|ó tm&r®Pó tEGa,e tEk*raee ,xm


£'H? wxm twDawyd ocFg&*wH bdZw dÆ ?¬ tem*awyd bdZó
dÆ wDwd {0H ObdEHé {uobma0ae0 00w¬myeEÅd
taw¬m/ 0kwrå adÜ pwH ayg&maP[d-

oH0Zd rÆ merSd 0do'k ¨ 'óaem?


w'EG,H aewd twDwem*aw/
oaAÁyd ocFg&*wm yavmudaem?
Oóm0AdEL¨ ok&ad ,0 O*¾awwd/
0do'k rd¨ *ft|uxm ('kw, d tkyf 280)

tm&r®PtEGa,e Oabm {u0 0w¬emwd? tm&r®PtEGa,e Oabm {u0 0w¬em [lonfum;/


ypöua© wm? rsufarSmuftm;jzif/h 'd|ó? jriftyfaom/ tm&r®Pó? ypöKyÜet f m½Hok Ykd / tEGa,e tEk*raee?
tpOfvu kd o
f jzif/h £'H? rsufarSmufjriftyfaom þypöKyÜeo f cFg&w&m;onf/ bdZw Æ d ,xm? ysufouJo h Ykd /
twDawyd? twdwu f mvüvnf;/ ocFg&*wH? ocFg&w&m; taygif;onf/ bdZw dÆ ?¬ ysufcNhJ yD/ tem*awyd? tem*wf
umvüvnf;/ ocFg&*wH? ocFg&w&m;taygif;onf/ bdZó dÆ wd? ysufvwH/h £wd {0H? þodYk / ObdE?Hé rsufarSmuf
jriftyfaom ypöKyÜef tm½Hçk rsufarSmufrjriftyfaom twdwt f em*wftm½Ht
k m;jzifh 2-yg;aom tm½HkwdkYudk/
{uobma0 ae0? wckwnf;aom ysujf cif;oabmtm;jzifo h mvQi?f 0 0w¬m yeH? ydik ;f jcm;Edik jf cif;/ £wd? þonf
um;/ taw¬m? ygVdawmf\ teufwnf;/ p-opö?H igt|uxmq&m\ a½SUpum;rSe\ f / ayg&maP[d? a½S;t|uxm
q&mBuD;wdYk onf/ oH0Zd rÆ merS/d y/ O*¾awwd? oH0Zd rÆ merS/D y/ O*¾aw [laom/ {wH? þpum;ud/k 0kwrå ?dÜ rdeYf qakd wmf
rltyfcohJ nfomwnf;/

(¤if; ayg&mP om"u *gxm\ teufum;)


0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 30

oH0Zd rÆ merS?d xif½mS ;½Sq d J ypöKyÜef ocFg&w&m;ü/ 0g? rsufarSmuftm;jzifh &tyfaom ypöKyÜeo f cFg&w&m;ü?
(oH 0dZrÆ merSw d d ypöua© wm OyvAÇrmae ypöKyÜaEé/ r[m#DumtzGi)hf 0do'k '¨ óaem? pifMu,faom b*FÓPf
tjrif½adS om yk*Kd¾ vfonf (0do'k b ¨ *F'óaemwdtaw¬m? r[m#DumtzGi)hf w'EG,?H xdyk pöKyÜeo f cFg&w&m;\
tysufukd jrifaomÓPfoYkd tpOfvu kd af om ÓPfu?kd twDw em*aw? twdwf tem*wf ocFg&w&m;taygif;ü/
aewd? aqmif\/ 0g? jzpfap\/ (wó ypöKyÜEé ocFg&b*F 'ódaem ÓPó tEG,H tEk*wblwH ÓPH
y0awåw/d r[m#Dum ('kw, d tkyf 443) ESit hf nD azmfí teufay;onf) uxH aewd? tb,foYkd aqmifoenf;
jzpfapoenf;[lru l m;/ ok&ad ,? aeonf/ O*¾aw? xGuv f wfaomf/ Oó0AdEL¨ ? ESi;f aygufwYkd onf/ yavmudaem
£0? aysmufysuf ukeo f uJo h Ykd / oaAÁy?d twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜet f m;jzifh tvH;k pHv
k nf; jzpfuek af om/ ocFg&*wm?
ocFg&w&m;wdYk onf/ yavmudaem? ysufjcif;oabm½Su d ek \
f / £wd aewd? þodYk aqmif\/

