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CASCADE CONTROL

TRAINER
Product Code 315A

Instruction manual

Contents
1 Description 5 Troubleshooting 9 Theory
2 Specifications 6 Components used 10 Software
3 Installation requirements 7 Packing slip 11 Experiments
4 Installation Commissioning 8 Warranty 12 Components’ manuals

06-08-2008 Im315A
Apex Innovations

Description

The setup is designed to designed for tabletop mounting. The set up is


understand the advanced control connected to computer through USB port for
methods used for complex monitoring and control by using PID logics.
processes in the industries. The product is supplied with 32 tag demo
Different experiments like Flow, version software package, if licensed version of
level and cascade control can be 64 Tag SCADA software is separately not
configured and studied with the ordered.
setup. It consists of water supply
tank, pumps, level transmitter, Level Controller
Set Point
Flow Controller
I/P Converter

transparent level tank, orifice Air Regulator


meters with differential pressure Air
Supply
Supply Pressure Signal
transmitter, rotameters, Process Tank Rotameter
Pressure
pneumatic control valve, I/P Flow Transmitter

converter and serial based dual LT


L H
Pump
loop controller. These units Outlet Valve Orifice Control Valve
along with necessary piping are
mounted on support housing

Specifications

Product Cascade control trainer


Product code 315A
Control unit ADAM-4022T Serial based dual loop PID controller;
Analog input 4, Analog output 2, Digital input 2,
Digital output 2. with RS485 communication.
Communication USB port using RS485-USB converter
Differential pressure Type Capacitance, two wire, Range 0–200 mm,
transmitter Output 4–20 mA sq.root
Level transmitter Type Electronic, two wire, Range 0–250 mm, Output
4–20mA
I/P converter Input 4-20mA, Output 3-15 psig
Control valve Type: Pneumatic; Size: 1/4", Input: 3–15 psig, Air to
close, Characteristics: linear
Rotameter 10-100 LPH
Pump Fractional horse power, type submersible
Process tank Transparent, Acrylic, with 0-100% graduated scale
Supply tank SS304
Flow measurement Orifice meter
Air filter regulator Range 0-2.5 kg/cm2
Pressure gauge Range 0-2.5 kg/cm2(1No), Range 0-7 kg/cm2(1No)
Overall dimensions 425Wx500Dx750H mm
Optional SCADA software package; Mini Compressor

Shipping details
Gross volume 0.30m3, Gross weight 70kg, Net weight 31 kg

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Apex Innovations

Installation requirements

Electric supply Clean, oil and moisture free air,


Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single pressure 2 Bar, consumption 50 LPH
phase electric supply with proper Computer
earthing. (Neutral – Earth voltage less IBM compatible with standard
than 5 VAC) configuration with USB port for
• 5A, three pin socket with switch (1 Hardware lock. Operating System
No.) Windows XP,with service pack 2
Water supply formatted for NTFS file system
Distilled water @13 liters Support table
Air supply Size: 800Wx800Dx750H in mm

Installation Commissioning

INSTALLATION
• Unpack the box(es) received and ensure that all material is received as per
packing slip (provided in instruction manual). In case of short supply or breakage
contact Apex Innovations / your supplier for further actions.
• Fit the mounting pads to the set up and place the set up on support table.
• Connect SS pipe (supplied loose) from rotameter outlet to process tank inlet.
• Remove packing wire inserted in the rotameter by removing plug on the top of the
rotameter. (Use small nose pliers)
• Pierce a hole in to the rubber cap fitted on pressure gauge(s) with pin or needle.
• Air supply: Ensure that clean and oil free air is received from compressed air
source (compressor / mini compressor) by venting out the air for few minutes.
Then connect air supply to the set up.
• Clean the SS Tray. Remove pump from its box.
• Connect the set up to "USB" port of the computer.
• Electric supply: Before connecting electric supply ensure that supply voltage is 230
V AC and earth neutral voltage is less than 5 V Ac.

COMMISSIONING
• Ensure that flow transmitter is connected to orifice meter placed in flow line. The
connection should have proper polarity. (Note: Orifice meters and flow
transmitters are marked as H and L).
• Fill supply tank with distilled water and keep the pump inside the water.

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• Keep the setup over the tray. Take the pump cable and pump outlet tube to the
top side through the hole on the base plate. Connect the cable to the pump switch
and connect the tube to the inlet of control valve.

• Return the bypass line back to SS tray through the hole provided on the base
plate. The assembly looks as shown below.

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Apex Innovations

• Switch on electric supply. Switch on Mains and Pump.


• Open the rotameter, ensure water circulation from rotameter to process tank.
• Remove air from the pressure signal connections of flow transmitter (Loosen vent
plugs on flow transmitter slightly to remove air entrapped).
• Ensure that air regulator is fully open by rotating anticlockwise. Switch on the
compressed air source and adjust the air regulator to set supply air pressure at @
25 psig.
• Switch on the computer and install the software. (Refer “Software”)
• Execute the software and ensure correct signals are displayed on computer.

NOTE: FOR LONGER SHUT DOWN, REMOVE WATER FROM THE SUPPLY TANK AND CLEAN IT.

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Apex Innovations

Troubleshooting
Note: For component specific problems refer components’ manual
Problems Possible causes / remedies
Incorrect flow • Air trap in pressure signal line to flow
reading transmitter
• Reversed High-Low pressure signal connections from
orifice to the flow transmitter
• Differential pressure value is displayed on the
interfacing unit which is proportional to square of the
flow rate.
Control valve does • Valve diaphragm breakage
not operate • Faulty I/P converter
• No output from Interfacing unit
I/P converter does • Insufficient supply air pressure
not work • Faulty electrical input signal
• Clogged orifice
No communication • Improper USB port connection
with computer • Computer USB port not configured

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Apex Innovations

Components used

Components Details
Control unit ADAM-4022T Serial based dual loop PID controller;
Analog input 4, Analog output 2, Digital input 2,
Digital output 2. with RS485 communication.
RS485-USB converter Make Advantech, Model ADAM 4561
Differential pressure Make Yokogawa, Model EJA 110-DMS-5A-92NN,
transmitter Calibration range 0-200 mm H2O, Output square
root
Level transmitter Make WIKA, Model SL-1, Measuring range 250mm,
Output 4-20mA supply 10-30 Vdc, conn.
1/2"BSP(M)
I/P converter Make Control air inc, Type T500-AC, Input 4-20 mA
DC, output 3-15 psig, end connection 1/4 NPT
Power supply Make Meanwell, model S-15-24, O/P 24 V, 0.7 A
Control valve Make Apex, Model MX-102, Size ½”x1/4”, Body
SS316, Trim SS316, Travel 10mm, Spring range 3-
15 psig, Characteristics linear, Action air to close,
Valve coefficient 0.47
Rotameter Make Eureka, Model MG 11, Range 10-100 lph,
Connection ¼” BSP back, screwed, Packing PTFE +
Silicon
Pump Submersible pump, Model HQB 4500, Head max.
4.5m, Output 4500 lph, Watts 100, Volts 220-240
AC, 50Hz
Air filter regulator Make Airmatic, Model MB10-02-1-PAP-PD, Range 0-
2 Kg/cm^2, Type Relieving
Pressure gauge Make Waaree, Code: PW2.5GNNNS9 0-2.5 1/4"B,
Dia.2.5", Gly. filled, Brass internals, S.S. casing,
Range 0-2.5 Kg/cm2, 1/4"BSP (M) back connection
Pressure gauge Make Waaree, Code: PW2.5GNNNS9 0-7 1/4"B,
Dia.2.5", Gly. filled, Brass internals, S.S. casing,
Range 0-7 Kg/cm2, 1/4"BSP (M) back connection

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Apex Innovations

Packing slip

Box Size W650xD580xH 640 mm; Vol: 0.24m3 Gross weight:52 kg


No.1/2 Net weight:26 kg
1 Set up assembly 1 No
Box Size W480xD450xH260mm; Vol:0.06m3 Gross weight:15kg
No.2/2 Net weight:5 kg
1 SS Tray 1 No
2 Pump assembly 1 No
3 Communication cable 1 No
4 Tool kit 1 No
5 Rotameter outlet pipe 1 No
6 Set of Spare items 1 No
Rubber diaphragm for control valve
Male stud 4 Nos
7 Set of instruction manuals consisting of: 1 No
Instruction manual CD “PDCSoft” (Apex)
I/P converter manual (ControlAir)
DP transmitter
ADAM Driver CD (2Nos)
8 Wonderware SCADA Software set consisting of 1 No
Set of 4 CDs
License kit with USB port hard-lock

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Warranty

This product is warranted for a period of 12 months from the date of supply against
manufacturing defects. You shall inform us in writing any defect in the system
noticed during the warranty period. On receipt of your written notice, Apex at its
option either repairs or replaces the product if proved to be defective as stated
above. You shall not return any part of the system to us before receiving our
confirmation to this effect.
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from:
Buyer/ User shall not have subjected the system to unauthorized alterations/
additions/ modifications.
Unauthorized use of external software/ interfacing.
Unauthorized maintenance by third party not authorized by Apex.
Improper site utilities and/or maintenance.
We do not take any responsibility for accidental injuries caused while working with
the set up.

