Submitted for The partial fulfillment of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In

(Rajasthan Technical University, Kota)

SESSION 2010-11 Submitted to: Submitted by: Ajay Kumar Faculty, Training in-charge Department of ECE Jaipur (Raj).

Keshav Sharma VII Semester (ECE) Roll No.:07ESTEC043

©Stani Memorial College of Engineering and Technology jaipur All rights reserved.




Submitted for The partial fulfillment of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In

(Rajasthan Technical University, Kota)

SESSION 2010-11 Submitted to: Submitted by: Ajay Kumar Faculty, Training in-charge Department of ECE Jaipur (Raj).

Keshav Sharma VII Semester (ECE) Roll No.:07ESTEC043

©Stani Memorial College of Engineering and Technology jaipur All rights reserved.



We are highly thankful to B.H.E.L. engineers and technical staff for providing us vital and valuable information about the different facets of an industrial management system. We express our gratitude to Human Resource and Development department for giving us a chance to feel the industrial environment and its working in B.H.E.L. and we are thankful to Mr. B.S.GARG, Sr.Engineer for giving his precious time and help us in understanding various theoretical and practical aspect of our project on CNC under whose kind supervision we accomplished our project. We are also thankful to Mr.VEDPRAKESH for his kind support. I am deeply indebted to Mr. ABHISHEK SHARMA, Head ,Department of Electronics and Communication for his valuable suggestion ,timely guidance and providing the facilities in the department . I wish to express my indebtedness and grateful thanks to my father Shri. G.R.SHARMA , my mother Smt.KARUNA SHARMA and my family members for their sacrifice during the training period.



At very outset of the prologue it becomes imperative to insist that vocational training is an integral part of engineering curriculum. Training allows us to gain an insight into the practical aspects of the various topics, with which we come across while pursuing our B.Tech i.e. vocational training gives us practical implementation of various topics we already have learned and will learn in near future. Vocational training always emphasizes on logic and commonsense instead of theoretical aspects of subject. On my part, I pursued four weeks training at B.H.E.L. Haridwar. The training involved a study of various departments of the organization as per the time logically scheduled and well planned given to us. The rotation in various departments was necessary in order to get an overall idea about the working of the organization.



6 .

000 Motors with Drive Control System to Power projects. four Power Sector regional centres. quality and responsiveness.including Transmission. committed to enhancing stakeholder value. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago. systems and services -. The high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design. engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world.25. Renewable Energy. ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India . today. Industry . Supplied over 25. to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.000 MW of power generation -. Cement plants. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation. etc. Telecommunication & Renewable Energy . BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz. Industry. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to become a global player. over 100 project sites. Steel.PROFILE OF INDUSTRY BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energyrelated/infrastructure sector. Aluminum. Power Generation & Transmission. 7 . Continuous training and retraining.a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. together with technologies developed in its own R&D centres. Fertilizer.efficiently and at competitive prices. enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products. Captive and Industrial users.. BHEL's operations are organized around three business sectors. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing divisions.600 employees.000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). Refineries. career planning. Telecommunication.for Utilities. BHEL's vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise. a positive work culture and participative style of management all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity. BHEL has acquired certifications to Quality Management Systems (ISO 9001). Petrochemicals. namely Power. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. BHEL has Installed equipment for over 90.and Overseas Business. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. Supplied over 2. Transportation. Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001) and is also well on its journey towards Total Quality Management. The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed 42. eight service centres and 18 regional offices. Transportation. etc.

Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12. Telecommunication & Renewable Energy . to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.and Overseas Business. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation. The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed 42. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to become a global player. Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries. committed to enhancing stakeholder value. Industry including Transmission.L. BHEL's operations are organised around three business sectors.000 kms Railway network. a positive work culture and participative style of management all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity. career planning. Transportation. Continuous training and retraining.600 employees.H. quality and responsiveness. namely Power.E. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. MANUFACTURING UNITS OF B. First Generation Units BHOPAL Heavy Electrical Plant HARDWAR Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant HYDERABAD Heavy Electrical Power Equipment Plant TIRUCHY High Pressure Boiler Plant Second Generation Units JHANSI Transformer and Locomotive Plant HARDIWAR Central Foundry and Forge Plant TIRUCHY Seamless Steel Tube Plant Unit Through Acquisition and Merger BANGALORE Electronic Division Electro Porcelain Division New Manufacturing Units RANIPAT Boiler Auxiliaries Plant JAGDISHPUR Insulator Plant RUDRAPUR Component and Fabrication Plant BANGALORE Industrial System Group 8 . BHEL's vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise.

health diagnostics and life extension of plants. BHEL supplies circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle power plants.03. as against nil till 1969-70. hydro and nuclear power plant business as of 31. BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 64737 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 99. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projects from concept to commissioning. The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance Improvement through renovation modernisation and uprating of a variety of power plant equipment besides specialised know how of residual life assessment. to make efficient use of the high-ash-content coal available in India. Custom made hydro sets of Francis. gas. Co-generation and combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve higher plant efficiencies. In all. 9 . hydro. it possesses the technology and capability to produce thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating and gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW unit rating. The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets. Pelton and Kapian types for different head discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by BHEL.2001. The power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world and is also internationally competitive.POWER GENERATION Power generation sector comprises thermal.146 MW in the country. orders for more than 700 utility sets of thermal. gas and nuclear have been placed on the Company as on date.

refineries. Cement. dry type transformers. oil and gas. metallurgical and other process industries lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation. shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power). A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of transmission lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation).POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D) BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications. INDUSTRIES BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries. shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power) BHEL has indigenously developed the state-ofthe-art controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long transmission lines). 10 . paper. Products manufactured include power transformers. sugar. vacuum – and SF circuit breakers gas insulated switch gears and insulators. BHEL has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV FACTS (Felxible AC Transmission System) projects is under execution. instrument transformers. Presently a 400 kV Facts (Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution. series – and stunt reactor. capacitor tanks. fertilizer. petrochemcials.

pumps. maintenance and after-sales service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. Wate heat recovery boilers. centrifugal compressors. refinances. overhead equipment cars. fabric filters. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for special applications viz. co-generation plants DG power plants. heat exchangers and pressure vessels. electrical machines. industrial steam turbines. metallurgical and other process industries. industrial boilers and auxiliaries. installation. It also supplies digital distributed control systems for process industries. Besides traction propulsion systems for in-house use. electrostatic precipitators.. Transportation BHEL is involved in the development design. both for mainline and shunting duly applications. reactors. fertilizer. seamless steel tubes. paper. BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock producers of 11 . cement. oil and gas. valves. The Company is a major producer of large-size thruster devices. defense and other applications. BHEL is the only company in India with the capability to make simulators for power plants. marketing. The range of system & equipment supplied includes: captive power plants. Special well wagons. fluidized bed combustion boilers. production.. engineering. diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP. petrochemicals. gas turbines. Rail-cum-road vehicle etc.Industries BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries. In the area of rolling stock. sugar. chemical recovery boilers and process controls. and control & instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial applications. BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP. The Company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to help augment the supply of drinking water to people.

switchgears. solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles.electric locomotives. These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL. like transformers. Renewable Energy Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting non-conventional and renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators. The company also undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of urban transportation systems. diesel-electric locomotives. covering turnkey power projects of thermal. electrical multiple units and metro cars. hydro and gas-based types. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems. The electric and diesel traction equipment on India Railways are largely powered by electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. besides a wide variety of products. The Company has taken up R&D efforts for development of multi-junction amorphous silicon solar cells and fuel based systems. heat exchangers. solar photovoltaic systems. International Operations BHEL has. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of port handing equipment and pipelines transportation system. substation projects. ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East. castings and forgings. 12 . over the years. rehabilitation projects. well-head equipment. Telecommunication BHEL also caters to Telecommunication sector by way of small. established its references in around 60 countries of the world. medium and large switching systems. insulators. light rail systems etc. valves.