þqdt k yfcNhJ yD;aom b*FÓPfqikd &f m y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmfç 0do'k rd̈ *f t|uxmç r[m#Dum
pum;wdYk jzifv
h nf; ypöKyÜew f &m;udk a½S;OD;pGm ½Irw
S í
f 0dyóemÓPf oefY½iS ;f pifMu,faom tcgodYk a&mufrS twdwf
tem*gwfwYkd ukd tEG, 0depd , ä ÓPfjzifo h m ½Ijrif qH;k jzwftyfonf\ tjzpfrmS wdu
k ½f u
kd f pum;rsm;jzpfí tvGeyf if
xif½mS ;vSay\/

aom {0H ypö,aom emr½lyó y0wåð 'domG ,xm £'H {w&[d {0H twDawyd t'¨gae ypö,awm
y0wåw
d ?¬ tem*awyd ypö,awm y0wåó
d wDwd orEkyówd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 'kw,
d tkyf ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPftzGihf 234)

aom? xdk a,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vfonf/ {0H? þqdck NhJ yD;aom enf;jzif/h ypö,awm? taMumif;aMumif/h emr½lyó?
emrf½yk \f / {w&[d? ,ckypöKyÜeüf / (y0wåð 'domG wd {w&[d-[laom r[m#Dum tzGiEhf iS t hf nD xnfo h nf/ y0wå?ð
jzpfjcif;ud/k 'domG ? jrifNyD;í/ £'H? rsufarSmufjriftyfaom þ ypöKyÜeo f cFg&w&m;onf/ y0wåwd ,xm? jzpfouJh
odYk / {0H? þypöKyÜef emrf½yk tf wl/ twDawyd t'¨gae? twdwu f mvüvnf;? ypö,awm? taMumif;aMumif/h y0wåw d ?¬
jzpfavNyD/ tem*awyd? tem*wfumvüvnf;? ypö,awm? taMumif;aMumif/h y0wåó d wd? jzpfvwH/h £wd? þodYk /
orEkyówd? ½Ijrif\/

þpum;jzifv h nf; ypöKyÜeu


f kd a½S;OD;pGm½Ií aumif;pGmodjrifygrS twdwf tem*wfukd ½Ijrif qH;k jzwfEikd o
f nfukd
jy\/ aemufNyD;awmh-

O',AÁ,ÓPf b*FÓPf qdik &f m jyqdt k yfcNhJ yD;aom ygVdawmfç t|uxmç #Dum pum;wdYk jzifv h nf;
xdYk twlyif ypöKyÜeu f kd ½Irw S í
f aumif;pGmodjrifNyD;rS twdwt f em*wfü tEkrmetm;jzifh tEG, 0depd ,
ä ÓPf jzpfonf
udk jy\/ xdUk aMumifh a½SUypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf aemufO',AÁ, b*FÓPfwYkd \ tv,füjzpfaom or®oeÓPfüvnf;
½Irw S t
f yfqJ ypöKyÜef w&m;ü tedpçö 'kuç© tewå tjcif;t&mrsm; wpdww f ydik ;f xifjrifvmaomtcg ud, k yf ikd f
ÓPfjzifh ½Irw S tf yfqJ ypöKyÜew f &m;udk qifjcifo;kH oyfNyD;rS twdwt f em*wf w&m;wdYk ukd qifjcif oH;k oyfonf[k
,loifh ,lxu kd \f / oH;k oyfykH tjcif;t&mrsm;rS tvGerf sm;ojzifh yk*Kd¾ vftrsdK;rsdK; tm;avsmfpmG rsm;pGmaomoH;k oyfyçkH
or®oeÓPf jzpfyw kH Ykdukd t|uxmü us,0f ef;pGm jyqdx k m;ay\/ xdYk aMumifh -