Apex Innovations Pvt. Ltd.


E9/1, MIDC, Kupwad, Sangli-416436 (Maharashtra) India
Telefax:0233-2644098, 2644398
Email: support @apexinnovations.co.in Web: www.apexinnovations.co.in

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Theory

COMPUTER CONTROL TECHNIQUES


Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
In SCADA systems process signals are transmitted the local controller. The controller
is in communication with central computer. The software performs the function of
data acquisition, display and analysis. The controller settings can be changed from
computer. The computer has a supervisory role as controlling is done by local
controller.

Digital Indicating Controller


Load
Comparator Controlled
Variable
PID Control Control Element Process
Set Point

Measured Variable

Computer

Different combinations of SCADA Applications

1 Serial communication: Single controller connected to computer through


USB/serial port communication. SCADA software package handles single controller.
MASTER

LOCAL

SLAVE
Controller

RS232/USB

2 Multidrop communication: Multi controllers connected to each other through


RS485 communication and one of the controllers connected to computer through
USB/serial port communication. SCADA software package handles more controllers.

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MASTER

MASTER

MASTER
LOCAL

LOCAL

LOCAL
SLAVE

SLAVE

SLAVE
Controller-1

Controller-2

Controller-3
RS232/USB RS485 RS485

3 Server-Client communication: One of the controllers is connected to computer


(Server) through USB port and other computers (client) connected to server through
LAN. SCADA software package handles simultaneously handles multi controllers on
Server and Client.

MASTER

MASTER

MASTER
LOCAL

LOCAL

LOCAL
SLAVE

SLAVE

SLAVE
CLIENT SERVER

Controller-1

Controller-2

Controller-3
LAN RS232/USB RS485 RS485

PROCESS CONTROLLER
In automatic controlled process the parameter to be controlled is measured and
compared with the set point by process controller. The difference between the
measured signal and the set point is error. The controller performs on-line
calculations based on error and other setting parameters and generates an output
signal. The output signal drives the final control elements like control valve or a
damper to control the process to the set point.
Reference
Signal Error Controller Output
Controller Process Parametert

Feedback Signal

Block Digaram of Typical Controller

On/Off controllers

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Dead Band

Set Value
Time
On-Off Controller

A special case of proportional control is On-Off control. If the proportional band of


the controller is made very low (=0) the controller out put will move from one
extreme position to other for slight deviation of process value from the set point.
This very sensitive action is called On-Off control because final control element is
either open (On) or close (Off) i.e. operates like a switch. These are the simplest
controllers.
These controllers incorporate a dead band to keep the output from cycling rapidly
between on and off. The controller will not turn on or off until the error signal moves
out of the dead band. The process variable controlled by an on/off controller always
cycles back and forth about the set point as shown in the fig. Dark line and dotted
line shows process parameter and reference values respectively.
Hysteresis is a value set in the vicinity of on-off operating point. Upper hysteresis is
value or band in which process value is allowed to operate above the set point and
lower hysteresis is value or band in which process value is allowed to operate below
the set point.

Proportional (P) controllers

Offset
Parameter Value

Time
Propertional Controller

In proportional controller the control algorithm generates a linear control output


proportional to deviation. In proportional action the amount of change in the
measured value (or deviation) is expressed in percent of span that is required to
cause the control output to change from 0 to 100 % is called the proportional band.
The controller output is given by:
100
OP = b + ⋅e
PB
Where, OP is the output, PB is proportional band in %, b is the bias value, and e is
the error signal. If there is no biasing, output OP will become zero when error is
zero. Hence bias value decides the value of output when error is zero.

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The proportional controllers usually show some difference between the set point and
process variable called offset. The offset can be reduced by decreasing proportional
band or by readjusting the bias. With decrease in proportional band the process
becomes oscillatory.
There are two types of controller actions:
1) Increase-increase in which output increases as measurement increases.
(error e = measurement – set point)
2) Increase-decrease in which output decreases as measurement increases.
(error e = set point –measurement)

Proportional- Integral (PI) controllers


Parameter Value

Time
Propertional - Integral Controller

The offset in proportional controller can be overcome by adding integral action. The
control algorithm that applies changes in output as long as deviation exits, so as to
bring the deviation to zero, is called integral action. Output of proportional-Integral
controllers is given by:
100  1 
OP = b + ×  e + ∫ e ⋅ dt 
PB  Ti 
Where OP is the output, b is the bias, PB is the proportional band in %, e is the error
signal, Ti is integral time; this is the time required to repeat proportional action.

Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller


This mode of control is described by the relationship
100  de 
OP = b +  e + Td ⋅ 
PB  dt 
Where OP is the output, b is the bias, PB is the proportional band in %, e is the error
signal, Td is derivative time.
Larger the derivative time larger is the action. Smaller is the proportional band the
larger is the derivative action.
In order to achieve faster response and more stable operation in slow processes
derivative action is added to apply an output component proportional to the rate of
change of input (error). Derivative action is used with P action or PI action.

Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) controllers


PID controllers are used for controlling almost all process variables like temperature,
flow, level, pressure etc. in a continuous or batch process.

The output of a PID controller is given by:

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100  1 de 
OP = b +  e + ∫ e ⋅ dt + Td ⋅ 
PB  Ti dt 
Where OP is the output, b is the bias, PB is the proportional band in %, e is the error
signal, Ti is the integral time and Td is derivative time.
Selection of proportional band, integral time and derivative time to achieve desired
process response to load changes is called tuning of controller.

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CONTROLLER TUNING
The three-mode controller (PID) is the most common feedback controller used in
industrial control. The method of determination of the optimum mode gains,
depending on the nature and complexity of the process is known as loop tuning.
The three parameters should be selected to meet a set of defined goals. These goals
typically require a plant response with minimum steady state error, insensitivity to
load disturbances and an acceptable transient response to set point changes and
disturbances.
In practice the choice of proportional band, integral time and derivative time is a
compromise between the set point tracking and disturbances. If a mathematical
model of the process is known, selecting the controller parameters is relatively
simple. But in many industrial applications, a reliable mathematical model is not
available or it is difficult to determine. So empirical rules are developed for PID
tuning which do not require mathematical model. A widely used set of rules is
proposed by Ziegler- Nichols by open loop method and close loop method in 1942.
Open loop method (Process reaction curve metood)
In open loop method the process is assumed to be model of first order. The step
response i.e. process reaction curve, allows to obtain the approximate values of P, I
and D parameters. With the feedback loop open, a step response is applied to
manipulated variable and the values of P, I and D are estimated.
40
30
Controlled Variable

Y
20
10

L X

0 10 20 30 40
Time

Open loop response for input step change


(Process reaction curve)

Where
Slope R: Slope of line drawn tangent to the point of inflection.
%ChangeinVariable Y
R= =
time(min) X
Dead time L: Time between the step change and the point where tangent line
crosses the initial value of the controlled variable (in min.)
∆P = Step change applied in %

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Using these parameters, the empirical equations are used to predict the controller
settings for a decay ratio of 1/4.
For P, PI and PID controller the parameters are calculated as follows.
Mode Proportional band Integral time Derivative time
(in %) (in Min) (in Min)
P 100RL/∆P
P+I 110RL/ ∆P L/0.3
P+I+D 83RL/ ∆P L/0.5 0.5L

Closed loop method (Ultimate gain method)


This method is also called as ultimate gain method. The term ultimate was attached
to this method because its use requires the determination of the ultimate
proportional band and ultimate period. The ultimate proportional band, PBu is the
minimum allowable value of proportional band (for a controller with only proportional
mode) for which the system continuously oscillates at constant amplitude. The
ultimate period, Tu is the period of response with the proportional band set to its
ultimate value. To determine the ultimate proportional band and ultimate period the
proportional band of the controller (with all integral and derivative action turned off)
is gradually reduced until the process cycles continuously.
Output

Tu

Time
Continuous Cycling
Response curve for ultimate gain and period

The process is placed in the closed loop with a proportional controller. The
Proportional band is decreased until the process goes to continuous oscillations. The
corresponding value of proportional band is called as ultimate proportional band PBu
and the period of oscillation is called the ultimate period Tu. The PID controller
parameters are selected from the following table.