Sri Lanka. financing packages etc. be it captive power plants. Greece. Libya. Cyprus. Iraq etc. photo-voltaic equipment etc. The success in the area of rehabilitation and life extension of power projects has established BHEL as a comparable alternative to the original equipment manufactures (OEMs) for such plants. Apart from over 1110MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia. The company has been successful in meeting varying needs of the industry. associated O&M. utility power generation or for the oil sector requirements.centrifugal compressors. Azerbaijan. Bangladesh. Technology Upgradation and Research & Development 13 . Malta. In addition to demonstrated capability to undertake turnkey projects on its own. BHEL possesses the requisite flexibility to interface and complement with International companies for large projects by supplying complementary equipment and meeting their production needs for intermediate as well as finished products. Egypt. The Company has been successful in meeting demanding customer's requirements in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological. quality and other requirements viz extended warrantees. and execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman. Some of the other major successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia. Executing of Overseas projects has also provided BHEL the experience of working with world renowned Consulting Organisations and inspection Agencies. BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. Saudi Arabia.

The Company has also transferred a few technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for commercialisation. leads BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product range. 36 kV gasinsulated sub-stations. petroleum depot automation systems. Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role. circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers. BHEL has introduced.6% to the revenues in 2000-2001. several state-of-the-art products developed inhouse: low-NQx oil / gas burners. and fuel cells for distributed. BHEL's Investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. environment-friendly power generation. and micro-controller based governor for diesel-electric locomotives. BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous upgradation of products and related technologies. Some of the on-going development & demonstration projects include: Smant wall blowing system for cleaning boiler soot deposits. The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad. such as application of super conducting materials in power generations and industry. CNC SYSTEMS 14 . Products developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8. The Company has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in house efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from leading engineering organizations of the world. and development of new products. etc. in the recent past.To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations. highefficiency Pelton hydro turbines. The company is also engaged in research in futuristic areas. spread over a 140 acre complex.

to increase the flexibility of the machines in handling a variety of components and to finish them in a single setup on the same machine. boring and taping.Development of computerized numerical controlled (CNC) machines is an outstanding contribution to the manufacturing industries. etc. Further. the concept of multi-operations was also extended for machining cylindrical components. It has made possible the automation of the machining process with flexibility to handle small to medium batch of quantities in part production. drilling. this concept was applied to develop a CNC machining centre for machining prismatic components combining operations like milling. CNC machines capable of performing multiple operations were developed. the CNC technology was applied on basic metal cutting machine like lathes. Initially. milling machines. Later. Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool 15 . which led to the development of turning centers. To start with.

spindles. etc. The PLC controls the peripheral actuating elements of the machine such as solenoids. etc. the system resolution and the basic mechanical machine accuracy. The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required in the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatic.slide and its auxiliary functions with input in the form of numerical data. The NC controls the spindle movement and the speeds and feeds in machining. It calculates the traversing path of the axes as defined by the inputs. relay coils. This chapter gives an overview of the configuration of the CNC system. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor-based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools. but they are very negligible. it will result in poorer part accuracy. The CNC systems are constructed with a NC unit integrated with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and some times with an additional external PLC (non-integrated). interfacing and introduction to PLC programming 16 . the NC and PLC enable the machine tool to operate automatically. but when mechanical machine inaccuracies are present. which will reflect during contouring. as per the sequence programmed into it. Working together. The CNC system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of various machine members such as slides. Though this does not cause point to point positioning error. Control algorithm may cause errors while computing. depending on the machining operations. Positioning and part accuracy depend on the CNC system's computer control algorithms.

It accepts the information stored in the memory as part program.diagram of a CNC machine tool A CNC system basically consists of the following: • • • • • • Central processing unit (CPU) Servo-control unit Operator control panel Machine control panel Other peripheral device Programmable logic controller (PLC)  Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is the heart and brain of a CNC system. This data is decoded and transformed into specific position control and velocity control signals. a corrective action is taken. It also oversees the movement of the control axis or spindle whenever this does not match the programmed values. 17 .

etc. resolves.) are calculated by the CPU depending upon the corresponding inputs made available to the system. backlash. The servo-control unit receives the position feedback signals for actual movement of the machine tool axes from the feedback devices (like linear scales. The same will be taken care of during the generation of control signals for the axis movement. etc. The feedback signals are passed on to the CPU for further processing. it takes the final action of shutting down the system in turn the machine. Speed Control Unit This unit acts in unison with the CPU for the movement of the machine axes. The velocity feedback is generally obtained through tacho generators. closed-loop or open-loop system . some safety checks are built into the system through this unit and the CPU unit will provide continuous necessary corrective actions.). 18 . This also checks whether machine tool axis movement is at the same speed as directed by the CPU. The CPU sends the control signals generated for the movement of the axis to the servo control unit and the servo control unit convert these signals into the suitable digital or analog signal to be fed to the machine tool axis movement. tool wear out. In case any safety conditions related to the axis are overruled during movement or otherwise they are reported to the CPU for corrective action  Servo-Control Unit The decoded position and velocity control signals.All the compensations required for machine accuracy (like lead screw pitch error. The servo-drive unit converts the command values. Thus the servo-control unit performs the data communication between the machine tool and the CPU. i. Whenever the situation goes beyond control of the CPU. The amount of movement and the rate of movement are controlled by the CNC system depending upon the type of feedback system used. This unit in turn generates suitable signals as command values. As explained earlier. which are interfaced with the axis and the spindle motors . the actual movements of the slides on the machine tool is achieved through servo drives. Also. generated by the CPU for the axis movement forms the input to the servo-control unit. rotary encoders.e.

the system tries to correct it. In case this is not possible. switches off the machine. will constantly try to achieve and maintain a given position by self-correcting. the CNC system send out commands for movement and the result is continuously monitored by the system through various feedback devices. If the actual rate is not as per the required rate. the system declares fault and initiates action for disabling the drives and if necessary. regardless of the type of feedback device. As the slide of the machine tool moves. In this system. There are generally two types of feedback to a CNC system -position feedback and velocity feedback. PositionFeedback A closed-loop system. 19 . its movement is fed back to the CNC system for determining the position of the slide to decide how much is yet to be traveled and also to decide whether the movement is as per the commanded rate.Closed-loop System The closed-loop system is characterized by the presence of feedback.

Vertical borer machine Closed loop positioning control 20 .

The analog voltage is taken as speed feedback by the servo-controller and swift action is taken by the controller to maintain the speed of the motor within the required limits. velocity feedback must be present along with the position feedback whenever CNC system are used for contouring. Hence. then the system may not produce the required path or the surface finish accuracy. 21 . The tacho generator used for velocity feedback is normally connected to the motor and it rotates whenever the motor rotates. in order to produce correct interpolation and also specified acceleration and deceleration velocities. thus giving an analog output proportional to the speed of motor.Open loop postioning control Velocity feedback In case no time constraint is put on the system to reach the final programmed position.

Servo-drives The servo-drive receives signals from the CNC system and transforms it into actual movement on the machine. set or actual difference. namely. viz. Stepper motors are used for actual movement and the electronics of these stepper motors is run on digital pulses from the CNC system. the motor and the electronics for driving the motor. They can be utilized in point to point system. Since system controllers have no access to any real time information about the system performance.. current feed rate. ac drives and stepper motor drives. the CNC system send out signals for movement but does not check whether actual movement is taking place or not. A servo-drive consists of two parts. dc drives. they cannot counteract disturbances appearing during the operation.  Operator Control Panel The operator control panel provides the user interface to facilitate a two-way communication between the user.Open-loop system The open loop system lacks feedback. There are various types of servo-drives. spindle speed Active G functions 22 . This consists of two parts: • • Video Display Unit (VDU) Keyboard Video Display Unit (VDU) The VDU displays the status of the various parameters of the CNC system and the machine tool. It displays all current information such as: • • • Complete information of the block currently being executed Actual position value. where loading torque on the axial motor is low and almost constant. In this system. CNC system and the machine tool. The actual rate of movement and direction depend upon the command signal from CNC system.

subroutine number Display of all entered data. Video display units may be of two types: 1. a few LEDs are generally provided to indicate important operating modes and status. etc. user programs. Monochrome or black and white displays 2. Color displays 23 . user data. Alarm messages in plain text Soft key designations In addition to a CRT.• • • • Main program number. machine data.

NC PLC1 Logic Unit Tape Tape 24 Fig.SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS LSMLogic Sub LSM2 LSM1 Emergency Stop X + Z X Z + Machin e Control Cycl e Machine Control Panel Expansi POWER ON Power Supply PLC 2.2 Typical numerical control configuration of Hinumerik 3100 CNC system .

