“UNMANNED

METRO”

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING LINGAYA’S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY

Submitted By:AKHIL KUMAR (6-EE-005) AKHIL KUMAR SHARMA (6-EE-006) ANILA SINGH (6-EE-009) ESHA SINGH (6-EE-30) Radhika Kaushik (6-EE-49)
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UNMANNED METRO
A mid term project report Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree

Of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING In ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING By

AKHIL KUMAR (6-EE-005) AKHIL KUMAR SHARMA (6-EE-006) ANILA SINGH (6-EE-009) ESHA SINGH (6-EE-30) Radhika Kaushik (6-EE-49)
under the supervision of

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LINGAYA’S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY FARIDABAD
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for their cooperation. We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to him for their valuable suggestions and guidance and for everything that he had done for us through the whole Course of Work. It is our pleasure to thank Mr. We extend our sincere thanks to Lab Staff Of my Department in Lingaya’s Institute Of Management and Technology. Faridabad. AKHIL KUMAR (6-EE-005) AKHIL KUMAR SHARMA (6-EE-006) ANILA SINGH (6-EE-009) ESHA SINGH (6-EE-30) Radhika Kaushik (6-EE-49) 3 . Furthermore. S. who have helped me directly or indirectly during the whole course of work. we are also thankful to my colleagues.C. Faridabad under the able guidance of Dr.Parti (Head of the Department).ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The work presented in this mid-term report entitled “UNMANNED METRO” was carried out at Lingaya’s Institute of Management & Technology.Suman Dutta for his early influence and encouragement to work in this area.

3 Circuit diagram Components used Operation of the project Chapter 4:.Components Details 4.1 1.Microcontrollers 5.Description of the project 3.1 Ratings of components used Chapter 5:.PROJECT METHODOLOGY Chapter 3:.1 Introduction and details of Microcontroller used 4 .CONTENTS Chapter 1:.4 Goal Of The Project Objectives of the project Motivation Overview of the project Chapter 2:.1 3.2 3.Introduction 1.3 1.2 1.

we can move the train for a long time without changing the direction. Intermediate stations are provided on the track. In our project we aim to demonstrate the working of the automatic metro train system which has surely been a boon for the residents of Delhi. this information is given to the microcontroller unit as an input to one of its ports. This project seems like a fun challenge and something that has practical applications. We attempt to devise an algorithm through which the vehicle can optimally handle any number of stations on its route.An artificial track was designed for the vehicle (train) to run on. it is possible to move the vehicle on a predefined track with auto stop provision. the movement of the train. Here we try to stop the train at about 3 to 5 stoppages and give an auto reverse logic for the end of path. It is then that the microcontroller orders the train to stop at the upcoming station. Features of the 2051 microcontroller along with the pin diagram have been described later in brief. The train can sense an upcoming station on its route and automatically stop at the station. As soon as the metro train sensor detects an infrared signal. reverse action of train and stoppage of train at different stations. In the project we show how train systems can be automated. 5 . We use the AT89C2051 microcontroller chip along with different infrared sensors to control all logic. By using this system in any vehicle. By adding this logic.Introduction The goal of our final project is to design an efficient “Unmanned Metro train system” that can automatically operate (on a small scale) without any human intervention using H-bridge circuits and Dc motor.

For this purpose we attach one motor loader and one H-bridge extra. We can also use an additional gear box if we want to slow down the speed. we have used a dc motor to run the vehicle. second in the front and third one at the back of the train. We have used infrared sensors to stop the train. it must to use two extra optocouplers. reverse it and again forward the train. We have used slow speed Dc motor to increase the torque and slow the speed of vehicle. For this logic we use another dc motor to open and close the door. it is possible to open and close the door automatically. As per the logic is concerned. For controlling the motion of the dc motor we use an H-bridge circuit. one from the ground sensor and two from the back and front sensors. With the help of this loader. Here in the project. H-bridge circuit not only drives sufficient power for the dc motor but also provides a forward and reverse logic to the motor. We also use a dc motor based slider loader. By using three sensors we not only stop the train but also move it in the reverse direction. In the project we have also provided an automatic open door facility wherein the doors automatically open as soon as the train stops at the station. we use three inputs in the project.Drive Motor Dc gear motor is used to run the vehicle to and fro automatically. So we use three pairs of infrared sensors in our project. Three inputs and one motor. This Dc motor is run by a 5V to 12V Dc voltage. With help of two extra optocouplers we drive the motor automatically 6 . The extra h-bridge is for the drive motor of the door. One at the bottom of the train. When we use extra H-bridge.