Mode Proportional Integral Derivative


P 2 PBu
P+I 2.2 PBu Tu/1.2
P+I+D 1.65 PBu 0.5 Tu Tu/8.0

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS
Laplace transform techniques are used to express mathematical models in terms of
transfer functions in order to calculate transient response. An alternative way to
interpret the transfer function model, refereed to as the complex transfer function or
the frequency response. It shows how the output response characteristics depend
upon the frequency of the input signal. This is the origin of the term, frequency
response.
Stability analysis by using bode plots
Frequency response may be plotted in three ways:
i. The rectangular plot with amplitude ratio verses frequency and phase lag verses
frequency.
ii. A polar plot with magnitude and phase shown in vector form with frequency as a
parameter.
iii. A phase margin plot with magnitude shown verses a function of phase with
frequency as a parameter.
If the system is linear, the output signal for sine wave input must be a sine wave
having the same frequency as the input.
Assume that the input to the first order system is suddenly switched from a constant
input to a sine wave input. The initial slope of the sine wave input signal may be
approximated by a ramp input or even exponential input.
If the input frequency is very low, period of the sine wave will be very long. Stated in
another way, period is very much larger than the system time constant. Under this
condition the output will have sufficient time to approach the condition, which is
nearly in equilibrium with the input signal. Thus, at low frequencies both magnitude
and phase angle of the output signal will be close to magnitude and phase angle of
the input signal. However as the frequency increases period decreases, and the
system does not have sufficient time to achieve the equilibrium status between input
and output. Under these conditions output magnitude will decrease, and output
phase angle will fall behind or lag the input phase angle. Thus it is evident that any
solution must show a decrease in ratio of output to input magnitude as frequency
increases.
Magnitude and phase angle calculation:
Let,
M Magnitude ratio
A1 Input amplitude (%)
A2 Output amplitude (%)
φ Phase angle (degrees)
x lag (seconds)
T Period (seconds)
f frequency (cycles per seconds) = 1/T.
Then,
M = A2/A1
φ = (x/T) x 360

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T

Output
X
A2

Input
A1

Time
Frequency Response
BODE diagram
In Bode diagram the magnitude ratio verses frequency is plotted on log-log co
ordinates and the phase angle verses frequency on semi-log coordinates.

10
Magnitude Ratio M
1
0.1

Log Scale
0.01 0.1 1 10
Frequency
0
Phase Angle Deg
-90
-180

0.01 0.1 1 10
Frequency
Bode Diagram

Stability criteria
• A system is stable if the phase lag is less than 180 Deg. at the frequency for
which the gain is unity (one).
• A system is stable if the gain is less than one (unity) at the frequency for which
the phase lag is 180 Deg.

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ADVANCED CONTOL STRATEGIES
Cascade control
The cascade controller consists of two controllers
1) Primary Controller
2) Secondary Controller
In cascade control arrangement the output of primary controller is used as set point
of secondary controller. Each controller has its own measurement input, but only the
primary controller has independent set point and the secondary controller has an
output to the process. The manipulated variable and, the secondary controller, and
its measurement constitute a closed loop within the primary loop.
Tuning of cascade controllers

Because the secondary loop exists as an element in the primary loop, the secondary
controller should be properly tuned before the primary controller, with the primary
controller in manual.
Whether the secondary should be tuned for optimum set point or load response
depends on whether severe load changes are expected in the secondary loop. If so,
observing response to load changes simulated by stepping the secondary controller
output while in manual should do tuning, followed by transfer to automatic. If not,
set point steps should be introduced.
In a cascade system that is cycling, it is often difficult to determine which controller
needs detuning. If the period of cycles is too short to belong to the primary loop, the
safest action is to widen the proportional band of secondary controller- a few percent
changes is enough. In this case, both periods may appear in either or both of the
controlled variables. But only one period is evident, widening the proportional band
of either controller could dampen the cycle, although it is probably more effective to
de-tune the primary controller.

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Software

The set up is provided with Demo version of “Wonderware: Intouch process


visualization” SCADA software package. The runtime (demo version) works for two
hours continuously.

Installing Wonderware InTouch


1. Install Operating system Windows XP professional with SP2. Set monitor
resolution to 1024x768.
2. Insert PDCSoft CD, double click on Wonderware Intouch 10.0 folder, double
click on Setup (Application) file. Program starts automatically.
(In case of Software with license, Insert InTouch CD. Program starts
automatically.)
3. Program will install MicroSoft.Net Framework, if it is not available on
computer.
4. Welcome to Wonderware Intouch Setup: Click on Next.
5. License Agreement: Select I accept & Click on Next.
6. Select features and Destination folder: Click on Combo Button of Demo
applications & select Entire feature will be installed on local hard drive. Click
on Combo Button of Intouch supplementary components & select Entire
feature will be installed on local hard drive. Click next.
7. User name and password: type username as “Administrator” and password
and uncheck “Create local account”.(If user account is not available, check
“Create local account” to create new user account.)
8. Ready to Install Wonderware Intouch: Click on “Next”.
9. Wonderware Intouch has been successfully installed: Click on “Finish”.
10. Wonderware Intouch ReadMe: Read & close file.
11. In case of Software with license,
Install License for InTouch : Insert CD InTouch development/Run time (3 1/2”
CD) (click on Start - Wonderware – Common – License Utility – File – Install
License File – Choose a license file to install from CD).
12. Shutdown the computer
13. In case of Software with license,
Install the 25pin Hard lock in 25pin serial port.
14. Do not Install / Remove Hard lock while computer is ON.

Installing Device Integration Products software


1. Insert PDCSoft CD, double click on Device Integration Products folder, double
click on “Autorunpro” (Application) file. In case of Software with license,
Insert Device Integration Products CD in CD Drive.
2. Index.html page will open in Internet explorer (Device Integration products).
3. Click tools – Internet options – Advance – Security – Allow active contents
from CDs to run on my computer.
4. Refresh the page.
5. Install Wonderware Factory Suite I/O Common Components by clicking on
Wonderware connectivity – Wonderware - Factory Suite 2000 I/O Common
Components - FS2KIO common Components – follow the screen instructions.

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6. Install MODBUS IO server by clicking on Wonderware connectivity –Schneider
automation – MODBUS I/O server - MODBUS I/O server – Follow the screen
instructions – Restart the computer.
7. Install OPC Link by clicking on Wonderware connectivity – OPC – OPC Link -
OPC Link - Follow the screen instructions.
8. Install OPC Tag creator by clicking on Wonderware connectivity – OPC – OPC
Tag creator - OPC Tag creator - Follow the screen instructions.

Installing wwGenericSQLGrid
Insert PDCSoft CD in CD drive
Open CD using explorer. Double click on “SQLGRID” folder, double click on
wwGenericSQLGrid setup file.

Click “Next” and follow the screen instructions.

Copying application folders


1. Insert PDCSoft CD in CD drive
2. Open CD using explorer.
A] Refer following table to copy folders on D drive of hard disk.
For Copy following folders on D drive of the The folders to be copied are
Product hard disc available in following folder
No
311A Temperature control trainer_UT321 311A
312A Flow control trainer_UT321 312A
313A Level control trainer_UT321 313A
314A Pressure control trainer_UT321 314A
315A Cascade Control Trainer ADAM-4022T 315A
Flow Loop Cascade ADAM-4022T
Level Loop Cascade ADAM-4022T
326A Multi Process Trainer ADAM-4022T 326A

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Flow Loop Multiprocess ADAM-4022T
Level Loop Multiprocess ADAM-4022T
B] Copy “MultiDrop Server” folder.
C] Copy “MultiDrop Client” folder.
3. Remove “Read Only” for above folders (Select folder, right click on selected
folder, click on “Properties” and deselect “Read only” and click on “Apply”).

Preparing connections for Data source (ODBC)


1. Click on “Start” , “Control Panel”, “Performance and maintenance”,
“Administrative Tools”, “Data Sources (ODBC)”

Click on “System DSN”, “Add” select “Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)”, “Finish”.

For product Nos. 311A,312A,313A,314A:


In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name = Temperature

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Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Temperature control
trainer_UT321 directory” and select Temphistory.mdb database file, click ‘OK”.
(Or Flow, Level, Pressure as the case maybe)
For product No. 315A:
In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name = Cascade, Click
on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Cascade Control trainer ADAM-
4022T" directory and select “Historydata”.mdb database file, click ‘OK”.
For Flow loop: In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name =
Flow Loop Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Flow loop Cascade
ADAM 4022T " directory and select “Flowhistroy.mdb”.mdb database file, click
‘OK”.
For Level loop: In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name
= Level Loop Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Level loop
Cascade ADAM 4022T " directory and select “Levelhistroy.mdb”.mdb database
file, click ‘OK”.
For product No. 326A:
In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name = Multiprocess,
Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Multi Process trainer ADAM-
4022T" directory and select “Historydata”.mdb database file, click ‘OK”.
For Flow loop: In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name =
Flow Loop Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Flow loop
Multiprocess ADAM 4022T " directory and select “Flowhistroy.mdb”.mdb database
file, click ‘OK”.
For Level loop: In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name
= Level Loop Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “Level loop
Multiprocess ADAM 4022T " directory and select “Levelhistroy.mdb”.mdb
database file, click ‘OK”.