25 .

tool data. and machine parameters. POWER 26 .SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS Emergency Keyboard Stop Emergencythe following purposes:Z Stop A keyboard is provided for ON X + Z + X • Editing of part programs.

Fig.No POWER ON Cycl e Control elements and indicators of the operator's panel LEDindicator Program in progress For Feed hold assignment Position not yet reached Change to (Machine in motion) actual value Alarm display CRT Basic display Tool compensationChange of Zero offset display Test Part program Leaf forwards Leaf .4 Operator control panel of Hinumerik 3100 system Operator's and machine panel • SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS Emergency Stop X + Z X Z + Address Keys/Numerical keyboard Reset changeover Assignment of keys Cancel word Alter word Enter word Change over to customer display 27 Operator guidance Yes.

e. During program execution. the CNC controls the axis motion.  Machine Control Panel (MCP) It is the direct interface between operator and the NC system. Execution of other toll functions. For these tasks. Execution of part programs.• • • • • Selection of different pages for viewing. • • • Establishing a correct reference point Loading the system memory with the required part program Loading and checking of tool offsets. machine should first be prepared with some specific tasks like. manual data input. the system must be operated in specific operating mode so that these preparatory functions can be established. Control elements of the machine control panel Mode selector Switch Emergency Stop Spindle speed override Rapid traverse activate Direction keys Spindle Feedrate/rapid OFF ON traverse override X + Z X Z + Feed Hold/Start Cycle start Cycl e Single Block Dry block Delete Run Rapid Traverse Override 28 POWER ON NC ON . Fig. zero offsets.5 shows the MCP of Hinumerik 3100 system. Selection of feed rate override and spindles speed override.g. spindle function or tool function on a machine tool. Selection of operating modes. Prior to the starting of the machine process. enabling the operation of the machine through the CNC system. depending upon the part program stored in the memory. etc.

CNC system allows the axis to be jogged at high feed rate also. the slide will move as long as the jog button is pressed.Modes of operation Generally.. etc. The slide (axis) is selected through an axis selector switch or through individual switches (e. Manual mode: In this mode. 100.key and will be limited to the no of increments selected even if the jog button is continuously pressed. movement of a machine slide can carried out manually by pressing the particular jog button (+ or -). 10. system allows jogging of axes in 1. Normally. In this mode slides can be moved in two ways: • • Continuous Incremental Continuous mode: In This mode. 10000. The feed rate of the slide movement is prefixed. etc. Incremental mode: Hence the slide will move through a fixed distance. Y-. X+. increments. Y+. It is initiated by pressing the proper jog+ or jog. Z-. 1000. X-. The axis movement can also be achieved manually using a hand wheel interface instead of jog buttons.g. For subsequent movement the jog button has to be released and once again pressed. Z+. Axis movement is at a prefixed feed rate.). 29 . the CNC system can be operated in the following modes: • • • • • • Manual mode Manual data input (MDI) mode Automatic mode Reference mode Input mode Output mode. which is selectable.

Playback In setting up modes like jog or incremental. Execution of the program can be one block after another automatically or the system will execute a block.Zero offsets (ZO) -----.Tool offsets (TO) -----. But the required feed rates. etc. the axis can be traversed either through the direction keys or via the hand wheel. Thus. and the end position can be transferred into the system memory as command values. the next block is read by the system. teach-in and playback operating method allows a program to created during the first component prove out.Test data. analyzed and kept ready for execution.Manual Data Input (MDI) Mode In this mode the following operation can be performed: • • • Building a new part program Editing or deleting of part program stored in the system memory Entering or editing or deleting of: -----. Automatic Mode (Auto and Single Block) In this mode the system allows the execution of a part program continuously. switching functions and other auxiliary functions have to be added to the part program in program editing mode. While one block is being executed. Teach-in Some system allows direct manual input of a program block and execution of the same. stop the execution of the next block till 30 . The blocks thus executed can be checked for correctness of dimensions and consequently transferred into the program memory as part program. The part program is executed block by block.

6 gives an overview of the system with few peripheral devices. tool offsets. pitch error compensation) can be properly applied. During data input. machine setup data. 31 . unknown characters. the part programs. This is useful for tool inspection or in case of tool breakage.. tape reader/puncher interface. etc. through the BLOCK SEARCH facility. program already present in the memory. programming units. can be loaded/unloaded into/from the memory of the system from external devices like programming units. magnetic cassettes or floppy discs. provision for communication equipment. etc. etc.g. printer. Part program execution can resume and its execution begins with the retraced block. Input Mode and Output Mode (I/O Mode) In this mode. Reference Mode Under this mode the machine can be referenced to its home position so that all the compensations (e. some systems check for simple errors (like parity. etc. Program start can be effected at any block in the program. block length. tape format. Many systems allow blocks (single or multiple) to be retraced in the opposite direction. Many CNC systems make it compulsory to reference the slides of the machine to their home positions before a program is executed while others make it optional.  Other Peripherals These include sensor interface. Selection of part program execution continuously (Auto) or one block at a time (Single Block) is done through the machine control panel. Fig. Part programs are generally prepared in absolute mode with respect to machine zero.).it is initiated to do so (by pressing the start button). Block retrace is allowed only when a cycle stop state is established. Transfer of data is done through a RS232C or RS485C port.

So. PLCs are now available with increased functions. relay contacts. The outputs can be motor starters. etc. solenoid valves. relay coils. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) A PLC matches the NC to the machine. position valves. more memory and large input/output capabilities. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. The field devices are typically selected. analog sensor. selector switches. The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. Programmi ng Units Tape Reader Tape Puncher Printers 32 . etc. float switches. supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. In the CPU. The CPU receives input data. and not the field devices. LED displays.7 gives the generalized PLC block diagram. Fig. A wide variety of voltages. indicator lights. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable. The inputs can be push buttons. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the internal portions of the I/O structures. The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU. proximity switches. all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. current capacities and types of I/O modules are available. power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC. limit switches. performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs.

Although at first they were mainly used for manufacture of geometrically complicated parts. CNC machine have picked up momentum and Indian Industries are going for more and more CNC machine. Conventional methods are being replaced by NC for sheet metalworking processes of punching. Numerical control turns machine tools into a flexible production unit with a multitude of possible application.6 System with peripheral devices Input Program mer Logic Storag memor e y memor Power Supply Fig. Productivity increases multifold using numerical control with grinder. 33 . The next step is the introduction of numerical controls in all sections of productions.7 Generalized PLC block diagram Proces sor Outp Powe r Suppl Field Devic es INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL WORKING OF CNC MACHINE CNC machine tools have been widely accepted as time proven manufacturing technique all over the globe. numerical control were later used for added enhanced efficiency in the medium batch production of turned and milled parts. In India too. nibbling and cutting. The aim in all the cases is to combine high productivity with flexible possibilities of NC technology. Other machine processes are being added to turning and milling which may be already described as classical NC applications. gear hobbers and spark erosion.Fig.

Initially NC machines had as many as 280 printed circuit board (PCB) and quite extensive wiring which consequently made maintenance very difficult and reliability was poor. First generation NC system had transistor elements. The trend with microprocessors helps in lowering cost of jobs and increment in reliability to appreciable label.modern day CNC machines use only 2 to 4 PCBs.ELECTRONIC REVOLUTION AND COMPUTER GROWTH Modern day computerized numerical control system (CNC) is the result of advancement and sky rocketing microelectronics with every day breaks its own record and grow by leaps and bounds. With arrival of what is known as age of “Microprocessors and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technique” . Flexibility as inherent feature of minicomputer and microcomputer gave new technology –“Software Oriented System”. hardware cost of CNC system lowered considerably whereas flexibility increased multifold due to software capabilities WORKING PRINCIPLE OF NC MACHINES Electronic industries association defines numerical control as “A system in which action is controlled by direct insertion of numerical data. With advent of integrated circuits only 40 PCBs were used with reduced wiring for the system. Further integration called ‘Medium Scale Integration’ (MSI) replaced nearly 10 ICs and system involved only 5 to 10 PCBs. With this latest technology. The system must automatically interpret at least some potion of data. Unlike rigid hardwire system which had been used hitherto. this new system comes to market as COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC) system.” 34 .

spindle. In NC machine tools the main function is to control the displacement and positioning of slides. feed rate. NC directs the machine tool to achieve all these function in a very controlled and systematic manner . speed. selection of tool and many other auxiliary functions.The major elements that comprises NC machine tools are :• Control system – CNC • The machine tool • Servo drive units • Feedback devices • Operator control • Electrical cabinet 35 .In simple word numerical control means control by numbers.

auto tool change and other miscellaneous functions. System also directs commands to various relays. it become necessary to ensure that required lengths of movements have taken place or a particular function has been accomplished. Once the machine tool has commenced its operation and operative element and moving . coolant supply . This is done by feedback devices. Position feedback devices 36 . tape instructions are read by tape reader.Schematic diagram representation of NC machine tool In CNC system. These instructions undergo electronic processing and system gives output in the form of electrical signal to servo drive of the machine tool to determine the length of movement and feed rates. solenoids etc to initiate operation of the machine tools such as spindle motor starting and stopping .

