Chapter 1: ABSTRACT

An Inspection Tool is basically a Gauge which is the main aspect of this project. The component to be tested on it is a Yoke Shaft, a product being manufactured in Mahindra Sona Limited, Nasik. Various applications are being related to yoke shaft, out of which transmission plays an important role, also in automobiles, etc. Focussing these factors it is the prime requirement to design a gauge which will take into account the parameters like compatibility, super finishing of the tool, proper material selection, tribological considerations, overcoming failures, and reducing cycle time for inspection, high accuracy and easy handling located near to the machines. Currently the inspection process consumes lot of iterations and time. Efforts have been done to throw light on the design of a highly precise gauge which will check if the offset distance between the axis of splines and bores is within the prescribed tolerance zone, as well as the centrality of bores simultaneously. This accuracy needs to be kept throughout the hobbing process. Further, this check will ensure the proper lubrication and alignment during the assembly of the component with other parts. Manufacturing of the proposed design is the next step after computing number of iterations. These gauges will ultimately emphasis on the dimensional accuracy and efficiency of the product.

1

Chapter 2: COMPANY PROFILE

MAHINDRA SONA LTD.
Address: - Mahindra Sona Limited, Plot No. 89/1, MIDC, Satpur, Nashik -422 101 . The manufacturing unit is situated at Nashik about 180 km North-east of Mumbai and employs about 370 people. Its constructed area is around 10000 Sq. meters. The Nashik plant commenced production in 1979 following a technical and financial joint venture between Mahindra & Mahindra Limited and Dana Corporation USA, named Mahindra Spicer Limited.

In 1984, Mahindra Spicer Limited merged with its parent company Mahindra & Mahindra Limited and became MSL Division of the parent company. In March 1995, Mahindra & Mahindra Limited and Sona Koyo Steering Systems Ltd. formed a new company MAHINDRA SONA LIMITED to take over the automotive component business of MSL Division of Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

The company is engaged in designing and manufacturing a wide range of auto ancillary products such as propeller shafts, clutches, universal joint kits, steering joints, steering column parts and axle shafts. The company is original equipment supplier to almost all vehicle manufacturers in India and caters to the spare parts market through a wide distribution network.

The company has been certified for ISO-9001 in 1995 and QS-9000 in1999. The company firmly believes that the high standards of quality can only be achieved through strong systems and the support of its people.

2

Mahindra Sona Limited manufactures Yoke shafts, Propeller Shafts and components for Automotive Applications like Passenger Cars, Multi Utility Vehicles, Sport Utility Vehicles, Light Commercial Vehicles, Medium Commercial Vehicles and Heavy Commercial Vehicles. MSL Drive Shafts also cater to wide Industrial Applications like Earth Moving Equipment, Engine Dynamometer Testing, and Radiator Fan Drive for Railways, Steel Rolling Mills, and Printing Machineries etc, MSL’s other products include Steering Universal Joints for. Automotive Applications like Passenger Cars, Multi Utility Vehicles and Heavy Commercial Vehicles.

The other product line of Mahindra Sona Limited is for the Automotive Clutches. This includes the worlds latest Diaphragm Type and the convential lever type for Passengers Cars, Multi Utility Vehicles, Sport Utility Vehicles, Light Commercial Vehicles, Medium Commercial Vehicles, Heavy Commercial Vehicles and Farm Tractors.

3

Chapter 3: THEORY OF GAUGE

The gauges used in the industries have been used to perform various functions for controlling the quality of the components like shafts, keys, joints. The gauges are actually dimension measuring instruments. The dial gauges are specifically designed for this purpose. 1st Principle Method

The existing system for checking the angularity of a splined yoke shaft is a tedious job. In the 1st principle method, the Yoke shaft is mounted between the two centres. Thus, now it has only rotational degree of freedom. With the help of a height gauge the bore axis is made horizontal. With reference to this position the angularity of the splines is measured by using a dial gauge. The procedure for the 1st principle method is:

1. The Yoke shaft is placed between the two centres. 2. The height gauge is used at both the bores of the yoke shaft to make it perfectly horizontal w.r.t. the platform. 3. Then using a dial gauge the angularity is measured at a roughly horizontal spline. 4. Then the angularity is measured at a diametrically opposite spline.. 5. The difference between the two readings is the angularity for the Yoke shaft.