In “ODBC Administrator Data source” window Click on “System DSN”, “Add”


select “Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)”, “Finish”.
In ODBC Microsoft access setup window, type Data source name = MultiDrop
Server, Click on “select” button, select “D:\”drive, select “MultiDrop Server”
directory and select “Historydata.mdb” database file, click ‘OK”.
Also prepare connection for “MultiDrop Client” as above.

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Installing LL100 software (Yokogawa controller setting tool)
(For product nos 311A,312A,313A and 314A only)
1. Insert PDCSoft CD in CD drive.
2. Open CD using explorer. Open Yokogawa folder, open LL_DEMO folder, open
LL100 folder and double click on “Setup” (Application) file. Install it on the “D”
Drive. Follow the screen instructions.

Connecting Controller to computer


1. (This step not applicable for product 315A and 326A) Set / Verify following
controller parameters of Yokogawa UT321 controller.
PSL = 8, ADR = 1 (for product 311A), 2 (for product 312A), 3 (for product
313A), 4 (for product 314A)
Refer instruction manual provided by manufacturer of controller for detailed
controller operation.
2. Insert “PDCSoft CD in CD drive. Ensure communication cable is connected to
USB port of the computer and ADAM-4561.You will find following window.

Select “No, Not this time”


Click Next.

Select “Install from a list or or specific location”

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Click “Next”.

Select “Search removable media”


Click “Next”.

Click “Finish”.
Check the Com port no. where USB is installed
1. Go to System properties (Click on Start – Control Panel – Performance and
Maintenance – System)

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Click on Hardware – Device Manager.

Click on Ports.
You will find that “ADAM-4561/4562 USB TO serial Comm. Port (Com4)”
Here Com port no. is Com4.

Open an InTouch Development and Runtime application


1. Click on Start, All programs, Wonderware FactorySuite, I/O Servers, Modicon
MODBUS to open MODBUS window. (Click OK for LICENSE message and Click
Ignore for “MODBUS” message then Click OK ). The MODBUS communication
is now open.
2. Click on Configure – Com port settings
Select COM4 (select your com port where USB 4561 is connected)

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Set other parameters as per following window.

Click on Save and Done.


Click On Configuration – Topic Definition

Click on “NEW”

Enter Topic name and Slave ID as per following table


Product no Topic name Slave ID
311A UT321_1 for Temperature Control trainer 1
312A UT321_2 for flow control, 2

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313A UT321_3 for Level control 3
314A UT321_4 for Pressure control 4
315A ADAM4022T 1
326A ADAM4022T 1
• Select Respective COM Port
• Set all other parameters as shown above in “MODBUS Topic Definition”
• Click “OK”.
• Click “Done” on MODBUS Topic Definition window.

3. Click on Start, All programs, Wonderware, InTouch to open InTouch


Application manager.
4. For product Nos. 311A,312A,313A,314A: In InTouch Application
Manager window, Click on Tools – Find Applications - Select D drive –
“Temperature Control Trainer_UT321” folder and click OK. (or Flow, Level,
Pressure as the case may be) Again click on Tools – Find Applications - Select
D drive – “MultiDrop Server” folder and click OK. Again click on Tools – Find
Applications - Select D drive – “MultiDrop Client” folder and click OK.

For product no. 315A :In InTouch Application Manager window, Click on
Tools – Find Applications - Select D drive – “Cascade Control Trainer ADAM
4022T” folder and click OK.
Repeat for “Flow Loop Cascade ADAM 4022T” and for “Level Loop Cascade
ADAM 4022T”.

For product no. 326A :In InTouch Application Manager window, Click on
Tools – Find Applications - Select D drive – “Multi Process Trainer ADAM
4022T” folder and click OK.
Repeat for “Flow Loop Multiprocess ADAM 4022T” and for “Level Loop
Multiprocess ADAM 4022T”.

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5. Double click on “Temperature Control Trainer”. Click OK for LICENSE message
and Click Ignore for “Windowmaker” message.
(OR Flow, Level, Pressure, Cascade Control Trainer, Multi Process Trainer
ADAM-4022T, as the case may be)

6. In “Windows to Open” Click “Select All” and click Ok. Now the application is
opened in development mode for respective control trainer.

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7. Ensure Controller is ON and communication cable is connected to computer
USB port and ADAM-4561.
8. In WindowMaker click on File - WindowViewer and in Windows to view “select
all” and click “OK” to see the application in Runtime mode. (OR Click
“Runtime!” Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowMaker to run
opened window.) (Note: Click OK for LICENSE message and Click Ignore for
“WindowViewer” message. Click OK for WindowViewer Demo mode message).
Wait for @ 1 min to see the application running in “WindowViewer”.

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9. In WindowViewer click on File - WindowMaker and in Windows to Edit “select
all” and click “OK” to see the application in Development mode. (Use
Development! Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowViewer to
edit opened window.)

Data logging, Viewing, Editing and deleting


1. Click on “DataLog” select “LogOn” or “Logoff” for data logging On or Off.
2. Click on “Histdata” button to go to Histdata window.
3. Click on “Showdata” button to view recorded data.
4. Click on “Export to Excel” button to export the data in excel. You will find the
recorded data in D:\ Temperature control trainer _UT321\Temphistory.Xls (or
Flow, Level, Pressure as the case may be.
In case of Cascade Control trainer the data is recorded in D:\Cascade Control
Trainer ADAM-4022T\Historydata.Xls
In case of Multiprocess trainer the data is recorded in D:\Multi Process Trainer
ADAM-4022T\Historydata.Xls)
5. Click on “Print & Export to Excel” button to export the data in excel as well as
to print the data stored in Excel file.
6. To view data in Microsoft office Access, open Access, go to D:\ Temperature
control trainer _UT321\Temphistory.mbd and double click on Table1. You can
Edit/delete the recorded data. If data is deleted from Access data file, data
will not be viewed in Histdata window. (or Flow, Level, Pressure as the case
may be)
For Cascade Control trainer: To view data in Microsoft office Access, open
Access, go to D:\ Cascade Control Trainer ADAM-4022T \Historydata.mbd and
double click on Table1. (You can Edit/delete the recorded data. If data is
deleted from Access data file, data will not be viewed in Histdata window.

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For Multiprocess trainer: To view data in Microsoft office Access, open
Access, go to D:\ Multi Process Trainer ADAM-4022T \Historydata.mbd and
double click on Table1. (You can Edit/delete the recorded data. If data is
deleted from Access data file, data will not be viewed in Histdata window.)

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Note: The installation of the software is complete. You can now proceed
to Experimentation part. To study the “InTouch software for creating
new application following part can be referred.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Create an InTouch application on Server using Modicon
MODBUS I/O Server
MODBUS I/O Server (For Product nos. 311A,312A,313A,314A):
1. It is assumed that “communication port settings” are done as explained
earlier.
2. Click on Configure, In Topic Definition window, click New, In Modbus Topic
Definition window, Topic name = Yokogawa, Com port = (As above), Slave ID
= 1, slave device type = micro 84PLC, other settings = keep as default, click
OK then click done.

MODBUS I/O Server (For Product no. 315A, 326A):


1. Click on Start, All programs, Wonderware FactorySuite, I/O Servers, Modicon
MODBUS to open MODBUS window.
a. Click on Configure, in Communication port settings window set
following COM = No. of Com port to which the control module is
connected, Protocol= RTU, Reply timeout= 3sec, Baudrate= 9600,
Databit = 8, Stopbit=1, Parity=None. (These settings are to be as per
controller you connected ) . Click Save, Click Done.

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b. Click on Configure, In Topic Definition window, click New, In Modbus
Topic Definition window, Topic name = ADAM, Com port = (As above),
Slave ID = 1, slave device type = micro 84PLC, other settings = keep
as default, click OK then click done.

InTouch:
1. Click on Start, All programs, Wonderware, InTouch to open InTouch-
Application Manager.
2. In InTouch-Application Manager click on File, New to open “Create New
Application” wizard, Click on Browse, select D drive, Select “set as default
directory” and click “next”. In window write “Apex Demo Application” as the
directory where you want the application to be created. Click “Next”. Enter
name as “Apexdemo” and description of Intouch application as “Apex Demo
application” Click Finish.
3. In Intouch application manager window double click on “Apexdemo”.
4. In InTouch windowmaker Click on File - New Window, In “Window Properties”
window. Type name as Yokogawa Temperature. Keep all other parameters as
default. Click OK.