An example of this type is NC drilling machine. NC system can be broadly classified in two types as ‘Open loop’ and ‘closed loop’. In point to point system. 37 . resolvers. This enable machine to achieve a very high degree of accuracy in slide displacement Figure above showing open loop system From metal removal point of view. TYPES OF NC Based on feedback. The open loop system has no feedback. the machine performs machining operations at specific positions and does not affect work piece while moving from one point to another. machine stops and system displays ‘Fault message’ in clear English text. inductosyn feedback status of actual position of slides to control system. A velocity feedback transducer known as ‘Tachogenertor’ is used for velocity control as warranted during contouring operation . encoder. In case of failure or adverse feedback received by system . straight cut and contouring system. whereas closed loop system utilizes feedback transducers which continuously monitor the position of slides. the classification can be made as point to point. Thus all operations of machine are monitored continuously with appropriate feedback devices. Feed back of auto tool change function etc are taken from proximity sensors or limit switches.like linear scales.

38 . Straight cut or straight line system provides movement at controlled feed rate in one axis direction at one time. pocket milling etc. The examples of this are face milling. Figure demonstrating NC system’s some of different paths and cut.Figure showing closed loop system.

index table or fourth axis is common features on NC machines. Positioning accuracies to be extent of +10 or -10 microns and repeatability of +5 or-5 microns can be achieved in NC machines depending on the elements used. • Repetitions of batches are often 39 . Parts Suitable For CNC Machines:To utilize the CNC machine effectively and economically the suitable pats selection is very important. All axes are driven by powerful DC Servo drives controlled by PWM or SCR controllers through preloaded ball screw and nuts. MACHINE TOOL REQUIREMENT In a NC machine certain design features are desirable on machine tool. contours and curved surfaces. • Size of batches medium. This is achieved by ground re circulating ball screw and nut. Simultaneous movement of 2 or more axes and high removal capability of NC machines demand high dynamic stiffness in drives and also stiff structural elements. High positioning accuracy needed in NC machine make it essential to have backlash free screw and nut and slides with a very low friction of co-efficient. centralized lubrication system. • Complexity of operation. hardened and ground guideways and friction reducing linears such as Turcite and PTFE. ACCURACIES CNC machines ensure better and consistent accuracies on job compared to conventional machines. The structure of NC machines should be very rigid to withstand heavy cuts and it must be maintained for long time to obtain high accuracies. This enables machining of complex profiles. Automatic tool changer. tachoway bearings.The continuous path control system calls for co-ordinate movement of the tool and work piece along different axes. Electronic spindle drives on NC machines facilitate step less speed over a wide range of RPMs. the following guidelines should be observed: • High number of operation per component.

you can just easily loose this multi machine capacity during breakdown. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF CNC MACHINES When a company or organization first decides to buy CNC machine. maintenance people and operators should be selected and trained before CNC arrives. To keep downtime minimum. • Requires substantial tooling. which should start the day management decides to buy CNC machine. • Setup and inspection time is high. For small organizations where experts and maintenance staffs are generally not available. • Skilled required by operator is high. Requires 100% inspection. instead a deep insight of CNC technology is must and will quite obviously helps in buying suitable one and keeping its idle time minimum. It is not sufficient that management understands the benefit of machine and decided to buy one. • Ration of cutting time to non-cutting time is high.• • Labor cost of component is high. The key to good CNC machine lies in prior planning. • • Foundation and electric supply requirement should ready before machine arrives. • Varieties of components produced are more. • Programmers. Orientation at all material level is required to get maximum return out of huge investment made. sufficient quantities of spare are recommended by suppliers of machine 40 . • It is vital that time taken for machine to become productive is as short as possible. • It should be ensured that suppliers of NC machines provide with all relevant technical documents for the machine. Following Are few point for effective utilization of CNC machine. • While NC can be out product its manual counterpart 3 to 4 times. proper support from supplier should be ensured.

41 . • Clean and dust free environment should be ensured in shop in order to minimize breakdown efficient working and consequently longer life of CNC machine.should be maintain. thread cutting etc. Spindle CW or CCW. We can’t keep NC machine waiting while we are searching for tools or waiting for availability of raw materials. • Future expandability should always be in decision making while buying a CNC machine. • Sufficient thought should be given to tooling. accessories and all other peripherals that surround CNC. program stop etc. 1.1 Various functional codes 1) Preparatory function: these are commands which prepare the machine for different modes of movements like position countering. VARIOUS FUNCTIOS OF CNC 1) Axes position and velocity control 2) Spindle speed 3) Miscellaneous functions. • CNC machines must be placed at convenient places in the shop considering work flow and material handling. 3) Miscellaneous Function: Some of the important miscellaneous function which worth to be considered here are coolant on or off. 2) Dimensional Data: Movement of machine tool slides in one or more axes is determined by dimensional data entered in the program. Also it is always make sure that supplier of machine stocks critical parts and accessories.

6) Tool Function (T): this function pertains to the selection of required tool for the particular operation. CODES USED IN CNC PROGRAMS G-code is the name of any word in a CNC program that begins with the letter G and generally is a code telling machine tool what type of action to perform. a work piece cut (routed) to a specific dimension. 5) Feed Function (F): It pertains to feed rates of the slides. There are other codes.4) Speed Function(S): this function pertains to speed of spindle. the type codes can be thought of registers in the computer X absolute position Y absolute position Z absolute position A position (rotary around X) 42 . or a decorative profile shape added to edge of work piece. Controlled feed move in straight line or are series of controlled feed moves that would result in whole being bored. Such as: Rapid Move etc.

B position (rotary around Y) C position (rotary around Z) U Relative parallel axis to X V Relative parallel axis to Y W Relative parallel axis to Z M code (another “action” register or machine code (*)) (Otherwise refers to as miscellaneous function) F feed rate S spindle speed N line number R arc radius P dwell time T tool selection I arc data X axis J arc data Y axis J arc data Z axis D cutter diameter 43 .

. COMMON FANUE G CODES Code Description G00 Rapid positioning G01 Linear interpolation G02 CW circular interpolation G03 CCW circular interpolation G04 Dwell G10/G11 Data writing/Data write cancel G17 X-Y plane selection G18 X-Z plane selection G19 Y-Z plane selection G20 Programming in inches G21 Programming in mm 44 . causing it to stop. etc.H tool length offset. (*)M codes control the overall machine. start. whereas other code pertain to the path traversed by cutting tool may use same code to perform different functions. even machines that use the same CNC control. turn on coolant.

G28 Return to home position G31 Skip function G33 Constant pitch threading G34 Variable pitch threading G40 Tool radius compensation off G41 Tool radius compensation left G42 Tool radius compensation right G81 Simple drilling cycle G82 Drilling cycle with dwell G83 Peck drilling cycle G84 Tapping cycle G90 Absolute programming G91 Incremental programming G94/G95 Inch per minute/Inch per revolution feed G96/G97 Constant cutting speed/Constant rotation speed BASIC ISO CNC CODES 45 .

46 .M00 Program stop M01 Optional stop M02 Program stop M03 Spindle CW M04 Spindle CCW M05 Spindle stop M08 Coolant/Lubricant on M09 Coolant/Lubricant off M30 Program end M98 Subprogram call M99 Subprogram end G96 Constant surface speed G97 Constant spindle speed G50 Maximum spindle speed G95 Feed mm per revolution G94 Feed mm/min G00 Rapid movement G01 Linear interpolation F Feed S Spindle speed.