Use of 1st principle method Although the 1st principle method sounds simple, it is not so. It requires a very skilled person for the measurement. It is tedious for the operator. The company required a method or a gauge which was simpler in operation. The gauge should be such that anyone should be able to use it, also it should be within the reach of the operator.

4

Concept for the gauge3 Inspite of advancement in machine tool technology, it is impossible to achieve dimensional perfection due to various reasons such as human error, vibrations, tool wear, deflection,..etc. It has been realised that perfect components are difficult to produce and any attempt towards perfection will result in extra cost of the component. If the dimensions are to be maintained within a very close degree of accuracy, lot of time will be consumed. The functional aspects of the component can be achieved even without going for its exact dimensions. As no two things are identical in nature a kind of permitted variations has a significant importance. A comparator gauge is used to find out by how much the dimensions of a given component differ from that of a known datum. A dial indicator forms an integral part of the comparator gauge. If the dimension is greater or less than the standard, then the difference will be shown on the dial.

Yoke Shaft

A die cast of Yoke shaft is procured from the vendors. The company performs operations like Boring, Drilling, Grooving, Coating and Grinding on the die cast. Thus a finished product is obtained. The Yoke shaft is used along with the propeller shaft of the vehicles. We designed a gauge for the Yoke Shaft No. 3382901. This Yoke shaft is supplied to JCB,Ashok Leyland, Nissan and other such heavy vehicle Companies.

Chapter 4: PROBLEM STATEMENT
5

Design and Manufacture the gauge to check the angularity of Yoke shaft which should fulfil the following requirements: 1. The system should be simple in working. 2. The time required for measurement should be minimum. 3. The system should be within reach. 4. The gauge should be easy to operate for anyone. 5. A few changes made, the gauge can be used to check other yoke shafts.

[Fig. 1] Courtesy MSL

Chapter 5: DESIGN OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS
6

5.1 BED
 Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5  Basic size 500mm x 200mm x 20mm  Quantity: 1

No. 1

Specification Case Hardening

Function Creates a hard, wear resistant skin but preserving a tough and ductile interior.

2

Length 500mm

Long Enough to slide the job .

3

Width 200mm

Ease of loading the job, as the width is 50% more than the maximum width of the job.

4

Thickness 20mm

Guide plates are bolted to the Base plate using M6 x 20 screws.

5

4 x M8 Tap, holes 4 x Ø7 Dowell holes

For fixing the Guide Plates to the Base plate using Allen screws.

6

For accurate positioning of the Guide Plates on the Base plate.

7

Super finishing on the upper To reduce wear and tear due to the sliding surface. motion of the Locator.

7

8

5.2 GUIDE PLATES
   Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Basic size 261mm x 24mm x 20mm Quantity: 2

No. 1

Specification Case Hardening

Function Creates a hard, wear resistant skin but preserving a tough and ductile interior.

2

Length 261mm

Length of the Guide Plates is 1.25 times that of the Locator for easy in sliding and rotating.

3

Guide plate is provided with For proper mating with the Locator and sliding a step. in a determined path. For fixing the Guide Plates to the Base plate using Allen screws. 2 C’Holes, M14x1 2 x Ø7 Dowell holes

4

5

For accurate positioning of the Guide Plates on the Base plate.

6

Super

finishing

on

the To reduce wear and tear due to the sliding motion of the Locator.

mating surfaces.

