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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Table of Contents
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
Rectifier Circuit Experiments ............................................................................................................................. 4
1.0 Uncontrolled Rectifier – Resistive Load....................................................................................................... 4
2.0 Uncontrolled Half wave rectifier – RL load.................................................................................................. 6
3.0 Controlled Rectifier – Resistive load............................................................................................................ 7
4.0 Controlled half wave rectifier with RL load. .............................................................................................. 13
5.0 Half Controlled – Full Wave Rectifier with Resistive Load ........................................................................ 16
6.0 Half Controlled – Full wave rectifier with Resistive and Inductive Load ................................................... 24
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................... 30

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Single Phase Rectifiers


Controlled & Semi Controlled Half wave & Full Wave

Introduction
In today’s modern and continuously growing Electrical industry rectifiers play an important role, they are
the fundamental block of a DC power supply; rectifiers convert AC waveform to constant current
waveform. To convert AC sinusoidal waveforms to DC, first step is to invert the negative half of the AC cycle
to positive and that be accomplished by help of either a diode of a thyristor. Figure 1 shows how a diode
and a thyristor look like.

Figure 1 Diode & Thyristor

A Diode is an uncontrolled two terminal device, which permits the current to flow in only one direction,
depending on how its terminals are biased. Thyristor on the other hand is a controlled device with three
terminals. Thyristor is derived from diode with the ability to turn on when desired but cannot be turned off
unless the current through it is reduced to some finite value. Turn on time of the thyristor is controlled by
its gate terminal, where a voltage pulse can be applied to send a forward biased thyristor into conduction
mode.

Half wave Rectifier:

Half wave rectifier is the simplest and most basic rectifier it consists of a single switch either diode or a
thyristor and permits only half cycle of the input AC signal while blocking the other half. Figure 2.0 shows a
typical half wave rectifier that has an AC source connected at its input terminals.

Figure 2 Half Wave Rectifier

As can be seen in the figure 1, the output is only half that of the input signal and this result in very low
efficiency since half cycle of the input source is wasted and the average value of the output voltage is small
as compared a full wave rectifier to be discussed later. According to the Equation 1.0 used for calculating

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers
the average voltage this statement can be proven to be true. The integral is performed over the area under
the curve and divided by the total period, the total period is longer as compared to the actual area covered
by the curve so the average value is small.

Vdo (avg) = ∫ Equation 1.0

Iavg = = ∫ Equation 2.0

P avg = = ∫ Equation 3.0

I rms = √ ∫ Equation 4.0

Full Wave Rectifier:

Full wave rectifier as compared to a half wave rectifier is more efficient since the output average value is
greater according to Equation 1.0. Full wave rectified output can be achieved by using a bridge rectifier that
consist of four switches either diodes or thyristors. Figure 3.0 shows a typical full wave bridge rectifier. In
this configuration only two diodes conduct for half cycle of the input voltage and the other two conduct for
the other half, resulting in a full wave rectified output.

Figure 3 Full wave bridge Rectifier

As compared to a half wave rectifier the average output voltage for full wave rectifier is greater due to the
reduced period of the output voltage; the integration will therefore result in a greater average value.
However there is a slight disadvantage to using this method; that is the voltage drop, which is higher due to
conduction of two diodes operating in series.

Effect of an inductive load:

Behaviour of a rectifier circuit changes significantly if the load is highly inductive, the change in behaviour is
such that the diode cannot immediately block once its reverse biased. The highly inductive load forces
current to flow through the diode as the experiments shall prove.

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Rectifier Circuit Experiments


Single phase rectifiers both the half wave and full wave circuits were tested in the lab and then simulated
on PSIM to compare the accuracy of results. Experiments performed included:

 Un-Controlled Half wave rectifier with resistive load


 Un-Controlled Half wave rectifier with RL load
 Controlled Half wave rectifier with Resistive load
 Controlled Half wave rectifier with RL load
 Semi controlled Full wave rectifier with resistive load
 Semi controlled Full wave rectifier with RL load.

1.0 Uncontrolled Rectifier – Resistive Load

Figure 4 Half Wave Un-Controlled Rectifier

1.1Waveforms

Figure 5 Practical - Io, Vo, Vs

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 6 Simulation - Vs,Vo Average = 11.855V

Figure 7 Simulation - Io Average = 0.512 A

1.2Results

Vs (rms) Vo(rms) Vo(avg) Io(avg) Estimated


Diode
Voltage Drop
Practical 24 16.2 10.7 0.4 0.6
Simulation 24 17.2 11.855 0.512 0 (ignored)

1.3 Analysis

Vo Avg= ∫ = ∫ =10.784V

Io peak = 33.88/22 = 1.54 A

Io avg= ∫ = = 0.49 A

Comment: Simulated and Practical values are a little different due to considering an ideal diode in
simulation.