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5. Inserting Symbol (Graphics from library): Click on Wizards tool. In
Wizards Selection select Symbol Factory, double click on Symbol and click on
Yokogawa Temperature Window to open Symbol Factory by Reichard
Software. In this window select desired Category, Symbol and click OK.
Click on T located at toolbar and click on window to write texts.
Clck on T located at toolbar and click on window, type #### for display of
values.
6. Add Access Name: Click on Special, Access Names. In Access names
window click ADD. Type Access: MODBUS, Node name: keep blank,
Application name: MODBUS, Topic name: Yokogawa (Name defined in
MODBUS I/O server) click OK, Close.
7. Creating Tag: Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary
click New. Type Tagname: PVYokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click
OK, Set MinEU=0, MaxEU=100, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 1000, Click Access
Name, select MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = 40003 (this is modbus address
for PV of Yokogawa controller UT321), Click Save.
Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary click New. Type
Tagname: SPYokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click OK, Set MinEU=0,
MaxEU=100, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 1000, Click Access Name, select
MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = 40301 (this is modbus address for PV of
Yokogawa controller UT321), Click Save.
Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary click New. Type
Tagname: OPYokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click OK, Set
MinEU=0, MaxEU=100, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 1000, Click Access Name,
select MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = 40217 (this is modbus address for PV
of Yokogawa controller UT321), Click Save.
Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary click New. Type
Tagname: PBokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click OK, Set MinEU=0,
MaxEU=100, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 1000, Click Access Name, select
MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = 40306 (this is modbus address for PV of
Yokogawa controller UT321), Click Save.
Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary click New. Type
Tagname: ITYokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click OK, Set MinEU=0,
MaxEU=1000, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 1000, Click Access Name, select
MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = 40307 (this is modbus address for PV of
Yokogawa controller UT321), Click Save.
Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary click New. Type
Tagname: DTYokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click OK, Set
MinEU=0, MaxEU=1000, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 1000, Click Access Name,
select MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = 40308 (this is modbus address for PV
of Yokogawa controller UT321), Click Save.
8. Connecting Tag : Double click on #### of PV, In value display select Analog,
double click on Analog, Write expression PVYokogawa, doubleclick on
PVYokogawa, click on Save and close.
Double click on #### of SP, In Touch links select Analog, double click on
Analog, Write expression SPYokogawa, doubleclick on SPYokogawa, click on
Save and close.
Similarly connect OP to OPYokogawa, P to PBYokogawa, I to ITYokogawa, D
to DTYokogawa.
9. In WindowMaker click on Runtime.

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Create an InTouch application on Client for InTouch application
on Server having Modicon MODBUS I/O server

Connect Client computer to Server computer using LAN (local area


network):
1. Install LAN card if not available on computer board.
2. Creating LAN Network for Windows XP: Click Start , Control Panel, Network
and Internet Connections, Network Connections, Setup a home or small office
network connection. In Network Setup and follow the wizard instructions.
3. Set following IP address

Installing Wonderware InTouch :


Install wonderware InTouch as instructions given in Installing Wonderware
InTouch above.

InTouch:
1. Click on Start, All programs, Wonderware, InTouch to open InTouch-
Application Manager.
2. In InTouch-Application Manager click on File, New to open Create New
Application wizard. Follow the wizard instructions and after clicking Finish new
application is displayed in Application Manager.
3. Select the new application created and click on File, WindowMaker to open
application in development mode.
4. Click on File, New Window to open Windows Properties window. Set
parameters and click OK.
5. Inserting Symbol (Graphics from library): Click on Wizards tool. In
Wizards Selection select Symbol Factory, double click on Symbol and click on
New Window to open Symbol Factory by Reichard Software. In this window
select desired Category, Symbol and click OK.
6. Add Access Name: Click on Special, Access Names. In Access names
window click ADD. Type Access: MODBUS, Node name: Name of server
computer, Application name: VIEW, Topic name: Tagname click OK, Close.

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7. Creating Tag: Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary
click New. Type Tagname: PVYokogawa, Click Type and select I/O real Click
OK, Set MinEU=0, MaxEU=100, Min Raw=0, Max Raw= 100, Click Access
Name, select MODBUS, click Close. Set Item = keep blank, select “Use
Tagname as Item Name”, Click “Save”.
8. Connecting Tag: Select Text from Draw Object Toolbar & Click on window.
Type ###.##, Double click on ###.## For PV. In value display select
Analog, click on Analog, Write expression PVYokogawa, doubleclick on
PVYokogawa, Set Parameters & click on Save and close.

9. In WindowMaker click on File, WindowViewer and in Windows to View select


window and click OK to see the application in Runtime mode. (Use Runtime!
Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowMaker to run opened
window.)
10. In WindowViewer click on File, WindowMaker and in Windows to Edit select
window and click OK to see the application in Development mode. (Use
Development! Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowViewer to
edit opened window.)

Creating Data logging file using Microsoft Office Access


1. Click on Start, All programs, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Office Access. In
Microsoft Access click File, New, Blank database, In File select “D:\Apex Demo
Application” folder. Type File name = HistoryData, click Create. In
“HistoryData: Database” window click “Create Table In Design View”. In
Table1 type Field Name: ProcessValue (same as defined in Bind List
Configuration for column name), Data Type: Number and save as Table1. (do
not define / create primary key).
2. Click on Start, Control Panel, Performance & Maintenance, Administrative
Tools, Data Source (ODBC). In ODBC Data Source Administrator select
System DSN, click Add. In Create New Data Source select “Microsoft Access
Driver (*.mdb)” click “Finish”. In ODBC Microsoft Access Setup “Data source
name”: ApexDemo & click “Select”. In Select Database select drive “D:\” and
directory “Apex Demo Application” and select Database Name:
“HistoryData.mdb” & click OK.
3. Open “Apexdemo” Application in InTouch. Click Special, SQL Access Manager,
Bind list, click Yes, Click New. In Bind List Configuration Bind List Name:
ApexBindList. Click Tagname & select PVYokogawa Tagname, click OK. Type
Column Name: ProcessValue, click Add Item. Click OK.
4. Create ResultCode as Tagname & Type: Memory Integer.
5. Create ConnectionID as Tagname & Type: Memory Integer

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6. Create ErrorMessage as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
7. Create DT as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
8. On Apex Demo Application window right click and click on Window Scripts. In
Window Script for “Apex Demo Application” select Condition Type: While
showing, on every 5000 msec. Type following script and Click OK
ResultCode=SQLConnect(ConnectionId,
"DSN=Apexdemo;DB=HistoryData" );
ErrorMsg=SQLErrorMsg(ResultCode);
SQLInsert( ConnectionId, "Table1", "ApexBindList");
SQLEnd( ConnectionId );
9. In WindowMaker click on File, WindowViewer and in Windows to View select
window and click OK to see the application in Runtime mode. (Use Runtime!
Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowMaker to run opened
window.)
10. Open Microsoft Office Access, file HistoryData and Table1. You will find data
stored in ProcessValue column.
11. In WindowViewer click on File, WindowMaker and in Windows to Edit select
window and click OK to see the application in Development mode. (Use
Development! Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowViewer to
edit opened window.)

Creating Data logging file using Microsoft Office Excel


1. Open Apex Demo Application in InTouch.
2. Click on Special, Tagname Dictionary. In Tagname Dictionary click New. Type
Tagname: Name1, Click Type and select Memory message, click Ok, Click
Save
3. Create Name2 as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
4. Create Name3 as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
5. Create Filename as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
6. Create Result as Tagname & Type: Memory Integer.
7. Script to create Excel File (Script for new file opening after date is
changed): Click Special, Scripts, Data Change Scripts. In Data Change Scripts
type Tagname (Field:) : $Day and type following script and click Save.
Name1="Date";
Name2="Time";
Name3="PV";
Filename=Text($Day,"#")+"_"+ Text($Month,"#") +"_" + Text($Year,"#");
Result=FileWriteFields ("D:\Apex Demo Application\"+Filename+".CSV",-1,
"Name1", 3);
8. Create Column1 as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
9. Create Column2 as Tagname & Type: Memory Message.
10. Create Column3 as Tagname & Type: Memory Integer.
11. Script to create data logging (Script for storing data after every One
second): Click Special, Scripts, Data Change Scripts. In Data Change Scripts
type Tagname (Field:) : $Second and type following script and click Save.
Column1=DT;
Column2=Time;
Column3= PVYokogawa;
Result=FileWriteFields ("D:\Apex Demo Application\"+Filename+".CSV",-1,
"Column1", 3);

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12. On Apex Demo Application window right click and click on Window Scripts. In
Window Script for “Apex Demo Application” select Condition Type: While
showing, on every 5000 msec. Type following script and Click OK
DT=$Datestring;
Time=$Timestring;
13. In WindowMaker click on File, WindowViewer and in Windows to View select
window and click OK to see the application in Runtime mode. (Use Runtime!
Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowMaker to run opened
window.)
14. Change computer system date for storing data under same date name file.
15. Open Microsoft Office Excel and open date name file as created above. You
will find data stored in respective column.
16. In WindowViewer click on File, WindowMaker and in Windows to Edit select
window and click OK to see the application in Development mode. (Use
Development! Button located at right hand upper corner of WindowViewer to
edit opened window.)