9

10

5.3 MALE PART
  

Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Basic size 100mm x 30mm x 100mm Quantity: 1

No. 1

Specification Height 100mm 1 x Ø10 hole with C’ Bore. Housing, Ø20

Function It comes in contact with the Alignment Mandrel at its diameter.

2

For attaching the Mandrel to the Male Part.

3

For mounting of spring.

4

Super

finishing

on

the To reduce wear and tear due to the sliding motion of the Locator.

mating surfaces.

11

12

5.4 FEMALE PART
 

Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Basic size: 140mm x 20mm x 180mm (rect. Plate) 40mm x 30mm x 180mm (guide plates, 2 nos.)

No. 1

Specification A rectangular plate

Function For sliding of male part.

2

Thickness 30mm 2 C’ Bore, M7 x 1 2 C’ Bore, M14 x 1 2 x Ø7 Dowell holes

It matches exactly with the step of the male part provided for sliding.

3

Provided for fixing the female part to bed.

4

For attaching the guide plates to the rect. Plate.

5

For accurate positioning of the Guide Plates on the rectangular plate.

5

Super finishing on all the To reduce wear and tear due to the sliding mating surfaces. motion over the Base plate.

13

14

15

5.5 RING
  

Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Basic size ID Ø40, 5mm thick Quantity: 1

No. 1

Specification ID Ø 40

Function To accommodate the spline locator.

2

Thickness 5mm

For attaching the cantilever strips.

3

Cantilever strips. 50mmx15mmx10mm: 3nos.

These are welded at the circumference of the ring to transfer the response.

4

Super finishing on the inner To reduce wear and tear and to help in easy press surface. fit of the Ring in the Locator.

16

17

18

5.6 SPLINE HOLDER
  

Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Basic size 60mm x 30mm x 144mm (rect. Block) 167mm x 100mm x 12mm (rect. Plate) Quantity: 1

No. 1

Specification Bore, Ø40

Function To accommodate the spline locator.

2

Height 144mm 2 C’ Bore, M7 x 1 Chamfer, 2 x 450

So that the dial gauge comes in plane with the top surface of the cantilever strips.

3

Provided for fixing the rectangular block to the rectangular plate.

4

To avoid sharp edges for safety precautions.

19

20

21

5.7 SPLINE LOCATOR
  

Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Specification: 16x Ømm x 25mm Quantity: 1

No. 1

Specification Case Hardening Minor Diameter Ø12

Function Creates a hard, wear resistant skin but preserving a tough and ductile interior.

2

So that the spline locator will accommodate the splines of yoke shaft.

3

Outer Diameter Ø12

To accommodate the hole in spline holder

4

Super finishing on the outer As it comes in contact with the Alignment surface. Mandrel

22

23

5.8 ALIGNMENT MANDREL
  

Material SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Basic size Ø34.7mm x 155mm Quantity: 1

No. 1

Specification Case Hardening Diameter Ø34.7 Chamfer, 2 x 450

Function Creates a hard, wear resistant skin but preserving a tough and ductile interior.

2

So that the Yoke Shaft is inserted in to the alignment mandrel.

4

To avoid sharp edges for safety Precautions

5

Super finishing on the outer As it comes in contact with the Yoke Shaft. surface.

OTHER STANDARD COMPONENTS  Spring: Ø20 Mean Dia., 1.5mm Wire Dia.  Bolts: M6, M7, M10, M14  Dial Indicator: Make- Baker Co. Least Count: 1 µm

24

25

Chapter 6: MANUFACTURING OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS

6.1 BED:
Material: SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: 500mm x 200mm x 20mm Weight: 15 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs. 1000 Process time: 8 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs. 440 Component cost: Rs. 1440

No. Operation Description

Machine Used

Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) 1 Blank Sizing Milling Machine 2 Case Hardening & Tempering 3 C’ Bore M8 through Drill Ø7 through 4 Blank thickness Grinding Surface Grinder Abrasive Wheel 60 60 Drilling Machine Ø7 drill M8 Tap 30 30 15 15 250 Shell End Mill 100 100