,HuOd dö ½lyH twDwmem*w ypöKyÜEHé tZÑwåH 0g A[d'g© 0g MoVm&duH 0g okcrk H 0g [DeH 0g yPDwH 0g,H 'la&
oEÅad u 0g? oAÁH ½lyH tedpaö wm 0 ww¬aywd? {uH or®oeH- tp½Sdaom or®oeÓPfqikd &f m y#dorÇ'd gr*fygVdawmf
(51 ü)

twdwNf yD;rS tem*wf? tem*wfNyD;rS ypöKyÜe?f ypöKyÜeNf yD;rS tZÑwå? tZÑwåNyD;rS A[d'-d¨ ponfjzifh
a[mawmfro
l nfrmS okwtf bd"r®m rsm;pGmaom ygVdawmfwYkdü a[maeusjzpfaom a[m½d;k a[mpOf a'oemuúr-
a'oemenf;rQomwnf;/ y#dywfusi&hf mü þtpOftwdik ;f usufrw S í
f usif&h rnf[k jytyfaom y#dywåu
d rú -usiphf Of
enf;r[kwaf y? tu,fí xdt
k pOftwdik ;f usif&h rnf qdyk gu tjypfwifb,G f rsm;pGm½S\
d /

tenf;i,f xkwjf ytH/h xif½mS ; ½Sq d jJ zpfí obm0 vu©Pm &o ypöKy|meftm;jzifh ay:vGix f if½mS ;pGm
odEikd af om ypöKyÜef ½kyef mrfukd r½IrrSwf ESv;kH roGi;f ygbJ xif½mS ;r½Sad wmhonf r½Sad o;onfjzpfí wu,f tppftrSef
jzpfaom vu©Pm&oponf ray:vGif rxif½mS ;aom twdwf tem*wf½yk ef mrfwYkd ukd pí ESv;Hk oGi;f qifjcifojzifh
(þt&mü twdwf tem*wf rxif½mS ;qdo k nfrmS b0a[mif;u jzpfcahJ om½kyef mrfukd xm;bdO;D / raeYujzpfcahJ om
½kyef mrfukd ,aeY pOf;pmvQijf zpfap? eHeufu jzpfcahJ om ½kyef mrfukd aeYvnfç naeü pOf;pm;vQijf zpfap jzpfcb hJ ;l onfh
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 31

twdik ;f obm0vu©Pm &o ponfrmS rxif½mS ; onfom/ xdYk twl aemufaemuf b0udk xm;bdO;D / yXrajcvSr;f
twGi;f ü wnfpOf 'kw, d ç wwd,ç ajcvSr;f twGi;f ü jzpfay:rnfh ½kyef mrfukd pOf;pm;Munfv h Qif wu,fjzpfay:rnfh
twdik ;f obm0 vu©Pm ponfrmS rxif½mS ;onfom? þodYk tppftrSejf zpfaom vu©Pm &oponftm;jzifh
rxif½mS ;onfukd &nfí qdo k nf) vu©Pma&;oH;k yg;udk rqdx k m;bd? obm0 vu©Pmudyk if rSeu f efpmG rodEikd &f m?
wu,f pifppf jzpfay:aom ¤if;y&rwf obm0udk rodygu Oyg'fXçD bif[al om ocFwvu©Pm rxif&m? jzpfqJ
wnfqJ ysufqcJ Pü½Sad om ocFwvu©Pm tppftrSeu f kd rodygu oEÅwC d erQyif ruGo J jzifh tedpö 'ku© tewå
vu©Pm tppftrSeu f kd ud,k yf ikd Ó
f Pfjzifh {uefrod&m? xdk vu©Pma&;oH;k yg;udk ud,k yf ikd Óf Pfjzifh trSerf odygu
okwr, pdEmÅ r,rQomjzpfí bm0emr, or®oeÓPf tppftrSeo f nf {uef rjzpfay;Edik af wmhonfom[k cdik Nf rJpmG
rSw,
f u l ek &f monf/

(xdrk w
S yg; ypöKyÜeu
f kd 0dyóem pí ½Irw
S t
f yfaMumif; ygVd
t|uxm #Dum rsm;pGm½Sad o;\? þrQyif xif½mS ;vSNyD[k
oabm&\/)

0dyóemjzifh udavomudk y,f&mü


om"uygVdrsm;

0dyóem [d w'*F0aoe o'¨ð cE¨mbdocFga&[d udavao y&dpZö wd/ 0do'k rd̈ *f (yXrtkyf 282)

