Biology Study Guide

Sponges and Cnidarians 1. 2. 3. 4. Sponges- simple invertebrates that live on the ocean floor Cnidarians- simple invertebrates that have a mouth and a large central cavity Tentacles- a long flexible appendages that surround the mouth of a cnidarian Asexual reproduction- reproduction that requires only one parent to produce offspring The simples kinds of invertebrates are sponges Sponges have hallow, saclike bodies made up of two layers of cells with a jellylike layer between them. The body has a central cavity with one large opening at the top Cnidarians have a digestive system in their cavity Cnidarians also reproduce sexually and asexually. An adult bell-shaped female produces eggs cells. An adult bell-shaped male produces sperm Fragmentation- a piece of a sponge breaks off and eventually grows into a new sponge Budding- a group of cells forms on the outer wall of a sponge s body. The bud grows larger and eventually break off from the parent to form a new sponge

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Worms Flatworms- worms that have a flat body and a distinct head and tail Parasite- organism that lives on or in a host and harms it Roundworms- smooth, tube-shaped worms that are pointed at both ends Segmented worms- complex worms with bodies made up of many segments Fission-type of asexual reproduction in which an organism splits into two parts 6. Regeneration- process by which an organism grows new parts to replace lost ones y y y y y y y y y Three large groups: flatworms, roundworms, and segmented worms All worms have three layers of tissue and an organ system Flatworms have a digestive cavity with only one opening at the end of the pharynx Most flatworms are parasites Roundworms and Segmented worms have a digestive cavity or tube that is open on both ends Roundworms are the most common on the earth Segmented worms have a tube-within-a tube body plan The earthworm s wastes enrich the soil, and its movement loosens the dirt, making the area better for plant growth Flatworms reproduce asexually by fission 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

part of a mollusk body that contains the reproductive.invertebrate with a soft body.hard out covering of an arthropod that protects and supports the animal 3. swimming.animals with segmented bodies that have hard outer coverings a jointed legs 2. Molt.mollusks that have either no shell or a small shell inside the body y y y y y y y Four main body parts: foot for movement. Mollusk. and protect and support the soft inner parts of the animal Function of legs: Walking. protect from injury. Mantle. Compound eye. Arthropods. and hard outer coverings.mollusks that usually have a single coiled shell 6.y y Fission is when an organism splits in two Regeneration is the process of growing new parts to replace lost ones Mollusks 1. Functions of exoskeletons: protect them from drying out.arthropods with three pairs of jointed legs 2. digestive and excretory organs 3. head that contain mouth and senses.eyes made up of many tiny lenses that can sense movement .to shed an old exoskeleton y y y y y Arthropods make up the largest group of animals All share the following traits: segmented bodies. hopping and grabbing food Arthropods reproduce sexually Insects 1.mollusks that have two shells hinged together 5. which is usually converted by one or more hard shells 2. and the mantle Bivalves have wedge shaped foot Bivalves do not have heads Univalves have a large flat foot that ripples as the animal creeps forward Bivalves are filter feeders Univalves have a mouth and well developed digestive system Cephalopods have tentacles to catch and hold prey Arthropods 1. jointed legs. Cephalopods. Bivalves. Insects. Univalves. Visceral Mass.fold of skin that wraps around and protects the visceral mass of a mollusk 4. visceral mass. Exoskeleton.

Centipedes. Simple eyes. Crustaceans.spiny-skinned invertebrates that live in the ocean 2. help catch prey and keep insects safe Traits of insects: same basic body form.arthropods that have five pairs of jointed legs 3. 3 pairs of jointed legs.arthropods that have one pair of jointed legs attached to most of their body segments 4. and Antennae Insects are the only invertebrates that can fly Other Arthropods 1.body plan in which body parts repeat around an imaginary line drawn through a central area 3.eyes than can sense only light and dark and cannot form images y y y Advantages of compound eyes: very good at sensing movement. Arachnids-arthropods that have four pairs of jointed legs 2. Radial symmetry.3.arthropods that have two pairs of jointed legs attached to most of their body segments y y y Crustaceans eat by grinding up their food with their powerful jaws Crustaceans have separate male and female adults that produce sperm and egg Centipedes and Millipedes bodies are not clearly grouped into a head thorax and abdomen Echinoderms 1. Millipedes. Echinoderms. Tube feet water-filled suction cups that are used in movement and in feeding y y y Echinoderms have an internal skeleton Echinoderms reproduce sexually Must include a portion of the central body part for regeneration to occur .

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