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

2.0 Uncontrolled Half wave rectifier – RL load


When load is changed from pure resistor to a resistor and inductor the characteristics of circuit change i.e.
due to the large inductance the current takes a finite
amount of time to build up through the load. When the
source voltage goes negative and reverse biases the diode
the current still flows through the load and the diode
continues to conduct for the negative half cycle of the
supply voltage due. This is a consequence of the magnetic
property of an inductor, an inductor tries to keep its
current constant by releasing its stored magnetic energy
back in to the circuit causing the diode to conduct. In this
circuit since the output voltage goes negative the total
average output voltage will be less as compared to when
load is a pure resistor.
Figure 8 Un-Controlled Half wave rectifier with RL load
For the diode to turn off completely it takes 13ms according
to the simulation and 11.6ms according to the laboratory results. Discrepancies between the two could be
due to ignoring the voltage drop across the diode.

2.1 Waveforms

Figure 9 Practical-Vs, Io, Vo

Figure 10 Simulation - Vs, Vo average 8.96 V

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 11 Simulation Vs, Io Conduction period 13ms

3.0 Controlled Rectifier – Resistive load

Figure 12 Controlled Half wave Rectifier with resistive load

3.1 Waveforms

Firing angle 30

Figure 13 Practical Vs, Vo , α=30

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Figure 14 Vs, Io α=30

Figure 15 Simulation Vs, Vo average = 10.05 V, α=30

Figure 16 Simulation Vs, Io average=0.457 A, α=30

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Firing Angle 90

Figure 17 Practical Vs, Vo α=90

Figure 18 Practical Vs, Io α=90

Figure 19 Simulation Vs, Vo average=5.37V, α=90

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 20 Vs, Io average=0.244A, α=90

Firing Angle 120

Figure 21 Practical Vs, Vo α=120

Figure 22 Practical Vs, Io, α=120

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 23 Simulation Vs, Vo average=2.67 V, α=120

Figure 24 Simulation Vs, Io average=0.1218 A, α=120

Comment: Average Value Drops as the firing angle is increased, that is because the period of the waveform
remains the same but when finding the average value, area under the curve reduces which results in a
smaller average value.

3.2 Results

Vs,rms Vo,rms Io,rms


Vo,avg(V) Io,avg(A)
(V) (V) (A)
Delay angle DSO DSO DSO DSO Simulation Theory CM Simulation Theory
30o
24 14.3 0.641 8.7 10.05 10.062 0.387 0.457 0.4574
1.7ms
60o
24 12.9 0.578 7.0 - 8.09 0.311 - 0.367
3.3ms
90o
24 10 0.457 4.82 5.27 5.39 0.211 0.244 0.2451
5ms
120o
24 6.33 0.283 2.62 2.67 2.7 0.11 0.122 0.1225
6.7ms
150o
24 2.29 0.1 0.956 - 0.7224 0.041 - 0.033
0.33ms
180o
24 0 0 0 - 0 0 - 0
10ms

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

3.3 Calculations
Vs 33 88
Vo avg = ∫α ω ω = [− co ω ]α = [ + co α]

 𝛂 = 𝟑𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 10.062 V

Io pk = Vs/RL = 33.88/22 = 1.54 A pk


54
Io avg = [ + co 0]= 0.4574 A

 𝛂 = 𝟔𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 60] = 8.0 V
54
Io avg = [ + co 60]= 0.3677 A

 𝛂 = 𝟗𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 90] = 5.39 V
54
Io avg = [ + co 90]= 0.2451 A

 𝛂 = 𝟏𝟐𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 2.7 V
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Io avg = [ + co 0]= 0.1225 A

 𝛂 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 0.7154 V
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Io avg = [ + co 90]= 0.033 A

 𝛂 = 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 0 V
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Io avg = [ + co 90]= 0 A

3.3 Relationship between α and Average Output Voltage

10
9
8
7
6
Vo (avg)

5
4 Vo (avg)
3
2
1
0
0 50 100 150 200
Delay angle -Alpha

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

4.0 Controlled half wave rectifier with RL load.

Figure 25 Controlled Half wave rectifier with RL load

4.1 Wave forms

Firing angle 30

Figure 26 Practical Vs, Vo, Io α=30

Figure 27 Simulation Vs, Vo α=30

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 28 Simulation Vs, Io α=30

Firing angle 90

Figure 29 Practical Vs, Vo, Io α=90

Figure 30 Simulation Vs, Vo α=90

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 31 Simulation Vs, Io α=90

Firing angle 120

Figure 32 Practical Vs, Vo, Io α=120

Figure 33 Simulation Vs, Vo α=120

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 34 Simulation Vs, Io α=120

Comment: A thyristor controlled half wave rectifier is faced with same situation as a diode when it has an
inductive load. When the load consists of an inductor it builds up magnetic field, this built magnetic field is
collapsed when the current through the inductor starts to decrease. As a result of this collapsing magnetic
field inductor tries to maintain its current and the thyristor continues to conduct even though the source
voltage has reverse biased the thyristor.

5.0 Half Controlled – Full Wave Rectifier with Resistive Load

Figure 35 Full wave Semi controlled Rectifier

This Rectifier configuration consists of 4 switches, two diodes and two thyristors. On each half cycle on two
corresponding switches conduct depending on the firing angle of the thyristor. Firing angle of thyristor
limits the conduction of the rectifier output.