0dyóem? 0dyóemonf/ w'*F0aoe? 0dyóem\ tpdwjf zpfaom xdx k kd ÓPfwnf;[laom taMumif;\


tpGr;f tm;jzif/h (w'*Fy[
Ü meyk'\
f tzGiühf jytyfaom awe awe 0dyóem, t0,0blawe ÓPa*Fe y#dyu©
0aoae0 wó wó y[mwAÁ"r®ó y[meH? £'H w'*Fy[ Ü meHemr- [laom 0do'k rd̈ *f 'kw, d tkyf 335/
ÓPa*Femwd ÓPocFgawe um&aPe-[k xyfí zGiahf om r[m#Dum 'kw, d tkyf 509-wdYk EiS hf tnDwnf;/) 0g?
w'*Fy[mef\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h cE¨mbdocFga&[d o'¨?ð 0dyguf cE¨m ukovkd f tukov kd u
f H tbdocFg&wdYk EiS w
hf uG/
udavao? udavomwdYk u/kd y&dpZö wd? y,fpeG Yf \/

w'*F0aoemwd {w¬ tedpmö Ekyóem wm0 w'*Fy[ Ü me0aoe edpo


ö nH y&dpZö wd/ y&dpZö EÅD p ]]wxm
ty0wå, d H a, edpEö dÅ *[P0aoe udavomç wHrv l um tbdocFg&mç w'kb,rlvum p 0dyguu©Em¨ tem*aw
OyÜaZÆ,sHK}} aw oaAÁyd tyÜ0wåud &P 0aoe y&dpZö wd? wxm'kum© Ekyóem'a,m/ awem[ 0dyóem [d/y/
udavao y&dpZö wDw/d ¤if;0do'k rd̈ *f r[m#Dum (yXrtkyf 345)

w'*F0aoemwd {w¬? w'*F0aoe [laom ygXfü/ wm0? a½S;OD;pGm/ tedpmö Ekyóem? tedpmö Ekyóemonf/
w'*Fy[ Ü me 0aoe? w'*Fy[mef\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h edpo ö nH? edpo ö nmud/k y&dpZö wd? y,fpeG Yf \/ (edpo
ö nmudk
y,fumrQjzifh udavomç tbdocFg&ç cE¨mwdYk ukd tb,foYkd y,fEikd yf goenf;-[k ar;bG,f½Sdí y&dpZö EÅD p-ponfukd
qufí rdeYf onf) p? qufíqdOk ;D tH/h om? xdk tedpmö Ekyóemonf/ y&dpZö EÅ?d edpo ö nmudk y,fonf½adS omf/ (aemuf
y&dpZö wd yk'rf mS pyfav) wxm tyÜ0wå, d ?H xdt k edp[ ö k ½Ijrifaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh 0dyóemÓPf rjzpfchJ
vwfaomf (þyk'u f kd OyÜaZÆ,sHK-ü pyf) edpEö dÅ *[P0aoe? NrJ\[k rSw, f o
l nf\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h a, udavom
p? tMuifuad vom wdYk onf¤if;/ wHrv l um? xdu k ad vomvQif taMumif;&if;½Su d ek af om/ a, tbdocFg&m p?
tMuifuo k v
kd f tukov kd u
f H tbdocFg&wdYk onf¤if;/ w'kb,rlvum? xdu k ad vomç tbdocFg& 2-yg;vQif
taMumif;&if; ½Su d ek af om/ a, 0dyguu©Em¨ p? tMuif0yd gufcE¨mwdYk onf¤if;/ tem*aw? aemiftcg umvü/
OyÜaZÆ,sKH ? jzpfEikd uf ek &f m\/ awoaAÁy?d aemiftcgü jzpfEikd jf zpfxu kd af om xdtk vH;k pHak om udavom tbdocFg&ç
0dygwfcE¨mwdYk uv kd nf;/ tyÜ0wåu d &P 0aoe? rjzpfatmif ûyonf\ tpGr;f tm;jzif/h y&dpZö wd? y,fpeG Yf \/
'kum© Ekyóem'a,m 'kum© EkyóemponfwYkd onf/ wxm? xdt k edpmö Ekyóem twlyifwnf;/ awe xdYk aMumif/h
0dyóem[d/y/ udavao y&dpZö wDw?d 0dyóem [d/y/ udavao y&dpzö wd [laom pum;ud/k tm[?
t|uxmq&m rdeYf awmfr\ l /