Although the project is really huge due to large amount of variations present in the system of operations. we have decided to ERADICATE ALL THE MANUAL INTERVENTIONS in the traction system as if there is no manual work to be done in operating the system like in operation. We have taken up this project as an aim to secure the usage and maintenance of TRACTION SYSTEM. we decide to work upon the BASIC STRUCTURE of the traction and remove all kinds of MANUAL STUFF involved in it. control and order processing.E are striving to provide better solution in various fields of engineering and this is. we decide to work betterment of traction systems used in our country. 7 . This includes the latest development of “DELHI METRO”. ITS NOT THE END . In this project of ours. There is still scope of improvements for betterments. ITS JUST A START. REMEMBER that there is always some room of improvements and this project of ours doesn’t conclude everything.AIM OF THE PROJECT We here in FINAL YEAR OF B.

Starting with the basic stuff we prepare a basic METRO CAB ready to run on tracks. we decide to have a deep look at the basic operating procedure of the traction and then try to find out the involvements of MANUAL INTERVENTION in the system .Project Methodology As we start to work on the project. For this we decide to have look at the various options available to us.. • MOVING FORWARD • MOVING BACKWARD • STOPPAGE • STARTING • DOOR OPENING • DOOR CLOSING Now looking at the basic needs . The best options are the SOFTWARE driven cabin in which 8 . stoppage. We then try to find out the best ways of erasing all that and provide an alternate way of operation of traction in an automatic way. braking of metro. and automate the movement . Now we look at the basic needs of operations of the system and looking broadly we can classify them in some of the following parts.. we decide to first take step to automate the basic movement of CABIN.

but there are some disadvantages here. Now our project has started to realize something. So this option is not of much importance to us. BREAKING at an instant. Taking on 25mv led to do our work . • FRONT • BACK • BELOW This solves our purpose of the starting .some chips can be PREFED with a designed program and then placed inside the driver cabin. that can run the train start and stop it easily . 9 .stopping and braking of the train. Prescence of INFRA RED Led’s have made their mark in science and proved they are a great device of operation. emergency pullouts and some other difficulties faced by the TRACTION system in daily real situations remain unsolved and sometimes even increase more then previous ones. Moving on to next option. we decide to place 3 DIFFERENT kinds of led emitters and detectors at 3 different places in our cabin. So next we decide to check out the working of LEDS to help us with or project. We decide to place 3 leds to control the movements and now we place a DC MOTOR to provide motion to the cabin on tracks.

This process now repeats for each station the metro has to pass through. The stoppage of the train and opening of the door is the next step. As soon as the train stops . we can also place a GPS system to check on the movement on the trains. As the train approaches the next station we have the next difficulty with our project. the sensor do not provide any output to the DC motor. As soon as the front led accept back the INFRA RED signals sent by it . it provide the start signal to the MOTOR.The CHIP to be used in 8051 family to be prefed with a program logic to control the movement of the cabin with the help of logic fed into it. Now. So here we place an internal secondary logic inside our stoppage loop to control the opening and closing of the door via ANOTHER DC MOTOR placed in the traing door to control their movement. with the stoppage of train. starting on to the real 10 . that facilitate the passengers movement. which is prefed to stop if the signals are not received. THUS. By a very easy enhancement in our developed system. Now as the signals are not accepted back. This solves the purpose of stoppage of metro and now on to the OPENING & CLOSING of the DOOR that has to be taken care off. Now as the train advances to next station we don’t have to take care of much anything. the loop of door opening and closing start . the door close and provide a signal to the DC MOTOR to startup again. We place some material on the tracks that fully absorbs the IR signals emitted so that they are not returned back to the acceptor. Now after a predefined time period inside our loop. our purpose of automating the TRACTION SYSTEM seems to be solved logically. which starts the cabin .

then to avoid any miss happening we need to place some kind of technique to take care of these little things. 3 Project Detail This section provides the detailed description of the circuit diagram along with the various components used in the project. From the circuit we observe the following major components: 1. 89C2015 Microcontroller H-bridge Circuit Dc motor Optocouplers Infrared Led and reflective sensors 7805 regulator +9V Dc power supply for microcontroller and dc motor 11 . Keeping a check on the various small contributions . The most basic of the concept to be taken care off si if 2 DIFFERENT TRAINS are running on same tracks or someone jumps on the TRACKS unknowingly . 5. we now move on to design what we have thought of in our theory and we will be also trying to remove or place some automated devices to stop the TRAIN in case on any kind of emergency or to avoid any kind of accidents .thing. 3. 6. 7. Circuit Diagram and components used The circuit diagram used in the project is given below. 2. 4. we now move on to check out if this THEORY works for us in the practical.