MODBUS Reference for Controller ADAM-4022T


Reg. Name Ref. Number Min EU Max. EU Min. Raw Max. Raw
Loop0 Loop1
PV(0 & 2) 41044 L 41300 L 0 100 0 100000
PV(1 & 3) 40002 40004 0 100 0 65535
SP 41020 L 41276 L 0 100 0 100000
OP 41040 L 41296 L 0 100 0 100000
KP 41062 L 41318 L 0 100 0 100000
KI 41064 L 41320 L 0 100 0 100000
KD 41066 L 41322 L 0 100 0 100000
AM 41000 L 41256 L 0 100 0 100
Action 41150 L 41406 L - - - -

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Experiments

It is assumed that commissioning part of “Installation commissioning” is completed.


Startup includes:
1 Water circulation by pump.
2 Initialising Modbus communication on the computer i.e.Start| All programs |
Wonderware FactorySite | IO Servers | Modicon MODBUS

(Note: The experiment nos 1 thru 6 are to get feel of the processes and PID
settings.)

1. STUDY OF OPEN LOOP RESPONSE (MANUAL CONTROL)


Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Start up the set up as explained above. Switch on Mains and Pump adjust the
Rotameter Flow 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select open loop Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “Open Loop” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%
• Close the control valve by increasing the controller output to 100%.
• Apply the step change by 10% to controller output in manual mode, wait for the
process value to reach the steady state value.
Observations
Tabulate the results as follows
Controller output in Process Value in Typical values
% %
100 0.5
90 0.5
80 13.5
70 32.5
60 51.0
50 65.5
40 75.0
30 86.1
20 94.2
10 100
0 100

For Flow loop:

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• Start up the set up as explained above. Switch on Mains and Pump adjust the
Rotameter Flow 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select open loop Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “Open Loop” button.)
• Open the control valve by decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Apply the step change by 10% to controller output in manual mode, wait for the
process value to reach the steady state value.
• Repeat the above step until the controller output reaches to maximum (100%)
Observations
Tabulate the results as follows
Controller output in Process Value in % Typical values
%
0 98.8
10 98.8
20 96.0
30 93.5
40 90.4
50 85.5
60 79.8
70 65.7
80 47.0
90 18.2
100 0.5

Calculations
• From the above data, note the output required for maintaining the process at
desired set points.
• Set the output of the controller to the noted value and at steady state apply the
load change to the process. Load change can be given by slightly varying the
drain valve. Observe new steady state process value.
Note: The scale on the process tank is provided only for general use. However rely
on the screen data. It is not necessary to calibrate level transmitter with the scale on
process tank.
Similarly for flow loop the Rotameter float is only for general indication. However the
on screen process data (flow readings) is to be relied upon.

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2. STUDY OF ON/OFF CONTROLLER

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select On-Off mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on
“Change”, Click on “On-Off mode” button.)
• Open the control valve by decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%
• Change Hystresis value to 1%.(Range 0.1-10%)
• Change the values of the set point and observe the On-Off control operation.
(Note: In case of level loop if the process value is not reaching set point, close the
tank drain valve partially.)

Observations
Observe that if process value exceeds the set point and increases than the value of
(0.5x Hysteresis), controller closes the control valve and if process value decreases

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below the set point by (0.5 x Hysteresis), control valve opens (i.e. controller
operates like On/Off switch). This can be better observed by increasing Hysteresis
value.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select On-Off mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on
“Change”, Click on “On-Off mode” button.)
• Change Hystresis value to 1%.(Range 0.1-10%)
• Change the values of the set point and observe the On-Off control operation.

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3. STUDY OF PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select P Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “P Mode” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%. (Click on
Auto, Change it to Man then change OP to 0%)
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%. Change the controller to Auto mode
• From the default values of SP=50, PB=100, Bias=50, AM=Auto and Act =Direct;
observe the process value PV. Check if there is any offset.
• Increase the SP to 60% and check the offset. Repeat the observation for SP=70.
It will be observed that the process becomes steady with some offset.
• The offset can be eliminated by any of the following ways:
a) By Increasing/decreasing the bias value gradually by 1% (in steps).
b) By decreasing the PB. (Decrease the PB in steps of @10%. As the PB is
decreased offset is reduced. Below certain PB the process will show oscillatory
response.)

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Observations
• With P only controller Offset may be observed
• Offset can be eliminated by adjusting bias value.
• As Proportional band is reduced the offset value is reduced.
• At very low Proportional band process oscillates.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select P Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “P Mode” button.)
• From the default values of SP=60, PB=100, Bias=50, AM=Auto and Act =Direct;
observe the process value PV. Check if there is any offset.
• Change the SP in steps of @10% and check the offset. It will be observed that
the process becomes steady with different offset values.
• The offset can be eliminated by any of the following ways:
a) By Increasing/decreasing the bias value gradually by 1% (in steps).
b) By decreasing the PB. (Decrease the PB in steps of @10%. As the PB is
decreased offset is reduced. Below certain PB the process will show oscillatory
response.)

06-08-2008 Im315A Page 49


Observations
• With P only controller Offset is observed
• Offset can be eliminated by adjusting bias value.
• As Proportional band is reduced the offset value is reduced.
• At low Proportional band process oscillates.

06-08-2008 Im315A Page 50


4. STUDY OF PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select PI Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “PI Mode” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%. (Click on
Auto, Change it to Man then change OP to 0%)
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%. Change the controller to Auto mode
• From the default values of SP=50, PB=50, IT=60, AM=Auto and Act =Direct;
observe the process value PV. Observe that the output continuously changes till
the process value matches with set point. Also note that the change in output
due to integral action is more when error is more.
• Increase the SP to 60% and observe that process value matches with set point
without any offset.
• Reduce the integral time to 30 seconds, change set point to 50%. Observe that
the output change is faster and process value reaches set point in lesser time as
compared with previous setting. Repeat and confirm this observation for still
lower values of integral time. Remember to apply step change of +/- 10% every
time.
• Observe the oscillatory response of the process value at lower values of integral
time.
• Repeat similar observations by keeping the integral time constant (default value)
and reducing proportional band. (After every change in Proportional Band the
integral value changes automatically which needs to be corrected to keep is
constant.) At lower values of Proportional band the output value shows oscillatory
response which in-turn oscillates process value.
• From above observations we can identify the need for controller tuning (i.e.
finding optimum setting of Proportional band and integral time).

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Observations
• Adding integral action in control helps in eliminating offset.
• At lower values of Integral time process shows oscillatory response.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select PI Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “PI Mode” button.)
• From the default values of SP=60, PB=100, IT=15, AM=Auto and Act =Direct;
observe the process value PV. Increase the SP to 70%. Observe that the output
continuously changes till the process value matches with set point. Also note that
the change in output due to integral action is more when error is more.
• Reduce the integral time to lower values. Change the set point to 50%. Observe
that the output change is faster and process value reaches set point in lesser
time as compared with previous setting. Repeat and confirm this observation for
still lower values of integral time. Remember to apply step change of +/- 10%
every time.
• Observe the oscillatory response of the process value at lower values of integral
time.
• Repeat similar observations by keeping the integral time constant (default value)
and reducing proportional band. (After every change in Proportional Band the
integral value changes automatically which needs to be corrected to keep it

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constant.) At lower values of Proportional band the output value shows oscillatory
response which in-turn oscillates process value.
From above observations we can identify the need for controller tuning (i.e.
finding optimum setting of Proportional band and integral time).

Observations
• Adding integral action in control helps in eliminating offset.
• At lower values of Integral time process shows oscillatory response.

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5. STUDY OF PROPORTIONAL DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select PD Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “PD Mode” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%
• From the default values of SP=50, PB=100, DT=1, AM=Auto, bias=50 and Act
=Direct; observe the process value PV. Check if there is any offset.
• Set PB=50, DT=5 and change the SP to 60. Observe that the output changes in
steps as observed in proportional control. Whenever the process value is
changing the output value shows contribution of derivative effect also. As seen in
proportional control the process value may not match with set point and offset is
observed.

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Observations
• Because of derivative action the output changes are more based on the rate of
change of process vale. The offset can not be eliminated by derivative action.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select PD Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “PD Mode” button.)
From the default values of SP=60, PB=100, DT=1, AM=Auto, Bias=50 and
Act =Direct; observe the process value PV.
Increase the SP to 70%.
• Set DT=2 and Increase the SP to 70%. Observe that the output changes in steps
as observed in proportional control. Whenever the process value is changing the
output value shows contribution of derivative effect also. As seen in proportional
control the process value may not match with set point and offset is observed.