C. • Control system : ESAB German (NCE-510) • Axes: There are two axes in machine X and Y axis. which serve some special purposes.CNC MACHINES There are different CNC machines in haridwar unit. This machine can cut up to 300mm thick sheet.5 meters • Drive: D. In X axis tool can move up to 7 meters and in Y axis tool can move up to 3. It has four burners. CNC OXY-ACETYLENE FLAME CUTTING This machine is in bat-0 & is used for M. • Feedback rotary encoders CNC CROPPING LINE 47 .S sheet. which can work simultaneously.

Y and Z axis. According to program its spindle diameter is 180 mm and 40 KW power is required to operate the spindle. It consists of one tip cut and one V cut also. It can travel up to 8000 mm in X-axis.  Feedback linear scale.  CONTROL SYSTEM : GE FANUC 15M  Axis: It works three axis X. 48 . First machine has been made by George German with control system from Siemens 810D. It has two punches.There are two cropping line CNC machine in bay-5. which can shear straight as well as 45 degree. which can change tools automatically. One fixed shear and one movable shear. it is used for all operation in boogie manufacturing like milling. These are used to cut CRZO sheets for construction of core of transformer. It has auto tool changer. This machine mainly consists of two tools: punch and swing shear for cutting lamination as required by program. (a) Control System 810D (b) Axis: One axis (c) Drive Way (d) Feedback linear Scale ASQUITH CNC BOGIE MACHINE CENTRE This machine is in boogie shop. The other machine has been manufactured by Sooner Company. (A)HMT SB CNC LATHE This is used for turning the job. All the operation can be done in the single machine. drilling and boring. 4000 mm in Y-axis and 800 mm in Z-axis.

It can move 600 mm in X. 1) Control system : Sinumeric 800 M 2) Axis: it works in three axes X. 4) Feedback : Linear Sale 49 . Tool can traverse up to 1000 mm in X-axis and 300 mm in Z-axis. 3) Drive D. Y and Z axis. 3) Drive D.C.C. 600 mm in Y-axis.axis.1) Control system: Sinumeric 3T 2) Axis: It works in two axis X and Z axis.axis and 400 mm in Z-axis. 4) Feedback: Rotary Encoder.C. (B) HMT CNC VERTICLE MILLING MACHINE This machine is used for milling purpose. 400 mm in Z-axis. 1) Control System: Cruceder 2) Axis: Tool can move in two axes: X and Z. (C) COOPER CNC VERTICLE BORING MACHINE This machine is used for boring purpose. 4) Feedback rotary encoder. Tool can travel 1200 mm in X-axis. 3) Drive D.

The use of CNC machines also give designers freedom to design components which. NC machine is spending much more time per shift cutting than in past. Subsequently it is required to have only sample inspection. Conventional machines very seldom remove metal for more than 15% of total available time under normal batch production conditions. The actual advantage may vary from batch to batch depending upon the complexity of components to be produced and is normally proportional to the number of conventional operation required to produce the components. Whereas CNC machine tools should be capable of removing metal for between 50% and 75% of available time. 3. 4. This enables the formulation of more aggressive marketing plans. CNC machining has around 4 to 1 productivity advantage over conventional machine. Inspection High position accuracies and repeatability are inherent features of CNC machines and reduce inspection time considerably. Flexibility in design and production Machine can switch over to different job as set up times are low and sudden changes in sales requirement are much more easily catered for. are often impossible to produce.ADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES 1. Floor space One CNC machine can replace five to six conventional machines. Change of design can also be easily incorporated as it means change of tape. When working on medium batch production. Thus manufacturing activities 50 . by conventional means. In process gauging and inspection is also provided on modern CNC machines. Normally a 100% inspection of the first component produced by a new tape is all that is necessary to prove the tape and tooling. Productivity Since cutting tool is brought to its machining position much more efficiently than it was done manually by the machine operator. 2.

which in turns requires less storage space and maintenance. The simpler a fixture is. Operator’s Skill Dependence on skilled labor can be dispensed with.This results in substantial saving. as all the operations are performed on one machine. 5. Scrap and Rework Drastic reduction in scrap is achieved because of the inherent accuracy and repeatability of CNC machine. Tooling This ability to complete machine part in a single setup means that fewer and simpler fixtures are required. procurement sizes and batch sizes can be reduced because of shorter lead time’s . Costing Time required to produce a component is a function of machining cycle of CNC machines and is not influenced by operator’s efficiency or variation in labor’s rate. a great stability of prices can often be achieved throughout the life cycle of the respective product. 8. Lead time is time taken to progress a batch of component through a batch of production shop and is proportional to number of operation required by conventional methods. Material Handling Handling of component from machine to machine which is necessary on conventional machine is significantly reduced on CNC machine. 9. 6.of a company can be expanded without increasing the floor area proportionately. the less expensive is to manufacture it. Inventory By using CNC machine. For example a component which requires 112 set ups by conventional methods may requires only 1 or 2 set ups in CNC machining center reducing total product flow times. The accuracy of part produced with CNC machines machine depend upon accuracy and ability of machine and tape – and not on individual operator. 7. This obviously reduces labor cost. Also cost accounting 51 . 10.

In the CPU. delivery and quality are firmly placed in the hands of management and not of the machine operator.becomes very precise. 11. decisions effecting unit cost. Program mer Proces sor Logic memor y Power Supply Storag e memor y Input s Outp uts Powe r Suppl y Field Devic es 52 . The CPU receives input data. all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU. more memory and large input/output capabilities.since output result must be produced to input condition.A PLC matches the NC to the machine. A plc is an example of real time system . performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. PLCs are now available with increased functions. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) A programmer logic controller(PLC) is a digital computer used for automation of industrial process such as control of machinery on factory assembly line. Better Management Information and Control With various advantages of CNC machines. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable.

Generalized PLC block diagram The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. LED displays. Device or PC Software 53 . The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. indicator lights. The field devices are typically selected. relay coils. analog sensor. The outputs can be motor starters. selector switches. etc. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the internal portions of the I/O structures. A wide variety of voltages. Basic PLC Components:• • • • • • Processor or central processing unit Rack or mountain Input assembly Output assembly Power Supply Programming unit. limit switches. So. position valves. relay contacts. solenoid valves. float switches. current capacities and types of I/O modules are available. and not the field devices. proximity switches. supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC. etc. The inputs can be push buttons.

down or both up and down. Since they are simulated they are limited in their counting speed. Some manufacturers also include high-speed counters that are hardware based. INTERNAL UTILITY RELAYS-(contacts) These do not receive signals from the outside world nor do they physically exist. down or up and down. sensors. TIMERS-These also do not physically exist. Others include off-delay and both retentive and non-retentive types. COUNTERS-These again do not physically exist. They are simulated counters and they can be programmed to count pulses. Increments vary from 1ms through 1s. We can think of these as physically existing. Some are always on while some are always off. Typically these counters can count up. They are simulated relays and are what enables a PLC to eliminate external relays. The most common type is an on-delay type. Typically they are not relays but rather they are transistors.INPUT RELAYs-(contacts)These are connected to the outside world. They come in many varieties and increments. They physically exist and receive signals from switches. There are also some special relays that are dedicated to performing only one task. Most times these counters can count up. OUTPUT RELAYS-(coils)These are connected to the outside world. etc. Some are on only once during power-on and are typically used for initializing data that was stored. They physically exist 54 .

Upon power-up they will still have the same contents as before power was removed. They can be transistors. etc. lights. They can also typically be used to store data when power is removed from the PLC.and send on/off signals to solenoids. or triacs depending upon the model chosen. Very convenient and necessary!! 55 . DATA STORAGE-Typically there are registers assigned to simply store data. relays. They are usually used as temporary storage for math or data manipulation.

Overview of twidosoft PLC 56 .

57 . We can think of this scan cycle as consisting of 3 important steps. Typically the others are checking the system and updating the current internal counter and timer values. There are typically more than 3 but we can focus on the important parts and not worry about the others.PLC OPERATION A PLC works by continually scanning a program.

Step 3-UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. Step 2-EXECUTE PROGRAM-Next the PLC executes your program one instruction at a time. It 58 . In other words. Maybe your program said that if the first input was on then it should turn on the first output. Since it already knows which inputs are on/off from the previous step it will be able to decide whether the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input..Step 1-CHECK INPUT STATUS-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determine if it is on or off. It records this data into its memory to be used during the next step.. is the sensor connected to the first input on? How about the second input? How about the third. It will store the execution results for use later during the next step.