1. 12 . P3. According to the voltages applied to the various terminals of the H-bridge. we can control the motion of the motor and hence of the connected part. Three pairs of infrared Leds are used for controlling the motion of the train.2.In the circuit we have used three Dc power supply sources which are simply three 9V batteries. they are connected to the port pins P3.0. For this purpose. and the other two are for powering the Dc motors used in the circuit. P3. For each motor an H-bridge circuit is used. Actually the microcontroller works on a +5V power supply and so we use a 7805 voltage regulator to convert +9V to +5V. Two Dc motors are used – one for controlling the motion of the train and the other one for controlling the motion of the door. One of the power supplies is used for the microcontroller.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 13 .

These devices used ultraviolet light erasable memory cells. is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. The value of x defining the kind of ROM. This type had the disadvantage of being highly unreliable. i. namely the 8031 was designed without any ROM. This does not require ultra violet rays. x=3. ROM The early 8051. In addition. the difference lies in the fact that flash erases the complete memory at one stroke.. was the EPROM or Erasable Programmable ROM. indicates none.The 8051 Microcontroller The 8051 microcontroller developed and launched in the early 80`s. The next in line. Thus a program could be loaded. While the terms EEPROM and flash are sometimes used interchangeably. A new program could then be loaded again. indicates mask ROM. x=7. tested and erased using ultra violet rays. it has the ability to access external memory. Subsequent developments lead to the development of the PROM or the programmable ROM. x=0.e. The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. and not act on the individual 14 . This device could run only with external memory connected to it. Finally there is the FLASH. and memory can be cleared using circuits within the chip itself. indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. An improved EPROM was the EEPROM or the electrically erasable PROM. which is an improvement over the EEPROM.

15 . ATMEL: Atmel’s AVR microcontrollers are one of the most powerful in the embedded industry. This is the only microcontroller having 1kb of ram even the entry stage. It is based on RISC Architecture which makes the microcontroller process faster than other microcontroller. But it is unfortunate that in India we are unable to find this kind of microcontroller. • PIC: One of the famous microcontrollers used in the industries. • The memory of the microcontroller can be extended up to 64k. INTEL: These are the first to manufacture microcontrollers. These are not as sophisticated other microcontrollers but still the easiest one to learn. This results in reducing the time for erasure. • This microcontroller is one of the easiest microcontrollers to learn. Different microcontrollers in market.cells. • • Intel 8051 • Intel 8051 is CISC architecture which is easy to program in assembly language and also has a good support for High level languages.

4. Features of the 2051 microcontroller along with the pin diagram have been described briefly. COMPONENTS DETAILS AT89C2051 Microcontroller We have used the 2051 microcontroller chip to control the motion of the train. AT89C2051 Pin Configuration 16 .

6V).The 2051 is a low voltage (2. with an H-bridge a microcontroller.7V . The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. The 2051 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. two-level interrupt architecture full duplex serial port precision analog comparator on chip oscillator and clock circuitry In addition. 17 . the 2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. That is. This device is compatible with the industry standard 8051 instruction set and pin out. The 2051 provides the following features: • • • • • • • • 2 Kbytes of Flash 128 bytes of RAM 15 I/O lines two 16-bit timer/counters five vector. The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. timer/counters. H-Bridge Motor Driver Using Bipolar Transistors The classic beginner's DC motor driver circuit that appears in every electronics textbook is the bipolar transistor H-bridge. high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 2 Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. An H-bridge is an arrangement of transistors that allows a circuit full control over a standard electric DC motor.