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

5.1 Waveforms

Firing Angle 30

Figure 36 Practical Vs, Vo, α=30

Figure 37 Practical Vs, Io, α=30

Figure 38 Practical Vs, Is, α=30

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Figure 39 Vs, Vo average=20 V α=30

Vs/Vo

Figure 40 Vs, Io avg=0.914 A α=30

Figure 41 Vs, Is α=30

Firing Angle 90

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 42 VS, Vo α=90

Figure 43 Vs, Io α=90

Figure 44 Vs, Vo avg=10.74V α=90

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 45 Vs, Io avg=0.488 A α=90

Figure 46 Vs, Is α=90

Firing Angle 120

Figure 47 Vs, Vo α=120

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Figure 48 Vs, Io α=120

Figure 49 Vs, Vo avg=5.36 V α=120

Figure 50 Vs Io avg=0.2434 A α=120

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 51 Vs, Is

5.2 Results

Vs,rms Vo,rms Io,rms Vo,avg Io,avg


(V) (V) (A) (V) (A)
Delay angle DSO DSO DSO DSO Simulation Theory CM Simulation Theory
30o
24 22.4 0.107 18 20 20.12 0.870 0.914 0.915
1.7ms
60o
24 20.6 0.990 14.8 - 16.18 0.726 - 0.735
3.3ms
90o
24 14.8 0.716 10.2 10.74 10.784 0.523 0.488 0.49
5ms
120o
24 9.13 0.958 5.3 5.36 5.39 0.287 0.2434 0.245
6.7ms
150o
24 3.7 0.196 1.95 - 1.44 0.132 - 0.066
0.33ms
180o
24 2.55 0.135 1.4 - 0 0.106 - 0
10ms

5.3 Calculations

 𝛂 = 𝟑𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 20.12 V

Io pk = Vs/RL = 33.88/22 = 1.54 A pk


54
Io avg = [ + co 0]= 0.915 A

 𝛂 = 𝟔𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 60] = 16.18 V
54
Io avg = [ + co 60]= 0.735 A

 𝛂 = 𝟗𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 90] = 10.78 V

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers
54
Io avg = [ + co 90]= 0.49 A

 𝛂 = 𝟏𝟐𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 5.39 V
54
Io avg = [ + co 0]= 0.245 A

 𝛂 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 1.44 V
54
Io avg = [ + co 90]= 0.066 A

 𝛂 = 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝐨
33 88
Vo avg = [ + co 0] = 0 V
54
Io avg = [ + co 90]= 0 A

5.4 Relationship between α and Average output Voltage

20
18
16
14
12
Vo,avg

10
8 Vo, Avg
6
4
2
0
0 50 100 150 200
Firing angle - alpha

Comment: By comparing results obtained from half wave and full wave rectifier it can be seen that the
average value of the output voltage is doubled that of half wave, which is due to the reduced period of
the output voltage. When firing angle of the thyristor is increased so that the output voltage turns on
for some fraction of the input voltage, it is noticeable once again that the average value reduces due to
the area of integration being reduced.

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

6.0 Half Controlled – Full wave rectifier with Resistive and Inductive Load

Figure 52 Semi Controlled Full Wave rectifier with RL load

6.1 Waveforms

Firing angle 30

Figure 53 Vs, Vo α=30

Figure 54 Vs, Io α=30

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 55 Vs, Is α=30

Figure 56 Vs, Vo avg=20V α=30

Figure 57 Vs, Io avg=0.7482A α=30

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 58 Vs, Is α=30

Firing Angle 90

Figure 59 V s, Vo α=90

Figure 60 Vs, Io α=90

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 61 Vs, Is α=90

Figure 62 Vs, Vo avg=10.74 V α=90

Figure 63 Vs, Io avg = 0.462 A α=90

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 64 Vs, Is α=90

Firing Angle 120

Figure 65 Vs, Vo α=120

Figure 66 Vs, Io α=120

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Figure 67 Vs, Is α=120

Figure 68 Vs, Vo avg=5.356V α=120

Figure 69 Vs, Io avg=0.2277A α=120

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Power Electronics Laboratory 2 – Single Phase Rectifiers

Figure 70 Vs, Is α=120

Comment: Visual inspection of the images recorded from the lab and simulation show that the output
current is highly affected by the large inductance. It is noticeable that initially the current is taking some
finite time to rise to its peak value and lags the voltage by quite a large amount of time.

Conclusion
Overall this laboratory was successful; values from the laboratory closely match with those obtained from
simulations and equations. It was learnt that average value of the rectifier is higher if both sides of the AC
source voltage are rectified. Moreover, insertion of an inductive load greatly changed the performance of
the rectifier; the inductive load caused the rectifier to conduct even when the diode or thyristor were
reverse biased. Inductive loads can cause higher voltages and currents than nominal.

References
Ned Mohan Power electronics converters and applications Mc Graw Hill 3rd edition

Rashid Power electronics handbook, devices and applications 2nd edition

Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org

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