26

6.2 GUIDE PLATE:
Material: SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 2 Raw Material Size: 261mm x 24mm x 20mm Weight: 1.0 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs. 85 Process time: 8 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs. 315 Component cost: Rs. 400

No. Operation Description

Machine Used Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) 100 200

1

Sizing

Milling Machine

Step Milling

2 3

Case Hardening & Tempering Boring Ø7 through C’ Bore Ø14 through Drilling Machine Ø7 Drill Ø14 Drill 30 30

25

15 15

4

Surface Grinding all over

Surface Grinder

Abrasive Wheel

60

60

27

6.3 MALE PART:
Material: SAE8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: 100mm x 30mm x 100mm Weight: 2.34 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs. 95 Process time: 6 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs.275 Component cost: Rs. 370

No. Operation Description

Machine Used

Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) 1 Sizing Milling Machine 2 Boring C’ Bore Ø20 through Drilling Machine Ø 20 30 15 Step Milling 100 200

4

Surface Grinding all over

Surface Grinder

Abrasive Wheel

60

60

28

6.4 FEMALE PART:
Material: SAE 8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: 140mm x 20mm x 180mm (rect. plate) 40mm x 30mm x 180mm (guide plates, 2 nos.) Weight: 5.6 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs. 405 Process time: 7 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs.385 Component cost: Rs790

No. Operation Description

Machine Used Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) 100 100

1

Blank Sizing

Milling Machine

Shell End Mill Step Milling

2

Step Milling

Milling Machine

100

100

3 4

Case Hardening and Tempering Boring C’ Bore Ø7 through C’ Bore Ø14 through Drilling Machine Ø7 drill Ø14 drill 30 30

75

15 15

5

Chamfer

Surface Grinder

Abrasive Wheel Abrasive Wheel

40

20

6

Surface Grinding all over

Surface Grinder

60

60

6.5 RING:

29

Material: SAE 8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: Ø40, 5mm thick Weight: 0.2 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs. 15 Process time: 6 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs.165 Component cost: Rs. 180

No. Operation Description

Machine Used

Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) 1 Case Hardening and Tempering 2 Boring Ø7 through (Cantilever strips) 3 V- Butt Weld Drilling Machine Arc Welding Machine 4 Surface Grinding all over Surface Grinder Copper Electrodes Abrasive Wheel 60 60 150 40 Ø 7 drill 30 15 50

6.6 SPLINE HOLDER:
Material: SAE 8620 / 20MnCr5 30

Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: 60mm x 30mm x 144mm (rect. block) 167mm x 100mm x 12mm (rect. plate) Weight: 3.6 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs 145 Process time: 10hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs. 310 Component cost: Rs. 455

No. Operation Description

Machine Used

Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) Shell End Milling Step Milling 100 100 100 100

1

Blank Sizing

Milling Machine

2

Step Milling

Milling Machine

3

Boring Ø40 through C’ Bore Ø7 through Drilling Machine Ø40 drill Ø7 drill 30 30 15 15

5

Chamfer

Surface Grinder

Abrasive Wheel Abrasive Wheel

40

20

6

Surface Grinding both faces

Surface Grinder

60

60

6.7 SPLINE LOCATOR:

31

Material: SAE 8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: Ø 25 x 25 Weight: 97 gm Raw Material Cost: Rs. 10 Process time: 5 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs.215 Component cost: Rs 225

No. Operation Description

Machine Used

Machine Tool Turning

Rate(Rs./hr) Cost(Rs)

1 2

Turning Case Hardening and Tempering

Lathe

100

100 25

3

Chamfer

Surface Grinder

Abrasive Wheel Abrasive Wheel

60

30

4

Surface Grinding both faces

Surface Grinder

60

60

6.8 ALIGNMENT MANDREL:

32

Material: SAE 8620 / 20MnCr5 Qty: 1 Raw Material Size: Ø34.7mm x 155mm Weight: 1.15 kg Raw Material Cost: Rs. 50 Process time: 6 hrs Manufacturing Cost: Rs.330 Component cost: Rs. 380