There are many different ways to draw the circuitry.    Q1. but might cause the motor to receive less power. They connect the motor to ground (negative terminal of the battery). Q2. A lower resistance would waste more power.logic chip. They connect the motor to +2. or remote control can electronically command the motor to go forward. but it is really just four copies of a resistor + transistor + diode. A higher resistance would waste less power. The H-bridge circuit (below) looks complicated at first glance. but wouldn't likely provide better performance for motors running on consumer batteries.2V to +9. 18 . Q3: These are NPN transistors.6V (positive terminal of the battery). R1-R4: These resistors prevent too much current from passing through the base (labeled B) control pin of the transistor. The H-bridge can operate from a power source as low as two nearly-exhausted 'AAA' batteries (2. brake. and coast. Q4: These are PNP transistors. but the above wiring diagram matches the model of most H-bridges.6V). The resistor value of 1 kilo ohms (1000 ohms) was chosen to provide enough current to fully turn on (saturate) the transistor. reverse.2V) all the way up to a fresh 9V battery (9.

a motor voltage spike can force its way through the unprotected transistors. I suppose that's safe enough for light loads at low voltages. Can you see the letter 'H'?  D1-D4: Diodes provide a safe path for the motor energy to be dispersed or returned to the battery when the motor is commanded to coast or stop. The motor should have only two wires. Measure the resistance of the two motor wires using a multimeter. These are very common. You can find them in surplus stores online or in salvaged toys. I notice many H-bridge circuits on the web lack these diodes. but without diodes. M1: This is a direct-current (DC) motor. 19  . damaging or destroying them.Schematic of a bipolar transistor H-bridge circuit to drive a DC motor. If it is much less than 5 ohms. then the transistor parts listed in this article are too weak to power the motor.

Often this is because the source and destination are (or may be at times) at very different voltage levels. Where small size.Optocoupler There are many situations where signals and data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within a piece of electronics equipment. but even small relays tend to be fairly bulky compared to ICs and many of today’s other miniature circuit components. like a microprocessor which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac which is switching 240V AC. to protect the microprocessor from damage due to over voltage. or from one piece of equipment to another. Because they’re electro-mechanical. relays are also not as reliable and only capable of relatively low speed operation. In such situations the link between the two must be an isolated one. a much better alternative is to use an optocoupler 20 . higher speed and greater reliability are important. without making a direct ‘ohmic’ electrical connection. Relays can of course provide this kind of isolation.

LEDs are often used as small indicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applications such as flashlights and area lighting. This effect is a form of electroluminescence. This usually allows optocouplers to withstand voltages of anywhere between 500V and 7500V between input and output. Optocouplers are essentially digital or switching devices.Usually the electrical connections to the LED section are brought out to the pins on one side of the package and those for the phototransistor or diac to the other side. so they’re best for transferring either on-off control signals or digital data. Infrared Led A light-emitting diode. a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction. as in the common LED circuit. to physically separate them as much as possible. Analog signals can be transferred by means of frequency or pulse-width modulation. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the 21 . usually called an LED.

If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region. and can be infrared. When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode. or ultraviolet. and a photocurrent is produced. depending upon the mode of operation. MICROCONTROLLER USED 22 . Principle of operation A photodiode is a PN junction or PIN structure. it excites an electron thereby creating a mobile electron and a positively charged electron hole. Many diodes designed for use specifically as a photodiode will also use a PIN junction rather than the typical PN junction. 5. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fibre connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. and electrons toward the cathode. Thus holes move toward the anode. Photodiodes A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage. visible. these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in field of the depletion region. or one diffusion length away from it.semi conducting material used.

AT89C2051 Microcontroller We have used the 2051 microcontroller chip to control the motion of the train. Features of the 2051 microcontroller along with the pin diagram have been described briefly. AT89C2051 Pin Configuration 23 .

7V .6V). 6. REFERENCE 24 .The 2051 is a low voltage (2. This device is compatible with the industry standard 8051 instruction set and pin out. two-level interrupt architecture full duplex serial port precision analog comparator on chip oscillator and clock circuitry In addition. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. The 2051 provides the following features: • • • • • • • • 2 Kbytes of Flash 128 bytes of RAM 15 I/O lines two 16-bit timer/counters five vector. timer/counters. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 2 Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. The 2051 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. the 2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.

htsoft. Schultz • www.com/products/compilers/  Book on microcontroller by Mazidi  Book on “electrical machines” by Ashwaq Husain 25 . 8051 chipset diagram and working • C and 8051 : Building Efficient Applications (C and 8051) By Thomas W.

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