Observations
• Because of derivative action the output changes are more based on the rate of
change of process vale. The offset can not be eliminated by derivative action.
• As the flow measurement is noisy the derivative action responds to the noise
also.

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6. STUDY OF PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE
CONTROLLER

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select PID Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “PID Mode” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%. (Click on
Auto, Change it to Man then change OP to 0%)
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%. Change the controller to Auto mode
• From the default values of SP=50, PB=20, IT=30, DT= 2, AM=Auto and Act
=Direct; observe the process value PV. Change the set point by 10% and observe
the response by varying values of PB, IT and DT.

Observations
Compare the steady state response of the PID controller with P. PI and PD controller
obtained in the above experiment.

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For Flow loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select PID Mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “PID Mode” button.)
• From the default values of SP=60, PB=50, IT=10, DT=1, AM=Auto and Act
=Direct; observe the process value PV. Increase the SP to 70%. Change the set
point by 10% and observe the response by varying values of PB, IT and DT.

Observations
Compare the steady state response of the PID controller with P. PI and PD controller
obtained in the above experiment.

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7. TUNING OF CONTROLLER (OPEN LOOP METHOD)

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select Process Reaction Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on
“Change”, Click on “Process Reaction Mode” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%. (Click on
Auto, Change it to Man then change OP to 0%)
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%. Change the controller to Auto mode
• From the default values change OP=70; observe the process value PV. Wait till it
comes to steady state.
• Start data logging.
• Apply a 20 - 30 % change to controller output. (Change control valve output to
30%) Record the step response. Wait for the steady state.
• Stop data logging when the process value is fairly steady.
• Click the “HistData” to see the data. Plot the step response (Process reaction
curve) from stored data. Find out the value of slope at the point of inflection and
time lag.
• Calculate P I D settings for different modes.
• Select PID Mode. Set the PID values obtained from the calculations. Apply the
step change & observe the response of the system. Allow the system to reach
steady state.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select Process Reaction Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on
“Change”, Click on “Process Reaction Mode” button.)
• From the default values change OP=75; observe the process value PV. Wait till it
comes to steady state.
• Start data logging.
• Apply a 20 - 30 % change to controller output. (Change control valve output to
30%) Record the step response. Wait for the steady state.
• Stop data logging when the process value is fairly steady.
• Click the “HistData” to see the data. Plot the step response (Process reaction
curve) from stored data. Find out the value of slope at the point of inflection and
time lag.

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• Calculate P I D settings for different modes.
• Select PID Mode. Set the PID values obtained from the calculations. Apply the
step change & observe the response of the system. Allow the system to reach
steady state.

Observations
(Refer theory for formulae.)
• Step change to the system ∆P = Initial output - Final output of the controller.
• Plot the graph of process value Vs Time on a graph paper.
From process reaction curve:
• Slope of the process reaction curve R =
• Time lag L=
Calculate P, PI, PID setting from above values.
Observe response of the system for different PID settings.

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8. TUNING OF CONTROLLER (CLOSED LOOP METHOD)

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select P mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “P Mode” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%
• From the default values of SP=50, PB=100, Bias=50, AM=Auto and Act= Direct;
adjust bias value so that process value approximately matches with set point.
• Disturb the step change by providing step change of +2% to set point and
observe the system response.
• If the PV is steady, reduce the PB by @ 10% and disturb the system by applying
step change of -2%
• Repeat above steps and find out the PB for which the system shows continuous
oscillatory response.
• Record this PB as ultimate proportional band and period of oscillation as ultimate
period.
Calculate the PID values from the table. Select the PID controller and apply the
parameter values obtained from the above steps. Observe the response of the
process to a step change with these settings.

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Observations
• Record the ultimate proportional band (Pbu) and ultimate period (Tu) from
above experiment. (Typical value Pbu=4%, Tu = 17 sec.)
• Calculate PID values by referring theory part for different control actions.
• Observe the process response for these settings.
• Compare the values obtained with open loop response.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select P mode Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on “Change”,
Click on “P Mode ” button.)
• From the default values of SP=60, PB=100, Bias=50, AM=Auto and Act= Direct;
adjust bias value so that process value approximately matches with set point.
• Disturb the step change by providing step change of +5% to set point and
observe the system response.
• If the PV is steady, reduce the PB by @ 10% and disturb the system by applying
step change of -5%
• Repeat above steps and find out the PB for which the system shows continuous
oscillatory response.
• Record this PB as ultimate proportional band and period of oscillation as ultimate
period.

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• Calculate the PID values from the table. Select the PID controller and apply the
parameter values obtained from the above steps. Observe the response of the
process to a step change with these settings.

Observations
• Record the ultimate proportional band (Pbu) and ultimate period (Tu) from
above experiment. (Typical value Pbu=35%, Tu = 7 sec.)
• Calculate PID values by referring theory part for different control actions.
• Observe the process response for these settings.
• Compare the values obtained with open loop response.

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9. TO STUDY STABILITY OF THE SYSTEM (BODE PLOT)

Procedure
(This experiment can be performed for both Level and Flow loops)
For level loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Level loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select Stability Analysis Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on
“Change”, Click on “Stability Analysis” button.)
• Open the control valve fully by decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%
• From the default values of Ref point = 50%, Amplitude = 50% and period =10
sec. observe the output and process value variations.
• Change Reference point, Amplitude and Period so that continuous sinusoidal
waveform is observed for process value.
• Log the data for records.
• Change the period and repeat the observation for 3-4 different values of the
period.
(Note: Tf the process value is reaching zero, close the tank drain valve slightly.)

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Observations
• From the data file stored observe the phase lag x, in sec. and process value
amplitude in %
Typical values: Ref Point 50%, Amplitude =50%, Period = 60 sec., Process value
amplitude: 7.1%, Lag= 25 Sec. Hence Phase lag =150 Deg. Magnitude ratio=
14.2%.
Repeat the observations for different period.
Obs. Input Output Period Lag X Frequency
No. amplitude amplitude Tin sec In sec
A1 % A2 %

Calculations
• Calculate for each observation
Magnitude ratio as M = A2/A1
Phase angle = (X/T) x 360
Frequency = 1/T cycles / sec.
• Draw the graphs of:
Magnitude Vs frequency on log - log scale
Phase angle Vs frequency on semi-log coordinates.
• Study the graph for stable conditions mentioned in theory.

For Flow loop:


• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Flow loop ADAM 4022T”. Select
both HistData and Process in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• Select Stability Analysis Experiment (click on “Change Expt.” Button, click on
“Change”, Click on “Stability Analysis” button.)
• From the default values of Ref point = 50%, Amplitude = 30% and period =30
sec. observe the output and process value variations.
• Change Reference point, Amplitude and Period so that continuous sinusoidal
waveform is observed for process value.
• Log the data for records.
• Change the period and repeat the observation for 3-4 different values of the
period.

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Observations
• From the data file stored observe the phase lag x, in sec. and process value
amplitude in %
Typical values: Ref Point 50%, Amplitude =30%, Period = 30 sec., Process value
amplitude: 21%, Lag= 8 Sec. Hence Phase lag =96 Deg. Magnitude ratio= 70%.
Repeat the observations for different period.
Obs. Input Output Period Lag X Frequency
No. amplitude amplitude Tin sec In sec
A1 % A2 %

Calculations
• Calculate for each observation
Magnitude ratio as M = A2/A1
Phase angle = (X/T) x 360
Frequency = 1/T cycles / sec.
• Draw the graphs of:
Magnitude Vs frequency on log - log scale
Phase angle Vs frequency on semi-log coordinates.
STUDY THE GRAPH FOR STABLE CONDITIONS MENTIONED IN THEORY.

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10. TO STUDY CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM

Procedure
For cascade loop:
• Switch on Pump and adjust the Rotameter to 100LPH.
• Provide air supply to the regulator and adjusting it to 2 kg/cm^2
• Switch on the computer and ensure MODBUS communication is initialized by
executing Wonderware FactorySuite | IO Servers | Modicon Modbus)
• Execute Programs | Wonderware | InTouch for “Cascade Control Trainer ADAM-
4022T” Select all in Windows to open and Click “Runtime”.
• For selecting Cascade experiment: Click “Experiment On”; Click “Experiment off”.
Then Click “Cascade”
• Open the control valve by changing secondary loop to “Manual” mode and
decreasing the controller output to 0%.
• Adjust the tank drain valve such that the tank level shall remain between 90 and
100%. Take Secondary loop to “Auto” mode.
• Default values of Primary loop are SP=50, PB=20, IT=30, DT=2, Act=Revese,
and that of secondary loop are PB= 100, IT=25, DT=2, Act=Direct. Note that
primary loop is “Level control” loop and secondary loop is “Flow Control” loop.
The output of primary loop is connected to secondary loop as a set point.
• Wait till the Process is at steady state. Change the set point of primary loop and
observe the response.
• For tuning cascade controller first tune Secondary Controller. Tune the
controller independently by keeping the Primary controller in manual mode. The
set point of secondary loop can be changed by changing output of primary loop.
• Tune the Primary Controller using trial and error approach, select the
proportional band and integral time, which gives a satisfactory response to step
change in set point.
Observations
• It is observed that the speed of response of the level control system is improved.
As the flow loop is fast responsive than the level control loop, for a small change
in primary controller output, the secondary controller tries to achieve the set
point.
• Time required to achieve the primary controller set point is less than that of
single loop control.