No. Operation Description

Machine Used

Machine Tool

Rate

Cost

(Rs./hr) (Rs) 1 2 Turning Case Hardening and Tempering 3 4 Centre Drilling Chamfer Lathe Surface Grinder 5 Surface Grinding both faces Surface Grinder Drill Abrasive Wheel Abrasive Wheel 60 60 100 40 100 20 Lathe Turning 100 100 50

Chapter 7: CASE HARDENING OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS

33

The various components in the inspection tool which has been manufactured are prone to lot of wear over the period of time. So components such as mandrel, guide plates etc. needed case hardening. Hardness is normally required only on the surface of the specimen, alloying of the whole specimen is not necessary. According to our requirement we employed the carburising process for case hardening. Carburising2: Here the specimen is heated beyond the upper critical temperature in a sealed container having the atmosphere of carbon. The heating is continued for 4-10 hours depending on the depth of the penetration required. As a result, carbon penetrates into the surface layer making the specimen harder. Process: The case hardening is carried out in the pit type furnace also called as the ‘Old vertical retort furnace’ . The charge is loaded into the furnace, the time being 2-2.5 hours. During this period the temperature achieved is about 920ºC. For the carburising of the charge, LPG is used as the medium of carbon. At high temperature the LPG dissociates into carbon and hydrogen. This carbon penetrates into the the charge thus causing carburising. The discharge of the LPG is 1.2 litre/hr.( for a required case depth of 1.2-1.5 mm, hardness :- 59-60 RC.) This process goes on for 9.5 hours. After the penetration of carbon in the charge, the charge is cooled in the pit furnace for about 2.5 hrs. Here the temperature drops from 920-820ºC. The charge is removed from the pit furnace and dipped into the quenching oil. (Oil name: 22XFQ) The charge is then removed from the quenching oil tank and then washed.

Chapter 8: DESIGN OF SPRING

34

Constraints in Spring Design1: The spring should be such that after mounting the yoke shaft on the mandrel, the male part should not slide down until a small amount of load is applied by the operator. Free length of the spring should be about 29mm. On application of load, deflection should be about 1mm. Considering the weight of the components and force applied by the operator the total load on spring comes out to be about 70N. Material available- Plain Carbon Steel Shear strength- 400MPa Modulus of rigidity- 80GPa. From the above given data F = 70N; Assumption: Spring index C = D/d = 6 Clearance between adjacent coils = c = 3mm Ls + δ + (n + 1) x c = Lf Where, Ls = solid length Ls = (n + 2) x d . . . (n + 2)d + 1 + (n+103 = 29 . . . nd + 2d + 3n = 25……………………………………………..eqn 1 Now δ = (8 x F x C3 x n)/(G x d) . . . 1 = (8 x 70 x 63 x n)/(80 x 103 x d) . . . n/d = 2.2314 . . . n = 2.2314d nd = 2.2314d2……………………………eqn 2 n = no. of turns δ = 1mm Lf = 29mm τ = 400N/mm2 G = 80x103N/mm2

Substituting eqn 2 in eqn 1 35

2.2314d2 + 2d + 3 x 2.2314d = 25 Solving above eqn d = 2.46mm d ≈ 2.5mm D = Cd D = 15mm n = d x 2.2314 n = 5.57 n = 6 turns . . . Wire diameter of spring is 2.5mm . . . Mean coil diameter = 15mm . . . No. of turns = 6 Considering shear failure of spring τmax = Kw(8FC/πd2) Kw = (4C-1)/ (4C-4) + 0.615/C . . . Kw = 1.2525 . . . τmax = 1.2525[(8 x 70 x 6)/(π x 2.52)] . . . τmax = 214.33N/mm2 < 400N/mm2 . . . Design is safe