One scan time is defined as the time it takes to execute the 3 steps listed above. A typical industrial relay 59 . After the third step the PLC goes back to step one and repeats the steps continuously. Apply a voltage to the coil and a magnetic field is generated.updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step and the results of executing your program during the second step. They allow current to flow between2 points thereby closing the circuit. This magnetic field sucks the contacts of the relay in. These contacts can be considered to be a switch. the main purpose of a plc is to replace "real-world" relays. But first let’s see how a relay actually works. causing them to make a connection. Based on the example in step 2 it would now turn on the first output because the first input was on and your program said to turn on the first output when this condition is true. and the actual program we are almost ready to start writing a program. After all. We can think of a relay as an electromagnetic switch. outputs. RELAYS Now that we understand how the PLC processes inputs.

60 .

Some types of loads are very deceiving. etc.RELAY OUTPUT Some common forms of a load are a solenoid. that is. These deceiving loads are called "inductive loads" . the plc will internally apply a voltage to the relay coil. When in doubt. Always check the specifications of your load before connecting it to the plc output. 61 . Electrical sizes. draws too much current) it will probably damage the output. The relay is internal to the plc. motor. Its circuit diagram typically looks like that shown above. This back current is like a voltage spike coming through the system. double check with the manufacturer to see if it can be connected without potential damage . You always want to make sure that the maximum current it will consume is within the specifications of the plc output. When ourladder diagram tells the output to turn on. If it is not within the specifications (i. lamp.e.This voltage will allow the proper contact to close.These have a tendency to deliver a "back current" when they turn on. These "loads" come in all sizes.

Asmall current applied to the transistors "base" (i. TRANSISTOR OUTPUT The next type of output we should learn about is our transistor type outputs. Once again. The BJT also has a slightly faster switching time. there are generally more than one type of transistor available. an external current isallowed to flow through our external circuit. please check the output specifications of the particular plc you are going to use. A BJT type (Bipolar Junction Transistor) often has less switching capacity (i.e. input) lets us switch a much larger currentthrough its output.When the contact closes. Typically a plc will have either NPN or PNP typeoutputs. more details involved but we don'tneed to get too deep. of course. The above isa very simple explanation of a transistor. When the ladder diagram tells the plc to turn off theoutput. We can think of a transistor as a solid-state switch. It is important to note that a transistor can only switch a dc current. We should also keep in mind that as we saw before with the input circuits. it can switch less current) than a MOS-FET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor. There are. 62 .Field Effect Transistor) type. The plc applies a small current to the transistor base and the transistor output"closes". The "physical" type of transistor used also varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. an electrical switch. When it's closed.e. Or more simply put. For this reason it cannot be used with an AC voltage. the device connected to the plc output will be turned on. it will simply remove the voltage from the internal circuit thereby enabling the outputcontact to release. Our load will than have an open circuit and will therefore be off. Some of the common types available are BJT and MOSFET.

If it were a PNP type.would connect to one end of our load. Let's take a moment and see what happens inside the output circuit. 63 . Note that since this is a DC type output we must always observe proper polarity for the output.Shown below is how we typically connect our output device to the transistor output. Shown below is a typical output circuit diagram for an NPN type output. Please note that this is an NPN type transistor. the common terminal would most likely be connected to V+ and V. One end of the load is connected directly to V+ as shown above.

When the ladder tells 0500 to turnoff. Thissmall current will turn on the base of the output transistor connected to output 0500. This makes theLED emit light and the receiving part of the photocoupler will see it and allow current to flow. 64 . When the ladder diagram calls for it. the LED will stop emitting light and hence the output transistor connected between 0500 andCOM will turn off.Notice that as we saw with the transistor type inputs. there is a photocoupler isolating the "real world" from the internal circuit.whatever is connected between COM and 0500 will turn on. the internal circuit turns onthe photocoupler by applying a small voltage to the LED side of the photocoupler. Therefore.

"whynot just use a relay in the first place"? The answer is because a relay is not always the correct choice for every output. Then connect the relay to the large load. Check the manufacturers specifications to find the largest load it can safely switch.One other important thing to note is that a transistor typically cannot switch as large a load as a relay. If the load current you need to switch exceeds the specification of the output. 65 . A transistor gives you the opportunity to use external relays when and only when necessary. You may be thinking. you can connect the plcoutput to an external relay.

The CPU 66 . processor. The PLC operates cyclically. Configuring Hardware and Software Configuring Twido programmable controllers consists of selecting options for thehardware and software resources of the controller. At the beginning of each cycle.e. These resources can beconfigured at any time while creating a program. i.7 gives the generalized PLC block diagram. To execute the program. i. program completion.e. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. the processor fetches one statement after another from the programming memory and executes it. more memory and large input/output capabilities. the processor examines the signal status at all inputs as well as the external timers and counters and are stored in a process image input (PII). The results are constantly stored in the process image output (PIO) during the cycle. At the end of a scanning cycle.PLC PROGRAMMING The principle of operation of a PLC is determined essentially by the PLC program memory. Hardware resources are: the controller itself. PLCs are now available with increased functions. In the CPU. Fig. the processor the accesses this process image. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable. the processor transfers the contents of the process image output to the output modules and to the external timers and counters. The program that determines PLC operation is stored in the internal PLC program memory. hardware that connects to the controller. During subsequent program scanning. and the connections to the hardware. whe at the beginning of the program. inputs and outputs. A PLC matches the NC to the machine. all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. The processor then begins a new program scan.

MONITORING In addition to the care taken by the machine tool builder during design and interfacing. float switches. Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU. performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs. The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. The inputs can be push buttons. proximity switches. limit switches. Cable wires of sufficiently large cross-sectional area must be used. relay coils. power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC. This is generally achieved by using shielded cables.receives input data. basic control also includes constantly active monitoring functions. etc. The outputs can be motor starters. Electrical enclosures should be designed to provide proper ambient conditions for the controller. INTERFACING Interconnecting the individual elements of both the machine and the CNC system using cables and connectors is called interfacing. All the cable shields must be grounded at control only. relay contacts. etc. analog sensor. solenoid valves. position valves. It is also essential to properly protect the electronic equipment. ferrous metal wire ways. Other noise reduction techniques include using suppression devices. Extreme care should be taken during interfacing. signal cable requires additional protection. proper cable separation. etc. Proper grounding in electrical installation is most essential. selector switches. So. leaving other end free. This is in order to identify faults in 67 . indicator lights. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the internal portions of the I/O structures. The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. Even though proper grounding reduces the effect of electrical interference. supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. current capacities and types of I/O modules are available. and not the field devices. The field devices are typically selected. This reduces the effects of interference and guards against electronic shock to personnel. A wide variety of voltages. LED displays.

the PLC is informed that an NC alarm exits. the cause of the fault is stored and then displayed as an alarm. the drives are stopped.the NC. first the machining sequence is interrupted. In Hinumerik CNC system. the following can be monitored: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Read-in Format Measuring circuit cables Position encoders and drives Contour Spindle speed Enable signals Voltage Temperature Microprocessors Data transfer between operator control panel and logic unit Transfer between NC and PLC Change of status of buffer battery System program memory User program memory Serial interfaces DIAGNOSTICS The control will generally be provided with test assistance for service purposes in order to display some status on the CRT such as: • • • • Interface signals between NC and PLC as well as between PLC and machine Flags of the PLC Timers of the PLC Counters of the PLC 68 . the interface control and the machine at an large stage to prevent damages occurring to the work piece. for example. If a fault occurs. At the same time. tool or machine.