þt|uxm #Dumpum;wdYk jzifh 0dyóemonf 'geoDvponf omrn umrukov kd w


f Ykduo
hJ Ykd y&d,|k mef
0Dwu
d rú udavom wdYk uo
kd m y,fonr[kw?f pifppftm;jzifh 0dyóem\ tm½Hjk zpfaom ocFg&w&m;ü tedppö aom
tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh r½Ijrifryd gu aemifjyefí pOf;pm;aomtcgü jzpfxu kd af om tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ w
d yk EÜ çé
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 32

tm&r®PmEko, udavomwdYk u¤kd if;? ¤if;rSqufvufí jzpfymG ;vwHah om uH 0dygwfcE¨mwdYk u¤kd if; y,f\/
w'*Fy[ Ü mefcsi;f trnfwal omfvnf; omrn umrukovkd u
f w
H Ykd\ y,fyEkH iS hf rwlbJ xl;jcm;aom w'*Fy[
Ü mef
jzpfaMumif;rSm xif½mS ;ay\/

,H yaewH blev
d '¨g &r®Pm"d*[
¾ w
d t0dur© w
dÇ to rl[wocFgwH OyÜE?Hé wó wH wH OyÜEb é m0H
0demo, rmeH ,o®m wH wH avmud, avmukw&å ÓPH OyÜZw Æ ?d wo®m wH oAÁrdÜ y[mwAÁH a[mwd/ 0do'k rd¨ *f
('kw,
d tkyf 330)

blrvd '¨g &r®Pm"d*[¾ w


d t0dur© w dÇ torl[wocFg wH? blrv d '¨ tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ wd t0dur© w dÇ
torl[w [k qdt k yfaom/ ,H {wH OyÜE?Hé tMuifOyÜEré nfaom udavomonf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / wó? OyÜEré nfaom
xdk 4-rsKd ;aom tEko, udavom \/ wH wH OyÜEb é m0H? xdxk kd OyÜEé\ tjzpfu/kd 0g? xdx k kd jzpfxukd o f nf\
tjzpfu/kd 0demo, rmeH? zsufq;D vsuf/ (wH wH OyÜEb é m0H 0demo,rmeEÅd tEkyw Ü då "r®wmyg'aee OyÜEeé m&[wH
0demaoEÅ/H r[m#DumtzGi/hf wzefrjzpfjcif; oabm½So d nf\ tjzpfoYkd a&mufapaom tm;jzifh jzpfxu kd of nf\
tjzpfukd zsufq;D vsuf[k teufaz:av/) wH wH avmud, avmukw&å ÓPH? xdx k akd vmuD 0dyóemÓPf
avmukw&å m r*fÓPfonf/ ,o®m? tMuifaMumif/h OyÜEw é ?d jzpf\/ wo®m? xdYk aMumif/h wH oAÁr?dÜ xdt k vH;k pHak om
4-rsKd ;aom OyÜEt é eko, udavomonfvnf;/ y[mwAÁ?H 0dyóemr*fwYkdjzifh y,ftyfy,fxu kd af om r[mwAÁ
udavomrnfonf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/

]]avmukw&å mr*fomvQif teko,udk y,fEikd \ f / avmuD 0dyóemonf tEko,udk ry,fEikd }f }[k


xifjrifaom tyÜów k yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd onf þt|uxmygXfü avmud,- avmukw&å ÓPH-[k avmuDukd xnfo h iG ;f
vsuf rdeYf qx
kd m;onfukd tjypfaomfvnf;wifuek &f m\/ jyifzsufaomfvnf; jyifzsurf u d ek &f m\/ xdktyÜókwwdkY\
tjypfwif jyifzsurf jd cif;rsm;rS vGwu f if;apjcif;iSg ¤if;0do'k rd¨ *f\ tzGirhf [m#Dum ('kw,
d tkyf 503)ü -

yXrH avmud,ÓaPe ,xmAvH y[Dear0 avmukw&å ÓPH yZ[wDw avmud,*¾[PH uwH-[k


zGiq
hf akd wmfr\
l /

yXrH? a½S;OD;pGm/ avmud,ÓaPe? avmuD0yd óem ÓPfonf/ ,xmAvH? tm;pGr;f ½So d rQ/ y[Dear0?
y,ftyfNyD;aom udavomudk omvQif/ avmukw&å mÓPH? avmukw&å mr*fÓPfonf/ yZ[wd? y,f\/ £wd?
xdYk aMumif/h avmud,*¾[PH? avmud,yk'u
f kd xnfo
h iG ;f í qdjk cif;ud/k uwH? t|uxmq&mûyawmfrtl yf\/