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06-08-2008 Im315A Page 67
Components’ manuals

Electro pneumatic transducer (I/P)


The ControlAir Type 500X converts a current input signal to a linearly proportional
pneumatic output pressure.

Technical specifications
Model 500X-AC
Make ControlAir
Input 4-20 mA
Output 3-15 psi
Min./Max supply pressure Min. 18 psig, Max 100 psig
Linearity +/-0.75 % of span
Repeatability <0.5% of span
Hysteresis <1% of span
Air consumption 0.05 scfm midrange typical
Port size ¼ NPT
Principle of operation
The unit is a force balance device in which a coil is suspended in the field of a
magnet by a flexure. The flexure moves towards the nozzle and creates back
pressure which acts as a pilot pressure to an integral booster relay. Input signal
increase causes increase in proportional output pressure.
Zero and span are calibrated by turning adjust screws on the front face of the unit.
Adjustment of the zero screw repositions the nozzle relative to the flexure. The span
adjustment is a potentiometer that controls the amount of current through the coil.

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Troubleshooting
Problem Check
No output or low output Zero adjustment
Supply pressure too low
Clogged orifice
Leakage Connections
Low or improper span Zero and span adjustments
Supply pressure too low
Output leakage
Erratic operation Electrical input signal
Loose wires or connections
Liquid in air supply

Calibration
1 Open protective covers to expose zero and span adjustment screws.
2 Connect the recommended air supply to the inlet of the transducer and an accurate
pressure gauge at the outlet.
3 Connect the electrical input and set it to 4 mA.
4 Observe the output pressure. If necessary adjust zero screw until reaching
minimum output pressure setting (3 psi). Turn zero screw counter clockwise to
increase pressure, clockwise to decrease pressure. If unable to achieve output
during calibration process, turn zero adjustment screw counter clockwise
for up to 30 revolutions, until output pressure rises.
5 Increase electrical input to 20 mA

06-08-2008 Im315A Page 69


6 Observe the output pressure. If necessary adjust the span screw until output
pressure reaching 15 psi. Turn span screw counter clockwise to increase pressure,
clockwise to decrease pressure.
7 The zero span adjustments are interactive. After adjusting the span it will be
necessary to recheck the zero. Repeat steps 3-6 until both end points are at the
required values.
Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.

Control Air Inc. Indian supplier:


8 Columbia Drive, Amherst, NH 03031 Control teknics
USA 5,Aboorva Flats, old No.6, New No. 11
Email: sales@controlair.com 7th main road, Raja Annamalaipuram
Chennai - 600 028
Email: controlteknics@eth.net

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Rotameter (MG series)
Loflometer works on the principle of variable area. Float is free to move up & down in
a tapered measuring glass tube. Flow in the direction of arrow cases the float to take
up a position in which the buoyancy forces and the weight are balanced. The vertical
position of the float as indicated by scale is a measured of the instantaneous
flowrate.

Technical specifications
Model MG-1Z to 13
Make Eureka
Flow Rate Max. 10-100 Lph
Packing/Gaskets Neoprene
Measuring tube Borosilicate glass
Float 316SS
End fitting Aisi316
Cover Transparent Acrylic
Accuracy +/-3% full flow
Range ability 10:1
Scale length 75mm.
Max. Temp. 1000C
Max. Pressure 100 psig.
Connection ¼”BSP(M), Back to Back, Threaded Hose

Principle of operation
The loflometer valves must be opened slowly and carefully to adjust the desired flow
rate. A sudden jumping of the float, which may cause damage to the measuring
tube, must be avoided.
Fig.1 Edge

The upper edge of the float as shown in fig. 1 indicates the rate of flow. For
alignment a line marked R.P. is provided on the scale which should coincide with the
red line provided on measuring tube at the bottom.

Maintenance
The measuring tube and float become dirty, then remain in the pipeline when the
measuring tube is cleaned or changed. It is only necessary to remove the tube and
clean it with a soft brush, trichloroethylene or compressed air.

Dismantling of the measuring tube


a) Shut off the flow.

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b) Remove the front cover.
c) Unscrew the gland adjusting screws, and push the gland upwards incase of
bottom gland and downwards incase of top gland. Then remove the glass by
turning it to and fro. Care should be taken, not to drop down the glands. Float
or float retainers. The indicating edge of the float should not be damaged.
d) Foe dismantling the glass tube in case of purge meter type, Remove the
acrylic cover & turn the handle to the right & take out the tube, Follow the
same procedure reverse while fixing the tube.

Fitting of the measuring tube


Normally the old gland packing is replaced by new ones while fitting back the
measuring tube.
a) Put the glands first in their position and then put the packing on the tube.
b) Insert the tube in its place.
c) Push the glands downwards and upwards respectively and fix them with the
gland adjusting screws.
d) Tighten the gland adjusting screws evenly till the gap between the gland and
the bottom plate is approximately 1mm. In case, after putting the loflometer
into operation, still there is leakage, then tighten the gland adjusting screw
till the leakage stops.
e) Fix the scale.
f) Fix the front Cover.

Troubleshooting
Problem Check
Leakage on glands Replace gland packing
Showing high/low flow rate than Consult manufacturers
expected
Showing correct reading initially Replace float
but starts showing high reading Incase of gases, check also leakage
after few days
Showing correct reading initially Clean the loflometer suitable solvent or soft
but starts showing high reading brush
after some months.
Fluctuation of float Maintain op. pressure as mentioned in our
test report.
Frequent breakage of glass tube Use loflometer to accommodate correct flow
rate.
Maintain operating pressure below pressure
rating of the tube.
Check piping layout.

Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.

Eureka Industrial Equipments Pvt. Ltd.


17/20, Royal Chambers,
Paud Road, Pune – 411 038.
Email: eureka.equip@gems.vsnl.net.in

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Level transmitter

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Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.

WIKA Instruments Ltd. Indian supplier:


Garmany. S.A. Electronics
Web: www.wika.de Flat no.16, Sunshine Residency ,
Near Gholap College, New Sangvi, Pune -
411 027.
Web: www.saelectronic.com

06-08-2008 Im315A Page 75


Differential Pressure Transmitter

Introduction

The model EJA110A pressure transmitter measures the flow rates


and the pressure of the liquids, gases, and steam, and also liquid
levels.

Technical specifications
Model EJA110A-DMS5A-92NN
Make Yokogawa
Output signal 4 – 20mA DC with digital
communication (Linear)
Measurement span 1 to 100kPa (100 to 10000mmH2O)
Calibration range 0 – 200, 0 – 500 mmH2O
Wetted parts material Body – SCS14A, Capsule – SUS316L
Process connections without process connector (1/4BSP body connection)
Bolts and nuts material SCM 435
Installation Horizontal impulse piping left side high pressure
Electrical connection 1/2NPT female
Cover ‘O’ rings Buna-N
Supply 10 to 24VDC
Process temperature limit -40 to 120 0C
Housing Weather proof
Weight 3.9Kg

Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.

Yokogawa Electrical Corporation Indian supplier:


2-9-32, Nakacho, Yokogawa Blue Star Ltd.
Musashino-shi, 40/4 Lavelle Road,
Tokyo, 180-8750, Japan. Bangalore – 560 001.

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ADAM 4022T
Setting / configuration of ADAM4022T
1 Take S4 switch to “Init” position.
2 Open “ADAM Utility” provided in “PDCSoft CD”. Select the COM port to which the
ADAM is connected. Click on the search button to view following screen.
Ensure the settings as shown below.

3 Input range selection:


Click on “Input” tab to view following screen.
Click on CH:0, CH:1, CH:2 and CH:3 one by one and select input range 4-20 mA for
all the four channels.
Click “Update” to confirm the range selection

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4 Output range selection:
Click on “Output” tab to view following screen.
Click on Channel:0, Channel:1 one by one and select output range 4-20 mA for both
channels.
Click “Update” to confirm the range selection

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5 PID setting:
Click on “PID” tab to view following screen.
Adjust the settings as shown below for “Loop 0” and “Loop 1”

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6 Switch off the supply and take the “S4” switch to “Normal” position

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Wiring diagram

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