8) 69 . it is also possible to set and generate signal combinations for test purposes in order to observe how the machine react to a changed signal. pitch error compensation. The CNC is interfaced to the machine by means of data. rapid traverse speeds and spindle speeds. the pitch error curve for the entire length of the screw is built up by physical measurement with the aid of an external device (like laser). These data are fixed and entered during commissioning of the machine and generally left unaltered during machine operations. position control multiplication factor. and is influenced by: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Geometric accuracy in the alignment of the slide ways Deflection of the bed due to load Temperature gradients on the machine Accuracy of the screw thread of any drive screw and the amount of backlash (lost motion) Amount of twist (wind up) of the shaft which will influence the measurement of rotary transducers The CNC systems offer compensation for the various machines' accuracy. feed rates. adjustment of reference point. acceleration. a CNC system is designed as a general-purpose control unit. The NC and PLC machine data can be entered and changed by means of external equipment or manually by the keyboard. COMPENSATIONS FOR MACHINE ACCURACY Machine accuracy is the accuracy of the movement of the carriage. This simplifies trouble shooting considerably. Also the optional features of the control system are made available to the machine tool builder by enabling some of the bits of machine data. which is machine specific. To begin with. pitch error compensation is required. These are detailed below: Lead Screw Pitch Error Compensation To compensate for movements of the machine slide due to in accuracy of the pitch along the length of the ball screw.• Input/output of the PLC For the output signals. etc. Whenever a slide is moved. Machine data entered is usually relevant to the axis travel limits. drift compensation. which has to be matched with the particular machine to which the system is interfaced. backlash compensation. MACHINE DATA Generally. Then the required compensation at predetermined points is fed in to the system. Kv factor. these compensation are automatically added up by the CNC system (Fig.

If the allowance is nit made. Compensations required along the length of the slide have to be physically measured and fed to the system. and the tool will follow the path AB and the taper produced will be incorrect. this radius is known as radius compensation. This value keeps on varying due to wear of the ball screws. hence the compensation value has to be updated regularly from time to time Inaccuracy due to sag in the slide can be compensated by the system. tool position has to be adjusted. it is necessary to make allowance for the tool tip radius.Backlash Compensation Whenever a slide is reversed. Typical error curve Positive end limit Pitch error (um) Referenc e point To negative end limit 70 . the edges of the tool tip radius would be positioned at the programmed X and Z coordinates. This extra movement is equal to backlash between the screw and the nut. i. The system automatically adds up the compensation to the movement of the slide. While machining chamfers. angles or turning curves.e. extra movement is added into the actual movement whenever reversal takes place. a compensation is provided by the CNC system for the motion lost due to reversal. It is essential that the radius at the tip of the tool is fed to the system to make an automatic adjustment on the position and movement of the tool to get the correct taper on the work. Tool Nose Compensation Tool nose compensation normally used on tool for turning centers. This has to be measured in advance and fed to the system. In order to obtain correct taper. there is some lost motion due to backlash between nut and the screw.

shape and thickness as a reference tool. Tool Offset A part program is generated keeping in mind a tool of a particular length. This is known as tool wear compensation. thickness and shapes may be available. it is found that the size of the work piece (diameter or length) is not within tolerance due to wear of the tool. different tools of varying lengths.2 X offset for tool no. it is the possible to edit the value of offsets to obtain the correct size.2 X R Z offset for tool no. This is known as tool offset.2 71 . A correction for dimension of the tools and movements of the work piece has to be incorporated to give the exact machining of the component. But during the actual mounting of tools on the machine. it is necessary to determine the tool offset of each tool and store it in the memory of the control unit.11 explains the function of the tool offset. Normally. This is the difference in the positions of the centre line of the tool holder for different tools and the reference tool. Fig. When a number of tools are used.1 Z R Tool no. It is possible to adjust the relative position of cutter size and this adjustment is known as cutter diameter compensation.Cutter Diameter Compensation The diameter of the used tool may be different from the actual value because of regrinding of the tool or due to non-availability of the assumed tool. X 0 XR=Setting distance for reference tool Reference tool Tool no.

when a complete program has been scanned. inputs and outputs. it starts again at the beginning of the program. The PLC operates cyclically. the processor transfers the contents of the process image output to the output modules and to the external timers and counters. Fig.11 Tool offsets HARDWARE RESOURCES Types of hardware resources: • • • • Base and Remote controllers Expansion I/O AS-Interface V2 bus interface module and its slave devices Options The principle of operation of a PLC is determined essentially by the PLC program memory. STEP 5 programming language is used for writing user programs for SIMATIC S5 programmable controllers.12 (a) Control system flowchart (CSF). To execute the program. At the beginning of each cycle. i.12 (b) Ladder diagram (LAD). The processor then begins a new program scan.Fig. During subsequent program scanning. the processor the accesses this process image. processor.12 (c) 72    .e. The program can be written and entered into the programmable controller as in: Statement list (STL). the processor examines the signal status at all inputs as well as the external timers and counters and are stored in a process image input (PII). Fig. Fig. The program that determines PLC operation is stored in the internal PLC program memory. program completion. the processor fetches one statement after another from the .

12 Programmable controller (c) Ladder diagram LAD I I 2. The ladder diagram uses relay ladder logic symbols to represent the automation task.3 2. The statement is the smallest STEP 5 program component.I 2.3 Statement list STL A A O = I I I Q 2. Stateme nt Operan d Parame ter Operand identifier Fig.1 I 3.6 I 4.6 A Operati on A I I I 2.3 4.2 A N D O (b) Control system flow chart CSF O R Q 1.3 4.3 2.2 1. The control system flowchart is a graphic representation of the automation task.1 3.1 I 3.2 The statement list describes the automation task by means of mnemonic function designations. It consists of the following: 73 .

Operation. e. Typically. e. with the signal of input 4.g.)  Parameter. what is to be done with? E. byte address only. For inputs.e. the parameter consists of the byte and bit addresses. The statement may include absolute operands.g. outputs and flags (internal relay equivalents).e.g. i.e. or symbolic operand. A = AND operation (series connection) O= OR operation (parallel connection) S= SET operation (actuation) Operand. I 5. Programming is considerably simplified in the later case as the actual plant designation is directly used to describe the device connected to the input or output. the number of operand identifiers addressed by the statement. F = flag. 74 . Q = output. i.5. I 4.g. and for timers and counter. a statement takes up one word (two bytes) in the program memory. I LS1. i. i.1. etc.e. what is to be done? E.5 The operand consists of:  Operand identifier (I = input.

Ladder Logic Element OR 75 .Fig.

the user has a extended operation at his disposal for developing function blocks. special OBs can be programmed by the user to react to interruptions during cyclic programming processing. Various software block types are available for constructing the user program. Program blocks (PB) contain the user program broken down into technologically or functionally related sections (e. etc.). such as program blocks or function blocks can be called from a PB. monitoring. In addition to the basic operations. program block for transportation. In addition. The program in a function block is usually not written with absolute operands 76 .g.Fig. Function block (FB) is block with programs for recurrent and usually complex function.Ladder Logic Element AND STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING The user program can be made more manageable and straightforward if it is broken down into relative sections. Such an interrupt can be triggered by a monitoring function if one or several monitored events occur. It is therefore possible to call PBs conditionally (depending on certain conditions). Further blocks. Organization blocks (OB) contain block calls determining the sequence in which the PBs are to be processed.

for individual controls. and 5s). to organise the sequence cascade in communication with a standard FB. cyclic processing is interrupted at the next block boundary and an OB assigned to this event is started.5) but with symbolic operands. 77 . 1s.g. The cyclic program execution is the resumed from the point at which it was interrupted. two step control loops. etc. The user can formulate his response program to this interrupt in the OB. 2s.g. For even more complex functions. CYCLIC PROGRAM PROCESSING The blocks of the user program are executed in the sequence in which they specified in the organisation block. e. operator communications. This enables a function block to be used several times over with different absolute operands. 500ms. INTERRUPT DRIVEN PROGRAM PROCESSING When certain input signal changes occur. for example.(e. every 100ms. 200ms. messages. monitoring times and conditions for the current step in sequence cascade. Sequence blocks are employed. listing. Fig. These standard FBs for complex functions can be linked it the user program just like user written FBs simply by means of a call along with the relevant parameters. The data blocks (DB) contain all fixed or variable data of the user program. I 1. standard function blocks are available from a program library. TIME CONTROLLED PROGRAM EXECUTION Certain Obs are executed at the predetermined time intervals (e. Such FBs are available. sequence controls. cyclic program execution is interrupted at the block boundary and resumed again at this point. once the relevant OB has been executed.g. arithmetic operations. For this purpose. The Sequence block (SB) contain the step enabling conditions.13 gives the organisation and execution of a structured user program.