,w¬ ,w¬ [d 0dyóem, ty&dnmw cE¨m OyÜE?dÅ ww¬


ww¬ OyÜg'awm ybkwd awok 0¥rkvH udavoZmwH
tEkaowd? wH tyÜ[eD a|e blrv
d '¨EdÅ a0'dwAÁ/H 0do'k rd¨ *f
('kw,
d tkyf 329)

[d? xifpmG jytH/h ,w¬ ,w¬ tMuif tMuif b0 tMuiftMuifoEÅmefü/ 0dyóem, ty&dnmwm?
0dyóemÓPfjzifh ydik ;f jcm;í rodtyfuek af om cE¨mwdkYonf/ OyÜEEé ?dÅ jzpfuek \ f / (y&dnmwmeH tblrb d m0awm
ty&dnmwmwd 0kw?Hå r[m#Dum/ 0dyóemjzifh ydik ;f jcm;í odtyfaom cE¨mwdYk onf udavom\ ude;f &mbHk
r[kwaf omaMumif¤h if;? þt&müudavom\ ude;f &mbHjk zpfaom cE¨mwdYk uo kd m jyvdak omaMumif¤h if; ty&dnmwm
[laom 0daooeyk'u f kd xnfí
h qdok nf[\ l /) ww¬ ww¬? xdx k b
kd 0 xdxk o kd EÅmefü/ OyÜg'awm ybkw?d xdck E¨m
wdYk \ jzpfaom umvrSpí/ (awoH cE¨meH OyÜEeé awm y|m,? r[m#DumzGi)hf awok ty&dnmwcaE¨o?k
0dyóemjzifh ydik ;f jcm;í rodtyfaom xdck E¨mwdYk ü/ 0¥rlvH udavoZmwH? 0#fjrpfjzpfaom udavomtaygif;onf/
tekaowd? ude;f 0yf\/ wH? xdu k ed ;f 0yfaom teko,udavomtaygif;onf/ tyÜ[eD a|e? ry,ftyfaom
teufoabm tm;jzif/h blrv d '¨?H &tyfNyD;aom jzpf&mbHk ½Sad om blrv d '¨ udavomrnf\/ £wd a0'dwAÁH/ þodkY
odtyf\/

pu©m'DeH ye tmygx*aw tm&r®aP ykAb Á ma* tEkyZÜ rÆ merÜd udavoZmwH tm&r®Pó t"d*[ ¾ dwwåm
{0 ty&bma* {uaEÅe OyÜwadå wm tm&r®Pm"d*[
¾ wd yk EÜ Eé dÅ 0kpw
ö /d 0do'k rd̈ *f ('kw,
d tkyf 330)
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 33

pu©m'De?H pu©K'Gg& ponfwYkd tm;/ tmygx*aw tm&r®aP? xifaomtm½Hük / udavoZmwH?


udavomtaygif;onf/ ykAb Á ma* tEkyZÜ rÆ merÜ?d a½S;tzdYk xifpOfumvü rjzpfao;aomfvnf;/ tm&r®Pó
t"d*[¾ wd wåm-{0? tm½Hu k kd ,ltyfNyD;aomaMumifh omvQif/ ty&bma* PuaEÅe OyÜwadå wm? aemuftzdYk jyefí
qifjcifaom umvü pifppfjzpfEikd af omaMumif/h tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ wd yk EÜ ?Hé tm&r®Pm"d*[
¾ wd yk EÜ u
é ad vomrnf\/
(tm½Huk ykd ,fNyD;jzpfí rjzpfao;bJyif jzpfonf rnfaom udavom[lv)kd £wd 0kpw ö ?d þodYk qdt
k yf\/

orx0dyóemeH tnw&0aoe t0dur© w dÇ H udavoZmwH


pdwo
å EÅwð tem½kVr§ dÜ OyÜwedå d 0g&uó a[wkaem tbm0g
t0dur© wdwyk EÜ Hé emr? orx0dyóem 0aoe ye 0dur© w dÇ rÜd
t&d,ra*¾e torl[wwåm OyÜw"då r®wH tewDwwm,
torl[wkyEÜ Eé dÅ 0kpwö /d 0do'k rd̈ *f ('kw,
d tkyf 330)

orx0dyóemeH? orx0dyóemwdYk wiG /f tnw&0aoe? wyg;yg;\ tpGr;f jzif/h t0dur© w dÇ H udavo