Chapter 9: STRESS ANALYSIS OF SPRING 1. Material
36

No. 1

Part Name Spring

Material

Mass

Volume

[SW]AISI 1020 0.0138668 kg 1.75529e-006 m^3 2e+011 0.29 7900 3.5157e+008 N/m^2 NA kg/m^3 N/m^2

Elastic modulus Poisson's ratio Mass density Yield strength

2. Load & Restraint Information

Restraint Restraint1 <spring> On 1 Face(s) immovable (no translation). Description: Fixed Bottom most Surface

Load Load1 <spring> On 1 Face(s) apply normal force 70 N using uniform distribution Load on Top most Surface

Description:

3. Study Property

37

Mesh Information Mesh Type: Mesher Used: Automatic Transition: Smooth Surface: Jacobian Check: Element Size: Tolerance: Quality: Number of elements: Number of nodes: Solid mesh Standard Off On 4 Points 1.2068 mm 0.060341 mm High 8881 17036

Solver Information Quality: Solver Type: High FFE

4. Stress Results

38

Name Type

Min

Location Max (0.504114 mm,

Location (6.83688 mm,

VON: von Plot1 Mises stress

6598.63 N/m^2

1.37103e+008 N/m^2 0.190768 0.407115 mm, mm, 6.2798 mm) 0.427651 mm)

5. Displacement Results

Name Type

Min Location Max (0 mm,

Location (-1.79372 mm, 30.25 mm, 9.83781 mm)

URES: Resultant Plot2 displacement

0 mm

0 mm, 6.25 mm)

1.11206 mm

6. Static Nodal Stress Plot

39

7. Static Displacement Plot

Chapter 10: COST ESTIMATION OF INSPECTION TOOL
40

No.

Description

Quantity

Rate

Cost (Rs)

1

BED

1

Rs. 1440

Rs. 1440

2

GUIDE PLATE

2

Rs. 400

Rs. 800

3

MALE PART

1

Rs. 370

Rs. 370

4

FEMALE PART

1

Rs. 790

Rs. 790

5

RING

1

Rs. 180

Rs. 180

6

SPLINE HOLDER

1

Rs. 455

Rs. 455

7

SPLINE LOCATOR

1

Rs. 225

Rs.450

8

ALIGNMENT MANDREL

1

Rs. 380

Rs. 380

9

DIAL GAUGE (1 µm)

Rs. 4000

Rs. 4000

10

OTH. STANDARD PARTS

Rs. 150

TOTAL

Rs. 8695

Chapter 11: ASSEMBLY OF INSPECTION TOOL
41

1. The Bed forms the rigid base for the assembly of the gauge. 2. The two Guide Plates are mounted on the Bed with the help of four Allen screws. 3. There are four Dowell holes provided on the Bed as well as on the Guide Plates for the accurate positioning of the Guide Plates. 4. Female Part is attached to the end of the Bed with the help of another set of Allen screws. 5. The Alignment Mandrel is attached to the Male Part. This assembly is inserted in the slot provided in the female part. 6. The spring is placed between the male part and the bed. 7. The Spline holder is free to slide length wise along the Bed. 8. The Guide Plates restrict the motion of the spline holder in the cross direction and vertically upwards, limiting it to only 1 degree of freedom. 9. The Spline Locator is inserted in the bore of the spline holder. 10. The Ring is mounted on the spline locator such that the spline locator has only rotational degree of freedom. 11. A M6 screw is provided for gripping of the ring to the spline locator. 12. The Dial Gauge is mounted on the spline holder by fixing the arm of the gauge on the cantilever strip.