Structured programming OB 1 PB 1 PB 2 FB 2 FB 3 Organisation block (OB) Cycle execution O B Program block (PB) P B Function block (PB) F B P B F B Interrupt-driven execution O B P B F B Points at which interrupt-driven program can be inserted Start and finish of interrupt-driven program execution Fig.13 Organisation and execution of a structured user program 78 .

self contained functions. Once the familiarization task is over. then start writing the program.  Organize all the program blocks in the organization block depending upon the sequence in which they are supposed to be executed as per the main machine function flow chart. List down each individual element (field device) on the machine as Input/Output. Check the individual blocks independently and correct the program to get the required results. Follow the following steps to write a PLC program.  Break down the complete machine auxiliary functions that are controlled by the PLC into individual.EXAMPLES OF PLC PROGRAM Before attempting to write a PLC program.  Check the complete program with all the blocks incorporated in the final program. Complete the program translation of all individual functions in similar lines. first go through the instruction set of the particular language used for the equipment.   79 . take them one by one for writing the program. and understand the meaning of each instruction.       List down the preconditions required for the particular function separately. Translate the flow chart into PLC program using the instructions already familiarized. Write down the flow chart for the function. Then study how to use these instructions in the program (through illustration examples given in the manual).   Identify each individual function as separate block (PBxx/FBxx) Once the PBs and FBs for each function are identified. Note down the address of the listed elements. Indicate against each element the respective address as identifier during electrical interfacing of these elements with the PLC.

2 I 5.7 Q 1.7 Q 4.Example 1: Spindle ON Preconditions Address Tool clamp Job clamp Door close Lubrication ON Drive ready Feedback elements Remark Pressure switch Proximity switch Limit switch PLC output bit Input signal from Drive unit I 2. spindle ON function module PB12 will be executed only when F 100.7 PB 12 written is the individual function module for spindle ON for all the preconditions checked and found satisfactory. Say Flag bit F 100.0 is set. This function is required to be executed only when the spindle rotation is requested by the NC in the form of a block in the part program.0 JC PB12 …… …… BE Now.4 I 3. it in turn informs the PLC through a fixed buffer location that spindle rotation is requested.6 Lamp Address Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Q 0. With this data. spindle ON function module can be recalled in the organisation block OB1 as follows.0 Q 7.0 is identified for this information communication. Whenever NC decodes the part program block.4 Fault indication Q 2. 80 .1 Q 1. OB 1 …… A F 100. Otherwise the function execution will be bypassed.0 I 4.

7 Display fault lamp AN I 5.FLOW CHART STAR T NO INDICATE FAULT TOOL CLAMP YE S NO INDICAT E FAULT JOB CLAMP YE S INDICAT E FAULT NO DOOR CLOSED YE S NO INDICAT E FAULT LUBRICATIO N ON YE S DRIVE READY YE S Exit STOP SPINDL YE S ANY FAULT 81 PB1 2 Commen ts Tool not Display fault AN I 2.1 AN I 3.4 clamped = Q 2.7 Lubrication not Display fault INDICAT E FAULT NO AN I 4.2 Job not clamped = Q 1.0 on = Q 7.6 = Q 0.0 lamp Door not closed Display fault AN Q 1.7 = Q 4.4 lamp Drive not ready Display fault .




APPLICATIONS OF PLC In the present industrial world, a flexible system that can be controlled by user at site is preferred. Systems, whose logic can be modified but still, used without disturbing its connection to external world, is achieved by PLC. Utilizing the industrial sensors such as limit switches, ON-OFF switches, timer contact, counter contact etc., PLC controls the total system. The drive to the solenoid valves, motors, indicators, enunciators, etc are controlled by the PLCs. The above said controlling elements (normally called as inputs of PLCs) and controlled elements (called as outputs of PLCs) exist abundantly in any industry. These inputs, outputs, timers, counters, auxiliary contacts are integral parts of all industries. As such, it is difficult to define where a PLC cannot be used. Proper application of a PLC begins with conversion of information into convenient parameters to save money, time and effort and hence easy operation in plants and laboratories.

The areas where PLC is used maximum are as follows:


1. The batch processes in chemical, cement, food and paper industries which are sequential in nature, requiring time of event based decisions is controlled by PLCs. 2. In large process plants PLCs are being increasingly used for automatic start up and shut down of critical equipment. A PLC ensures that equipment cannot be started unless all the permissive conditions for safe start have seen established. It also monitors the conditions necessary for safe running of the equipment and trips the equipment whenever any abnormality in the system is detected. 3. The PLC can be programmed to function as an energy management system for boiler control for maximum efficiency and safety. 4. In automation of blender reclaimers 5. In automation of bulk material handling system at ports. 6. In automation for a ship unloader. 7. Automation for wagon loaders. 8. For blast furnace charging controls in steel plants. 9. In automation of brick moulding press in refractories. 10. In automation for galvanizing unit. 11. For chemical plants process control automation. 12. In automation of a rock phosphate drying and grinding system.


13. Modernization of boiler and turbogenerator set. 14. Process visualization for mining application. 15. Criteria display system for power station. 16. As stored programmed automation unit for the operation of diesel generator sets. 17. In Dairy automation and food processing. 18. For a highly modernized pulp paper factory. 19. In automation system for the printing industry. 20. In automation of container transfer crane. 21. In automation of High-speed elevators. 22. In plastic moulding process. 23. In automation of machine tools and transfer lines. 24. In Mixing operations and automation of packaging plants. 25. In compressed air plants and gas handling plants. 26. In fuel oil processing plants and water classification plants. 27. To control the conveyor/classifying system. Thus PLC is ideal for application where plant machine interlock requirements are finalized at a later stage and need changes during engineering trial runs, commissioning or normal use. It can

be used extensively to replace conventional relay controls in power stations, refineries, cement, steel, fertilizer, petrochemical, chemical industries etc. Applications can thus be extended from monitoring to supervision, control and management.


It is true that CNC machine costs more to install initially. But higher initial cost is set off by the direct and indirect gains resulting from various advantages of CNC machines. In most cases, careful techno-economic evaluation of a given manufacturing situation will clearly bring out that unit cost of production is definitely less tools with that of so called conventional machines. To conclude numeric control is the most sophisticated form of automatic control of machine tool. It has high degree of precision and reliability. The control system has undergone several stage of development. Some of the special features offered by CNC machine manufacture are:  Thermal stabilization  Axis calibration  Lost machine compensation With the various above qualities of CNC machine there are numerous advantages. They are  High accuracy  High reliability  Less scrap and network  Better machine utilization  Computer control of manufacture capability of integration into distribution numeric control (DNC) etc. The programs written for CNC are easy to write and understand. These programs use either Gcod or M-code that runs the program. The codes are simple to understand.

but there is strong evidence that development is both rapid and cumulative. PLCs will retain their application in large process plants. visual observation. it is useful and cost effective for medium sized control systems. Advantages flexibility .space efficiency. as small telephone exchange etc. correcting errors. Plc is a microprocessor based device with input and output circuitry that monitors the status of the field connected "sensor" inputs and controls attached output "actuators" according to user created logic program . The PLC offers a compromise between advance control techniques and present day technology.application: maintaining the water level in a tank between two float switches by controlling the electric valve. In India every process industry is replacing relay control systems by PLCs and will go for PFCs in near future. It is extremely difficult to forecast the rate and form of progress of PLCs.pilotrunning . Though a PLC is not designed to replace a computer. A further development of PLCs leads to the development of programmable function controller (PFC) is compatible to PCs and directly controls the desired functions. as elevator controller. With the capability of functioning as local controllers in distributed control systems. maintain water tank levels. In longer run CNC machine pays for itself with such outstanding qualities. 86 . Ladder diagram is a language which composes of program using a relay logic symbols as a base in an image similar to a hard wired relay logic sequence. In the near future every flats and offices may possess PFCs to control room temperature. Plc is a simple computer which used for automation of real world processes such as controlling of machinery in a industry.No wonder CNC machines tools are becoming more and more popular day by day in modern industries.

L.wikipedia.B. Managing CNC operations by Mike Lynch 3. B.org/wiki/Main 4.K. Peter Smid. 2.Bibliography 1.com ******************************* 87 . http://www. www.Garg 5.E.cnccncmachines. CNC information and easy CNC by Mr.H. David Benson. senior engineer Mr. 6. CNC Programming handbook by Mr. Wikipedia.

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