ZmwH? rcGgtyfaom udavomtaygif;onf/ pdwo å EÅwð tem½kVr§ ?dÜ pdwt
f pOfoYkd Oyg'f XD biftm;jzifh rwuf
ao;aomfvnf;/ OyÜwedå 0d g&uó a[wkaem tbm0g? jzpfjcif;udk wm;jrpfEikd af om taMumif;\ r½Sjd cif;aMumif/h
t0dur© w dÇ yk EÜ eHé mr? t0dur© w
dÇ yk EÜ u
é ad vomrnf\/ (orx 0dyóem wdYk jzifh rcGgtyfao;onfjzpfí b,ftcsderf qdk
jzpfciG hf omaomaMumifh rjzpfao;bJyif jzpfonfrnfaom oEÅmemEko,udavom[lv)kd ye? xdrk w S yg;/ orx
0dyóem0aoe? orx0dyóemwdYk \ tpGr;f jzif/h 0dur© w dÇ rÜ?d cGgtyfaomfvnf;/ t&d,ra*¾e torl[wwåm?
t&d,r*fjzifh t<uif;rJh ry,fowftyfao;onf\ tjzpfaMumif/h (tewDwüpyf,)l OyÜw"då r®w?H jzpfjcif;oabm
½Sdonf\tjzpfu/kd tewDwwm,? rvGeaf o;aomaMumif/h torl[ wkyEÜ Eé ?dÅ torl-[wkyEÜ u é ad vom[lí/
0kpwö ?d qdt k yf\/

þonfvnf; oEÅmemEko,yif/ txl;um;-t0dur© DÇ w-rSm orx0dyóemr½Sí d tvQif;rcGgtyfaom


aMumifh tcsderf a½G; jzpfxu
kd af om tEko,aywnf;/ þtorl[wrSm orx0dyóem½Sad om yk*Kd¾ vftm; y,fcgG
xm;ygvsuf r*fjzifh ry,f&ao;í taMumif;nDnw G yf gu jzpfciG ½hf adS om tEko,aywnf;/ þum;txl;/

wd0"d r®d apwH tm&r®Pm"d*[


¾ w
d m0dur© w
dÇ ? torl [wkyEÜ Hé blrv
d a'¨ae0 o*F[H *päw/d 0do'k rd¨ *f
('kw,
d tkyf 330)

wd0"d rÜ?d 3-yg;vH;k vnf;jzpfaom/ {wHtm&r®Pm "d*[ ¾ wd m0dur© w


dÇ torlwwkyEÜ ?Hé þtm&r®Pm
"d*[
¾ w
d yk EÜ é t0dur© w
dÇ yk EÜ é torl[wkyEÜ o
é nf/ blrv
d a'¨ae0? blrv
d '¨jzifo
h mvQi/f o*F[H *päw?d a&wGujf cif;odYk
a&muf\/

þpum;jzifh blrv
d '¨tEko, wrsdK;wnf;uyif tm&r®Pm"d*[ ¾ w
d t0dur© wdw torl[w [k 3-rsdK;
jym;aMumif;udv
k nf; jy\/ xdk 3-rsdK;wdYk wiG f tm&r®Pm"d*[
¾ w
d yk EÜ é tEko,onf tm&r®PmEko,yifwnf;/
xdtk m&r®PmEko,udk ygVd tXuxm #DumwdYk ü þodYk rdeYf \/

,H avmau yd,½lyH omw½lyH {w¬ owåmeH &m*g Ekoa,m tekaowd/ (0dbif; ygVdawmf 353)

{w¬ owåmeH &m*gEkoa,m tEkaowDwd {wo®ð £|m&r®aP owåmeH tyÜ[eD a|e &m*gEkoa,m
tEkaowd/ (¤if;ygVdawmf\tzGihf oar®m[0daem'eD 441)

tm&r®P oEÅmemEko,aeok £|m&r®aP tm&r®PmEko,aee tekaowd/ (¤if; oar®mt|uxm\


tzGihf rlv#Dum 213)

avmau? ysufwwfaom ocFg&avmuxJü/ ,H yd,½ly?H tMuifcspfp&maumif;aom oabmonf/ ,H


omw½ly?H tMuifom,mp&maumif;aom oabmonf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / {w¬? þcspfz,
G f om,mzG,o
f abmü/
owåmeH? owå0gwdYk \? &m*Ekoa,m? &m*tEko,onf/ tEkaowd? ude;f \/
0dyóemvrf;ñTefusrf; 34