Chapter 12: WORKING OF INSPECTION TOOL
42

The inspection tool is to be located of a horizontal surface. Ensure that the dial gauge reading is set at some fixed reading at a pressure. Insert the Yoke Shaft in the Alignment Mandrel. Now move the spline holder in the splined portion of the yoke shaft by adjusting the rotation of the spline locator. Once the position of the Yoke Shaft is fixed with respect to the gauge, observe the reading on the dial indicator. If the reading shown is within the permissible limits(i.e. 1.3 TIR), then the product is accepted otherwise rejected.

Chapter 13: ADVANTAGES OF THE DEVICE
43

1. Its simple in construction and ease in operation make it suitable to be operated even by unskilled labour. 2. It saves a lot of time for inspection than the previous system. 3. The gauge system can be used for the different size of the Yoke Shafts because of the standardization. 4. All the degrees of freedom are restricted ensuring accurate reading. 5. Due to compact size, it can easily be kept near the lathe machine. 6. It relieves the physical stress on labour which was occurring during manual inspection. 7. The efficiency of the system has been increased to great extent. 8. The precision of the system is high i.e. repeatability of the system is high. 9. The wastage of material has been dropped considerably. 10. The gauge has simple manual operation. 11. The gauge gives the direct reading on dial. 12. The system does not need any external power source. 13. The system facilitates for individual product testing. 14. The system has low capital cost as it is mechanically operated. 15. It has low maintenance cost.

All these advantages make it suitable to be used for the purpose according to which it is designed.

Chapter 14: LIMITATIONS OF THE DEVICE
44

1. The system is not automated. 2. As analog gauge is used there is no digital display. 3. Operational errors can occur which leads to errors in readings. 4. Because of the sliding movement wearing takes place at various places. 5. Weight is high.

Chapter 15: DEVICE RESULT
45

Time for one job is measured using a stop watch. It is less than 45 seconds. Due to this reduction in time, the sample size of the batch can be increased, thus ensuring greater accuracy. The gauge has simple operation as it uses the base of 1 st principle method. The operation is simple thus no skilled operators are required to carry out the measurement. Simple operation makes the process less tedious for the operator. The time required for measurement is less it reduces the stress of the operator due to quick measurement. This gauge also facilitates individual product testing.

Chapter 16: FUTURE SCOPE

46

Taking an overview of this project, it is purely a mechanical one. There is a possibility of inducing automation in the response measuring instrument i.e. the dial indicator can be replaced by a digital display in combination with sensor circuit.

Also the device can be directly connected to the manufacturing unit such that the error occurring can be manipulated by the device and the same signal can be sent to the manufacturing unit to compensate the error.

47

Chapter 17: CONCLUSION

The gauge designed by us is an effective solution given to Mahindra Sona Limited for the problem faced by them for checking the angularity of yoke shaft which is being used in the propeller shaft for the power transmission purpose. This checking, in an effective manner saves a lot of time at the assembly line too.

While working under the project we got a chance to learn how the actual management is being carried out in the plant and the span of control results in the passing information from one level to another.

We also learnt the various aspects of Manufacturing such as cost analysis and the working cycle of the worker. The actual concepts of production were understood by us practically. The problems which come in the way were dealt with and working in a team actually prepared us for the future to come, when we would actually step in the industry.

In short the overall experience of the project was very informative and an eye opening which actually showed the difference in practical concepts and theoretical concepts. The events occurred gave us an immense knowledge about the actual industrial environment.

48

Chapter 18: REFERENCES

BOOKS 1. Mechanical Springs (Chapter 10, pg 296) from Design of Machine Elements by V. B. Bhandari. Retrieved, March, 21st 2010 2. Heat Treatment of Steels (Chapter 4, article 4.40, pg 4-33) from Metallurgy by A. S. Gholap & M. S. Kulkarni Retrieved, March, 25 th 2010 3. Metrology and Quality Control (Chapter 4, article 4.10, pg 4-22) by R. K. Jain. Retrieved, April, 12th 2010 SOFWARES 1. CATIA V5R16 2. AUTOCAD-2008 3. SOLID WORKS-2005

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