{w¬ owåmeH &m*gEkoa,m tEkaowDw?d {w¬ owåmeH &m*gEkoa,m tEkaowd-[lonfum;/ {wo®ð


£|m&r®aP? þ£|m½Hük / owåmeH? owå0gwdYk \/ &m*gEkoa,m? &m*tEko,onf/ tyÜ[eD a|e/ 0dyóemÓPf
r*fÓPfwYkd u ry,ftyfaom oabmtm;jzif/h tEkaowd? ude;f \/

tm&r®PoEÅmemEko,aeok? tm½Hük ude;f jcif; oEÅmefü ude;f jcif;wdYk wiG /f £|m&r®aP? £|m½Hük /
tm&r®Pm Eko,aee? tm½Hük ude;f onft
h vdt
k m;jzif/h tekaowd? ude;f \/

tm&r®PoEÅmemEko, aeokwd tm&r®PmEko,eH oEÅmemEko,eEÅd 'Go D k tEko,aeok/ ,xm [d


ra*¾e torkpadä Eém &ma*g um&Pvmab OyÜZeÆ m&a[m xmr*wa|e oEÅmae tEkaowDwd 0kpw ö ?d {0H £|m
&r®aPyDwd wó tm&r®PmEko,eH '|AÁ/H (¤if; rlv#Dum\tzGifh tEk#dum 212)

tm&r®P-oEÅmemEko, aeolw?d tm&r®PoEÅmem Eko,aeok-[lonfum;/ tm&r®PmEko,eH?


tm½Hük ude;f jcif;¤if;/ oEÅmemEko,eH? oEÅmefüude;f jcif;¤if;/ £wd? þodYk / 'Go D k tEko,aeok/ ESpyf g;aom
ude;f jcif;wdYk wiG /f [d? xdpk um;udk xifpmG jytH/h ra*¾e torkpadä Eém? r*fu ry,fjzwftyfao;onfjzpfí/
um&{vmab OyÜZeÆ m&a[m? taMumif;ud&k vwfaom jzpfjcif;iSm xdu k af om/ &ma*g? &m*ud/k (0kpw
ö d ,xmüpyf)
xmr*wa|e? jzpfprG ;f Edik jf cif;½So d nfh oabmowåt d m;jzif/h oEÅmae? oEÅmefü/ tEkaowDw?d ude;f \[lí/ 0kpw ö d
,xm? qdt k yfouJo h Ykd / {0H? þtwl/ (0dyóemra*¾[d torkpadä Eém? 0dyóemESirhf *fwYkd u t<uif;rJh rjzwfry,f
tyfao;aomaMumif?h um&PvmabOyÜZeÆ m&a[m? taMumif;ud&k vQif jzpfxu kd af om/ &ma*g? &m*onf/ xmr*w
a|e? jzpfEikd o f nfph rG ;f ½Sad om oabmowåt d m;jzif/h ) £|m&r®aPyd? £|m½Hük vnf;/ tEkaowDw?d ude;f onf [lí/
0kpw
ö ?d qdtk yf\/ £wd? xdYk aMumif/h wó? xd&k m*\/ tm&r®PmEko,eH? tm½Hük ude;f jcif;ud/k '|AÁ?H ½Irw S t
f yf\/

þqdck NhJ yD;aom ygVd t|uxm #DumwdYk ukd axmufxm;í 0dyóemu y,fcgG tyfaom udavomç r*fu
y,ftyfaom udavomwdYk ukd tusOf;tm;jzifh þodYk ydik ;f jcm;&m\/ 0dyóem\tm½Hük r½Iryd gu jzpfxu
kd af om
tm&r®Pm"d*[
¾ w d yk EÜ é tm&r®PmEko, udk 0dyóemu y,f\/

t0dur© w
dÇ yk EÜ é oEÅmemEko,ESihf ude;f NyD;aom tm&r®Pm"d*[
¾ w
d yk EÜ é tm&r®PmEko,wdYk ukd 0dyóemu
cGg½Hkom cGgr,f/ ry,f/

torl[wkyEÜ é rnfaom 0dur© w dÇ oEÅmemEko,ESihf r½Irad om tm½Hük ude;f NyD;aom 0dur© w


dÇ tm;
&r®Pm0d*[
¾ w
d tm&r®PmEko, wdYk ukd r*fu y,f\/

om"uygXo*F[ NyD;\/